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m learning about Classification of Living Things in 7th Grade

I am going to learn about the characteristics of different organism and how they are classified by those characteristics

AIM

CAPACITY
6.12 I can identify the basic characteristics of organisms I understand all organisms are classified into 3 Domains and 6 Kingdoms

I understand that all populations & species have some variation and have unique traits specific to the environment in which they live.

I understand tha systems have s levels of organi

Learning Target

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Stamps

Peer Score

Table of Contents

I know that Biology is the study of life (6.12A)

Determine the difference between living and non-living things (6.12A)

Tell the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (6.12B)

Tell if a life Describe the form is uni- difference cellular or between a multiheterotroph cellular and an (6.12D) autotroph (6.12D)

Difference between asexual and sexual reproduction. (6.12D)

Given Describe traits examples I can of an organism determine the in Kingdom Domain of an Eubacteria organism. (6.12D) (6.12C)

Describe traits of an organism in Kingdom Archaebacteria. (6.12D)

Describe traits of an organism in Kingdom Fungi. (6.12D)

Describe traits of an organism in Kingdom Plantae. (6.12D)

Describe traits of an organism in Kingdom Protista. (6.12D)

Describe traits of an organism in Kingdom Animalia. (6.12D)

Using a dichotomous key, I can examine & identify an organism. (7.11A)

Know that taxonomic groups are based on genetic similarities (7.11C)

Describe the levels of organization within an organism. (7.12C)

Desc level orga withi ecos (6.12

NAIVIE ( 4 ) BIGGER PICTURE DATE

The Unit Organizer

Scientific discoveries and technological innovation impact the way people live, work, and interact. , Scientists use the tools ol" technology to problem-solve, communicate, acquire new knowledge, and evaluate information to get answers to their questions.

LAST UNIT/Experience

CURRENT UNIT

NEXT UNIT/Experience

Intro to Life

Classification of Living Things

Genetics & Adaptations

UNIT SCHEDULE

prokaryote v eukaryote multi V uni autotroph v heterotroph

asexual v sexual reproduction bacteria Archae

Eukarya Protista Fungi

Plantae Animalia Domain v Kingdom

Examining Recognizing Identifying Relating i ^!

_l H UJ C O C L O U

1. How would you determine i f an unknown object is living or not? 2. In what ways are organisms in the 6 Kingdoms alike and different from one another? 3. What are the characteristics of a really good classification system? Is there only one way to classify things? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction? 5. If you had a choice of being a heterotroph or an autotroph, which one would you want to be? Why not the other one?

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PROKARYOTE I am a prokaryote, a simple little cell I don't have much inside me, it does me very well A cell membrane, some ribosomes, and scattered DNA Just the bare necessities, and I do okay. (Well, sometimes I have a flagellum, but otherwise I'm quite simple. Really! My DNA is in a section called the nucleoid. My body parts all float around in a liquid called the cytoplasm, but besides that I'm quite simple. Really! Oh, wait, did I say that already? Uh, let me check my script. Hmm. Oh, yes, yes. It's that important. Just remember that I'm really simple. But despite this, I am capable of withstanding extreme conditions, which is quite an advantage to me as compared to my cousin, the eukaryote. Speaking of whom, here he comes! Hi cousin!)

EUKARYOTE (Hiya!) I am the eukaryote, the much more knotty one I've got all my organelles, which makes me quite fun They have many functions, but the list is really long, Oh well, to find out, you'll have to wait for the next song!

PROKARYOTE Oy.!

Classification and Taxonomy Self Paced Unit Outline


Due Date

Characteristics of Living Things


Vocabulary: Cross off the words that you can define without assistance. Complete a vocabulary processing assignment for any and all words you could not define or have never heard. Cells DNA Reproduction Asexual reproduction Stimulus Sexual reproduction Response Metabolism *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Reading: Read Textbook Pages pp 170-173 a. Take Cornell Notes on page _________ of you spiral/INB. b. Write a summary of your notes at the bottom of every page. c. Write three quiz questions in Costas level 2 or 3 on the side of each page of Cornell notes.

*Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Check for Understanding: 1. Write questions and answers (in complete sentences) for section review questions on page 173 (#1-4) a. Have a peer use the teachers textbook to grade your work. If you made a 90 or 100 you may go on with a peer signature. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Learning Check: 1. Create a poster using pictures of living and non-living things. Under the pictures on the poster justify why the pictures are of living or non-living things. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Evidence of Learning: (complete one of the following activities to prove your learning) 1. Use Amazing Discovery worksheet and follow the instructions. 2. Read the article Are Viruses Alive? and write a one page paper explaining why you believe viruses to be alive or not. *Teacher must check your work before moving on.* Teacher Initials: ____ Date: ___ Quiz: Get a quiz from your teacher.

DATE

Record of Work for Product or Performance Work Reflections on my Work Adjustments to Plan for Work Planned Actually (difficulties, strengths, Next Class Done surprises)

- Unit Topics
(LT # 6 & 7)

Living thinqs have certain characteristics o P- made of DNA o R.- responds to their environment to maintain homeostasis o R.- reproduces o C- made of one or more cells o O- obtains energy o G- grows and develops

DR. R. COG

(LT # 6 & 7)

Non-living things may have some of the characteristics listed above but they do not have all of them therefore are not living. I. Levels of organization of an organism . o Color The Other OStrich ORange.

