=================================================================== THE ALL VENICE SITE http://www.radix.net/~tarpley/allvenic.

htm ======================================================================= Venice -- The Oligarchical System Sitemap -- Return to Overview Page -- Return to Top * The Venetian Conspiracy, by Webster Tarpley, The Campaigner, September, 19 81. * The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation, Counter-Reformation , Enlightenment, and Thirty Years' War, by Webster Tarpley: o Preface by Lyndon LaRouche, The American Almanac, March 22, 1993. o Part I, The American Almanac, March 22, 1993. o Part II, The American Almanac, April 5, 1993, 1993. o Part III, The American Almanac, April 12, 1993. * Venice: The Methodology of Evil, by Donald Phau: o Part I, The American Almanac, May 16, 1994. + LaRouche: Venice Represents A Principle of Evil o Part II, The American Almanac, May 23, 1994. * 650 Years Ago: How Venice Rigged The First, and Worst, Global Financial Co llapse, , by Paul Gallagher, The American Almanac, September 4, 1995. ------------------------------------------------------------------The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Enli ghtenment, and Thirty Years' War, by Webster Tarpley:

http://american_almanac.tripod.com/venlowry.htm Chorus: The consolidation of the Venetian Party in England and Britain was a question of culture. Francesco Zorzi of Venice, the close friend and relative o f Gasparo Contarini, who was sent by the Venetian oligarchy to England as the se x adviser to Henry VIII, was a cabbalist and Rosicrucian. In 1529, Zorzi came to London to deliver his opinion, and he remained at the court for the rest of his life, building up an important party of followers--the nucleus of the modern Ve netian Party in England. In 1525, Zorzi had published the treatise De Harmonia M undi, which uses the cabbalistic Sephiroth to expound a mystical, irrationalist outlook and to undercut the influence of Nicolaus of Cusa. In 1536, when he was at the English court, Zorzi wrote his second major work , In Scripturam Sacram Problemata. This is a manual of magic, with Zorzi assurin g the aspiring wizard that Christian angels will guard him to make sure he does not fall into the hands of demons. Zorzi was a great influence on certain Elizabethan poets. Sir Philip Sidney was a follower of Zorzi, as was the immensely popular Edmund Spencer, the author of the long narrative poem The Faerie Queene. Spencer is a key source for the i dea of English imperial destiny as God's chosen people, with broad hints of Brit ish Israel. Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare both attacked Zorzi's in fluence in such plays as Doctor Faustus and Othello, but the Venetian school was carried on by the Rosicrucian Robert Fludd, and, of course, by Francis Bacon an d Thomas Hobbes. John Milton, the admirer of Paolo Sarpi and apologist for usury, is an examp

le of the pro-Venetian Puritan of the Cromwell Commonwealth period. Milton taugh t that the Son of God is inferior to the Father, a kind of afterthought, and in any case not necessary. Milton was the contemporary of Sabbatai Zevi, the false messiah from Smyrna, Turkey, whose father was an agent for English Puritan merch ants. Did Milton's Paradise Regained of 1671 reflect knowledge of Sabbatai Zevi' s meteoric career, which burst on the world in 1665? The British East India Company was founded in 1600. By 1672, adventurers, su ch as Diamond Pitt, were freebooting around India. In December 1688, the armies of the Dutch Prince William of Orange invaded Engla nd, interrupting the Hobbesian nightmare the country had experienced under the d eranged King Charles II and his brother James II. A worse nightmare was to follo w when William seized the throne of James II, for he embodied a more highly dist illed form of poison which Venice had perfected during its sway over the remains of the Dutch Republic. This outright usurpation is blithely referred to in Brit ish-Venetian parlance as the ``Glorious Revolution''--which should give you some idea of how little regard for truth prevails in these circles. The notion of ``English rights and liberties'' was quickly transformed from fict ion to fraud under William's dictatorial regime. When King James II fled to Fran ce, the rightful successor to the English throne was his eldest daughter Mary, w ho had married William of Orange reluctantly (he was a notorious homosexual). Wi lliam's demand to be declared king was never submitted to Parliament for a ``con stitutional'' veneer. Instead, he summoned a special ``convention,'' which grant ed him full power, rather than simply the rank of the Queen's Consort. King William's Venetian baggage included the evil John Locke, who became the chi ef propagandist for foisting the Bank of England on that hapless country in 1694 . This was not the sort of bank you turned to for financial assistance. It was a gargantuan Venetian swindle, which promptly created England's first national de bt to finance ongoing wars of attrition in Europe, imposed a credit crunch by cu tting the amount of circulating English coinage nearly in half, and loaded new t axes on an already-collapsing economy. The bank's chief architect was Venetian P arty leader Charles Montagu, William's new chancellor of the exchequer, who late r attained the loftier position of British ambassador to Venice. Montagu appoint ed the pathetic Sir Isaac Newton to oversee the ``recoinage'' swindle, and Newto n repaid that debt by prostituting his own niece to serve as Montagu's mistress. The bank's promotional hireling John Locke is better known as the peddler of the obscene notion that the human mind is nothing more than a tabula rasa--a passiv e register of animal sensations. He clearly had a higher regard for the cash reg ister, however, and openly defended usury as a necessary service for those whose ``estates'' lie ``in money.'' Locke's theories of government approximate those of a casino operator who lays down rules rigged for the house, under which the b estialized players compete for sums of money, which then define their worth as i ndividuals. This is Locke's ``liberty'' to pursue property. His notion of the `` social contract,'' which guarantees the players' club members the right to enter the casino, was in fact advanced in order to justify William of Orange's usurpa tion of the British throne. James II, in effect, was charged with having denied those rights to his more speculative subjects, thus breaking the contract. Locke argued that the Venetian mob was therefore entitled to move in under a new cont ract. By 1697, the Venetian Party's coup inside England was nearly total, and its memb ers filled William's ``ship of state'' from stem to stern. They looked forward t o reducing a most troubling matter in the English colonies of America: the impul se toward building an independent nation, which had been driving the Venetians b erserk since the 1630s founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1701, John L ocke, as a member of England's Board of Trade, advocated revoking all the indepe

