History Revision- AQA.

Out break of war Arch duke Franz Ferdinand had been assassinated by Serbian Terrorists, so Austria-Hungary had planned to attack Serbia in revenge/retaliation. They knew Russia would support Serbia so they asked Germany to back them. Germany said they would back them no matter what (kind of a blank cheque). AustriaHungary then sent Serbia an ultimatum which Serbia agreed to apart from one term. That Austrian police be allowed into Serbia, this resulted in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia on the 28th of July. Now this set of a chain of events due to the different alliances that countries had formed with each other. The Russian army mobilized to help Serbia- Germany then declared war on Russia as they made an alliance with Austria-Hungary- Germany then declared war on France as part of their SCHLIEFFEN PLAN. SCHLIEFFEN PLAN- took 9 years to finalize; it was based on the belief that, they would face a war on two fronts with France and Russia. It assumed France was weak and could be beaten quickly and that Russia was much stronger but would take longer to mobilize their army. The plan was to advance through Belgium to France using 90% of the Germany Amy. However it all started to go wrong as Russia mobilized their army in just 10 days! SO Germany had to send some troops to the Eastern Front, weakening their attack on Paris, France. Germany had also asked permission to go through Belgium but the Belgium’s refused so they had to fight their way through instead. This slowed them down and tired them out. Britain had then promised Belgium that if they were ever invaded to back them up. So they then declared war on Germany and held them up further at the BATTLE OF MONZ. Yet victory for Britain, France and Russia would take another 4 years. On the 11th of November 1918, an Armistice was signed on a railway cart on the front lines. The war was over.

The Paris peace conference and the Big Three January 1919- delegates from 32 countries came to Paris to negotiate peace after WW1. The conference was dominated by David Lloyd George (British prime minister) George Clemenceau (French Prime minister) and Woodrow Wilson (American President)- together they made up THE BIG THREE. Germany expected the Treaty to be based on Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points. This included Disarmament, Pre trade and creating a League of Nations. However the big 3 based the terms on the Armistice signed at the end of WW1, these terms were much harsher. Stating that Germany should loose land, pay reparations and have its army and navy disbanded. Negotiating was difficult as each of the 3 leaders wanted different things.

MIDDLE.an organization to set up world peace.Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany for this. Lloyd George also got Woodrow Wilson to agree to ‘War Guilt Clause’. . On the 28th of June 1919. wanted land for Britain’s empire and to keep his Navy superior as everyone knew that Britain ruled the Seas. Their army (100. Wilson suggested ‘FOURTEEN POINTS’ which he felt would bring world peace.Georges Clemenceau . The damage to France was staggering: 750000 homes and 23000 factories had been destroyed. He wanted France to feel safe against another German attack and he wanted to set up a ‘League of Nations’. Wilson believed that punishing Germany would only make them want revenge. They were also forbidden from reuniting with Austria (ANSHULUSS) or joining the League of Nations. He wanted countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia which were neighbors of Germany to become strong and independent. This would mean more trouble in the future.Woodrow Wilson . All their colonies went to France and Britain.Wanted to make Germany pay but leave them strong enough to still trade with Britain. He wanted territory returned and an independent Rhineland(which would cut off some of Germanys industrial areas and create a safe zone) He didn’t want Wilsons League of Nations.W. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on the 28th of June 1919. he agreed with the 14 points but the British Public were demanding that Germany was harshly punished (The British public originally wanted the Germany Kaiser to be brought to England.000 men) Their navy was restricted to (6 battleships) They were not allowed an air force.WEAK. forced 2 Germans to sign the Treaty. the two German representatives knew that if they refused to sign the allies would start the War again. Germany was held responsible for all the loss and damage of the War and had to pay £6. Lloyd George also wanted to make a fair settlement.6 million pounds in damages.1 when it was initially Serbian who declared war. trialed and hung) HARSH. One and a half million French men had died.David Lloyd George . Eventually Lloyd George got Clemenceau to agree to the League of Nations and a more lenient Peace Treaty. which Germany were in no position to fight. it was a great shock to Germany. There were 440 articles detailing how Germany should be punished. Many Germans never forgave the new German government for this.wanted revenge due to the previous invasions in the 1800’s and during WW1 as of Germanys SCHELIEFFER PLAN. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles.The USA had suffered a great deal less than Europe in the war.This said that Germany alone caused the W. The Germans were showed the Treaty of Versailles without negotiation however they did publish a rebuttal but were ignored.