(LT#9)

(Cells -> Tissue ->Organ -> Organ System -> Organism)

(smallest - > largest)


(LT # 8)

Levels of organization within an ecosystem, o Only People Cook Eggs & Bacon (smallest - > largest)

(Organism -> Population ->Community ->Ecosystem -> Biosphere)

(LT # 10)

I can recognize that a human's scientific name is Homo sapien. j. I know that biology is the study of life o b i o = living -ology = study of

(LT#4)

U e i t Siiiiiiiiary This year we will be studying the living Meaning of biology (LT # 4 ) things around us. This study of life is called b i o l o g y (bio + ology = study of life). Characteristics In this unit, you will learn the of living things (LT # 6,7,9) characteristics used to determine if something is living or not. Living things are made of at least one 1. Made of one or more cells. cell. If an organism is made of one cell they are called unicellular. If organisms are made of two or more cells that work together they are called multi-celluar. A multi-cellular organisms' cells work together to make a more complex organism. Cells have the same basic parts, but have different functions (or jobs) based on the part of the body they are working for. For example, heart cells have a different job than skin cells. Each type of cell will work with other similar cells to make a t i s s u e . T i s s u e s work together to make organs. For example heart tissue makes up our the organ that keeps us alive, our heart. Organs don't work independently. They work together to perform certain bodily functions, like digestion. When

organs work together that is called an organ s y s t e m (digestive system, circulatory system). Each organ s y s t e m works with other organ systems to create a multicellular organism. Color The Other OStrich ORange.
(cells - > Tissue ->Organ -> Organ System -> Organism)

(smallest - > largest)


2. Respond to their internal and external environment

3. Made up of DNA

4. Reproduce

Living things respond to their environment to maintain balance (homeostasis). When a plant needs water it begins to wilt. When a human has plenty of water, the excess is removed as urine. Living things are made up of DNA. DNA is the combination of all the genes that are passed from a parent or parents to their offspring. This passing of traits from parents to offspring is called heredity. Living things must be able to reproduce and create new life. Some organisms reproduce by themselves and this is called a s e x u a l reproduction. Other organisms need a male and female to create an

offspring this is called sexual reproduction. Living things use and energy that either they make (like plants) or they get from other sources (like humans). Living things then are able to break that food down so it can be used by the organism. This process is called metabolism. Living thinqs grow and develop. Unicellular organisms simply get larger until they are ''full grown". Multicellular organisms, like us, may go through different stages of life (fetus, infant, toddler, child, adolescent, adult)
Characteristics of living things (LT # 6,7,9)

Non-living things may have some of the six characteristics of life, but not all of them Earth (the biosphere) is full of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) things. The simplest level of organization of life on Earth is an individual o r g a n i s m, such as a human being (Homo sapien)- YOU! All organisms that are part of the same species and live near one another make up a population.

Organization of and e c o s y s t e m (LT # 8,10)

Have you ever seen a sign lil<e this when you enter a town? What does it mean? It means the population of Homo sapiens (humans) living in that town. Although this sign represents the human population there are other populations in this town as well. There are bird populations, dog populations, ant populations and many plant populations. The next level of organization in the biosphere is community. Communities are made up of only biotic factors It includes all of the different populations in an area. For example, our community is made up of the human population, plant populations, and other animal populations. The next level in the biosphere is an e c o s y s t e m . An ecosyste m contains all of the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) things in an area. It includes all of the populations in a community, but all o f t h e abiotic (nonliving) factors as well. Abiotic (non-living) factors in an ecosystem include things such as temperature, rainfall, amount of sunlight, and soil type. Only People Cook Eggs & Bacon
(Organism -> Population ->Community ->Ecosystem -> Biosphere)

(smallest -> largest)

Vocabulary
Living things (biotic) -Organisms contained of Ex: life Plants, Animals, Bacteria that contain or six once the characteristics

Non-living

things (abiotic)

-Organisms the Ex:

that do

not

contain

six characteristics Rocks, water, air,

o f life dirt,

sunlight,

temperature

bio-

means

life "study

ology-

means

Ex: B i o l o g y = s t u d y o f life (notice tlie translation is backwards from the order of the words) B i o l o g y ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ H o m o same

Hetero-

Hetero- different

Multicellular-

Multi-

many cells made up of m a n y

Cellular-An

organism

cells Ex: mushrooms, animals, plants

Unicellular

Uni-

one cells up of o n e

Cellular-An cell Ex: Cell

organism made

protists, and basic

bacteria what of

- the

unit o f life and

all l i v i n g t h i n g s M U S T b e Ex: red blood cell, b o n e

made cell,

nerve

cell

Tissue
Four t y p e s of tissue

- a g r o u p o f cells together Ex: blood, spongy

working

bone,

nerve

r '"^^ r /-^ "

'

tissue

C o n n e c t i v e tissue

Epithelial tissue

O r g aMuscle n

tissue

Nervous tissue

- a g r o u p o f tissues together Ex: heart, bone, brain

working

Organ

System
CO.
w . r>:

- a g r o u p o f o r g a n s together Ex: circulatory s y s t e m , system, nervous

working

skeletal

system

" ' ^

Organism

-A unicellular organism

that

contains t h e six characteristics of life - A multicellular organism that made up of m a n y organ together. is

systems

working

- A group

of the

s a m e

species area park

of o r g a n i s m s Ex: t h e

living

in an

population of cedar 65,000

is a r o u n d (humans)

Homo

sapiens

Community

- M a n y p o p u l a t i o n s species of organisms area Ex: the human

of different living in an

population + dog

4-

the

deer population + blue bonnet

population the

population=

cedar park - All of the

community living a n d n o n - l i v i n g

( c o m m u n i t i e s ) things Ex: the the type Sexual Reproductionin a n area

cedar park community + soil

average temperature + rocks + water =

- requires m a l e

a f e m a l e

egg

a n d new

sperm

to create a

organism Ex: humans, animals, plants

Asexual

Reproduction-

- " A " - in f r o n t of a w o r d NOT - NOT sexual that a an

means

reproduction d o e s n o t

means n e e d to

organism

m a l e

o r f e m a l e

counterpart

reproduce

they can j u s t split on an new

their own to make organism Ex: sponges, - the passing to

bacteria, o f traits

protists from

parent Ex: from Heredity'^^^

offspring traits

How you got certain m o m or dad.

s t i n "l u l u s q i l i

- something organism to

that

cause s

an

respond

Ex:

sunlight

Fig

Response

- how an stimulus

organism

r e a c t s to

Ex: the light


Fftji

plant bending

toward

the

Homeostasis

- an

organisms

ability to body

maintain

b a l a n c e Ex: ,1/ \i / \ you

in their

sweating

cools y o u r body, if water your body

drink extra

does not need y o u go to restroom more

the

Metabolism

B r ?! DNA

- t o t a l o f all c h e m i c a l in a n Ex: organism

processes

breaking

d o w n s u g a r in f o o d , and

plants water

converting sunlight into sugar

- the things

genetic

makeup

o f all

living

Testing Vocabulary
Characteristics

Description

Organization

Order
Recognize

Notice
Diagram
The Water Cycle

Picture
Comprehend

Understand

Determine
... . , ilKSWir? y < THAT WAR]

