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Virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is used for display of 3D

on web. VRML enables the user to see the 3D directly in Internet explorer. The 3d
objects displayed in VRML format can be viewed interactively i.e. user can take walk
around the objects, go inside the object to see its internal details, view the objects
from different angles etc. The experience is same as good as viewing the things in
reality. In this thesis work, the attempt is made to use the capability of VRML (Virtual
reality modeling language) for showing the working of four Agro machines namely
Destoner, Gravity separator, Air seed classifier and Automatic weighing machine
fabricated at Mahaveer Electomechanical Works Pvt. Ltd, M.I.D.C. Akola
The review of literature provides with the details of software and their
capabilities used in this thesis work. Three software namely Pro/engineer, 3ds Max
studio and VRML were used for this thesis work.
The methodology describes in considerable details the every step that
has been taken in the pursuit of the proposed result. This includes the sequence in
which the work was carried out, selection of proper software for proper task and
conversion of data from one form to another to achieve the final result.
Finally the results are discussed and the conclusion drawn for the use
and applicability of the work carried out for the Mahaveer electromechanical works
Pvt. Ltd.
Sr. No. Topic Page No.
Engineering design graphics has made significant changes since the
early 1980s. For the most part, these changes have occurred due to the evolution of
computer-aided design (CAD). Before CAD, design was accomplished by traditional
board drafting utilizing paper, pencil, straightedges, and various other manual drafting
devices. Concurrently with manual drafting were sketching techniques, which allowed
a designer to explore ideas freely without being constrained within the boundaries of
drafting standards.
Many of the drafting and design standards and techniques that existed
primarily due to the limitations of manual drafting still exist today. Popular mid-range
CAD packages still emphasize two-dimensional orthographic projection techniques.
These techniques allow a design to be portrayed on a computer screen as it was once
accomplished on a drafting table. Drafting standards have changed little since the
beginning of CAD. These standards still place an emphasis on the two-dimensional
representation of designs.
Many engineering fields continue to rely on orthographic projection to
represent design intent. Some fields, such as manufacturing and mechanical
engineering, foster a paperless environment that does not require designs to be
displayed orthographically. In this theoretically paperless environment products are
designed, engineered, and produced without a hard-copy drawing. Designs are
modeled within a CAD system and the electronic data is utilized concurrently in
various departments, such as manufacturing, marketing, quality control, and
production control. Additionally, CAD systems are becoming the heart of many
product data management systems. Utilizing a computer network, CAD designs can
be displayed throughout a corporation's intranet. With Internet capabilities, a design
can be displayed using the World Wide Web.
The engineering design process once was linear and decentralized.
Modern engineering philosophies are integrating team approaches into the design of
products. As shown in Figure 1.1 team members can come from a variety of fields.
Teaming stimulates a nonlinear approach to design, with the CAD model the central
means of communicating design intent.

Fig. 1.1: Concurrent engineering members

Concurrent engineering has many advantages over the traditional

design process. Individuals and groups invest significant resources and time into the
development of products. Each individual and group has needs that must be met by
the final design solution. As an example, a service technician wants a product that is
easy to maintain while the marketing department wants a design that is easy to sell.
Concurrent engineering allows everyone with an interest in the design to provide their
Modern engineering and communication technologies allow designs to be
shared easily among team members. CAD three-dimensional models graphically
display designs that can be interpreted by individuals who are not trained in blueprint-
reading fundamentals. Because of this accessibility, the CAD system has become the
heart of many product-data-management systems. Internet capabilities allow designs
to be shared over long distances. Most CAD applications have Internet tools that
facilitate the sharing of design data. Parametric Technology Corporation’s Pro/Web-
Publish, for one, allows for the publishing of CAD data over the Internet. Another
example is PTC’s Pro/Fly-Through application, which displays Virtual-Reality-
Modeling-Language (VRML) models and allows for the markup and animation of
these models over an Internet or intranet.

