# Lecture 9

Plate analysis

Floor and deck slabs

Print version Lecture on Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity of Dr. D. Dinev, Department of Structural Mechanics, UACEG

9.1

Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Introduction Assumptions Field equations Equilibrium equations Principal values of the internal forces Boundary conditions 1 3 4 6 8 9

**Analytical solutions 11 7.1 Navier’s solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.2 L evy’s solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Numerical methods Engineering methods 14 17
**

9.2

8 9

1

Introduction

Introduction

**Civil engineering • The ﬂoor slabs in buildings
**

9.3

1

Introduction

**Bridge engineering • The deck slabs of bridges
**

9.4

Introduction

**Marine engineering • The ship decks and hull
**

9.5

Introduction

**Aircraft engineering • The ﬂoor panels and fuselage
**

9.6

2

b = 10 − 50 The in-plane strains are small compared to the unity. ﬁxed or elastically restrained
9. 3.σxz .εzz ≈ 0 The transverse shear stresses are negligible. 2.Introduction
Automotive engineering • The car panels
9.9
t t 1 1 The plate is thin.εxx .7
Introduction
q t b a
Deﬁnition • Plates are plane. σyz ≈ 0
1
3
. 2-D structural components of which one dimension. b and a . εxy The transverse normal strain is negligible. 4.t a. called thickness t is much smaller than the other dimensions • The plate loads are mainly transversal to the plane surface • They are carried by internal bending and twisting moments and shear forces • The plate edges can be simply supported. Note • Applying the above assumptions we can reduce the 3-D problem to a 2-D plate bending problem • This theory is known as a Kirchhoff-Love plate theory
9.8
2
Assumptions
Assumptions Classical plate theory 1. εyy .

y) z w0 x. w
∂w0 ∂x
Displacements • Plate kinematics
z
9. y. normal to the midsurface before deﬂection remains plane and normal to the deformed surface) gives u(x. w y.Assumptions
Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887)
Augustus Love (1863-1940) Classical plate theory • Kirchhoff-Love plate theory
9. u q(x. y. z) = zφx • The assumption # 4 gives γxz = γyz = 0 • Therefore φx = − ∂ w and φy = − ∂ w ∂x ∂y
9. u
z.12
4
.11
Introduction
x. z) = w0 (x. y) where w0 is the transverse displacement of the mid-plane (z = 0) • Applying the assumption of the Kirchhoff hypothesis (plane section.10
3
Field equations
Field equations Displacements • The assumption # 3 implies that w(x. v
P
P z.

14
− ∂ w2 ∂x
2
Field equations Stresses • Constitutive equations. z) = −z ∂y w(x. z) = −z • Strain-displacement ﬁeld ∂ w2 ∂ x2 ∂ w2 εyy = −z 2 ∂y ∂ w2 εyy = −2z ∂ x∂ y εxx = −z
9. y.13
Field equations Plate kinematics • Curvature deﬁnition κxx 2 κyy = − ∂ w2 ∂y κxy ∂ w2 −2 ∂ x∂ y • Strain-displacement relation becomes εxx κxx εyy = z κyy εxy κxy • Or ε = zκ
9.σ = Eε 1 σxx E σyy = ν 1 − ν2 σxy 0 • Or σ = zEκ
9. z) = w0 (x.Field equations Plate kinematics • Displacement ﬁeld ∂ w0 ∂x ∂ w0 v(x. y) u(x. y. y.15
ν 1 0
0 0
1−ν 2
κxx z κyy κxy
5
.

Field equations
z y
x
M xy M yx My
Mx
Internal forces • Stress resultants (internal forces)
t/2
M=
−t/2
σ zdz =
t3 Eκ 12
9.17
Myy = −D ν
Mxy = −D(1 − ν)
4
Equilibrium equations
Equilibrium equations
M xy dy dy M x dy Qx dy ∂M y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜My + dy ⎟ dx ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ∂Qy ⎛ ⎜ Qy + ⎜ ∂y ⎝ dx M yx dx
M y dx
Qy dx
qdxdy ∂M xy ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎟dy ⎜ M xy + ⎜ ⎟ ∂x ⎝ ⎠ ∂M yx ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ M yx + dy ⎟dx ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ dy ⎟dx ⎟ ⎠
∂M x ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎟ dy ⎜Mx + ∂x ⎝ ⎠ ∂Q ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ Qx + x dx ⎟dy ∂x ⎝ ⎠
Cartesian coordinate system 6
.16
Field equations Internal forces • Stress resultants (internal forces) 1 Mxx Myy = D ν Mxy 0
3
ν 1 0
0 0
1−ν 2
κxx κyy κxy
Et where D = 12(1−ν 2 ) is called ﬂexural rigidity (stiffness) of the plate • The bending and twisting moments can be expressed in terms of displacements
Mxx = −D
∂ 2w ∂ 2w +ν 2 ∂ x2 ∂y ∂ 2w ∂ 2w + 2 ∂ x2 ∂y ∂ 2w ∂ x∂ y
9.