Decide

Obtain

To get
Function

AT WORK

Tiie "job"

Resources
1. Living vs. Non-Living Quizhttp://www.schools.utah.qov/curr/scienc e/sciberOQ/7th/classifv/livinq/quiz/livinqq u.htm 2. U-tube video: http://www.youtube.conn/watch?v=lwM lwTZXibg&feature=related 3. Textbook: Ch. 7 (pp. 170-173)

Practice
Non Uvmg 1

CD

Learning Target Clieck


(LT # 6 & 7) (LT # 7)

(LT # 6 & 7)

1. Explain the difference between a living and nonliving thing? 2. Explain the difference between a unicellular and a multi-cellular organism. 3. List and explain the six characteristics of life. 4. Is dirt alive? Justify your answer. 5. Relate this statement to your own body, ''Color The Other Ostrich Orange''. 6. Explain this statement "Only People Cook Eggs & Bacon

(LT # 6 & 7)

(LT # 9)

(LT # 8)

Haw and what do I study fur this test?


Use your capacity matrix and make sure that you understand and can explain each one of the learning target statements. Make vocabulary flash cards and study them. Also, understand that the assessment is not a vocabulary test, but you need to know how to understand the vocabulary when it is used in the context o f t h e unit. Use the study stack link on the 7^^ science website under the current unit link, to study vocabulary for the test. Attend tutorials with one o f t h e science teachers and discuss the learning targets for which you are still struggling. Use your notes and assignments we have done in this unit that you have in your spiral. Use the online resources section and watch the videos and/or take the quizzes. Discuss your results with your teacher during a tutorial session.

Create this graphic organizer in your notebook. Add your own pictures.
Contains DNA

Grows and Develops

O btain E

Made of Cells

Responds to environment

Taxonomy
Keywords/Study ?s: What is taxonomy? What does it mean when another organism is closely related to another? What kinds of characteristics are used to determine relatedness? What are the levels of organization? Which level of organization is the most specific? Which level is most broad? What are the 6 Kingdoms and which Domain do they fall under? What tool do scientists use to classify organisms? Have I used a dichotomous key before? If so, when? Notes: Taxonomy ishow we classify living things What does taxonomy tell us? The relatedness of different organisms Relatedness is determined by comparing: structures, behavriors, cells, chemicals like DNA Organisms with many similarities are said to be closely related. Levels of classification: 1. Three domains a. Bacteria b. Archae c. Eukarya 2. Six kingdoms a. Eubacteria b. Archeabacteria c. Protista d. Plantae e. Fungi f. Animalia 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species How do we classify an unknown organism? Use a dichotomous key a series of choices between two characters until identification is achieved

Summary: Taxonomy is the classifying of living things into groups based on similar characteristics such as DNA, cells, structures, etc. When they share common characteristics they are said to be related. In taxonomy, the levels of classification are : Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (in order form broad to specific). The 6 Kingdoms include: Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. Scientists use a dichotomous key to determine which classifications they fall under.
Jennifer Lopez Tuesday, September 21, 2010 6:59:19 PM CT 00:1b:63:a4:0c:ca

Taxonomy Vocabulary
Keywords/Study ?s
Notes: The following questions help us classify living things What type of cell is it? Prokaryote lacks a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles Eukaryote true nucleus; has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles How many cells does it have? Unicellular made of a single cell Multicellular made of many cells Does it have a cell wall? A cell wall isa rigid boundary that surrounds the cell; cell walls can be made of a variety of materials How does it obtain nutrients? Autotroph an organism that produces its own nutrients (food) Heterotroph an organism that obtains nutrients (food) by eating other organisms Types of autotrophs: Phototroph converts energy from the sun into nutrients Chemotroph converts energy from chemicals into nutrients Does it have chloroplasts? A chloroplast isa cell organelle that can do photosynthesis How does it reproduce? Asexual reproduction requires only one parent Sexual reproduction requires two parents Scientists use dichotomous keys to classify unknown organisms and identify its species. A dichotomous key contains a series of choices between two characters until identification is achieved. Species organisms of the same type

Summary:

Kristin Whittlesey

Wednesday, September 22, 2010 8:48:21 AM CT

00:22:41:33:9c:7d

Due Date

Taxonomy
Vocabulary: Cross off the words that you can define without assistance. Complete a vocabulary processing assignment for any and all words you could not define or have never heard. Taxonomy Autotroph Kingdom Protista Prokaryote Heterotroph Kingdom Eubacteria Eukaryote Thermophile Kingdom Archaebacteria Domain Bacteria Multicellular Kingdom Plantae Domain Archae Unicellular Kingdom Animalia Domain Eukarya Sexual Reproduction Kingdom Fungi Asexual Reproduction phylum Class Order Family Genus Species binomial nomenclature cladogram Ancestry symmetry

*Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______

Reading: (for each set of reading take Cornell notes, with a summary and three Costas questions) A. Domains- Read History of Taxonomy article. B. K. Eubacteria and K. Archaebacteria- and Viruses pp. 272-283 C. K. Protista and K. Fungi pp. 294-309 D. K. Plantae pp. 320-325 E. K. Animalia pp. 346-349 *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Check for Understanding: Write questions and answers in complete sentences for each kingdom. A. History of Taxonomy questions B. Section Review pg. 276 (#1-4), pg. 280 (#1-4), pg. 283 (#1-3) C. Section Review pg. 302 (# 1-3), pg. 309 (#1-4) D. Section Review pg. 325 (#1-4) E. Section Review pg. 349 (#1-4) *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Learning Check: (complete ONE of the activities with no assistance from notes or books) A. Explain to a classmate how domains are similar and different from one another and the characteristics of each kingdom. B. Get a Taxonomy Chart from your teacher and complete it. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Evidence of Learning: (complete one of the following activities to prove your learning) 1. Make a poster- pair up with another advanced student and each of you bring 15 pictures of organisms labeled only with numbers and basic distinguishing characteristics (nucleus or not, unicellular or multicellular, cell wall composition or lacking a cell wall, mode of nutrition, and mode of reproduction). Each of you should make a Key for the pictures you brought. Your Key should include the number, name, classification of your pictures. 2. Video tape an interview with a scientist- write a script a classmate could use to interview you, the scientist, and have them ask you questions regarding the old systems of classifications, the current system of classification and the changes that are purposed for the future. They should also have you classify the domain and kingdom of an unknown organism during the interview. *Teacher must check your work before moving on.* Teacher Initials: ____ Date: ___

Quiz: Get a quiz from your teacher and prepare for unit test.