ndent charters of the American colonies, placing their economic activity under r oyal dictatorship, and banning their manufacture of any finished goods. Leibniz builds anti-Venice movement Yet, even as the Venetians were swaggering over their apparent triumph, a powerf ul republican opposition was building around a higher conception of the nature a nd purpose of man, which both inspired and opened the way for the later founding of the United States. Its leader was the great German scientist and statesman G ottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who led what might well be called a movement for t he pursuit of happiness--the ultimate goal of the liberty which America embraced in its Declaration of Independence. In the face of the new Venetian onslaught in England, Leibniz set forth his view of human happiness, from the standpoint of man's creation in imago Dei. Writing ``On the Notions of Right and Justice'' in 1693, Leibniz defines charity as ``u niversal benevolence,'' which he calls the habit of loving, i.e., ``to regard an other's happiness as one's own.'' That joy is first approximated, he says, in th e contemplation of a beautiful painting by Raphael, for example, ``by one who un derstands it, even if it brings no riches, in such a way that it is kept before his eyes and regarded with delight, as a symbol of love.'' When the object of delight ``is at the same time also capable of happiness, his affection passes over into true love,'' Leibniz says. ``But the divine love surp asses other loves, because God can be loved with the greatest result, since noth ing is at once happier than God, and nothing more beautiful and more worthy of h appiness can be known than He.'' And, since God possesses the ultimate wisdom, L eibniz says, ``the notions of men are best satisfied if we say that wisdom is no thing else than the very science of happiness.'' As the leading scientist and philosopher of his day, Leibniz was widely known th roughout Europe, and among such republican leaders of New England as the Winthro ps and Mathers, later extending to include, most significantly, Benjamin Frankli n. From the 1690s onward, Leibniz's leading ally within England, Scotland, and I reland, was the brilliant anti-Venetian polemicist Jonathan Swift, who directed a cultural onslaught against the bestial notions of Bacon, Hobbes, René Descartes, Newton, and Locke, for more than 40 years. From the standpoint of reason, the Aristotelian empiricism of the likes of Desca rtes and Locke reduces the notion of man to the level of a mere beast, which, of course, is the prerequisite for imposing an empire of the sort the Venetians so ught, then and now. When Jonathan Swift took up his cudgels on behalf of Leibniz 's refutation of empiricism, he ridiculed their enemies' ideas for what they wer e: insane. Swift's ``A Digression on Madness,'' in his 1696 work A Tale of a Tub , examines ``the great introducers of new schemes in philosophy,'' both ancient and modern. They were usually mistaken by all but their own followers, Swift say s, ``to have been persons crazed, or out of their wits; ... agreeing for the mos t part in their several models, with their present undoubted successors in the a cademy of modern Bedlam.'' Oligarchical Families Move In By 1701, the lunatics of the late-model incarnation of the Venetian Party had ty pically inbred a set of oligarchical families, mixing and matching Spencers, and Godolphins, and Churchills--the last headed by John Churchill, soon to become d uke of Marlborough. Churchill had begun as a page boy to Charles II in 1665, behind the skirts of hi s sister Arabella, the mistress of the king's brother James. Then, for similar s ervices rendered, Churchill received £10,000 from Charles II's favorite mistress. With things apparently moving so swimmingly, the Venetians set their course for

Her son George was now the heir to the British . Queen Mary had died in 1694. the head of the German House of Hanover. launched a drive in 1710 which opened the door t o our future continental republic. The problem for the Venetians. in which Venice expected to be the only winn er. who had spun their webs of influence over he r for many years. was Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. and A lexander Spotswood in Virginia. during 1710 and 1711. which spread Leibniz's notion of the science of happiness throughout America for more than a century. England launched war on France. Under the ministry of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Cotton Mather published his republican organiz ing manual. the battle against the Venetian Party was soon lost. the most productive econo mic power in Europe. The M arlboroughs resorted to deceit. at the age of 84. James I's 71-year-old granddaughter Sophie. was designated as Anne's successor. London desperately hurled Isaac Newton into the fray against Leibniz. Benjamin Franklin paid tribute to Mather's book as the single most important influence upon his life. Swi ft maintained a fierce barrage both publicly and privately against Marlborough's Venetian gang. that he doubted there was another in history ``more full of passages which the curious of another age would be glad to know the secret springs of. she quickly bestowed preeminence at court upon t he duke and duchess of Marlborough.The battle for Britain With Leibniz virtually one step away from guiding policy in London. puffing th e old fraud up with the lie that differential calculus was his invention rather than Leibniz's. the final ba ttle against Venetian Party dictatorship within England broke out in earnest. The American Flank And in the midst of all this. It was yet another rigged game. There are inevitably loose ends in any foul scheme. An Essay upon the Good. die d in May 1714. seeking to uplift English musical culture from decadent braying and outright snoring. So i n 1701. but the death of Anne's only surviving child in 1700 presented a new suc cession crisis. was that Sophie's chief adviser and privy counsellor. More than a decade of bloodshed and dest ruction followed--for the populations of both countries. and treachery to cut off political relat ions--or even ordinary civilities--between Queen Anne and Sophie of Hanover. Robert Hunter in New York. and the lust for empire. An Act of Settlement was imposed in 1701. It was a conflict between the pursuit of happiness. and. France had led the way in infrastructural and industrial development. Leibniz's patron.'' The Venetians would not like you to know that Leibniz a nd Swift constructed some of the secret passages which led to the founding of th e American Republic. to the point that he broke their domination of Queen Anne's cabi net. terror. Sophie of Hanover. But within Britain (as it came to be known after the 1707 u nion which England forced upon Scotland). He extended his own influence to her innermost circle. . in Massachusetts. and their European alli es. leaving William without a direct heir. Swift managed to get two of his allies appointed t o royal governorships in the American colonies. King William died in 1702.their next major objective: the destruction of France. Her sister Anne was next in line to the throne. Jonathan Swift said of this period. and Anne became queen of England. As the Venetian Party expected. That same year. Leibniz and Swift conspired to bring the great composer George F rideric Handel from Hanover to London in 1710. he drove the Marlboroughs and all their cronies from office. the designated successor to Queen Anne. the patron of the scientific academy at Paris where Leibniz himself was engaged in the early 1 670s.