In 1920 there was a revolution against the treaty. Romania. They felt safer with Germany’s army restricted but many French people wanted an independent Rhineland and most doubted that the League Of Nations would protect them against Germany. The treaty was unpopular. They hated they had to pay reparations and years later Hitler would refuse to pay them. The Austrian-Hungarian empire was broken up forming: Austria.The Treaty of Saint-Germain.Britain gained some German colonies and safe guarded their naval superiority but the Prime Minister thought the treaty was too harsh saying “we will have to fight another war in 25 years time” French opinion . Czechoslovakia and what would become the Yugoslavia.W. This would be the new modern Europe. . Each followed the principals of the Treaty Of Versailles Austria. Bulgaria and Turkey lost land. The Germans hated everything about the Treaty Of Versailles and were angry they were not given the chance to negotiate. German colonies and Reparations to pay their war debt. British opinion .their armies were restricted and were ordered to pay reparations.The Treaty of Trianon In these treaties.2. Wilson’s hopes were dashed. Each Country had their own hopes for it but they all had to compromise. Germany officially denied it in 1927. Bulgaria.The Treaty of Neuilly Turkey. This meant that no Germany military forces were allowed their once the allies withdrew. Opinions On The Treaty Of Versailles. They also hated the War Guilt Clause.The Treaty of Sevres Hungary. not only with the Germans but with those who made it. Many historians said it helped cause W. (after 15 years) This was the create a buffer zone between Germany and France.The treaty also stated that the Rhineland (area of land which bordered Germany and France) had to be demilitarized. 4 other treaties were made with other countries that had helped Germany through the war.President Wilson got the League of Nations set up but in 1920 the American Senate refused to join it or sign the Treaty of Versailles. Hungary.France got land. American opinion .

In the 1920’s the League was successful at attacking the Slave Trade. The League of Nation has been commonly regarded to as a dismal failure.1. It included an Assembly. It had been set up by the Treaty Of Versailles which every nation had signed. encourage disarmament.Being set up by The Treaty Of Versailles was also its main weakness as many countries hated the Treaty. The league could do NOTHING. It had other weaknesses: Germany and Russia were not members which caused resentment (NAZI SOVIET PACT LATER ON) The USA were not a member and they were the most powerful country in the world. Wilson’s dreams lay in ruins.League of Nations The rules for the League Of Nations were known as ‘The Covenant’ They were built under the Treaty of Versailles at the end of W. Although it did suffer major failures. people wanted it to work. When they were faced with a strong country who were prepared to ignore it such as Italy over Corfu and Poland over Lithuania. . This meant that they hated other countries and were only bothered about their own problems.W. They were also willing to use force to get what they wanted and did not care what the League Of Nations said. It could use the international court of justice to judge disputes or its council to conduct research. It settled a border dispute between SWEEDEN and FINLAND and stopped a war between GREECE and BULGARIA. improve social conditions and encourage international trade. The leagues aims were: stop wars. If a country ignored its decision the League could refuse to trade with a guilty country or use force from the armies of its member’s countries. The league was President Wilson’s dream for a new world order that would abolish war and keep the world safe. But less than a quarter of a century later. In the 1930’s the world’s economic depression resulted in some countries political parties came to power. These extremist parties were often fiercely nationalists. The League’s successes and failures. Council and a Court of International Justice and various committees that improved working and social conditions. fighting Leprosy and taking half a million prisoners of war home. The league had no army of its own and its decisions had to be unanimous which was difficult to achieve and took time. By the 1930’s it had 59 member countries which made it STRONG. In Germany for example people voted for the Nazis because they promised to end unemployment. it success shouldn’t be over looked. However. HOWEVER.