y) = q(x.19
Equilibrium equations Cartesian coordinate system • Using the above equilibrium relations we may obtain a single equation of the plate equilibrium in terms of the internal forces ∂ 2 Mxy ∂ 2 My ∂ 2 Mx +2 + = −q ∂ x2 ∂ x∂ y ∂ y2 • Replacement of the moments-displacements relations gives the equilibrium equation in terms of the transversal displacement ∂ 4w ∂ 4w ∂ 4w q +2 2 2 + 4 = ∂ x4 ∂x ∂y ∂y D
9.21
• The above equilibrium equation is called Sophie Germain.• Consider the equilibrium of a differential element ∑ Z = 0 q=− ∂ Qx ∂ Qy − ∂x ∂y
9. y) D
9.18
Equilibrium equations Cartesian coordinate system • The moment equilibrium equations of a differential element lead to ∂ Mx ∂ Myx + ∂x ∂y ∂ My ∂ Mxy Qy = + ∂y ∂x Mxy = Myx Qx =
9.Lagrange equation
Equilibrium equations
Sophie Germain (1776-1831)
7
.20
Equilibrium equations Cartesian coordinate system • In tensor notation is ∇4 w(x.

Lagrange equation ∇4 w(x.Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) Cartesian coordinate system • Sophie Germain.25
8
.24
Principal values of the internal forces Principal bending moments • The moment equations (Ms = 0 and Mn = 0) gives Mnn = Mxx cos2 φ + 2Mxy sin φ cos φ + Myy sin2 φ Mns = (Myy − Mxx ) sin φ cos φ + Mxy (cos2 φ − sin2 φ ) • The inﬁnitesimal parts of Qx . Qy and q are neglected
9. y) D
9. y) = q(x.22
Equilibrium equations Shear forces • The shear forces also can be expressed in terms of the displacements Qx = −D Qy = −D ∂ ∂x ∂ ∂y ∂ 2w ∂ 2w + 2 ∂ x2 ∂y ∂ 2w ∂ 2w + 2 ∂ x2 ∂y
9.23
5
Principal values of the internal forces
Principal values of the internal forces
Principal bending moments • Consider the internal forces acting on plate with arbitrary section cut • Applying the equilibrium equation ∑ z = 0 we have Qn = Qx cos φ + Qy sin φ
9.

Principal values of the internal forces Principal bending moments • The extremum condition
∂ Mnn ∂φ
= 0 gives the principal direction tan 2φ = 2Mxy Mx − My
• The principal moments are 1 1 2 M1.2 = (Mx + My ) ± (Mx + My )2 + 4Mxy 2 2
1/2
9.28
Boundary conditions
Loading and supports 9
.27
Boundary conditions
Loading and supports • Essential (displacement) BCs w=0 ∂w =0 ∂x
9.26
6
Boundary conditions
q t b a
Boundary conditions
Loading and supports • An exact solution of the governing plate equations must simultaneously satisfy the differential equations and BCs of any given plate bending problem • Since the 8-th-order differential equation require two boundary conditions at each plate edge
9.

29
Boundary conditions
Loading and supports • Mixed BCs Mx = 0 w=0
9.31
Boundary conditions
Corner forces 10
.30
Boundary conditions
Loading and supports • Elastic restrains w=− Vx kw ∂w Mx =− ∂x kφ
9.• Natural (force) BCs Mx = 0 Vx = 0 • Modiﬁed shear force (Kirchhoff equivalent force) ∂ Mxy ∂y ∂ Mxy Vy = Qy + ∂x Vx = Qx +
9.