The fundamentals of engineering graphics and the displaying of three-dimensional

(3D) designs on a two-dimensional surface have changed little since the advent of
CAD. Despite the explosion of advanced 3D modeling packages, many design
standards and techniques that once dominated manual drafting remain relevant today.
Sketching is an important tool in the design process. Design modeling
techniques using two-dimensional CAD, three-dimensional CAD, or manual drafting
can restrict an individual’s ability to work out a design problem. It takes time to place
lines on a CAD system or to construct a solid model. Sketching allows a designer to
work through a problem without being constrained by the standards associated with
orthographic projection or by the time required to model on a CAD system.
There are two types of sketching techniques: artistic and technical. Many
individuals believe that artistic sketching is a natural, inborn ability. This is not
always the case. There are techniques and exercises that engineering students can
perform that will improve their ability to think in three dimensions and solve
problems utilizing artistic sketching skills. Despite this, few engineering students
receive this type of training.
When engineering or technology students are trained in sketching, it is usually
the technical variety. Technical sketching is similar to traditional drafting and two-
dimensional computer-aided drafting. This form of sketching enables a design to be
displayed orthographically or pictorially through sketching techniques.
The design process requires artistic sketching and technical sketching to be
utilized together. Conceptual designs are often developed through artistic sketching
methods. Then once a design concept is developed, technical sketches of the design
can be drawn that will allow the designer to display meaningful design intent
information. This information can then be used to develop orthographic drawings,
prototypes, and/or computer models.
The traditional way to display engineering designs is orthographic projection.
Any object has six primary views (FIG 1-1). these views are used to display the three
primary dimensions of any feature: height, width, and depth. By selectively choosing
a combination of the primary views, a detailer can graphically display the design form
of an object. Often, three or fewer views are all that are necessary to represent design
intent(FIG 1-2). A combination of views such as the front, top, and right side will
display all three primary dimensions of any feature. By incorporating dimensions and
notes, design intent for an object can be displayed.
Orthographic projection is not a natural way to display a design. The purpose for
orthographic drawings is to show a design in such a way that it can be constructed or
manufactured. Pictorial drawings are often used to represent designs in a way that
non-technically trained individuals can understand. Pictorial drawings display all
three primary
dimensions (height, width, and depth) in one view. There are many forms of pictorial
drawings, the most common of which are isometric, diametric, and trimetric.
Naturally, objects appear to get smaller as one moves further away from them.
This effect is known as perspective. Perspective is another form of pictorial drawing.
Orthographic, isometric, diametric, and trimetric projections do not incorporate
perspective. Perspective drawings are often used to display a final design concept that
can be easily understood individuals with no technological training.
Before an object can be manufactured or constructed, technical drawings are
often produced. Technical drawings are used to display all the information necessary
to properly build a product. These drawings consist of orthographic views,
dimensions, notes, and details. Details are governed by standards that allow for ease
of communications between individuals and organization.
Parametric modeling is an approach to computer-aided design that
gained prominence in the late 1980s. An assumption commonly held among CAD
users is that similar modeling techniques exist for all CAD systems. To users that
follow this assumption, the key to learning a different CAD system is to adapt to
similar CAD commands. This is not entirely true when a two-dimensional CAD user
tries to learn, for the first time, a parametric modeling application. Within parametric
modeling systems, though, you can find commands that resemble 2D CAD
commands. Often, these commands are used in a parametric modeling system just as
they would be used in a 2D CAD package. The following is a partial list of
commands that cross over from 2D CAD to Pro/ENGINEER.
The line option is used within Pro/ENGINEER’s sketcher mode (or
environment) as a tool to create sections. Within a 2D CAD package, precise line
distances and angles can be entered using coordinate methods, such as absolute,
relative, and polar. Pro/ENGINEER does not require an entity to be entered with a
precise size. Feature size definitions are established after finishing the geometric
layout of a feature’s shape.
As with the line command, the circle option is used within
Pro/ENGINEER’s sketcher environment. Precise circle size is not important when
sketching the geometry.
2.1.3. ARC
As with the line and circle options, the arc command is used within
Pro/ENGINEER’s sketching environment. Pro/ENGINEER’s are command also
includes a fillet command for creating rounds at the intersection of two geometric
2.1.4. DELETE
The delete command is used within a variety of Pro/ENGINEER
modes. Within the sketcher environment, delete is used to remove geometric entities
such as lines, arcs, and circles. Within Part mode, delete is used to remove features
from a part. For assembly models, the delete command is used to delete features from
parts and to delete parts from assemblies.
Offset options can be found within various Pro/ENGINEER modes.
Within the sketcher environment, existing part features can be offset to form
sketching geometry. Additionally, planes, within Part and Assembly modes can be
offset to form new datum planes.
The trim command is used within Pro/ENGINEER’s sketching
environment. Geometric entities that intersect can be trimmed at their intersection
The mirror option is used within Pro/ENGINEER’s Sketch and Part modes.
Geometry created as a sketch can be mirrored across a centerline. Also, part features
can be mirrored across a plane by executive the copy option.
The copy option is used within Part mode to copy existing features. Features
can be copied linearly, mirrored over a plane, or rotated around an axis. Within
Assembly mode, parts can be copied to create new parts.
Polar and rectangular array commands are common components in 2D
CAD packages. Pro/ENGINEER’s pattern command serves a similar function.
Features may be patterned using existing dimensions. Selecting an angular dimension
will create a circular pattern.
Parametric modeling presents a different approach to CAD, especially
when compared to 2D drafting and Boolean-based 3D modeling. Oftentimes an
experienced CAD user will have trouble learning a parametric modeling package.
This is especially true when a user tries to approach 3D parametric modeling as he or
she would approach Boolean solid modeling. They use similar concepts, but the
approaches are different.


Pro/ENGINEER provides mechanical engineers with an
approach to mechanical design automation based on solid modeling technology and
the following features.
2.2.1. 3-D MODELING
The essential difference between Pro/ENGINEER and traditional CAD
systems is that models created in Pro/ENGINEER exist as three-dimensional solids.
Other 3-D modelers represent only the surface boundaries of the model.
Pro/ENGINEER models the complete solid. This not only facilitates the creation of
realistic geometry, but also allows for accurate model calculations, such as those for
mass properties.
Dimensions such as angle, distance, and diameter control Pro/ENGINEER
model geometry. You can create relationships that allow parameters to be
automatically calculated based on the value of other parameters. When you modify
the dimensions, the entire model geometry can update according to the relations you
Parametric modeling systems are often referred to as feature-based
modelers. In a parametric modeling environment, parts are composed of features
(Fig.). Features may comprise either positive space or negative space. Positive space
features are composed of actual mass. An example of a positive space feature is an
extruded boss. A negative space feature is where a part has a segment cut away or
subtracted. An example of a negative space feature is a hole.
Parametric modeling systems such as Pro/ENGINEER incorporate an
intuitive way of constructing features. Often, the feature is first sketched in two
dimensions and then either extruded, revolved, or swept to form the three-dimensional
object. When sketching the feature, design intent is developed in the model by adding
dimensions and constraining the sketch.
Features can be predefined or sketched. Examples of predefined
features include holes, rounds, and chamfers. Many parametric modeling packages
incorporate advanced ways of modeling holes. Within a parametric modeling package,
predefined holes can be simple, counter bored, countersunk, or drilled. Parametric
modeling package hole command allows users the opportunity to sketch unique hole
profiles, such as may be required for a counter bore. Sketched features are created by
sketching a section that incorporates design intent. Sections may be extruded,
revolved, or swept to add positive or negative space features.