Japan simply ignored the report and left the League. German accepted borders with France and Belgium as laid down by the Treaty Of Versailles. In 1938 Hitler announced that Germany and Austria were reuniting (ANCHSLUSS) All of these actions broke the Treaty of Versailles and were against the Covenant of the League. The covenant stated that all members should disarm. Manchuria. The League couldn’t send an army and needed America to impose trading sanctions but America were not in the League. In the end the League did NOTHING.However the Japanese Goverement did not agree with the Army’s actions of invading. The Abyssinian Emperor went to appeal to the League but they just banned armed sales to both sides.guns. trained armies and planes. Japan had some control over Machuria to protect the land it had gained from Russia in 1905.was a province of China which was rich in raw materials such as coal and iron ore. The disarmament commission in 1933 highlighted how ineffective the League was in the face of opposition from certain countries. Britain and France then tried to give Italy a part of Abyssinia in a secret treaty called the ‘HOARE-LAVAL PACT’ but by May 1936 Italy had conquered Abyssinia. The Sudeten Land. In 1931. The League in the meantime investigated what had happened. Japan attacked and by February 1932 (Mukden incident) had brutally conquered Manchuria.In 1926 Germany had joined the League (Stresemann Era Successes) due to the Locarno Treaties of 1925. this hurt the Abyssinian’s more than the Italians. the Japanese claimed that some Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the Manchurian railway which the Japanese owned. The Abyssinians had only spears and tribes men whereas the Italians were prepared with tanks. By this time trust and belief in the League was waning. German accepted the demilitarization of the Rhineland. ‘The Lytton Commission’ He was sent to enquire what happened and after a year he published a report to say that Japan was in the wrong. BUT in 1933 Hitler announced they were leaving due to the disarmament commission. Germany then rearmed in 1935 Reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936. these helped foster good relationships between France and Germany which lead to Germany being allowed to Germany allowed to join the League. However it took until 1932 to set up a conference to work out how best to do this. The situation worsened as the French refused to disarm and so Hitler used this as an excuse to leave the League. Britain and France also broke the Covenant as in 1938 they signed the MUNICH AGREEMENT to appease Hitler by giving him the industrial area of Czechoslovakia. Abyssinia. Manchuria and Abyssinia In the early 30’s 2 events happened which destroyed peoples hopes that the League could prevent future wars. the Italian troops used poison gas and attacked Red Cross hospitals.In 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia. The Manchurian crisis and the Abyssinian crisis. It was an unfair battle. .

he started to do exactly that.2 It is easy to blame Hitler for the Second World War. 3. The four major powers: France .Britain and Japan all betrayed the League so Hitler was encouraged to hence forth with his plans. 4. He remembered the slaughter of W.1 and thought that another war would destroy civilization. Once Hitler came to power.1/3 the size of Britain’s . The Sudeten land crisis of 1938 is a key example.W. 2. Appeasement showed Hitler he could do whatever he liked. This meant giving Hitler some of what he wanted to avoid war. Chamberlain and appeasement. However on the other hand. Chamberlain had his reasons for appeasing Hitler : 1. Days later France and Britain gave Hitler all that he wanted in the Munich Agreement and Chamberlain returned home to Britain waving a peace of paper with Hitler’s signature and word that he wouldn’t go to war (PEACE OF OUR TIME). The British people wanted Peace Many people admired Hitler. this was the end of appeasement as it was proved that Hitler lied in the Munich Agreement so Chamberlain guaranteed to help Poland if Germany then invaded. Britain. So when the Czech president refused the reunion. Chamberlain was treated like a hero.These two events made it clear that the League could do nothing if a strong nation ignored it. Who Was To Blame For W. Even so that when he returned Chamberlain put the armed forces on standby and issued gas masks. France and Italy did nothing and in fact Britain helped Germany brake the Treaty of Versailles by allowing them to have a navy.in 1938 Thyme magazine named him ‘Man Of The Year’ Chamberlain wanted a strong Germany as a barrier against communists Russia’s expansion.W. It was clear that Britain and France were not prepared to use force and the Leagues members but their own interests first. In 1935 Germany rearmed.Chamberlain (British Prime Minister) suggested that Hitler only took areas where over half the population were German. However Hitler demanded all of the Sudeten land so when Chamberlain refused it looks like war. His aims were aggressive and were made very clear in his book ‘Mein Kamf’ where he outlined his plans to destroy the Treaty of Versailles. They had been cut off from Germany due to the territorial terms of the Treaty Of Versailles. Hitler threatened war .Italy . create a country of all German people and conquer land in Eastern Europe. As the League of Nations crumbled. The Sudeten land was the western part of Czechoslovakia and in 1938 Hitler encouraged the Germans living there to demand a reunion with Germany. Hitler broke his promised and marched his troops into Czechoslovakia. He was giving Hitler some of what he wanted. APPEASEMENT. On the 15th of March 1939. politicians tried a new way to keep the peace. to ‘appease’ or avoid war.