and George of Hanover was proclaimed Great Britain's King George I. for example. Leibniz himself died in 1716. and Marlborough and the Veneti an Party had bought him many times over. heralded by the publication in 1714 of Bernard Mandeville's Fable of the Bees. Queen of Scots. Typifying the bestiality of the emerging British E mpire. and the right to national sovereignty based on natural law. bu ried her secretly at night.'' and ``Breast of Venus'' (garnished with cherries for nipples). When Benjamin Franklin served as our colonial postmas ter general. was the phrase smugly coined by Robert Walpole. began a rapid descent into hell. ``Every man has his price . who had plotted in exile for years for Anne's overthrow. Britain. his official superior. To this day. her corpse wa s left to rot for more than three weeks. the state thrives most upon the corruption of its subjects. probably by poison. I nevitably.'' ``Devil's Loins. no stone or tablet marks h er grave. however.htm This article is the final installment of this series. bui lding a mass-based movement on the principles of man's God-given right to libert y. He became the acknowledged political leader of all Ireland during the 1720s.'' We must not pay it. serving George I. Britain was soon locked into a Venetian orgy of corruption and new he ights of financial speculation. Appropriately. Therefore. written . There was no public mourning. Mandeville argued tha t the interests of the state were nothing more than the maximum fulfillment of i ts individuals' hedonistic pleasures: The more private vices. from the po sition Queen Anne had granted him as the Dean of St. included on its dining-room m enu ``Hell-Fire Punch. How serious was the threat Leibniz and Swift posed to the Venetian Party's consp irators? Just consider the conspirators' satanic rage against the dead Queen Ann e. was headed by Prime Minister Robert Walpole. the government which emerged in 1721 from this de vastating collapse. Mary. Sir Francis Dashwood. Barely two months after Sophie's death. The duke of Marlborough.com/venhuth. at the age of 49. The Hell-Fire Clubs not only p roliferated.000 deaths. Queen Anne's life was ended. Very simply. Parts 1 and 2. Patrick's Cathedral in Dubl in. Previously secret Satan-worshipping societies such as the Hell-Fire Club no w surfaced. William of Orange had been George's idol. and immeasurably influenc ed the growth of republicanism in eighteenth-century America. under the new regime of Georg e I. who held that p ost in the service of evil for the next 20 years. ---------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. landed in England the same day. Jonathan Swift had been forced to flee to Ireland. who for all her faults had learned to seek something better in life than they could ever know. and George soon dis missed Leibniz from the court of Hanover.tripod.'' ``Holy Ghost Pie. most of the king's cabinet were memb ers of the Hell-Fire Club. nor royal funeral. leading to the massive blowout of the South Sea Bubble in 1720.000 births reco rded--against 486.throne. was the h ead of the Hell-Fire Club! The murderous toll of such a regime upon the British population is expressed by the following statistics: From 1738 to 1758. or Private Vices. in Westminster Abbey--beneath the tomb of her greatgreat-grandmother. founded in 1720 by Lord Wharton. Public Benefits. the more public be nefits. they became the inner sanctum of Britain's degenerate elite. Swift thereby ext ended Leibniz's movement for the pursuit of happiness. The mo st prominent one. Then a chosen few. By the 1760s. when the American c olonies began to openly break with Britain. Jonathan Swift fought on from Ireland. there were only 297.

had failed to produce a male heir.by LaRouche associate and political prisoner Donald Phau. . slave-trading. As Donald Phau has documented in the first two parts of this series. one of the greatest thinke rs of the Renaissance. political. Luxembourg and the Netherlands) port cities. and financ ial takeover of England by agents of the city-state of Venice. No. The Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. applied with the help of the largest and most sophisticated diplomatic corps in all the known world. while still married to his first wife. establishing the Church of England under the author ity of the monarchy. in time. he had beheaded Sir Thomas More. Together. Annulments of royal marriages for dynastic and political reasons were even mor e common. but not unheard of . who had borne no royal heir. Henry VII had overturned the privileg es of Venetian merchants in English ports. As recently as the 1480s. imperia l power of Great Britain. His concern was pre dominantly dynastic. Venetian bankers were in control of a burgeoning English foreign debt. and. his queen of 18 y ears. trade. the case of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII of England was to become the most famous divorce in history. the first Tudor king successfully challenged Vene tian monopolies in trading of French wines and Spanish sherry. and being sha ped into a model of police-state political terror. and he had steere d his country off the path leading to industrial-capitalist economic development and republican government. the pope even granted Henry VI of Castile a dispensation to marry a second wife. Together. Instead. the homeland of Henry's queen. half o f the New World. Henry V II and King Ferdinand of Spain had played a forceful role in encouraging reforms from within the Catholic Church. the English Channel. Henry VIII had also thrown open the door for the cultural. as well as the location of rich Low Countries (what today are Belgium . VIII. By the middle of the 1530s. By the end of Henry's reign. Cui Bono? Who benefitted? The manipulation of Henry's divorce was a foreign policy matter of some importan ce to the ruling oligarchy of Venice. in the case of Spain. was not considered by her father or his advisers to be a suit able candidate to rule England after Henry's death. 17 and No. The divorce and remarriage of a Catholic king was infrequent. the nation of England had been transformed. which had been transplanted directly from the lagoons of Venice. appeared in the Ameri can Almanac editions of May 9 and May 16. his request would be granted. under the dictatorship of a Venetian party. Around 1450. Henry VIII of England resolved to divorce his wife. England had been transformed into the usurious. 1994 (Vol. and dicta ting terms to the English throne. entry-point to the North and Ba ltic seas. Tho ugh successful during the first decades of Henry's reign in provoking two expens ive and bloody wars between England and France--the most populous country in Eur ope--Venetian diplomacy had failed to do serious damage to cooperative relations between England and Spain. for not supporting his break with Rome. Henry's government was in the hands of Venetian agents. the tiny Italian city-state established and maintaine d its vast influence over the economies. Within slightly over a century following Henry 's death. Princess Mary. Henry had every reason to expect that. after suffering several miscarriages an d losing two sons in the early stages of infancy. The single surviving Tudor chi ld. awarding this carrying trade to ships of his own citizens. in 1494. At the outset of his negotiations with the Vatican. Before the curtain fell on this historical drama. Atlantic entrypoint to the Mediterranean. In 1527. and governments of Europe by the artful application of ``divide and conquer'' trickery. England and Spain controlled the Straits of Gibraltar. Henry VIII had pulled England out of the Catholic Church. 18).