Fig 2.1 : Feature in a model

Compared to Boolean modeling, feature-based modeling is a more intuitive

approach. In Boolean modeling, a common way to construct a hole is to model a solid
cylinder and then subtract it from the parent feature. In a parametric design
environment, a user can simply place the hole by using a predefined hole command or
by cutting a circle through the part. With most Boolean-based modelers, if the user
has to change a parameter of the hole, such as location or size, he or she has to plug
the original hole, then subtract a second solid cylinder. To adjust a feature-based hole,
the user can change any parameter associated with the hole by modifying a dimension
or parameter. Similarly, a feature's sketch can be redefined or modified.
Pro/ENGINEER is a fully associative system. This means that a change in the
design model anytime in the development process is propagated throughout the
design, automatically updating all engineering deliverables, including assemblies,
drawings, and manufacturing data. Associativity makes concurrent engineering
possible by encouraging change, without penalty, at any point in the development
cycle. This enables downstream functions to contribute their knowledge and expertise
early in the development cycle.
Before you run Pro/ENGINEER, you should know about settings:
2.5.1 Working directory--Pro/ENGINEER first looks up files and configuration
options in a designated directory on your system. This directory is called the current
directory or working directory. You will need read/write access to this directory, as
you will be storing and retrieving your objects, such as parts and assemblies, in it.
2.5.2. Configuration file--Pro/ENGINEER uses configuration files to determine
default settings that you modify from session to session.
1. PRO-E are offering Pro/E Foundation basic modeling software.
2. PRO-E are offering finite element analysis (FEA) software i.e. Pro/Mechanica
(Structural, Motion, Thermal).
3. PRO-E are offering Mechanism Design Extension (MDX) for simulation of
In addition to above pro/e have offered following modules with
maximum 100 users license which can help the students for their projects and wider
carrier opportunities after getting expertise on those software.
 Tool Design Option – Mold and Die Designing software
 Production Machining Option – CNC tool path generation/Manufacturing
 Behavioral Modeling Extension (BMX) – The unique concept in Mechanical
 Model Check
 Pro/ENGINEER Advance Assembly Extension (AAX)
 Advance Surface Extension (ASX) – Reverse Engineering Software
 Pro/intralink Users Training
 Pro/intralink Administration Training.
 CDRS – Advance Surface Designing Software.
All the above Pro/Engineer software are developed by
Parametric Technology Corporation, USA and Rolta India Limited is the sole
distributor for selling and supporting alt range of PTC products in India.


Pro/E-Foundation contains the industries most
used, feature-based. 3D parametric solid modeling core that provides accurate
representations of geometry, mass properties and interference checking. It
enables full definition of the product definition, producing complete and
accurate product results and deliverables. By providing feature-based
modeling and full associativity, it enables changes made anywhere in the
development process to be propagated throughout the entire design and
throughout the value chain

Assemblies – define and create complex assemblies.
Associative Drawing Tables – produce detailed reports that automatically
update changes to design tables.
Basic Surface – create and trim surfaces using basic tools (extrude, revolve,
blend, sweep, etc.) Perform surface operations such copy, merge, extend, and
Data Exchange – empower highly collaborative CAD/CAM development.
Fully Detailed Documentation and 2D Drafting – create complete,
production-ready drawings.
Library – easy access to standard parts, features, tools, mold bases,
connectors, pipe fittings, symbols, and human body dimensions.
Mechanism Design – assemble parts and assemblies using pre-defined
connections (pin joints, ball joints, sliders, etc.) The mechanism assembly can
then be interactively dragged through its range of motion.
Model Check – evaluate parts, assemblies, and drawings to ensure that they
adhere to a company’s modeling standards and best practices.
Photo-realism – quickly create accurate, photo-realistic images of
Pro/ENGINEER parts and assembles.
Plotting/Printing – supports more than 150 plotters plus printers and plotters
running on Microsoft Window's95, 98 and 2000.
Programmatic Interface – J-Link capability is a powerful new toot for
expanding, customizing, and automating the functionality of Pro/ENGINEER.
Sheet Metal – quickly create sheet metal parts using sheet metal specific
features such as bends, punches, forms, etc. Provide the ability to unfold sheet
metal parts into accurate flat patterns.

VRML/HTML - export Pro/ENGINEER parts, assemblies, and process plans

to Web pages using standard HTML, VRML, CGM, and JPEG formats and
Java applets.
Weld Modeling and Documentation – define joining requirements for welded
parts and assemblies and easily produce full, 2D weld documentation.


Today, Pro/Engineer is the no. 1 CAD/CAM software available in the
market built on the most powerful Granite Technology. The maximum jobs for
CAD/CAM available in the market are for Engineers trained on Pro/Engineer.
Here is an explanation why Pro/E is selected as modeling software for
this thesis work. A capability unique to parametric modeling packages, when
compared to other forms of CAD, is the ability to incorporate design intent into a
model. Most computer-aided design packages have the ability to display a design, but
the model or geometry does not hold design information beyond the actual vector data
required for construction. Two-dimensional packages display objects in a form that
graphically communicates the design, but the modeled geometry is not a virtual image
of the actual shape of the design. Traditional three-dimensional models, especially
solid models, display designs that prototype the actual shape of the design. The
problem with solid-based Boolean models is that parameters associated with design
intent are not incorporated. Within Boolean operations, when a sketch is protruded
into a shape or when a cylinder is subtracted from existing geometry to form a hole,
data associated with the construction of the part or feature is not readily available.
Parameters associated with a feature in Pro/ENGINEER exist after the
feature has been constructed. An example of this would be a hole. A typical method
used within Pro/ENGINEER to construct a straight hole is to locate the hole from two
edges. After locating the hole, the hole diameter and depth are provided. The
dimensional values used to define the hole can be retrieved and modified at a later
time. Additionally, parametric values associated with a feature, such as a hole
diameter, can be used to control parameters associated with other dimensions.
With most Boolean operations, the final outcome of the construction of
a model is of primary importance. When modeling a hole, the importance lies not in
parameters used to locate a hole but where the hole eventually is constructed. When
the subtraction process is accomplished, the cylinder location method is typically lost.
Using parametric hole construction techniques, these parameters are preserved for
later use.
The dimensioning scheme for the creation of a feature, such as a hole,
is important for capturing design intent.
Fig.2.1 The hierarchical order of design
Figure shows two different ways to locate a pair of
holes. Both examples are valid ways to dimension and locate holes. Which technique
is better ? The answer depends upon the design intent of the part and feature. Does
the design require that each hole be located a specific distance from a common datum
plane ? If it does, then the second example might be the dimensioning scheme that
meets design intent. But if the design requires that the distance between the two holes
be carefully controlled, the first example might prove to be the best dimensioning
Designs are created for a purpose. Design intent is the
intellectual arrangement of assemblies, parts, features, and dimensions to solve a
design problem. Most designs are composed of an assembly of parts. Each part
within a design is made up of various features. Design intent governs the relationship
between parts in an assembly and the relationship between features in a part. As
depicted in Figure, a hierarchical ordering of intent can be created for a design. At the
top of the design intent tree is the overall intent of the design. Below the overall
design intent is the component design intent. Components of the design. Below the
overall design intent is the component design intent. Components are composed of
parts and subassemblies. The intent of each component of a design is to work
concurrently with other components as a solution to the design problem. Features
comprise parts. Features must meet the design intent of the parts of which they are
Parametric modeling packages provide a variety of tools
for incorporating design intent. The following is a list of these tools.
Assembly constraints are used to form relationships between
components of a design. If a part’s surface should mesh with the surface of
another part within an assembly, a mate constraint should be used. Examples
of other common assembly constraints include align, insert, and orient.