Stalin suggested that Russia. 4. 1. Out of the blue on the 23rd of August 1939 Hitler made the Nazi-Soviet pact with Stalin. This way he could have half of Poland without having to go to war. Nazi Soviet pact. Hitler’s actions pushed Europe into war. Some say that Britain’s policy of appeasement made war more likely.Invading Czechoslovakia and Poland went beyond correcting the mistakes of Versailles. The League of Nations was meant to keep the peace but it failed. Main points:     Britain and France are not reliable. Germans hated the Treaty of Versailles so Hitler gained support by promising to destroy it 2. Later in 1938 Hitler took the Western part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudeten Land and in 1939 Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia and then marched into Poland the same year. USSR felt alienated by appeasement and needed time to build up armed forces as they knew Hitler would eventually invade as said in ‘Mein Kamf’ Germany needed time to attack France Both Germany and the USSR wanted o take over Eastern Europe and agreed to "share" it in the Pact . Britain and France make an alliance against Germany but negotiations dragged on for 4 months. it was too ambitious and badly organized and many countries acted very selfishly and betrayed it (Mussolini) 3.By making a pact with Hitler. After Germany invaded Czechoslovakia in April 1939. Some argue that Hitler would not have gone to war if he faced fighting Russia as well.giving Hitler some of what he wanted made him keep pushing for more. The world was amazed by this alliance of opposites. The Nazi-Soviet Pact. Over the years historians have focused on 5 main factors which brought war. Stalin was not convinced that Britain and France wanted an alliance and suspected that they him wanted to fight Hitler alone also Britain was allies with Poland who felt threatened by Russia.(ANGLO-GERMAN NAVAL AGREEMENT 1935) The Rhineland was then militarized in 1936 and Germany and Austria reunited in 1938. BRITAIN AND FRANCE DID NOTHING. Historians say that Stalin was buying time to rearm as he knew Hitler would eventually invade Russia and if he had allied with Britain and France he would have had to go to war straight away. this was a promise to not go to war against each other and a secret plan to split Poland equally between them. Stalin gave him the ‘green light’ for war. It was a matter of convenience until Hitler invaded Russia in 1940. This made Britain hesitant in doing a deal. 5. For Hitler it meant he could focus on more of the West without being threatened or attacked from the East. This provoked the Second World War.