33
7
7.1
Analytical solutions
Navier’s solution
x z y
Analytical solution
b a
Navier’s solution. y = b y = 0.double Fourier series • Navier’s solution. y = b
9.32
Boundary conditions
Corner forces • This effect appears at plates with corners with simply supported edges Question • What happens when the edges are ﬁxed or free?
9.solution by double trigonometric series • Rectangular plate • Boundary conditions w=0 w=0 Mx = 0 My = 0 at x = 0.• When we have a corner at the plate boundary the twisting moments jump from +Mxy to −Mxy • The jump of the twisting moment is called corner force Rc Rc = 2Mxy
9. x = a at at y = 0.34
at x = 0. x = a
11
.

38
12
. y) =
m=1 n=1
∑ ∑ wmn sin
nπ mπ x sin y a b
• The above solution satisﬁes the BCs • The coefﬁcient of expansion wmn is unknown • The transversal load also can be expanded into double series
∞ ∞
q(x.double Fourier series • Suppose that the solution is
∞ ∞
w(x.double Fourier series • Claude-Louis Navier (1785-1836)
9.36
Analytical solution Navier’s solution.Analytical solution
Navier’s solution. y) =
m=1 n=1
∑ ∑ qmn sin
mπ nπ x sin y a b
9.double Fourier series • Substitution of the above relations into the equilibrium equation gives wmn m4 π 4 m2 n2 π 4 n4 π 4 +2 2 2 + 4 4 a a b b qmn mπ nπ = sin x sin y D a b wmn = Dπ 4 • The ﬁnal solution is w(x. y) = 1 ∞ ∞ ∑∑ Dπ 4 m=1 n=1 qmn
m2 a2 n2 b2 2
sin
mπ nπ x sin y a b
• Hence qmn
m2 a2 n + b2
2
2
sin
+
mπ nπ x sin y a b
9.35
Analytical solution Navier’s solution.double Fourier series • When the transverse displacements is obtained we may calculate the internal forces • Internal moments
Mx = π 2 D My = π 2 D
∞ ∞ m=1 n=1 ∞ ∞ m=1 n=1
∑∑
m a ν
∞
2
+ν
2
n b n b
2
wmn sin
2
mπ nπ x sin y a b mπ nπ x sin y a b
∑∑
m a
+
wmn sin
Mxy = −π 2 D(1 − ν)
mn mπ nπ wmn cos x cos y ab a b m=1 n=1
∞
∑∑
9.37
Analytical solution Navier’s solution.

y) = wh (x. simply supported at two opposite edges • The solution of the equilibrium equation is given by w(x.
Analytical solution L evy’s solution.2
L evy’s solution
Analytical solution L evy’s solution. y) = ∑ wm sin
i=1 ∞
mπ x a mπ mπ mπ mπ y + Bm y sinh y sin x a a a a
9. Bm . y) = ∑ fm (y) sin
i=1
mπ x a
9.single Fourier series • The replacement of the above expressions into the equilibrium equation gives a differential equation for ym m4 π 4 m2 π 2 fm (y) − 2 2 fm (y) + fm (y) = 0 a4 a • The solution of the above equation is fm (y) =Am cosh mπ mπ mπ y + Bm y sinh y a a a mπ mπ mπ +Cm sinh y + Dm y cosh y a a a
9.single Fourier series • The ﬁnal solution is
∞
w(x.40
Analytical solution L evy’s solution.solution by single trigonometric series • Applicable to rectangular plates.single Fourier series • L evy’s solution.Analytical solution Navier’s solution. y) + w p (x) • The particular solution is
∞
w p (x) = ∑ wm sin
i=1
mπ x a
• The homogeneous solution is given by
∞
wh (x. Cm = 0 and Dm = 0 are constants and can be determined from the BCs.39
π3D ∞ ∞ m ∑∑ ν a b m=1 n=1
2
+
nwmn sin
7.double Fourier series • Shear forces
Qx = Qy = π3D ∞ ∞ ∑∑ a m=1 n=1 m a
2
+ν
2
n b n b
2
+ (1 − ν) + (1 − ν)
n b m a
2
mwmn cos
2
mπ nπ x sin y a b mπ nπ x cos y a b 9.41
where Am .42
+ ∑ Am cosh
i=1
13
.