The definition of a feature frequently relies on
dimensional and geometric cues taken from another feature. This kind of
relationship is termed a parent-child relationship. The parent-child relationship
is one of the most powerful aspects of Pro/ENGINEER. When a parent feature
is modified, its children are automatically recreated to reflect the changes in the
geometry of the parent feature. It is therefore essential to reference feature
dimensions and geometry so design modifications are correctly propagated
throughout the model. Because children reference parents, features can exist
without children, but children cannot exist without their parents.


Dimensional relationships allow the capture of
design intent between and within features while in part mode, and between
parts while in assembly mode. A dimensional relationship is an explicit way to
relate features in a design.
Mathematical equations are used to relate
dimensions. An example of a dimensional relationship is to make two
dimensions equal in value. Within Pro/ENGINEER, for this example, the first
dimension would drive the second. Most algebraic and trigonometric formulas
can be included in a relationship. In addition, simple conditional statements
can be incorporated.
The placement of dimensions is extremely
important for the incorporation of design intent into a model. During sketching
within Pro/ENGINEER, dimensions are placed automatically (when intent
manager is activated ) that will fully define a feature. These dimensions may
not match the design intent, however. Dimensions within a section or within
the creation of a feature should match the intent of a design.

Constraints are powerful tools for incorporating
design intent. If a design requires a feature’s element to be constrained
perpendicular to another element, a perpendicular constraint should be used.
Likewise, design intent can be incorporated with other constraints, such as
parallel, tangent, and equal length.

Feature references can be created within part and
assembly modes of Pro/ENGINEER. An example of a reference within part
mode is to use existing feature edges to create new geometry within the
sketcher environment. A parent feature edges to create new geometry within
the sketcher environment. A parent child relationship is then established
between the two features. If the reference edge is modified, the child feature is
modified correspondingly.
Within assembly mode, an external reference can
be established between a feature on one part and a feature on a second.
Pro/ENGINEER allows for the creation of parts and subassemblies within
assembly mode. By creating a component using this technique, relationships
can be established between two parts. Modification of the parent part reference
will modify the child part.
Standard Pro/E pre requisite (workstation on which Pro/E is loaded) is as
1. Any Computer with Pentium Processor.
2. Operating System Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 (note Pro/E release
2001 is not available on windows 95 or windows 98).
3. Pro/E requires minimum of 96 MB of RAM but for better working and
future enhancements we recommend 128 MB of RAM.
4. Hard disk space required for Pro/E (without Help) is 350 MB. For
considering every thing at least customer must have 1GB of free space before
installation proceeds.
5. Monitor 17” is recommended for better viewing, 14” monitor will do in
worst case but it should support resolution of 1024x768 delivered by display
6. Graphics card (8 MB Video RAM) with OpenGL support and 1024x768
resolution, 16-million color delivery.
7. Network card for licensing
8. Standard accessories like CD-ROM drive, 3-button mouse, Keyboard.
The above configuration is for PC on which
Pro/Engineer is working while configuration for license server can be even
lower than above configuration if Pro/E is not working on server machine, in
such case only requirement is working windows based machine on Network
which can directly accessed by client machines. ( it is not necessary to load
ProE on license server machine) if server contains ProE installation then you
can consider above list of configuration for the server.


3D graphics are all the rage today. We see them everywhere: in video

games, advertising, even feature-length films. We have come to a point in

history where we can create completely synthetic worlds that exist entirely

inside a computer's memory. These worlds have been referred to in the popular

media as "virtual reality," "cyberspace," or "the metaverse." These terms are

great for a science fiction writer in search of a new book idea, but we are many

years away from virtual worlds that are anywhere near the rich detail of the real

world. However, 3D graphics give us much more than the future promise of

virtual reality. They give us a powerful new tool for the presentation of

information, art, and entertainment. And while we don't think virtual reality
will ever overtake the real world, as so many science fiction movies would like

us to believe, they will add to our repertoire of creative outlets.

The World Wide Web adds an interesting new twist to the use of 3D

graphics. In the past, the presentation of art or information was limited to those

who could get their work shown in an art gallery, or to someone with access to

a publishing house or television studio. But, access to the Web is relatively

inexpensive, so almost anyone can communicate their ideas, as long as they

know how to use the tools that turn their dreams into reality.

VRML is the tool for creating 3D virtual experiences on the World Wide Web.

Even though it is in its infancy, VRML will allow you to realize your visions and

make them available to everyone on the Web.

VRML Background

The notion of 3D graphics has been very popular lately, from video games to

weather simulations to movies that give us a glimpse of virtual reality, complete with

virtual villains and cyberheroes. The World Wide Web has gained even more

popularity. Therefore, it is natural that people would want to join the two, marrying

the compelling experience of 3D to the global access of the Web.

VRML was born to solve just this problem: how to put compelling 3D onto

every PC connected to the Web.

Why Use 3d On The Web?

The World Wide Web has grown from a curiosity on college campuses to a

major force in business in fewer than five years. It seems as though there is not a TV

commercial, billboard, or panel truck without the now familiar http://.... The Web is

the subject of jokes, talk shows, and articles in major magazines. You can buy wine
and movie tickets on the Web, see the latest shots from the space shuttle, and find out

the weather in any corner of the world, as long as you know the magic incantation,

As with many of the inventions now taken for granted, no one knew what the

Web would become when it was first conceived. It started out as an easier way to

browse text pages on large computer databases. It was soon realized that some sort of

text formatting and the capability to add images to a page were crucial to the

successful presentation of the information. Thus, the HyperText Markup Language

(HTML) was born. An outgrowth of publishing standards of the late 1980s, HTML is

a simple text-based file format with embedded commands (known as tags) to instruct

the computer how to display the information. For instance, surrounding a word with

the tags <B> and </B> causes that word to be displayed in bold. There are tags to

distinguish between a heading and body text, to center text, and to create bulleted

lists, to name a few.