. How did the Weimar Constitution form? 1. The number of votes equals the number of seats in parliament. The achievements were therefore mixed. So political parties had to group together to form coalitions. a number of problems remained. The system of PR made it difficult for a single party to have an overall majority. Germany was to be a democracy. They wanted the country to run as it had done before the war. Despite this. He also improved Germany’s reputation with other countries. All men and women aged 20 and over could vote in the Reichstag (parliament) The Reichstag passed laws 2. However this caused problems as the parties could not agree over issues. (Appeal of Hitler) Achievements of the Weimar Period Right from the start of the Weimar Republic faced a number of difficult problems which is did well to survive. There were fewer calls for a return to the ‘good old days’ of the Kaiser. The Kaiser (Wilhelm 2nd) abdicates in November 1918 when Germany is defeated and flees to Holland then the allies make peace 2. Freidrich Edbert of the Social Democratic Party(SDP) declared that Germany was a Republic 3.      Germany was heavily dependent on loans from the USA German exports were falling There were arguments between workers and employers Prices for farm crops were falling and many farmers were in debt Many Germans were still angry about the Treaty of Versailles. They blamed the Weimar Government for not doing enough to overturn the Treaty. Stresemann helped Germany to become more prosperous. Some Germans did not approve of democracy for example right wing representatives such as lawyers and ex-army officers. That he was the President What were the lists of rules or constitution of the Weimar Republic? 1. 3. The chancellor was head of the government There were weaknesses in the Weimar Constitution. Voting was by a system of proportional representation. with one strong leader in control. By the end of the 1920’s most Germans had come to accept the Weimar Government. This in turn would cause the government to collapse.Weimar Germany. The president had the power to suspend the Reichstag and rule by himself under the article 48 4.

Scheidemann suggested that they refused to sign. Both he and Hitler are arrested.Wolfgang Kapp as their leader. The French have occupied the Ruhr (fail to keep up with the reparations) Prices are rising and the economy is suffering from the effect of hyperinflation.Freikorps murder Ezberger (politician who signed the Treaty of Versailles) and then in 1922 Rathenau (foreign minister) is murdered. tanks or submarines were permitted. Under article 231 or the War Guilt Clause. They hated the communists and demanded that Germany be led by a strong leader and army. .000 men and 6 battleships. However they had little choice as the Allies would have invaded. They anticipated that the Treaty would be based on Wilson’s fair 14 points. In prison Hitler writes ‘Mein Kamf’ a book in which he sets out his beliefs and he decides that he will get into power by winning votes rather than violence. No air force. Germany had to accept responsibility for starting the War (Serbia-see 1st sheet) Germany also had to pay £66000 million in reparations. Its armed forces were reduced to 100. Kapp putsch is attempted in 1920.set up Hitler Youth. The trail receives much coverage in the newspapers. yet they were to be bitterly disappointed. However in 1921 ex.The Treaty of Versailles effect on the Republic. It lost 13% of its territory such as the Polish Corridor and parts of its colonies in Africa e. This made the Weimar Republic un-popular and they were more commonly known as the November Criminals. they stage a rebellion (putsch) with Dr. The Munich Putsch in 1923 is attempted by Hitler.g. Thus Dr. It also lost 10% of its population. Its weaponry was curtailed. SS. On trial Hitler criticizes the government. In March 1920..TACTIC CHANGES. Hitler serves 9 months of his 5 year sentence as he pleads guilty whilst Ludendorff walks free from the court room. The Freikorps became problematic for the government. Ludendorff march on Munich. The terms of the Treaty were very harsh. The Government order the workers to strike so there is no gas or electricity supply. 3000 Nazis and the WW1 general. Hitler crashes into a political meeting in a beer hall on the 8th of November 1923 and announces that he is going to seize power the very next day. and put Goebbels in charge of Propaganda. The Germans were furious and hailed it as a dictated peace ‘Diktat’ as they were not permitted to take part in the negotiations at Versailles. Togoland and Cameroon.Kapp flees and the Freikorps disband.