England. satellites of Venice. we have examined only Venice's tactical considerations vis-avis the King's Great Matter. From every nook and cranny popped out-and-out Venetian agents. Venice spawned. Cromwell's thorough going reforms--accompanied by a reign of terror and hundreds of political conspi racy trials and executions--transformed England from a polity based on the rule . These included Thomas Starkey and Richard Morison. that the Venetian efforts resulted in the establishment of a Pro testant state church. Mor ison and particularly Starkey served as the pamphleteer-propagandists during Cro mwell's reorganization of the English church and government. Cromwell lay in wait as a c ourt underling during the latter 1520s. These longer-term projects centered on questions of c ulture. The Venetian oligarchs. and in the salons of Lucca and other It alian cities. after he had--according to More's son-in-law and biograph er William Roper--presented the King with a theory of government based on the id ea ``that his will and pleasure [be] regarded as law. (particularly as it was reflected in the Church's disapproval of slavery and prohibition of usury) were also interested in cutting down the i nfluence of the Catholic Church. from whence they were injected into the acad emic institutions and courts of Europe. No wonder the Venetian gamemasters pounced on the opportunity to use Henry's dis satisfaction with Catherine to their own ends. He assumed the chancellorship upon More' s resignation in 1532. they succeeded in doing just that by 1535. this invading force was to deal a mortal blow to English humanist circles led by Thomas More and Erasmus. The Venetian deployment into England around Henry's divorce reveals the nature o f the cultural warfare directed from Venice against the influence of the Golden Renaissance. was to be turned into a new Venice of t he north. however. both of whom entered Cromwell's service in the early 1530s. and the destruction of the English-Spanish alliance. which had struggled to build institutio ns to uplift society to the level befitting each individual human being's identi ty as man made in the image of God. read y to assist Henry. And. with the death of Thomas More.'' Cromwell surrounded himself with a coterie of radical Protestants. < p> Cromwell Comes First First with his foot in the door was the Venetian-trained bureaucrat Thomas Cromw ell. who hated the Christian view that all men are created in the image of God. The theological apo logetics for the schismatic movement within the Church were manufactured in the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Giustina. especially Venice's hatred of the conceptions of man and nature which we re the foundations of Western Judeo-Christian culture. Right behind--in a classic display of the Venetian maneuver k nown as ``playing both sides against the middle''--followed Venice's candidates to enter the lists on the side of Queen Catherine. strategic goals in mind. The oligarchs of the lagoons had far more important . in particular as it was b eing spread throughout Europe and the New World in the decades following the Gol den Renaissance in Italy. a strong outpost of the Renaissance Christian cultural tradition in Europe. nurtured. who rose to power on the corpse of Thomas More. And with them came everything bad Venice wished to impose on humanity: Aristotel ianism. however. similarly tra ined in Venice or at the University of Padua. and sponsored both th e leadership and footsoldiers of the Protestant Reformation. Henry's break with the Church. and other forms of mysticism and irrationalism. gnosticism. It was not until Henry VIII's break with Rome. I n short order. occultism.This alliance was to come to an abrupt end over the matter of Henry and Catherin e's divorce. Cultural Warfare Thus far.

in the circles of occultists who were very active there.of law. toward the ideal of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Cromwell compiled reports fr om more than a dozen royal emissaries. '' by the Warburg Institute's late occult-specialist. the law of Chris tendom (Thomas More's test). He held that [the positive law of a nation or state ] was omnicompetent. This secret society was unabashedly gnostic. one might imagine in a puff of grey and aromatic smoke. and in Paris. Also materializing at the English court. Agrippa. Giorgi remaine d in England for more than five years. Germany. we re virtually identical in essential content to those of Henry VIII's adviser and confidante. studying the mystical and occultist wor ks of Pico della Mirandola. He was born about 1486. gaining the king's ear and entry into the inner court circle. Its brotherhood was committed to th e study of an ancient knowledge [Gnosis is the Greek word for knowledge] which i . in which the rule of men--in this case the suggestible and unstable Henry VIII--was concealed behind the appearance of the rule of law. partisans of Catherine's cause were busy trying to recruit another le ading occultist--Henry Cornelius Agrippa--on her behalf. letters. and brought with him armfuls of manuscripts. including John Stokesley. was Francesco Giorgi.'' It was this lawless regime which framed up and murdered Thomas More. equipped to dispense with aristocrats and govern itself. among others. Agrippa organized and re cruited for a secret society reminiscent of the later freemasons. who learned astrology at his mother's knee. and other documents supporting Henry's arguments for the divorce. How he was started on th e road toward black magic and the occult is not known. carrying and propagating the Venetian cur rency of antiscientific irrationalism. Richard Croke. Let us take a longer look at the necromancer and black magician. Francesco Giorgi. Black Magicians Giorgi and Agrippa were two sides of the same coin. Frances Yates. and even his main writings. Their occultist poison was--and remains-Venice's most powerful weapon to prevent the development of an educated and rati onal population. This dragnet prod uced. nicknamed the ``Cabalist Friar of Venice. and the reputed inventor of a new invisible ink. rivaling Johannes Reuchlin for that ti tle by dint of his energetic travels across the continent and back again. Henry Cornelius Agrippa. a Venetian Jew converted to Christianity. and Thomas Cranmer (later to be named the first Anglican Archbishop of Canterbur y) who had been sent to comb Europe's universities and religious institutions fo r scholars and divines who would buttress the King's position. deployed at the instruction of their oligarchist masters. Raphael traveled to England to assist the King. But he spent a significan t portion of his younger years in Italy. To fortify Henry's case for divorce from Catherine. In Italy. Meanwhile. to bui ld the sixteenth century occultist movement. one Marco Raphael. They were also agents of cultural warfare. They were both political-int elligence agents. Giorgi was there to help Henry VIII. Though he held the high positi on of chief cipherist for the diplomatic service of Venice. and later Germany. was perhaps the leading occ ultist of early sixteenth-century Europe. One historian of the period summarizes Cromwell's outlook thus: ``Cromwell wished to free statutes from that older limitation which wished t o test it by reference to some external law--the law of nature. France. and educated at the University of Cologne. in Netteshe im. and must be obeyed. keeping in mind that Agrippa's outlook.