HTML also has a tag to embed images on a page, and it is here that HTML

started down the path toward full multimedia integration. Brochures, magazines, and

other printed material consist basically of words and images, with the occasional

background color to set off a sidebar. With text formatting and embedded images,

HTML can handle most of this.

A Short History of VRML

The origins of VRML date back to the middle of 1994, to a European Web

conference in which Tim Berners-Lee talked about the need for a 3D Web standard.

He coined the name VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) as an acronym to

parallel HTML. Mark Pesce picked up on this idea and was able to persuade Brian

Behlendorf at Wired magazine to start a mailing list called www-vrml.

The VRML mailing list was the seed from which a thriving community of

artists, engineers, and visionaries grew. The name was quickly changed to Virtual

Reality Modeling Language to reflect the emphasis on worlds rather than pages of

text. This group produced the VRML 1 specification in record time purely through

e-mail interactions. This was possible thanks in part to the fact that it was based on

the Inventor file format from Silicon Graphics. Inventor is a mature file format used

everywhere from universities doing research to animation houses doing special effects

for movies and television. A subset of Inventor was chosen that facilitated

implementation on a wide variety of platforms. Although this allowed several VRML

browsers to be created, it also crippled the language to a certain extent. Inventor's

advanced interaction and animation capabilities were not included, so VRML 1

worlds were as still as a graveyard. So, before the ink even had a chance to dry on the

specification, work was started to bring life to those Virtual worlds.

A small extension to VRML, called VRML 1.1, was tried. It contained

facilities to add audio clips to a scene and some very primitive animation. But because

this was not nearly enough to create compelling content, VRML1.1 never saw the

light of day. The VRML community set its sights on a major overhaul of the language

and dubbed it VRML 2.

The Requirements

Gavin Bell was the Silicon Graphic Inc. engineer primarily responsible for

introducing the VRML community to Inventor. In thinking about 2, he conceived of

three requirements he deemed important for 3D Web content: composability,

scalability, and extensibility.

Composability allows an author to create a virtual house, scale it down, and

place it on a tabletop. This table with the house model can then be placed in the office

building of a virtual architecture company. This building can be placed on a city block

with other buildings, which, in turn, can be placed in a city, which can be placed on a

planet orbiting the sun. In this composition, each piece is independent of the rest. The

full-size house can be placed on a residential street somewhere else on the planet

because everything that makes it a house, from the attic light that can be switched on

to the door that opens to the basement, is contained within the house model.

Scalability allows worlds of arbitrary size to be created. With VRML, it must

be possible to see a galaxy, zoom in on a star system, then to a planet, then a city, a

block, a park, a man sitting on a bench, and the mosquito sitting on his arm. This is

difficult due to limits in the precision of computer hardware, but it is important to

prevent every world from having arbitrary limits in size or detail.

Extensibility allows an author to extend the capability of the language to serve

special purposes. This allows, for instance, multiuser worlds to be created or new

geometric objects to be added to VRML.

Basic VRML Concepts

2D Versus 3D Graphics

There is a big difference between 2D and 3D. Although this makes it harder to

work with 3D, it also gives 3D huge advantages over 2D. You can create a 3D world,

populate it with interesting objects, and then walk around that world using a 3D

browser such as Cosmo Player. The only way to get similar motion using 2D is by
using movies, such as MPEG, or image-based formats, such as Shockwave from

Macromedia. Both of these techniques create huge files that are extremely slow to

download over the Web, and are not as flexible. The only viewing angle you have is

the one the author has created for you. With 3D and VRML, you can go literally

anywhere in the 3D world. You can walk up to a sign to read it, look over your

shoulder to see where a sound is coming from, or walk up a flight of stairs to go into a

second-story office.


Q How can we keep up with all the changes taking place with VRML and other

virtual reality technologies?

No one can keep up completely nowadays. We recommend surfing the Internet to see

what all the top companies are up to. Open up your favorite search engine in your

Web browser and search on VRML and Virtual Reality. Also, read the online

magazines devoted to VRML. If you can, download the latest beta copies of each

browser and take a tour with them. Keep a list of the features of each browser. Spend

some time thinking about the algorithms required to make a browser work. Keep a

link to the VRML Consortium home page and other VRML-related organizations.

And, by all means, go to the conferences where all the best ideas are presented and

discussed. You'll never run out of things to think about, because VRML is involved in

so many different disciplines, including education, scientific visualization,

communication, psychology, physiology, anthropology, and entertainment, to name a


Q Why would we want to use 3D on the Web? Why would we need anything

more than the text and images that are already on an HTML page?
The use of 3D on the Web has many great benefits. First, it allows a virtually infinite

amount of interactivity. Viewing an image of the outside of a house is not nearly as

interesting or informative as being able to walk through the front door and up to the

master bedroom to check out the view. Second, 3D is much more compact than either

images or text. They say that a picture is worth a thousand words. If that's true, a 3D

world is worth a thousand pictures. Finally, 3D gives an author a richer medium in

which to express ideas.


The software used for adding motion to the agro machine models was 3DS MAX .3ds
max claims that "You bring the imagination. We'll bring the rest". The 3ds max
software incorporates the features, commands and techniques for creating and
animating 3D models and rendering scenes. The software has techniques for
implementing various modeling methods, applying materials, placing lights and
cameras, and creating still and/or animated images.
Why 3DS Max?
3ds max is the world’s most widely used professional 3D modeling, animation and
rendering software. It significantly improves connectivity, image quality, productivity,
and content delivery. It provides ability to create heightened realism through global
illumination, exposure, accurate physical controls and custom hardware support. This
software is intended for Designers, Drafters, Architects and professionals involved
with graphics and design. People in related roles can also benefit from 3DS Max


Mahaveer electromechanical works Pvt ltd. is engaged in manufacturing of agro

machines supplied all over India. The assembly of the machines is quite complex and
size is considerable, therefore the marketing people were finding it difficult to give
live demonstration of the actual machines to their customer. By carefully analyzing
the problems reported by marketing people, it was felt that virtual 3d working models
would be very useful to tackle the above problem.
The brief description of the machines taken for the thesis work is as follows.