‘To what extent did the Weimar Republic recover after 1923’ Economic Recovery.The Economic Crisis of 1923. The Dawes plan In 1924 Stresemann negotiated the Dawes Plan with the Americans. iron ore and factory goods to the value of the payment. Troops were sent in to occupy this industrial area. Wages did not rise in line with inflation or rapidly rising prices. this time. They did not have money so they printed more. the government survived. The Germans still had workers and bills to pay. Stresemann introduced a new type of currency called the Rentenmark and cut back government spending. People began to feel more confident and German industry began to recover. The Young Plan Of 1929 also gave Germany even more time to pay as it turned out that Germany stopped paying altogether in 1930   Foreign Policy  The Locarno Pact Stresemann signed the treaty with France and Belgium in 1925. The Stresemann era 1923-1929. hunger became common. It looked as though the government had lost control. coal. cost 201 billion marks in November. For example a loaf of bread that cost 250 marks in January 1923. Thus paper money became worthless. Stresemann had shown that Germany wanted to get on with other countries and in 1926 Germany was allowed to join the League of Nations. It is not surprising that Hitler attempted his Munich Putsch. The workers went on strike and the French and Belgians were empty-handed. Stresemann’s main achievements included Germany’s economic recovery and improved international relations.  . It also reduced the annual reparations payments and gave Germany longer to pay. The three countries agreed to respect the borders that had been laid down between them at Versailles. The Kellog-Briand Pact 1928 Germany was one of 60 countries that signed this treaty which said that countries should not settle their differences by going to war. Many German people lost their savings over night. This helped to end the hyperinflation. Their plan was to take raw materials such as oil. Under the plan the USA agreed to loan Germany 800 million gold marks.The occupation of the Ruhr and Hyperinflation. Living standards fell.  The Rentenmark. Germany failed to make a reparation payment in 1922. However. This led to hyperinflation. so the French and Belgians invaded the Ruhr in January 1923.

The change of the Weimar to Nazi party. there is the Wall St Crash. Hitler was not to be deterred. American banks are forced to stop lending money. Stresemann was taking German through his successful policies. This results in mass unemployment. Hindenburg hated Hitler but buckled under pressure. However they only won 12 seats in the 1928 Reichstag elections. Many women were attracted to Nazi polices about the importance of family values. The Nazis were becoming well known. businesses go bankrupt and a slump in the world trade follows. . He reorganized the party. He set up Hitler Youth and the SS as his body guards. It worked as the Nazis now became the largest party in the Reichstag n July 1932. This crash led to the Great Depression. People loose faith in the Weimar Republic and democracy. He divided Germany into 34 districts and a leading Nazi was put in charge of each. In 1925 the ban on the Nazi Party was lifted. They begin to see the appeal of extreme parties such as the communists and Nazis. People were not interested in extremists.communists messages. Share prices plummet. The unemployed supported them as they promised to create jobs. who were fearful of the communists would come to power and nationalize their private businesses. -Depression On the 3rd of October on the 1929 Stresemann dies and on the 29th October 1929. They funded the Nazis in their campaigns. believing that they could be failed to do anything about the rising unemployment. coupled with a good dash of optimism. Between 1930 and 1932 the Reichstag met infrequently. reduce unemployment and make Germany a prosperous country once more. President Hindenburg declared a state of emergency and ruled without Reichstag consultation. Hitler held little appeal. An event beyond their control was to play a central role in catapulting them into power. The middle-classes had lost their life savings during the hyperinflations of 1923. Hindenburg came under intense pressure to appointment Hitler as Chancellor. By 1926 there were 50. The Reichstag fire is a useful example. In 1927 the first rally was held. The appeal of Hitler and the Nazi Party Prior to 1930. Many Germans were receptive to the Nazis claim that they would overturn the despised Treaty Of Versailles. They wanted a strong government. German factories cannot cope without this infusion of money and are forced to close. Events that have disastrous consequences for Germany. Who supported the Nazis? Business men.000 members. Hitler used propaganda to effectively impart his any-sematic and anti. During this time Hitler was holding mass rallies and appealing to the masses with his promises to overturn the Treaty of Versailles. SEE ABOVE.