DATE

Record of Work for Product or Performance Work Reflections on my Work Adjustments to Plan for Work Planned Actually (difficulties, strengths, Next Class Done surprises)

Vocabulary Card Assignment (Special Assignment #25 Bulls Eye Compare/Contrast)

They will need to make cards comparing/contrasting the following taxonomy terms: prokaryote/eukaryote unicellular/multicellular autotroph/heterotroph phototroph/chemotroph asexual reproduction/sexual reproduction cell wall/chloroplast

Below you will see how to fold the cards and an example.

(closed)

(open)

Jennifer Lopez

Wednesday, September 22, 2010 7:09:01 PM CT

00:1b:63:a4:0c:ca

DOMAIN KINGDOM
Eubacteria "true bacteria" Prokaryote (no nucleus) (has nucleus) Eukaryote "extremophiles" Eukaryote (has nucleus) Archaebacteria Protista Fungi

Bacteria

Archaea

Sukarya

Plantae

Animalia

CELL TYPE
Prokaryote (no nucleus)

Eukaryote (has

Eukaryote

nucleus)

(has

nucleus)

CELL STRUCTUIiES
cell wall peptidoglycan peptidoglycan has with cell wall w i t h o u t cell wall

-cell wall chitin

has

-cell wall

has

NO

cell wall o r

cellulose

cellulose -chloroplasts

chloroplasts

-chloroplasts

NUMBEROF CELLS
unicellular unicellular

unicellular

unicellular and multicellular

multicellular

multicellular

M D OF OE NUTRITION
Autotroph Heterotroph or

(h m sn e & c e oy t c ht i p oo y t ec Or h t s nh t) i
Heterotroph Asexual

Autotroph

Autotroph

or Heterotroph

Heterotroph

Autotroph

Heterotroph

M D OF OE REPRODUCTION
Asexual

Asexual

( o t) m sy l
* f lagelia *cilia * f lagella *pseudopods

Asexual, and Sexual

Asexual, and Sexual

Sexual

and

asexual

M D OF OE LOCOMOTION
*cilia

* f lagella

*very

little

Non-

motile

variety

*hitchicking

*hitchiking

*cilia

EXAMPLES

Streptococcus, E. C o l i

AAethanogens, Halophiles

Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena

Mushrooms yeasts

and

Mosses,

ferns,

Sponges,

flowing and

plants,

worms,

insects,

trees

fishes,

mammals

Due Date

Classification of Living Things (microscopes and dichotomous keys)


Vocabulary: Cross off the words that you can define without assistance. Complete a vocabulary processing assignment for any and all words you could not define or have never heard. Cells Microscope Parts: ocular Lens low power objective Dichotomous Key nose piece high power objective DNA body tube coarse-adjustment knob stage fine-adjustment knob stage clips diaphragm light arm base *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Reading: A. Read Textbook Pages pp 694-695 1. Take Cornell Notes over Proper Use of the Compound Light Microscope and Making a Wet Mount on page _________ of you spiral/INB. - Write a summary of your notes at the bottom of every page. - Write three quiz questions in Costas level 2 or 3 on the side of each page of Cornell notes. B. Go to http://biologyjunction.com/dichotomous_keying.htm and read Introduction and Rules for Using Dichotomous Keys. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Check for Understanding: A. Watch the video How to use a Microscope Correctly on the 7th science website. -Go to http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/microscopy_exercises.html and do the Cheeky Cells activity in your INB on page _____. B. Go to http://biologyjunction.com/dichotomous_keying.htm and do Exercise #1. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Learning Check: A. Go to http://www.funtrivia.com/playquiz/quiz297406220c618.html and print off results to show peer and glue into INB. B. Get leaf classification kit from your teacher and follow instructions. *Peer must check your work before moving on.* Peer Initials: ______ Date: ______ Evidence of Learning: (complete one of the following activities to prove your learning) A. Give a classroom demonstration (to other advanced students) or make your own video on how to use a microscope and make slides. 1. Make a slide of an onion cell and draw the images you see in low, medium, and high power in your INB. 2. Make a wet mount of pond water and draw the images you see in low, medium, and high power in your INB. B. Collect a sample of 10 leaves, or flowers around your house, yard, or local park and create a dichotomous key on the computer to classify your samples. *Teacher must check your work before moving on.* Teacher Initials: ____ Date: ___ Quiz: Get a quiz from your teacher.

DATE

Record of Work for Product or Performance Work Reflections on my Work Adjustments to Plan for Work Planned Actually (difficulties, strengths, Next Class Done surprises)

Unit Topics
(LT # 1) (LT # 2)

I know prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do have a nucleus. I can identify unicellular organism s because they are only made up of one eel while multicellular o r g a n i s m s are made of more than one cell and are more complex. I know that autotrophs make their own food/energy while heterotrophs must get their food/energy from another source. I know that asexual reproduction requires only one parent which creates an exact genetic copy of itself. Sexual reproduction requires a male and female to create an offspring that is a genetic mixture of both parents. I know the order of the taxonomic levels are:

(LT # 3)

(LT # 4)

(LT # 5)

Dominate King Phillip Came Over For Good Spices


(Domain - > Kingdom - > Pylum - > Class - > O r d e r - > Genus - > Species)

(Largest - > Smallest)

(Least similar ->Most Similar)

(LT # 6)