MEPL Destoner assures unbeatable reliability and performance. Most effective
solution for separation of stones, mud balls and dust from seeds/grains.
For continuous separation of stones from a stream of granular material. Simple and
dependable separation on the basis of the difference in terminal velocity of the
material and of the heavy impurities such as stone, metals, glass etc.
The gravity-fed grain is spread by a feeder across the entire width of the machine. On
separation screen, the stream of material is stratified according to its specific gravity
by the oscillating motion of the screen and the air flowing through the material from
bottom to top. The light particles collect at the top and the heavy ones including the
stones at the bottom. The lower layers of stones flow upward and are separated out.
The stone free stream of materials float on cushion of air, flowing slowly towards the
material outlets. The inclination of the screens. The air volume and final separation
can be individually adjusted to achieve the optimum degree of separation.
Some products are contaminated with dust chaff and other light impurities, which are
to be separated. The provision of special fan for removing the said impurities can be
given as an optional arrangement.
Adjustment: All the adjustment provided in the machine is simple and user friendly.
Due to the wide variation in separation requirements, MFPL cannot guarantee these
specific capacities; however, estimates in the table are conservative and have been
equaled or exceeded when the destoner and other associated equipment have been
installed and operated properly. The destoner requires a firm foundation, an adequate
clean air source and uniform feed rate.
: Technical Specification:

Model Capacity Power in HP Dimensions

2 HP Length - 1300 mm
Width - 960 mm
2 TPH Height - 2000 mm
3 HP Deck size
(With dust collection) 870 x 740 mm


Mahavir Gravity Separator is used to separate any of dry particles similar in size &
shape, but having different in specific weight. Gives best result in gradation of seed
as well as grains.
It works on principle of Gravity (weight) difference in the particles. For efficient
density separation on different variety of seed or grain. Proper adjustment of deck
inclination (longitudinal & transverse). Deck oscillation speed & setting of air of
multi fan is necessary. The above adjustment can be done very easily while machine
is in running condition.


Certain seed/ grains contain dust; chaff & other light impurities make pollution in
atmosphere. To control this air pollution as per system can provide with optional
arrangement based on customer required.
• Blower of aerodynamic design gives very high efficiency and avoids noise.
• Sturdy & compact design.
• Easy airflow adjustment.
• Filters provided to avoid entry of dust in blowers.
• Rectangular deck ensures excellent separation.
• Multi fan arrangement ensures exact ensures airflow requirement in different deck
: Technical Specification:

No. of Dimension in mm
Model Capacity Power
MG-1 3 Fans 1 TPH 5.0 HP
MG-2 5 Fans 2 TPH 7.5 HP 2200 x 1150 x 650
MG-4 7 Fans 4 TPH 10.0 HP


This machine is the effective solution for separating light seed / grain, dust, impurities
from good quality grain/ seed.
The seed/grain are initially fed to feeding hopper. Through feeding hopper grains are
pneumatically conveyed to top classifying feed chamber. The grains are conveyed
through rectangular conveying duct. Stones, chaff dust are separated out from grains
& are collected in top feed chamber. From top feed chamber, grains are fed to
classifying duct where high velocity air stream separates light grains, light impurities
from good quality grain. Separate chute is provided for collecting good quality grain,
light grains dust & chaff.
Special Features:
• Grading of grain is done by high velocity air stream.
• Removes dust, light impurities, trash from grain.
• Low quality immature grain and broken grains are separated from good quality
• Self-pneumatic feeding, hence no need of bucket elevator.
• Glass panel is provided to observe process of separation and for accurate
• No screen, deck or any moving part, hence maintenance free.
: Technical Specification:

Model Electrical Power Capacity

MEPL 4 7.5 HP 4 TPH
MEPL 2 5.0 HP 2 TPH
MEPL 1 3.0 HP 1 TPH


Special Features:
• Electronic Setting Facility.
• Load Cell based
• Accuracy 0.1%
• Range 20-100 Kgs.
• Capacity - 60 Bags of 100 Kgs. per hour.
• Facility of Conveyor.
• Facility of stitching of gunny bag.
• Structure - Powder coating, hence long life.
• Easy clamping & decamping of Gunny bag.
• Storage bin capacity - 750 Kgs.
• Only one Operator requires operating the machine.
• Pneumatically operated feed gate system.
: Technical Specification:

Capacity Power Reqd. Dimension (Mtr.)

3 x 1 x 2.5
WS –100 20-100 Kgs. 2 HP (Conveyor)


Pro/e was chosen as modeling software for the simple reason that it is a parametric

modeling software so the changes in the part as well as assembly can be made easily

whenever required. The design department of Mahavir Electromechanical Works Pvt

Ltd keeps on modifying the machines based on customer complaints and market

research data. Every new machine fabricated in Mahavir Electromechanical Works

Pvt Ltd is slightly modified than the previous machine. The modification and

improvement is a continuous process in Mahavir electromechanical works Pvt. Ltd.

first the modification is done on the production drawings created in AutoCAD, then

they are handed over to people on the shop floor for fabrication. As the company uses

2D production drawings, manufacturing people many times do not completely get the

idea of the design engineer. Even if they get the idea then they find it difficult to relate

the modified part with the assembly. It is better to communicate such design changes
by 3D models of machines because they are very close to actual machines. 3D models

crated in AutoCAD can also serve the purpose but modifying the individual parts in

AutoCAD assembly is quite difficult in other words, we can say that 3D assembly

created AutoCAD is rigid and cannot accommodate design changes easily. In view of

the above situation, it was decided to create 3D models of the machines using

parametric modeling software such as Pro/E. the bi-directional associative nature of

pro/engineer is the second reason for choice of this software. There is a bi-directional

associativity between all modes of pro/ENGINEER . The bi-directional associative

nature of a software package is defined as its ability to ensure that if any modification

is made in a particular model in one mode, the modification is reflected in the same

mode in other modes also. For example, if you make any change in a model in the

part mode and generate it, the changes will be highlighted in the assembly mode also.

Similarly, if you make any change in a part in the assembly mode, after regeneration,

the change will be highlighted in the Part mode also. This bi-directional associativity

also correlates the two-dimensional (2D) drawing view generated in the Drawing

mode and the solid model created in the Part mode of Pro/ENGINEER. This means

that if you modify the dimensions of the 2D drawing view in the Drawing mode, the

change will be automatically reflected in the solid model and also in the assembly

after regeneration. Likewise, if you modify the solid model in the Drawing mode.

thus, bi-directional associativity means that if modification is made to any one

application, it change the output of all the other modes related to the model. This

nature relates the various modes available in pro/ENGINEER.