2. He achieved this by intimidation (Communists arrested. Reichstag fire. Hitler made a law that no other party was allowed other than the Nazi Party. The Waffen-SS were special SS armored regiments which fought alongside the regular army. 4. The SS had primary responsibility for destroying opposition to Nazism and carrying out the racial policies of the Nazis. Controlled by and duties. Nazi Germany Method of Control The Nazis had a powerful rang of organizations and weapons that they used to control Germany and terrorize Germany into submission. Turned on SA and its leader Ernst Rohm becoming too powerful and wanted more reforms. Disliked by wealthy industrialists. Also bumped of a few other opponents like Schleicher.How did Hitler get from chancellor to dictator? The main points contributed to Hitler becoming Fuhr. SA fought communists in the streets. A young Dutch Communist. Once all these points had been covered It enabled Hitler to rule like a DICTATOR. Hitler needed the support of the army. the mc and the army.  The SS Formed in 1925 and grew into a huge organization with many different responsibilities. This sub-divided into the ‘Deaths Head Unit’ and ‘Waffen-SS’ The Deaths Head Unit were responsible for the concentration camps and the slaughter of the Jews.Van Der Lubbe arrested. About 400 killed. Night of the Long Knives Hitler then needed to rid himself of any possible rivals. . Enabling Act Nazi won the election with 52% vote but needed the 2/3 majority to pass the Enabling Law. February 27th 1933. 1. did a deal with the Catholic Centre Party) 3. SA tried to frighten the socialists. Hitler said it was a communist plot and declared a state of emergency. He was granted new powers and arrested about 4000 communists and could put opponents into prison without a trial. Therefore Hitler and the SS rounded up Rohm and the SA leaders and murdered them. Political Parties Banned After passing the Enabling law.

Ordinary citizens must divert their whole energy into serving the state and doing what it’s leaders wants. no political debate. plays and books also had to adhere to Nazi ideas otherwise they could not be performed nor published. The police and courts Also contributed to Nazi dictatorships. The top police force jobs were given to high ranking Nazis only. How it helped Hitler to secure his place. black Americans. Similarly the Nazi’s controlled magistrates’ judges and the courts which meant the opponents of the Nazis never received a fair trial. Propaganda was particularly important in maintaining the image of Hitler. The evidence suggests that personal support for Hitler remained high throughout the 1930s and he was still widely respected even as Germany was losing the war in 1944 The ministry for peoples enlightenment and propaganda. Goebbels aso used censorship giving out instructions to say what could be written in newspapers and broadcasted on the radio.  The Gestapo Was the secret state police and was probably most feared by the ordinary German Citizen. Posters and photographs were circulated showing Hitler was a strong leader.RADIO’S WERE CHEAP. . They were under strict instruction to ignore crimes committed by Nazi agents. Anything which was considered ‘undesirable’ this included Jazz. So the calibration of all thee domination of groups helped run ideas that Hitler had without him having to interfere. This resulted in the bias attitude towards crimes. There was supposed to be no room for opposition of any kind in Nazi Germany. However modern research suggest otherwise. In a totalitarian state there can be no rival parties. In 1933 the ministry was set up under Josef Goebbels made sure that Nazi ideas were widely broadcast on the radio. he hated paper work and decision making. homosexuals and gypsies. How the Nazi’s used propaganda to control people The Nazi’s used propaganda and censorship to make sure people supported Hitler and his ideas. in fact somewhat chaotic and disorganized. The chart hives the impression that Germany was run like a well-oiled machine. This ensured that many Germans found out very little about the bad things that were happening or if they did they only heard them with a positive Nazi slant. They could arrest citizens on suspicion and send them to a concentration camp without trial or an explanation. It was. The aim was to create a totalitarian state. HEAVILY PRODUCED SO MILLIONS OWNED A RADIO. Media Films. Hitler was not hardworking. Underlying the whole regime was the propaganda machine.