(LT # 7) (LT # 8) (LT # 9)

(LT # 10)

(LT # 11)

(LT # 12)

Given an organisms characteristics, I know which Domain (Bacteria, Archae, or Eukarya) it belongs. I know Kingdom Eubacteria's unique characteristics. (True/normal bacteria) I know Kingdom A r c h a e b a c t e r i a 's unique characteristics. (Extreme bacteria) I know Kingdom Fungi's unique characteristics. (Fungi Kingciom) I know Kingdom Plantae's unique characteristics. (Plant Kingdom) I know Kingdom Protista's unique characteristics. (Protist Kingdom) I know Kingdom Animalia's unique characteristics. (Animal Kingdom) I can use a dichotomous key identify an organism into it's classification groups. I know that taxanomic groups are based on genetic similarities. ]. I can use a microscope correctly. o I know all of the parts to the microscope and their functions o I know how to make a wet mount. o I know how to figure my magnification by multiplying my eyepiece (lOx) by my objective lens (4x, lOx, or 40x).

(LT # 13)

(LT # 14)

(LT#i5)

(LT # 14)

Unit Suminary
This unit is about T a x o n o m y . Taxonomy is simply the classification system that scientists use to organize living thinqs into groups based on genetic similarities. The more similar the organisms are the more levels of the classification system they have in common. All biotic organisms can be classified into taxonomic groups based on their genetic similarities.

(LT # 5,14)

Dominate King Phillip Came Over For Good Spices


(Domain - > Kingciom - > Pylum - > Class - > Order - > Genus - > Species)

(Largest -> Smallest)

(Least similar ->Most Similar)

# 1, 4,5 8,14)

Let's start with how scientists begin classifying an organism. They would make observations about the organism and determine if it is m u l t i c e l l u l a r (made of many cells) or u n i c e l l u l a r (made of one cell). If the organism is unicellular scientists would then look in a microscope to see if it's DNA is contained in a nucleus or not. If it has no nucleus, it would be considered a p r o k a r y o t e and would only fit into one of two Domains, D o m a i n Eubacteria or D o m a i n A r c h e a b a c t e r i a . If it has a nucleus, then it would have to be in D o m a i n Eukarya

(which only contains organisms with a nucleus containing their DNA- e u k a r y o t e s . ) Let's assume the organism had no nucleus. The next step a scientist would take to classify the organism is to see if it has peptidoglycan in it's cell wall or not. If it has ''pepto" in it's cell wall it fits into D. E u b a c t e r i a , if it does not have "pepto" in it's cell wall it fits into D. A r c h e a b a c t e r i a . Once you learn the characteristics of each group, classifying organisms becomes much easier. Use the graphic organizer below to help classify organisms.

G R A P H I C O R G A N I Z ER
Biotic Organism

Domain Archae (Archea-'old") {Prokaryotes-no nucleus)

Domain Bacteria (regular bacteria) (Prokaryotes- no nucleus) ^

Domain Eukarya (Eukarvotesorganisms with a nucleus)

Kingdom Archeabacteria -unicellular : -prokaryotes -extremeophiles - no peptidoglycan in ceUwall -asexual reproduction

Kiagdom Eubacteria -unicellular -prokaryotes -normal bacteria -HAS peptidoglycan in cell wall -asexual reproduction

Kingdom Protista -unicellular -eukaryote -heterotroph & autotroph -animal like, and plant like -asexual reproduction

Kingdom Fungi -unicellular and multicellular -eukaryote - heterotrophs -sexual and asexual reproduction

Kingdom Plantae -multicellular -eukaryote -autotrophic -asexual and sexual reproduction

Kingdom Animalia -multicellular -eukaryote -heterotrophic -sexual reproduction

T x n m Vocabulary ao o y
Taxonomy
The science of classification of living things. or ordering Tax- "taxis"= O n o m y = order science

Prokaryote
A Typical Prokaryote Cell

A cell w i t h containing

NO N U C L E U S
the DNA.

Pro- "before"around before

prokaryotes cells h a d

were

nuclei

'WWiiSi
Eukaryote
A Typical Eufearyole Cell

A cell t h a t containing

HAS A the

NUCLEUS

DNA.

Eu- "true"true

eukaryotes

have

nucleus

Domain

The

largest group

in

the

classification

system.

j Bactena ^ ^ N ^ \ ^ l ^ ' t ^ ^ "~X 1 V Eukarya

At this tim e only three exist.

domains

--::|^ ] /

V i ^ ^ '

Kingdom

The

next

largest group system.

in

the

classification
\(Multicdlu^V:euicaoticJ Wkaryotic! U x . / P ' J ? eukaryotic)/

At this t i m e there are kingdoms.

six

Vj__antl niultice(l(ilar2^-'

D o m a i n B a c t e r i a &. Kinqdom Eubacteria

- p r o k a r y o t e s - no nucleus -unicellular -heterotrophic and autotrophic -asexual r e p r o d u c t i o n - H A S p e p t i d o q i v c a n in it's cell wall -considered t o be m o r e c o m m o n bacteria- "true bacteria" Ex: s t r e p t o c o c c u s, e. c o l i , staphylococcus -prokaryotes- no nucleus -unicellular -heterotrophic and autotrophic -asexual reproduction - NO peDtidoqIvcan in it's cell wall -considered "Extremophiles" Bacteria because they live in locations other things cannot live. Ex: thermal vents, volcanoes, hot springs - cells t h a t H A V E A N U C L E U S s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i r DNA Ex: plants , a n i m a l s , p r o t i s t s , fungi

Domain Archae & Kinqdom Archaebacteria

Eukarva

Plantae

-eukaryotes -multicellular -autotrophic -asexual a n d sexual reproduction -cell wall m a d e of c e l l u l o s e

Animalia

-eukaryotes -multicellular -heterotrophic -asexual a n d sexual reproduction -NO C E L L W A L L

Protists

Fungi

-eukaryotes -unicellular - a u t o t r o p h i c and heterotrophic -asexual - p l a n t like, a n i m a l like and f u n g u s like p r o t i s t s . Ex: A m o e b a , P a r a m e c i u m , Euglena -eukaryotes -unicellular and multicellular -heterotrophic -asexual a n d sexual reproduction -cell wall m a d e of c h i t i n Ex: y e a s t , and m u s h r o o m s