Figure shows the drawing views of the part shown in figure –1-1 generated in the

drawing mode. The view show that the part consists of a counter bore hole at the

center and six counter bore holes around it.

Now, when the part is modified in the part mode, the modification is automatically

reflected in the Drawing mode, as shown in figure. The views in this figure show that

the entire outer counter bore holes are converted into the drilled holes and the number

of holes is increased from six to eight.

SCAN FIGURE 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4.

Figure shows the crosshead assembly. It is clear from the assembly that the diameter

of the hole is more than what is required (shown using dotted lines). In an ideal case,

the diameter of the hole should be equal to the diameter of the bolt.

The diameter of the hole can be easily changed by opening the file in the Part mode

and making the necessary modifications in the part. This modification is reflected in

the assembly shown in figure. This is due to the bi-directional associative nature of

Pro/ENGINEER. Similarly, if you change the dimension of the model in the Drawing

mode, the modifications will be automatically reflected in the Part mode. This shows

that all the modes are related to each other. Thus, it becomes very easy to modify your

model at any time. This makes the application software more users friendly.

The second important reason for using Pro/Engineer is that assemblies and

parts created in Pro/E can be converted into AutoCAD format but reverse of this is not

possible. So creating the assemblies and parts in pro/e serves the dual purpose.


Following is the methodology adopted for creating final VRML output.
PART MODELING: individual parts of the machines were created in part mode with
the actual dimensions. The scale of the individual parts while modeling was taken as
1:1 and units were inches but units of parts are not important as any part can be
converted in any units in pro/e i.e. the part modeled in inches can be converted to
millimeters. The unit conversion option provides two options to the user, one option is
called same size i.e. one inch will be converted into its respective size in millimeters
the meaning is that 1 inch part will have the new size of 20.54 millimeters after
conversion. The same number option converts the dimension, as 1 inch equals to 1
millimeter. The conversion process is very fast and simple; therefore units do not
carry any meaning in pro/e and can be decided at the time of manufacturing.
SIMULATION: the assemblies created in pro/e were exported to 3DS max studio for
process and mechanism simulation. The mechanism can be given motion in pro/e as
well but in this case it was not only the mechanism which was required to be shown in
motion but the process simulation was also important i.e. the grains in the process
were required to be shown in motion. These constraints forced to choose 3DS max
studio as simulation software. 3DS max studio has the facility called particle system,
which enables the user to show the behavior of particles such as grains in motion.
PRESENTATION IN VRML: the simulation created in 3DS max studio was
exported in VRML format for final presentation. VRML enables you to view the
simulation interactively i.e. user can take walk around the machine, go inside the
machine to see its mechanism in working, view it from different angles etc. the
experience is same as viewing the machines in real world. The VRML is shareware
software available on Internet. The user can download it from Internet, after
installation it gets plug in with Internet explorer.

CD- ROM drives have become integral part of every PC. As the thesis work was

based on software, it was decided to organize all the work on CD-ROM. The high

storage capacity of the CD-ROM enables to store huge amount of data on it. The

following article explains how the thesis work is organized on CD-ROM .The CD is

auto run i.e. as soon as you will insert the CD into drive, it will automatically start to

show you the front page.

1) THESIS REPORT IN PDF FORMAT: this link enables to view the complete

thesis report in Portable data format (PDF). Title wise classification is available for
quick reference. If your PC is not having the Acrobat reader installed on it then you

require installation of acrobat reader on your PC to view the pages in PDF format.

SYNOPSIS: this link enables you to view synopsis of the thesis work. The link is
located below the link thesis report on left hand side.
VRML PLUG IN: this link is below the synopsis link on left hand side. The
machine models in VRML format can are viewed in VRML plug in. VRML plug in is
shareware software available on Internet. The setups of most popular VRML plug in
such as CORTVRML or COSMOPLAYER are available on the CD-ROM so that you
can quickly install the VRML plug in on your PC to see the machine models without
any trouble. the purpose of providing setup of VRML software is to save the valuable
time of user to connect to the internet and download the software.
ACROBAT READER: Acrobat Reader is software, which enables you to view the
pages in PDF format. The thesis report on the CD-ROM is available in PDF format. If
your PC is not having the acrobat reader installed on it then you can install the
software from this link. This link contains the compressed setup file required for
installation of acrobat reader.
LINKS TO IMPORTANT SITES: this links connects you to the various sites on
world wide web containing the information of agro machines and software used in
this thesis work.
AGRO MACHINES IN PRO/E WILDFIRE FORMAT: this link is located at the
top on right hand side. The link contains part and assembly files of the Agro Machine
models created in Pro/E wildfire. If your PC have Pro/e installed on it then you can
view the parts and assemblies created in Pro/E. the part files have *.prt extensions
whereas assembly files have *.asm extensions.
AGRO MACHINES IN 3DS MAX STUDIO FORMAT: this link contains the
simulation files of agro machines created in 3DS max studio. These files can be
opened in 3DS max studio software. As all the files are created in 3DS max studio
version 6, user is advised to use version 6 or later to view the files. The version 6 of
3DS max studio or later can be loaded on windows XP operating system.
Agro machine files created in VRML format are linked to this link. You can view
these files in Internet explorer having VRML plug in installed in it.
AGRO MACHINES IN AVI FORMAT: this link will take you to agro machines
stored in AVI format. AVI is a format, which enables you to see the video on
computer. You can open these files in any video viewing software like Window media
player, jet player or nay other suitable player, which is installed on your PC to view
video file formats.
This link contains the power point presentation related with this thesis work.