FE analysis • Finite element mesh and supported nodes
9.1m
9. BCs and loading is not possible to ﬁnd • The engineering practice needs to use approximate solutions to solve the above mentioned problems • The approximate solution are based on the energy and variational methods of structural mechanics – Ritz method – Galerkin method – Kantorovich method • Numerical methods – Finite differences method – Gridwork method – Finite elements method – Finite strip method
9.44
Numerical methods
Example.45
14
4.1
6 6 21=q m5
m/Nk 5=q
5=q
.FE analysis
• Determine the displacements and the moments resultants for the given problem E = 20000000kPa. ν = 1/4.8
Numerical methods
Numerical methods Approximate solutions • The universal analytical solution of the governing plate bending equations for complex domain geometry.43
Numerical methods
2
Example. t = 0.

FE analysis • Deﬂections
9.46
Numerical methods
Example.FE analysis • Section plot of the bending moments-Mx
9.48
Numerical methods
15
.Numerical methods
Example.FE analysis • Contour plot of the bending moments-Mx
9.47
Numerical methods
Example.

FE analysis • Contour plot of the bending moments-Mxy
9.51
Numerical methods
16
.49
Numerical methods
Example.FE analysis • Section plot of the bending moments-My
9.Example.50
Numerical methods
Example.FE analysis • Contour plot of the bending moments-My
9.

52
Numerical methods
Example.Example.53
Numerical methods
Example.FE analysis • Section plot of the bending moments-Mxy
9.54
9
Engineering methods
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy
17
.FE analysis • Vector plot of the principal moments-M2
9.FE analysis • Vector plot of the principal moments-M1
9.

58
yL
1 esaC
xL
18
.• The engineering approach known as Marcus method (1924) • The plate is considered as an elastic web consisting of plate strips located at mid-spans of the individual panels • The application of this method is limited to – Uniform load – The size difference of the neighboring panels less than 50% 1 – The Poisson’s ratio is ν = 6
9.56
Engineering methods Elastic web analogy • We may obtain the directional loads qx = 2 4 y q 4 +2 4 y x
qy = q − qx • In general form qx = Cy 4 y Cx 4 +Cy x
4 y
q
where the factors Cx and Cy depend of the BCs
9.55
Engineering methods Elastic web analogy • Mid-span deﬂections of the webs 1 qx 4 x 384 Dx 2 qy 4 y (wy ) y /2 = 384 Dy (wx ) = x /2 • Because of Dx = Dy = D and (wx )
x /2
= (wy )
y /2
q = qx + qy
9.57
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 1 Cx = 1 Cy = 1
9.

61
yL
yL
yL
3 esaC
2 esaC
4 esaC
xL
xL
xL
19
.Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 2 Cx = 2 Cy = 5
9.59
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 3 Cx = 1 Cy = 5
9.60
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 4 Cx = 1 Cy = 1
9.

63
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy 20
yL
yL
6 esaC
5 esaC
xL xL
.Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 5 Cx = 1 Cy = 2
9.62
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • Case 6 Cx = 1 Cy = 1
9.

64
Engineering methods Elastic web analogy • The approximated maximum span moments in plate are ¯ Mx = Mx 1 − 5 6
2 x 2 y 2 y 2 x
¯ Mx 0 Mx ¯ My 0 My
5 ¯ My = My 1 − 6
¯ ¯ where Mx and My are maximum span moments in strips and
0 Mx =
q 2 x .• The fundamental difference between the grillage and the plate is the presence of shear forces between individual strips which produce a torsional resistance an reduce the deﬂections
9.65
Engineering methods Elastic web analogy • The edge moments are calculated as a strip supported with the same type of supports as a plate and loaded with directional load qx or qy 1 qx 2 12 x 1 supp My = qy 2 8 y
supp Mx =
9.66
Engineering methods
Elastic web analogy • When the support moments of the neighboring panels does not match the bending moments can be averaged or calculated as support moments in a continuous beam
9.67
21
. 8
0 My =
q 2 y 8
9.

1
6 6 21=q m5
m/Nk 5=q
5=q
. opinions.69
22
4.Engineering methods
2
Elastic web analogy-example
• Calculate the bending moments of the slab
9. discussions?
9.68
Engineering methods
The End • Any questions.