Autotroph SOLAR E E G NR Y & PHOTOSYhfTHESIS

Make t h e i r o w n " f o o d " . H D OH R A E E G YR TEML NR Y & H MS N H SS CE 0YTE1 Auto= "self" Cffltoo d!^de{Cjj+Vfetsr (HjO)+ T r o p h = " f e e d i n g " Caiton dioxide (COj) * Vteler (HjO) Ex: plants- p h o t o t r o p h s (use 4, Cab* (CHjO)+Si#talteAcki (HjSpj) light) a r c h e a b a c t e r i a - c h e m o t r o p h s (use chemicals) Heterotroph Get t h e i r " f o o d " . Hetero= " o t h e r " Troph= "feeding" Ex: a n i m a l s , d e c o m p o s e r s , f u n g i

Thermophile

Live in e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t are usually t o o hot f o r other o r g a n i s m s t o survive. Thermo- "heat" Phile- " l o v i n g "

Multicellular

An o r g a n i s m t h a t is m o r e c o m p l e x d u e t o being m a d e of m a n y c e l l s and having t i s s u e , organs and o r g a n systems. Multi- m a n y Cellular- cells

Unicellular
f4..-.

simple

o n e cell

organism

that

can own. Uni-

c a r r y o n life p r o c e s s e s o n its

one cells a

Cellular-

Sexual Reproduction

Requires exchange

male and female


o f genetic material. diversity greater

-Causes greater

Ex:

humans,

some

plants

Asexual Reproduction

Requires

o n l y ONE

parent themselves large

creating a clone o f

-no diversity, b u t has amounts Ex: of offspring

bacteria, and

protists

Dichotomous Key
^
Bird Vv?

key that

is u s e d

to classify

^
Bird X

^
Bird Y

^
Bird Z Cemirfsii a<?o.?pi~a C?I7W.-';>'/IOT(S Ptsryspiz^

organisms.

I t is a t w o w a y p a t h

leading to o n e final classification.

1.3- The beat; is leiafc-e-y iMig- ancslsnctet 2, a. Tnp botloiTi siiiiace o! Itif la-jfe! h&ak i^i llal SMI sir^ngi)!, 3, a. THe te\wv edoe o! Sie upper beak tias a dtelinci bic! The (owef edge o! eie upper beak is. fiii>Eiiy Tis'.

Di- t w o

Testiiig Vocabulary
Characteristics

Description
Classify

Organize into groups


1

Variation

Vanety

Microsco|ie Vocabulary
Oci"ia?ISD$-usul!ylQXfn3gnifo!icn

ohiec:ive lens,
obieclivateBs

M^
ohjeciivs tens Arn -cofiriCQls Hie base and barrel

( / Lll Stage dip-hoWs sli(i& firml)' in p*acg Siaga'syppufissidS'^''


trfgrtiaphfagm-fBgutalesilieiigJit

Coarse tos-raises and lowers lha siggefsr focusing Fine \m& sllgh!?^ movgs ftesJagolo shafpen tttgnnagt

PfolevlIoEi tens
Base >

^owar swicli * turns the ilurBtfiabo on a

mpmm

Practice What am I game:


Use your Taxonomy Chart given in class to make note cards with characteristics from different Domains and Kingdoms on them and have someone quiz you nightly.
I am unicellular, prokaryotic and live in extreme environments. Domain Archaebacteria

Using Dichotomous Keys


A dichotomous l^ey is a written set of choices that leads to the name of an organism. Scientists use these to identify unknown organisms. Consider the following animals. They are all related, but each is a separate species. Use the dichotomous key below to determine the species of each.

1. I Has green colored body I Has purple colored body a

go to 2 go to 4

QL Y c
1

2. I Has 4 legs cy
I

go to 3 Deems Deems octagis pestis Deems Deems magnus humpis go to 5

n!

j Has 8 legs 3. I Has a tail

il
!Vl\

i i

j Does not have a tail 4. j Has a pointy hump

Does not have a pointy hump 5.


I
Fl

Has ears

Deems

purplinis Deems deafus

\ Does not have ears

e]

Resources
Microscope- Parts, usage and wet mount explanation. http .-//faculty.clintoncc.sunv.edu/facultv/micliael.qreqory/ flles/bio%20100/bio%20100%20laboratory/microscopv/m icroscopv%20lab-bio%201Q0.htm Textbook- pages 272-309 Websitehttp://www.beyondbooks.com/bbteacher/lessons/indexlif 71.asp

Howtostudy tor this test!


Use your c a p a c i t y m a t r i x and m a k e sure t h a t y o u understand and can explain each one o f t h e learning t a r g e t statements. Make v o c a b u l a r y f l a s h c a r d s and s t u d y t h e m . Also, understand t h a t t h e assessment is n o t a v o c a b u l a r y test, b u t y o u need t o k n o w how to u n d e r s t a n d t h e vocabular y w h e n it is used in t h e context of t h e unit. Use t h e s t u d y stack link on t h e 7*^*^ science website under t h e c u r r e nt unit link, t o study v o c a b u l a r y f o r t h e test. A t t e n d tutorials w i t h one of t h e science teachers, y o u r t r a c k i n g teacher, o r y o u r ELL t e a c h er and discuss t h e learning t a r g e t s f o r which y o u are still s t r u g g l i n g . Use your n o t e s a n d a s s i g n m e n t s w e have done in this u n i t t h a t y o u have in y o u r spiral. Use t h e r e s o u r c e s s e c t i o n and w a t c h t h e videos a n d / o r t a k e t h e quizzes. Discuss y o u r results w i t h y o u r teacher d u r i n g a t u t o r i a l session. P r a c t i c e w i t h s o m e o n e , and have t h e m use t h e characteristics on t h e T a x o n o m y Chart and you m u s t d e t e r m i n e which d o m a i n and k i n g d o m t h e o r g a n i s m t h e y are describing fits into.