Topics which are to be included in this thesis report.

organization of cd rom
Photographs of machines
Description of machines as per company manual
Appendix for various formats of files.
File converting process
Important terms and definitions (page xxii shyam tickoo)

CONCLUSION: visualization in many scientific fields (e.g. engineering,

biochemistry, physics, and astronomy) has been greatly aided by computer graphics.
Once translated into visual images, even very complex data can be easily interpreted.
In addition to illustrating data, CG can also be used to design experiments and analyze
probabilities in advance to narrow the range of variables to be tested. Computer –
aided design is used extensively in the automotive, aeronautic, electronic, and textile
industries. CG can be used to aid the imagination in all types of design, from
choreography to architecture. Because simulation is generally so much cheaper than
staging a performance of an entire dance troupe, for example, and so easily edited,
CG allows more experimentation in the design phase. Instead of being forced to
commit to a certain path fairly early on, a designer can take all manner of
permutations of an idea to their logical completion before making a decision (or
presenting options to decision –makers). The software handles the computations,
freeing the designer to focus on comparing the results of different routes rather than
on figuring out the results.
The caveat to this is that a 3D simulation of an experiment is only as good as
the premises on which it is based. It is easy to be convinced by a visual simulation,
because vision involves its own mental processes separate from our analytical minds.
When using 3D to simulate a test that would be expensive in the real world, bear in
mind that the assumptions of the simulations need to be carefully analyzed before you
commit to a course of action.
1. David S. Kelley; Pro/Engineer instructor, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing
Company Limited, 2001.
2. Chris Marrin, Bruce Campbell; Teach Yourself VRML 2 in 21 days,
Techmedia, New Delhi –2,1997
3. Prof. Shyam Tickoo, Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire for Engineers & Designers,
Dreamtech press, New Delhi-2, 2004
4. Cat Woods, Alexander Bicalho, Chris Murray; Mastering 3ds max 4;BPB
publication, 2002
Some important terms that will be used while working with Pro/ENGINEER
Entity: an element of section geometry is called an entity. The entity can be
arc,line,circle, point, conic, coordinate system and so on. When entity is divided at a
point then the total number of entities is said to be two.
Dimension: it is the measurement of one or more entities.
Constraint: constraints are logical operations that are performed on the selected
geometry to make it more accurate in defining its position and size with respect to
other geometry.
Parameter: it is defined as a numeric value or any definition that defines a feature.
For example, all the dimensions in a sketch are parameters. The parameters can be
modified at any time.
Relation: a relation in an equation that relates two entities.
Weak dimension and weak constraints: weak dimension and weak constraints are
temporary dimensions or constraints that appear in gray color. These are
automatically applied to sketch when it is drawn using the Intent Manager. They are
removed from the sketch without any confirmation from the user. The weak
dimension or the weak constraints should be changed to strong dimension or
constraints if they seem to be useful for the sketch. This only saves an extra step of
dimensioning the sketch or applying constraints to the sketch.
Strong dimensions and strong constraints: strong dimensions and strong constraints
appear in yellow color. These dimensions and constraints are neither removed
automatically nor applied automatically. All the dimensions added manually to a
sketch are strong dimension.

1) CD not play

Remedy : Clean the lens of your CD Rom, writer or DVD Rom with the help

of lens cleaner CD.

2) You cannot hear Sound or Music.

Remedy : Check that your sound card is properly installed. Check whether the

speaker are powered on an adjusted to audio able level.

3) Unable to see VRML Models

Remedy : Install VRML plug in provided in the CD. Restart your computer

and then try again.

4) Unable to see the complete page of multimedia

Remedy : Your text size may not be adjusted properly to display the whole

page. Goto view menu. View >> Textsize >> Smallest.

5) Cannot browse the content of CD properly

Remedy : Update your internet explorer to at least version 6 or more

6) Unable to view a *.avi files

Remedy : Install window media player or any other suitable media player

(mp3 of Jet player) to view AVI files.

7) Cannot view *.max files

Remedy : Install 3DS Max 6 software.

8) Unable to view *.prt or *.asm files

Remedy: Install Pro / E 2001 of Pro / E Wildfire

Remember that the above version of Pro/E can be installed in Windows XP or later.
*.prt:- this is the pro/Engineer file format used in pro/e part mode. Files with *.prt
extension can be opened in Pro/Engineer.
*.asm:- this file formats stores the assembly of components in pro/engineer assembly
mode. Files with *.asm extensions can be opened in Pro/Engineer.
*.avi: this file format contain the video created from 3Ds max studio as a video output
of *.max file. You can watch the video files with window media player or any suitable
software, which is used for watching the video such as jet player or winamp.
*.wrl: this file contains the simulation in VRML environment. You can open files
with *.wrl extension in Internet explorer. Ensure that you have already installed any
one of the VRML plug in provided on the CD-ROM of this thesis or you can
download it from Internet, as it is shareware software.
*.max: this file format contains simulation created in 3DS max studio software. You
can open files with extension in 3DS max studio software.

CD: Compact disk
PC: personal computer
* : wildcard use in computers to search files.
Plug in: small software, which will enhance the capabilities of the basic software.
Shareware software: software having no proprietary. Free to use without paying cost
of the software.

I wish to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to my research guide,
Prof. D.S. Ingole, Asst. Professor, Department of production engineering, college of
engineering, Badnera for his constant encouragement, keen interest and valuable
advice during the tenure of this work. I am greatly benefited from his guidance and
the freedom he allowed me to pursue the work. This work would not have been seen
the light of the day without his help.
I owe my sincere thanks to Prof. S.G. Patil, H.O.D; Dept. of Production
Engineering and Prof. S.V. Bansod ,course co-ordinator for his valuable guidance and
co-operation during my work.
It seemed a bit of tough task when I initiated my thesis but Prof. S.K. Patil,
Lecturer, college of engineering and technology, Akola & consultant in R&D
department of Mahavir Electromechanical Works Pvt. Ltd and Prof. A.M. Jain,
lecturer college of engineering & Technology, Akola & owner of Mahavir
electromechanical Works Pvt. Ltd. gave me the words of inspiration and I proceeded
and therefore I am very much indebted to him and take this opportunity to express my
sincere gratitude to him.
I am thankful to Dr. A.B. Marathe (principal), Prof. C.V. Deshmukh
(H.O.D.), Prof. S.C. Makwana, Asst. Professor and other staff members of
Production Engineering Department, C.O.E.&T; Akola who had directly and
indirectly helped me.
I am thankful to Mr. Anirudha Patokar for his untiring efforts in
compilation of CD-ROM, design of attractive CD cover and helping me in particle
system of 3DS max studio.
Finally, I thank my family members for their forbearance towards my
long period of absence from home in pursuit of my research work.

Dipak V. Shirbhate
M.E. (Final)
Dept. Of Production Engg;