In the same year the Nuremberg Laws were passed (ENABLING ACT) which said that Jews could not be German citizens and marriages between Jews and non-Jews were banned. Many ignored these views as they recognized that many German Jews had fought bravely in the 1914-18 War. In 1935 Jews were banned from public places such as swimming pools. poets and play writers was slo banned if they did not fit into Nazi beliefs. However a combination of Nazi propaganda and Hitler in power enabled him to put into effect many anti-Semitic policies Persecution of the Jews 1.UTERMENSCHEN. Hitler and the party official made speeches telling the mass how well Germany was progressing under the power of Hitler Berlin Olympics. In the summer of 1936 the Olympic games were held in Berlin. Each year a huge rally was held in the city of Nuremberg. teachers. Hitler believed that the Germanic race were superior to all other people. The Nazi’s preached that Jews. In may 1933 Goebbels watched students burn the books of undesirable writers on bonfire in the streets of Berlin. She was a Black American. There were thousands of soldiers and many party officials attended surrounded by the Swastika flag. Hitler also liked to be photographed with people who looked like this.000 people. 3. The SA stood guard and intimidated prospective shoppers form going in to buy goods 2.Booking Burning The Nazi’s banned the work of over 2. parks and cinemas. doctors. In the same year the Nazis banned Jews from entering and practicing in certain professions: eg. .Scapegoats Hitler expounded his views in his book ‘Mein Kamf’ He wrote that the Jews and communists were to blame for Germany’s defeats in WW1. The Nazi’s used the games to show their achievement and the supremacy of the Aryan race (blonde hair. The ideal Aryan was ‘North European’ looking: tall with blonde hair and blue eyes. Jesse Owens wins 4 gold medals and mocks ‘Aryan’ in result Hitler refuses to shake his hand. blue eyes) A stadium was built holding 100. journalists. On the 1st of April 1933 the SA organized a boycott of Jewish shops. Gypsies and black people were inferior and not worthy of respect.500 writers. Rallies The Nazis put on great public displays to win/gain support. The Jews. Everyone was impressed by the stadium and organization that they almost forget about the bad treatment of the Jews everyone heard about. Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society? The Aryans. lawyers. The work of musicians. 4.

They were banned from being judges and removed from jury service because they were too emotional. doctors and civil servants. Employment opportunities declined.Persecution of other minority groups 1. They were forced to live on special sites. This was the purpose of the Hitler Youth. plaited hair and no makeup. . They should be child bearers and supporters of their husbands. They were not equal. Founded in 1926 and by 1933 had 100. 4. Approximately half a million vagrants and beggars were sent to labor camps as they failed to contribute positively to life and or the German economy. Ideal German women wore flat shoes. giving birth to future soldiers. Women and Family Nazis believed that it was a woman’s place was in the home. in preparation for entry into the army. Hitler Youth An important group. By 1936 the Hitler Youth Laws did make membership compulsory and rival youth organizations were shut down eg. 10-14 the Young Folk . 14-18 Hitler Youth. Makeup and following the latest fashions were postivley discouraged. Gypsies were thought to be lazy and economically unproductive as they moved around a lot and paid fewer taxes. As the war progressed women had to fill positions but they never played a role in the armed forces as in Britain for example. Approximately 15000 homosexuals were sent to concentration camps and Nazi doctors carried out cruel medical experiments on them. Youth clubs attached to political parties or churches. The Hitler Youth placed great emphasis on physical and military styled training. At first membership was not compulsory but numbers joining were very high as the camps sporting activites and training was appealing. Boys between 6-10 joined the Little Fellows. some adults would always reject Nazi ideas but indoctrinate the young with propaganda and they would be yours for a life time. The disabled did not fit in with the theory that Germans were the master race. Hitler was alarmed at the falling birth rate so contraception was discouraged and women with 8 or more children were awarded a GOLDEN MOTHER CROSS. In some cities women were banned from smoking because it was considered unlady like . If they refused they would be send to concentration camps. There were fewer women teachers.000 members. 3. The girls joined the Young Girls from 10-14 and from 14-17 the League of German Maidens Members were fed with Nazi ideas and were encouraged to report their parents and teachers if they criticized the Nazis. Girls were also encouraged to become fit in preparation for motherhood. In 1939 the Nazis put 75000 physically and mentally ill people to death by lethal injection. Many were sterilized. though some were reluctant to join. Homosexuals were unlikely to reproduce and were therefore not beneficial 2. Some gypsies were sterilized so they were unable to have children. gassing or starvation.

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