l e a r n i n g Xs
Explain the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. (LT # 2) 2. Explain the difference between a unicellular and a multi-cellular organism. (LT # 3) 3. Explain the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph. (LT # 4) 4. What is the difference between an organism that reproduces asexually and one that reproduces sexually? 5. Tell me what this phrase means: (LT # 5) Dominate King Phillip Came Over For Good Spices 6. Which domain(s) contains organisms that do (LT # 6) not have a nucleus, and which domain(s) contain organisms with a nucleus? .T # 7, 8) 1, Explain the major difference between K. Eubacteria and K. Archaebacteria. T # 9,10) 8, Explain the major differences between K. Fungi, and K. Plantae. # 11 ,12) 9. Explain the major differences between K. Protista, and K. Animalia. LT # 14) 10. How do genetic similarities help when classifying organisms? LT # 15) 11. I can label the parts and explain the functions of the microscope on the next page.
(LT # 1)

1.

Checic

Unit 7 Lab 1: The Microscope


Name___________________________Date_________________Period____________ Introduction: "Micro" refers to tiny, "scope" refers to view or look at. Microscopes are tools used to enlarge small objects so as they can be studied. Microscopes range from a simple magnifying glass to the expensive electron microscope. The compound light microscope is the most common instrument used in education today. It is an instrument containing two lenses, which magnifies, and a variety of knobs to resolve (focus) the picture. It is a rather simple piece of equipment to understand and use. In this lab we are going to learn the proper use and handling of the microscope. Objectives: Demonstrate the proper procedures used in correctly using the compound light microscope. Prepare and use a wet mount. Determine the total magnification of the microscope. Develop a checklist to insure the proper handling of the microscope.

Materials: Compound microscope glass slides Cover slips Eye dropper Beaker of water The letter "e" cut from newsprint Scissors

Procedures: I. Proper Handling and Use of the Microscope: 1. The teacher will demonstrate the correct procedure in transporting the microscope. 2. One person from each group will now go over to the microscope storage area and properly transport one microscope to your working area. 3. The other person in the group will pick up a pair of scissors, newsprint, a slide, and a cover slip. 4. Remove the dust cover and eyepiece cap (if present), putting it inside the dust cover. Fold the dustcover and place it on the side of your work area. Plug in the scope. Make sure that the scopes electrical cable is up on the table and not dangling off the table where it can be tripped or pulled on accidentally. 5. Turn the light source on. Practice rotating the nosepiece, rolling the coarse and fine adjustment knobs up and down. Next, regulate the light from bright to dim and bright again by using the diaphragm under the stage. This will help create contrast(s) when looking at objects later in the lab. 6. Move the mechanical stage clips far and near, left and right using the two knobs. Check out how a slide fits on the stage using the swinging arm clip.

II. Preparing a wet mount of the letter "e". 1. 2. 3. 4. With your scissors, cut out a small lowercase "e" from a piece of newsprint. Place it on the glass slide so as to look like an e should, right side up. Cover it with a clean cover slip. See the figure below. Using your eyedropper, place a drop of water on the edge of the cover slip where it touches the glass slide. The water should be sucked under the slide if done properly.

Magnification: ______ X 5. Turn on the microscope and place the slide on the stage, making sure the "e" is facing the normal reading position (see the figure above). Using the course focus and the scanning objective (4x), move the stage down until the "e" can be seen clearly. Sketch the letter "e" as it appears under scanning power in the circle. The circle above represents the viewing field of the microscope. Sketch your "e" to scale. (i.e. Sketch it exactly how it appears as you look at it through the microscope Does it take up the whole circle, part of the circle or some of the circle?). Sketch what you see in the circular viewing frame above. 6. Describe the relationship between what you see through the eyepiece and what you see on the stage. ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Offer an explanation of why this happened. ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________. 8. Looking through the eyepiece, move the slide to the upper right area of the stage. What direction does the image move? ____________________________________________________ 9. Now move it to the lower left side of the stage. What direction does the image move? ______________. 10. Re-center the slide and change the scope to high power. You will notice the "e" is out of focus. Do Not touch the coarse focus knob, instead use the fine focus to resolve the picture. 11. Locate the diaphragm under the stage. Move it and record the changes in light intensity as you do so. ______________________________________________________________________

III. Determining Total Magnification: 1. Locate the numbers inscribed on the eyepiece (WF 5x) and the low power objective (i.e. 2/0.05) and fill in the blanks below. Eyepiece magnification ________(X) objective magnification _________ = Total Magnification _____________X 2. Do the same for the high power objective. ____________________X. 3. Write out the rule for determining total magnification of a compound microscope. _________ ___________________________________________________________________________. 4. Add to your drawing of the "e", the magnification that you viewed and sketched it under. If no time remains in class 4. Remove the slide and clean it up. Turn off the microscope and wind up the wire so it resembles its original position. Rotate the nosepiece so low power objective is in place and lower stage using the coarse adjustment. Cover the scope with the dust cover. Place the scope back in storage cabinet.

If you have enough time to start and finish the next lab then do so

Unit 7 Lab 2: Cheek Cells


Name___________________________Date_________________Period____________ Introduction: Many things that are viewed using a microscope, particularly cells, can appear quite transparent under the microscope. The internal parts of the cells, the organelles, are so transparent that they are often difficult to see. Biologists have developed a number of stains that help them see the cells and their organelles by adding color to their transparent parts. While many biological stains are for advanced study only, there are some that are easy to obtain and use. Some readily available stains are: food coloring, iodine, malachite green (Ick fish cure), and methylene blue. Food coloring can be found at a grocery store, and iodine can be found at a pharmacy. The last two stains, malachite green and methylene blue can be purchased at aquarium shops. Interestingly, certain stains color certain parts of a cell. Scientists choose specific stains when they want to look at a particular part of a cell. You will be experimenting with the two of the stains listed above to see which parts of your cheek cells each one colors. Objectives: Materials: Microscope Eyedropper 2 flat slides 2 cover slips Toothpick Cheek cells Stain (Lugols solution or methylene blue) Paper towel Water Pencil Paper Eraser Dilute bleach water in a beaker Demonstrate the proper procedures used in correctly using the compound light microscope. Prepare and use a wet mount of living cells. Stain a wet mounted sample Identify cellular organelles in a stained tissue sample

Procedures: 1. Before you begin, decide which stain you will use for the experiment (Lugols solution or methylene blue). After you have completed your work discard the cover slip and soak the slide in the bleach solution for 5 minutes. RINSE & DRY YOUR OWN SLIDE BEFORE YOU LEAVE! 2. Cells from the inside lining of your cheek are good for learning how to stain. Gently scrape the inside of your mouth with the flat side of a toothpick. This scraping will collect some of your cheek cells. (Don't worry; these cells are constantly being shed from your mouth so they will not be missed!)