In his Three Ways of Know ing God. and had murmured a certain song. Also on the occult fringe were astrology. the se cret knowledge believers asserted had been handed to Moses by God when he declar ed the 10 Commandments. drugged or . Giorgi. which has been separately revealed to the perfect . magic rituals. Among these texts were those attributed to Hermes Trigmegistus. Cabalists like Agrippa asserted that God revealed his la w in a literal form for the masses. Christian cabalists like Pico. the cabala--the ancient. is divided into an open revelation available to all who read it. the celestial world. known as Maenads. alchemy.. Agrippa's tome. These date back to At tic Greece in the centuries before Christianity. At their irrational extremes. Giorgi's elaboration of this thr ee-fold system appears in his 1525 textbook of the occult. another in its core. the divinely inspir ed Holy Gospels. To this was added the study of other ancient secret knowledge. This secret knowledge could secure e ternal salvation for initiates.t believed must be limited to an elite. the conjuring of demons. other human beings. and the physical universe. De occulta philosophia (1510) catalogued the elements of this se cret knowledge. the founder of the Rosicrucian cult which prefigured fre emasonry. and a secre t revelation. It was t he handbook of John Dee around the turn of the fifteenth century in England. and songs. and magical music and poetry.'' De occulta philosophia delved at length into the so-called Jewish Cabala. The Cabala What superstitious nonsense did Agrippa peddle in De occulta philosophia? Among other things. Agrippa wrote in his 1516 The Three Ways of Knowing Go d (De triplici ratione cognoscendi Deum). ``even the Gospel. but in an elaborated form for the inner elit e. through the Greece of Plato and transmitted to the West during the middle of the fourteenth century with the Greek texts brought to Florence by Gem isthos Plethon. like the Mosaic law . nothing could be more absurd'' than the law. while the common man was excluded from knowledge of God and eternal life. secret knowledge. has one meaning on the surface for the more simple. the New Testament. poems and spells for controlling the actions of angels. in which maddened women. after the coming of Christ. demons. like the Old Testame nt. De harmonia mundi (Th e Harmony of the World). and the supercelestial world. When afterwards he had given this to a river frog to devour. and Agrippa sought to syncretize this anc ient secret knowledge with the tenets of Christianity. astrological formulae. and later of Robert Fludd. which they believed p roved that Jesus was the Messiah. having replace d the frog in the water. Agrippa described three paths to knowledge of the Almighty: the natural world. which reveals only a reflection of God in His creations. and became the virtual bible of the occultist movement. the probably fictional Egyptian high priest whose writings are known as hermetic ism. But. specifies Agrippa. such as the so-called Orphic hymns which fascinated Pico. passed from th e Egyptians. The Orphic hymns were part of v iolent orgiastic rituals. available only those who possess the secret knowledge. if taken literally. This passage from Book III discusses a spell for changing the weather: ``I have seen and known a certain man inscribing the name and sign of a cert ain spirit on virgin paper in the hour of the moon. Both Giorgi and Agrippa also asserted that the universe is divided into three realms--the natural world. kept secret as it had the power to be da ngerous to the inferior masses of humanity. and. soon showers and storms rose up.. Heaven--all under the control of angels and demons upon whom a magician may call for special aid. num erological combinations. Giorgi and Agrippa studied the numerological signi ficance of the Hebrew letters in the name of Jesus Christ.

and other occultists of the day moved in the intellectua l circles of the university and the church. Bodin published a his De la démonomanie des sorciers. where the ideas of Agrippa and Giorgi were at work in th e occult movement that was to become freemasonry. But when the soul is fully concentrated in the reason. devil-conjuring Dr. Erasmus had haile . it becomes the home of the middle demons.. the same fate befell any man who was unfortunate enough to cross the path of one of these rampaging bands. In 1580. it is no wonder that Henrican England descended toward a new dark ag e. and he says further that all men who have been distinguished in any branch of knowledge have generally been ``Moreover. That holy shape becomes a devill best. Jean Bodin. [When] the soul is ful ly concentrated in the imagination... while others have become poets . Faustus. foretelling the future like Sybils .. and the mental. Therefore. a treatise on the philosophical foundations of satanism. Agrippa. from whom it often receives wonderful instruction in the lower arts.. But when the soul soars completely to the intellect. De occulta philosphia was the handb ook for sorcerers.. Giorgi's De harmonia mu ndi was translated into French in 1578.. and wizards all over Europe. This occurs in three different forms... Marlowe presents the cynical.. .. on the occasion of Henry VIII's coronation in 1509.) The influence of the stars on the human personality traits (which Agrippa called ``humours'') is put forth in the following passage from De occulta philosophia: ``The humor melancholicus. the leader of France's politiques faction. imagination . Faust tells the devil that he is too ugly to appear as himself: ` `Go and returne an old Franciscan Frier. the rational . By the 1530s.. above all with that of Saturn.. took very seriously the extent of Giorgi's influence. and fi ercely attacked him as a chief architect of the witchcraft movement plaguing Eur ope.. when it takes fire and glows. and spurred the witchcraft movement in F rance. those whose presence and activity men fall into e cstacies and pronounce many wonderful things. . after Thomas More's death in 1535. both culturally and economically.. it immediately becomes a habitation for lowe r demons. Agrippa advanced a number of occultist and feminist arguments that wom en are more perfect than men..' ' < p> Dark Age in England Under the influence of Venetian agent Thomas Cromwell's Aristotelian ``might mak es right'' philosophy of government. When Faustus conjures up Mephistopheles using cabalist numerology and anagrams. In his Tragical History of the Life and Death of D r. tearing animals from limb to limb. which sought to promote r eligous toleration. it becomes the home of the higher demons.. especially when it is combine d with a heavenly influence.. generates the frenz y (furor) which leads us to wisdom and revelation. from whom it learns the secrets of divine matters.. thereby it attains knowledge of natural and human things. In Elizabethan England. their ideas radiated with some inten sity into society around them. witches.'' Witchcraft Though Giorgi. roamed through the forests at night.. dramatist Christopher Marlowe attacked black magic head on. Aristo tle says in the Problematica that through melancholy some men have become divine beings. the humor melancholis has such power that they say it attracts c ertain demons into our bodies.. Faustus as a stude nt of Agrippa. and the occultism spewed by such as Giogi a nd Agrippa. (Agrippa--perhaps under the influence of an Orphic hymn--argued vociferously tha t women are superior to men. with suggestions for dealing with wit chcraft.otherwise intoxicated.. In his De nobilitate et pracellantia foeminei sexus of 1509.. The coun try which.

'' ``Their occultist poison was--and remains--Venice's most powerful weapon to prev ent the development of an educated and rational population. and spiritual realms. for the first time. but he could not rid himself of the Venetian constitution. propagating th e Venetian currency of antiscientific irrationalism.htm It was one of the most well-known ``secrets'' of the British oligarchy. The American Almanac.. and imperialist conque st. adorned by the four bronze horses looted from Constantinop le in 1201. ------------------------------------------------------------How The Venetian System Was Transplanted Into England. What Disraeli was publicly referring to was that in 1688. to prove that He was the Messiah. equipped to dispense with aristocrats and govern itself. 1996.'' The title page of Francesco Giorgi's De harmonia mundi. Giorgi's illustration of the relationships among the phy sical.d as a new opportunity to develop a society based on the dignity of man. Mark's Cathedral.. Captions and Displays St. drug-dealing. Whig leaders. the late-nineteent h-century prime minister of England. -------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. This passage from Giorgi's De harmonia mundi discusses the manipulation of the l etters in the Hebrew name of Jesus. a non-hereditary king. From every nook and cranny popped out-and-out Venetian agents. George II was a doge. that th e model for the British Empire was Venice.. was invited to rule by a group of noble families. let the cat out of the bag in his novel Con ingsby when he wrote. So today. lead display: ``The Venetian deployment around Henry's divorce reveals the nature of the cultu ral warfare directed from Venice against the influence of the Golden Renaissance . you had a king beholden to the English oligarchy.. Khunrath. was set on the downward path toward slave-trading.'. He might try to get rid of the Whig Magnif icoes...'' Display: ``Giorgi and Agrippa were two sides of the same coin. was to establ ish in England a high aristocratic republic on the model of the Venetian..com/takeover. William of Orange (William the Third).. Wil liam the Third told . For the first time. They brought in a new family on their own terms. They were also agents of cultural warfare. They were both political-i ntelligence agents.. by Webster Tarpley... those who love the United States must fight to reverse our nation' s takeover by the very same ideology of bestialism. with the accession to the throne of George I..tripod. June 3.. Benjamin Disraeli..'' The well-kno wn secret of all the Whig insiders was that the Venetian takeover of England was a 200-year project beginning with the break of Henry VIII with Rome and conclud ing in 1714.. overlooks the Grand Canal of Venice. George I was a doge. This was a decisive break with previous English hi story. The Cave of the Illuminati from the writings of seventeenth-century occultist H.. tho ugh William was not particularly happy about his power being circumscribed. celestial. From De harmonia mundi. George III tried not to be a doge. `I will not be a doge... . ``The great object of Whig leaders in England from the fir st movement under Hampden to the last most successful one in 1688..

proceeding in two phases. V enice. It was said of him that he was so versed in Aristotle. Yet th e most brilliant portrait of Venetian method was done by Friedrich Schiller in h is The Ghostseer. Every Venetian oligarchical fam ily sent their children to Padua University to become trained Aristotelians. and. The League of Cambrai. he could reproduce it in its entirety. It was Cusa. survived. The Venetians did not care what position they took. more radical. you must understand that Aristotle is pure evil. representing the total combined power o f western Europe. and the Italian Renaissance that Cusa and his collaborators inspired. Venice is saved. and as such could not be used as a slave.300 years ago. such troops had seized parts of Italy. He learned his Aristo tle from his mentor at Padua. The quintessential Venetian is Iago. The pap acy relents. In a series of di plomatic moves. so close to being destroyed. fearing a war that will be fought on Italian soil by foreign troops . they were the masters. France is poised to in vade the very islands that comprise Venice to deliver the coup de grace. the alliance falls apart.The English parliamentary system of government was modeled explicitly on the Ven etian system of a Great Assembly and Senate that controls the doge. and the British diplomatic corps was tra ined by the Venetians. which worked with the Turks to create a republic of usury and slavery. The first began in the 1530s under Henry VIII with the break from Rome engineered by Thomas Cro mwell. the Moor of Venice. Contarini and the evil of Aristotle The figure of Gasparo Contarini is the key one for Venice in its war. and to defend the concept of man as imago Dei and capax Dei. beginning 70 years later. With the papacy in the firm grip of Pius II and Cusa. England offi cially in 1688 became an oligarchy. Venice. Its su rvival would now wreak havoc on western civilization. approximat ely 2. At this form of evil. Venice launched a war to destroy Christianity. and has been so since the time he wrote his diatribe against the method of Plato. This idea of the power of hypothesis and its relationsh ip to transforming nature proved conclusively that man was fundamentally differe nt from the beast. Several times before. What was Venice? The best way to understand the evil of Venice is to look at the great poets' por trayal of the unbelievable duplicity that Venice represented: portrayals by Marl owe in The Jew of Malta. is called upon by the papacy to crush Venice. To understand Venice. the son of one of the oldest families in Venice . The later. phase was the takeover of England by the Giovani (``the young ones'') of Paolo Sarpi. Venice reacted wild ly against the ascendancy of this idea. Pietro Pomponazzi. w ith the help of Pius II. . The year is 1509. Contarini was trained at Padua University. At the Battle of Agnadello. miraculously. This formality was merely the tip of the iceberg. the Venetian forces are completely destroyed. and by Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice and especi ally in Othello. It wa s the power of these ideas which caused the greatest increase in human populatio n in the history of man. You can never understand Venice by studying what positions the Venetians took on an issue. who created the basis for a war on the pagan idea of ma n as a beast. They always took all positions. Modern history commences with Nicolaus of Cusa and the Council of Florence. that if all of Aristotl e's work were lost. The Venetian takeover of Engla nd had been nearly a 200-year project. Their method was one of looking for the weak point and corrupting the person. Their diplomatic corps was the best in the world at the time. the slave trader of Europe.

Since Aristotle is functioning within a philosophical environment created by Pla to. and we can only have faith in their existence. in which he a sserted. is that Venice wa s a slave society based on a principle of oligarchism. Truly I have arrived at the firm conclusion . others are slaves. unlike Aristotle. as he shows. but this would be false. to understand how critical he is to Venice. The state must carry on this natural idea and main tain it.. In his Politics. hard evil. that only universal ideas are fundamentally causal... which in another dialogue Plato proves by showing a slave to possess them. At another time he was the amba ssador to the court of Charles V. you must ask the question.. what is it abou t Aristotle that has made his writings so influential in western civilization? A ristotle is a thoroughgoing defense of oligarchical society.. in which the ideas of the Good and Justice are causal.. Indeed some thin gs are so divided right from birth. Just compare Aristotle's Politics with Plato's Republic. In the Thrasymachus section of the dialogue. The very basis for Aristotle's politics is the maintenance of the ``mas ter-slave'' relationship. which was to domi nate a section of the most powerful Venetian oligarchy. as he asserts.'' Radical Protes tantism and Contarini's Catholicism are the Aristotelian split between vita cont emplativa (faith) and vita activa (works).'' In another letter.. ``natural'': ``That one should command and another obey is both necesary and expedient. Contarini's Aristotelianism was highlighted by his early writings. These innate ideas. and that for these it i s both just and expedient that they should serve as slaves. Aristotle is most explicit. Contarini's views were the essence of the Spirituali movement.. he calls man a ``worm. His theory of the purpose of politi cs is to maintain inequality. Let us now look briefly at Contarini's career. This council was justice in Venice. I contend that the reason Aristotle was so widely influential in Venice. I understood that even if I did all the penance I could and more. and they reacted with cold. in defense of their w ay of life. must be based on the good. th at nobody can become justified through his own works or cleansed from the desire s in his own heart. are the very basis for the Republic. Contarini was Venice's ambassador to the papacy. some to rule. it ruled on all cases and could order assassinations. the sup reme ruling body of Venice. because it is. Aristotelianism is the hatred of both God and man. since they are not kno wn by the senses. It is true that even Plato makes a case for slavery. yet C ontarini and several other Venetian noblemen later dominated the reform commissi on which nominally prosecuted the war on the Reformation. That idea for the Republic. it would not suffice in the least to merit happiness or even render s atisfaction for past sins. he cannot throw out the concept of universals altogether. some to be ruled. Renaissance Christianity is the antithesis of this bestial conception. the Chri stian idea of man and the rejection of slavery and usury called their very exist ence into question. he proves that the very basis for t he Republic is a universal. is to assign them to the realm of vita contemplativa. For Venice and Contarini. This was how Venice kept control of its ol . but. Plato bases his state on the idea of Justice. He profiled both Charles V and the papacy. It is remarkable that there was no real difference between him and Luther.'' One could accuse m e of taking quotes out of context.Since Aristotle is almost unreadable. He was next appointed to the Council of Ten and later the Council of Three. Contrast that t o Plato. It is cle ar then that by nature some are free. not contemplativ e and unknowable. This is Gasparo Contarini. ``and in truth. w here Plato from the very beginning launches a diatribe against arbitrary power. What he does inste ad.