3. Place the cells on a flat slide and make a wet mount using water and a cover slip as you did in the Lab 1 when you made a wet mount of the lower case e. 4. Now repeat this procedure so that you have two wet mounts of cheek cells (one for each partner in you group). 5. Now you need to add stain to one slide. To add stain, put a drop of the stain next to the cover slip on the slide and then draw it under the cover slip by placing a piece of paper towel against the other side of the cover slip. The paper towel will soak up the water, drawing the stain under the cover slip around the cell. Drawing the stain under the cell is called "wicking." 6. Use the Scanning/Low power/ 4x objective to focus, look at the stained slide under the microscope. You probably will not see the cells at this power. Sketch what you see below and place the magnification next to the drawing. 7. Switch to low power. Cells should be visible, but they will be small and look like nearly clear blobs (stained cells will be easier to see). Solid dark objects are probably not cellular. Sketch what you see below and place the magnification next to the drawing. 8. Once you think you have located a cell, switch to a high power and refocus. (Remember; do NOT use the coarse adjustment knob at this point). Sketch what you see below and place the magnification next to the drawing. Sketch the stained cells at scanning, low and high power. Label the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Draw your cells to scale and include the magnification. Scanning (______x) Low (______x) High (______x)

9. Now look at the unstained slide under the microscope repeating steps 6-8. Is it different? Sketch what you see and place the magnification next to the drawing. Sketch the unstained cells at scanning, low and high power. Label the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Draw your cells to scale and include the magnification. Scanning (______x) Low (______x) High (______x)

10. Why were the Lugols Solution and/or methylene blue necessary?

11. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two organelles that function for cell movement. Name these organelles.

12. The light microscope used in this lab is not powerful enough to view other organelles in the cheek cell. What parts of the cell were visible? What parts of the cell were not? Parts of the cheek cell that were visible: Parts of the cheek cell that were not visible:

13. Were the cheek cells you observed eukaryotic or prokaryotic? How do you know?

In the next lab you will try using different stains and different types of cells from both plant and animal.!!

Performance Task Example Using G.R.A.S.P.S. Design a Dichotomous Key


Goal: The challenge is that there are so many different species of oak trees in Colorado Bend
State Park that visitors are getting confused and there needs to be an easy systematic way to identify oak trees.

Role: You have been hired by Texas State Parks as an oak tree identification consultant

Audience: Visitors to Colorado Bend State Park

Situation: You have been hired by Texas State Parks to find out all the potential types of oak
trees in Texas and help visitors identify them.

Product, Performance, and Purpose: You need to design a dichotomous key for visitors to
Colorado Bend State Park to use when attempting to identify oak trees.

Standards and Criteria for Success: Your work will be assessed by your peers when they
take the dichotomous key home and use it to identify oak trees near their home, in a park, or on the school grounds.

Assessment for Designing a Dichotomous Key


KEY WORKABILITY SCORE LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS ___ 4 Key identifies ALL specimens clearly, accurately, and with precise detail. ___ 3 Key works for most specimens, is loosely organized; logical progression; attempts to classify most, but divisions are not clear; keys do not follow to each step. ___ 2 Key works; shows some organization; difficult to follow; poor choice of identifying characteristics; does not identify ALL specimens. ___ 1 Key does not work; shows little organization; difficult to follow; does not identify characteristics; does not identify ALL specimens. ___ 0 No key completed. CONTENT/TECHNICAL ASPECTS ___ 4 More than 15 Quercus genera. Classification scheme uses appropriate visual physical characteristics; well presented; more than teacher asked for and sorting chart is successful. ___ 3 Less than 15 Quercus genera; some parts not presented; does not communicate information easily; some parts accurate, others not exactly correct. Sorting chart is successful. ___ 2 Quercus genera listed, but key does not communicate clearly; not organized; some parts missing. OR sorting chart is successful. ___ 1 Incomplete; lacks organization and presentation; lack of effort. OR attempts sorting chart with little or no success. ___ 0 No Quercus genera submitted.

T a x o n o m y

R e v i e w

Sheet

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. m. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

TAX comes from: OUOmy means: What does Taxonomy tell us? The first levels of classification are called The second levels of classification are called . The difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic organisms: This Kingdom is prokaryotic, has no peptidoglycan in the cell wall and are known as extremophiles: This Kingdom is eukaryotic, has a variety of movement, reproduces sexually and ONA is found in the nucleus: This kingdom is eukaryotic, has a cell wall with chitin, can be multi or unicellular and is heterotrophic. This kingdom is eukaryotic and has no cell wall. This kingdom is eukaryotic, has a cell wall, is multicellular and mostly autotrophic. This kingdom is eukaryotic, has a cell wall with cellulose and is unicellular only. This kingdom is prokaryotic, has a cell wall with peptidoglycan, unicellular, and reproduces asexually. All animals, plants, fungi and protists belong to which Domain? T or f - All unicellular organisms are simple, single celled organisms and are autotrophic. List three ways that protists move and draw a diagram of each one. Define the term 'aerobic'. (It has to do with mode of locomotion). Asexual reproduction requires . Sexual reproduction requires . Do plants reproduce sexually or asexually? Give an example. What kingdom does an organism belong to that is chemosynthetic and lacks a nucleus? The ability of different organisms living in different environments is an example of: A. Adaptation B. Developmental stages C. ttabitat D. Selective Breeding

Be sure you know how to read a dichotomous key!!!