at the behest of the Hapsburg Emperor Charles in 1541. As a cardinal. of the powerful Howard family.. in order to maintain the Spanish army. According to the Venetians' profile of the Spanish Hapsburgs. Thomas Cromwell. The problem was that the Spanish we re also very much aware of the strategic need to have good relations with Englan d. told the Venetian amb assador so to his face. How was this accomplished. Spain needed the Netherlands for massive tax revenue that these holdings bro ught. He and four other Spirituali dominated the commission. Nothing is to be found in it that does not stand in our own writings. much like the cultural pessimism that dominated Europe after Wor ld War I. Contarini was appointed a cardin al. Henry had to be broken from Spain. at least on one occasion. and Cavendishes also became consistent carriers of the Venetian virus . The Howards continued to be agents of Venetian influence for a very long time.igarchical families. reiterated his Lutheran beli efs. This war depopulated most of Europe. Henry's insistence upon divorce from Catherine of Aragon and remarriage to Anne entailed the fall of his chief minister Cardinal Wolsey. and through whom? The Venetian faction in England got the upper hand when Henry VIII fell for the sexual bait that faction put before him: Anne Boleyn. even though they wer e also occasionally Venice's victims. and the Hapsburg monarchy married Catherine to Henry VIII to ensure such an a lliance.. and may still be so today. For Venice to succeed. Duke of Norfol k. At Regensburg. until his own fall and ex ecution in 1540.. he was first asked to create the reform commission for the Co uncil of Trent. which insisted that the only thing that s eparates Protestants from Catholics be reduced fundamentally to the question of the Magisterium.. who had learned the Venetian system while working in Ve nice as an accountant to a well-known leading Spirituali.. He was ne xt appointed to negotiate with the Lutherans at Regensburg. leading to a series of wars which dr owned the Renaissance legacy of Cusa and Pius II in a sea of blood that culminat ed in the Thirty Years' War.'' Then. It set up the basis for an onslaught agains t Christianity. and a ``little Padua'' came to be developed around one of these figures at Ca . Cromwell had cultivated those humanists who were favorable to the break with Rom e. Anne was the granddaughter of the leader of the Venetian faction in England. Other great families such as the Russells. Wolsey knew very well w hat evil Venice represented and. This Venetian evil was now to descend on England. he gave away the Venetian game . In Wolsey's place emerged a technocrat of the Venetian f action. that our adversaries have conceded so much. It can now be stated what happened to the Renaissance: Venice manipulated both t he Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. It is a bit of an embarrassment that Calvin praised Article Five at Regensb urg: ``You will marvel when you read Article Five . Designs on England What was Venice's strategic objective? It is now the 1520s. Cromwel l effectively ran the English government in the 1530s. Herberts. the major vulnerab ility of the Hapsburgs was the strategic shipping lanes across the English Chann el. Thomas Howard. in what was to be called Article Five. in typical Venetian fashion. Reginald Pole. Contarini. From the Council of Three. Contarini created an Aristotelia n (Fideist) faction inside the church.

and England was set up to become the bastion of the New Age. Pole is a Plantage net. He was the leading organizer of the Giovani. It was in this phase that England's mind an d soul were taken. we must add the infamous Francesco Zorzi. Venice planned the destruction of Christianity in what was later to be called Freemasonry. Hol land. who reigned in England after Henry VIII. In a fictional dialogue between ``Thomas Lupset and Reginald Pole. They were increasingly less viable as a military force. and to England. Mark to the Dutch Calvinist republic. tutors to the Protestant children of Henry VIII. and who in Veni ce deployed him. the plan that evolved was to move part of the money from the massive fu nds in the vaults of the Church of St. Starkey became one of Thomas Cromwell's chief spie s. At this point. and unleashed his own ambitions. How explicit they are on the question of Venice is identified by Thomas Starkey. as in Veni ce. and William Cecil. this sea led the alliance with Venice against Spain. The role of Paolo Sarpi The second phase of the Venetian operations was much more devastating. is no great ambitious desire to be there Duke. the only defense Venice had was a desperate attempt to d estroy both the papacy and the Hapsburgs. possibly one of the claimants to the English throne... by securing Germany for the Protestant s with the help of France. The Vecchi wanted to control the papacy and stay within a neutralized Catholic C hurch. It was la unched by the notorious Paolo Sarpi. the takover of England was left to Paolo Sarpi. He later became the ch ief adviser to Mary Tudor. John Cheke. should be our king. . Further. The Giovani organized the Protestant rebellion and wanted to see the dest ruction of even the name of Christianity. Out of the Giovani s alons and secret society. a Spirituali who traveled through Venice with Reginald Pole. a very radical faction took over. Edward and Eliz abeth. He is best known for a book on English gover nment which asserts that kings were too powerful. In this phase. The Giovani realized that time had run out for the Islands of Venice. by the name of Thomas Smith. you must understand the mind of Paolo Sarpi. For Henry. according to his reading of the ancient Hebrew text. according to Venice. the pope did not have the right to grant dispensation for Henry to marry Catherine. Pole was almost elected pope. This was a ti ght-knit group. ``For this cause the most wise men considering the nature of princes. Paolo Sarpi was nominally a Servite monk who was exceptionally talented. also. if his power were temper ed after the manner before described. because he is restrained to o rder and politic. Zorzi was the Venetian sex counsellor for Henry VIII. so with us. For. For the Giovani. Other leading figures of this ``little Padua'' were Roger Ascham. to conserve the whole out of tyranny.mbridge University. Previously. To understand this. affirm a mixed state to be of all others th e best most convenient. Henry never truly married Catherine. This phase was highlighted by what was understood in Venetian history as the 158 3 fight between the Giovani (young houses) and the Vecchi (old houses). Therefor e. It was this break which opened England wide for Venetian operations.'' This tightly knit group of Venetian Aristotelians organized Henry's break with R ome. an d the nature of man as it is indeed. For this phase..'' Starkey states. It was Zorzi who rendered Venice's official prono uncement that. Smith returned from Padua to be come the head of Cambridge in 1544. Yet he was much more.

He had faced down the papacy and survived. who studied law in Padua. because the ki ngs tended to act independently of Venetian strategic considerations. The History of the Council of Trent. Since one could be burned for these beliefs. Bacon picked up Sarpi's writing on method from Sarpi's Arte del Ben Pensare. With this. The latter book was dedicated to J ames I of England. defending the rights of the state against those of the papacy. Venice r etained Paolo Sarpi as its defender. was the fact that England was not really reliable. T his is the empiricism of Bacon. In 1581. He insisted that belief in God was irrational. he never published hi s philosophical writings. an assassin tried to kill Sarpi. In the course of this fight. a modern historian by the name of Wooton proves that Sarp i was the creator of empiricism and taught Francis Bacon his so-called scientifi c method. revealed himself in his philosophical w ork to be a radical atheist. but he survived. called the Turkey Company. the Ros icrucian cult. Some of you may be aware of the phrase. the funder of the Puritan movement in England. sent all of Sarpi's writings back t o England immediately. which dominates England to this d ay. Sarpi had won. which later becomes the radical nominalism of David Hume. The first governor of the East India Company was Thomas Smy the. It was later revealed by sources that Sarpi was a homosexual and a blasphemer.In a book about Sarpi. In the ensuing days after the in terdict was lifted. The Giovani very consciously had to build up their own faction among the English nobility. He especially attacked the idea that Moses was given the Ten Command ments by God. England had to be totally controlled. The attemp t was laid at the papacy's doorstep. The papacy ended the interdict without achievi ng its ends and breaking Venice.'' It was Paolo Sarpi that created that myth. It is ironic that the nom inally Catholic Sarpi organized the radical Protestant opposition throughout Eur ope. as the basis for the majority of men acting morally. The thesis of this book. which later became the infamous British East India Company. Henry Wo oten. another trading company was cre ated with Venetian agreement. was unnecessary. After all. who corresponde d with him. Sarpi was to argue that the idea of the need for a providential religion. With these ideas. which the author proves conclusively. Sarpi wrote pamphlet after p amphlet. Sarpi was introduced by a circle around Wooten to Francis Bacon. How was this phase accomplished? The story begins with an interdict by the pope against Venice in 1606. and the most famous work of his career. to be translated. Galileo (a complicated case). the ambassador from England to Venice. while nominally a Catholic monk. Sarpi immediately launched a thoroughgoing attack on the very existence of the c hurch. and the right to collect monies in Venice. and now Sarpi was a hero in England and thr oughout Europe. Through this process of creating a rich merchant . modern empiricism is launched. The way th e Giovani functioned was by the creation of a Protestant-controlled merchant cla ss. It was he who was gr anted by Venice certain trading routes. The drawback that the Giovani h ad to correct. he created a pagan cult later called Freemasonry. Sarpi beca me the most famous man in Europe. is that Sarpi. In this fight. This was most explicit with the creation of the Venice Company by the Earl o f Leicester. and the Thirty Years' War. and was first published in England. since it is not nece ssary to explain the existence of the physical universe by an act of creation. Out of this salon came Giordano Bruno. ``The pope is the Anti-Christ. This disp ute was nominally about two jurisdictional matters respecting the right of Rome to try two accused prelates. who believed that the Bible was just some fantast ic stories. He is the real founder of modernism and the Enlightenment. These two companies lat er merged and became the Levant Company. where he insists that the only way an individual can know anything is t hrough the senses. in two works called History of Benefices. this is Venice.

who wrote of human society as a war of all against all. but merely a bundle of changing perceptions. These radical Protestant cults took over England during the so-called Common wealth period. Then came the Scots lawyer and diplomat David Hume. This was Sarpi's program and intention.tripod. But when Hume repudiated all notion of custom and traditional morality. during his long teaching career in Königsberg. e ven Kant could not follow. Then came John Locke. and it completed the essential destruction of the English soul. This hatred of imago Dei is the basis of England's promot ion of the New Age. Venice also created a battering ram against the ki ng. Locke was followed by the solips ist George Berkeley. all of which was taken directly from such Venetians as Paul Parut a and Pietro Sarpi. England becomes the bastion of paganism: usury and slavery. The Kant-Hume split illustrates why British liberal empiricism tends to be s everal degrees more rotten than its continental European counterparts.com/bentham. Locke's hedonism led him to the conclusion that huma n freedom was an absurd contradiction in terms. Kant responded with the Critique of Pure Reason to de fend the notion of cause and effect as one of Aristotle's categories. Immanuel Kant. The later Hu me. Venice and Venetian methods had tran splanted themselves in England. But in these same earlier works. including religion. predominantly Puritan. there is no necessary connection between a ca use and an effect that the human mind can know with certainty. For Hume. as in his ``Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. there is really no human self. While it takes some 80 more years to complete the Venetian takeover of England ( which will be detailed by Graham Lowry in another presentation). For Hume also. Once that process of takeover is complete. Prussia. During Hume's later years. Hume had at least accepted the im portance of filling the tabula rasa of each new human mind with a stock of recei ved ideas of conduct which can be lumped under the heading of morals or custom. . Kant was able to de fend customary ideas of religion and morality. On this basis. The two liberals Kant and Hume had a broad common ground in their determination to eradicate the influence of Gottfried Wilhelm Le ibniz.htm Chorus: British empiricism started from Francis Bacon's inductive method based on se nse certainty. for whom the human mind was a blank slate destined to be f illed by sense perceptions. Hume attacks the i dea of cause and effect. we only have a va gue association or habit of thought that one phenomenon has been usually followe d by another. In shor t.class. ----------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. real Aristotelians. das Sittengesetz. who denied any basis in reality to our sense impressions: T hey are a kind of videotape played in each one of our heads by some unknown supe rnatural agency. the power of the Shelburne faction became dominan t in Britain. Sarpi and Venice create the Rosicrucian cul t of syncretic religion that becomes Freemasonry. against Hu me. the empire of t he mind became ensconced in England. Perception was the only existence there was.'' totally repudiated the notion of custom and morality in favor of an unbridled hedonism that points towa rd the depths of pederasty and degradation inhabited by Jeremy Bentham. had bee n a retailer of Hume's ideas. and Hume's skepticism became bolder and more radical. In his ``Enqu iry Concerning Human Understanding'' and other earlier works. necessarily dominated by a tyrannical leviathan state. With Bacon is Thomas Hobbes. who had reached a sub-Aristotelian level.

. fleeing the United Stat es. out windows. culminating in the storming of t he Newgate Prison and the freeing of all the prisoners.'' Lord Shelburne was so taken with Bentham that he installed the writer. weary of the failed prosecution of the war in North America. Every effort we make to throw off our subjec tion. They see not . and c onvinced that the ministry of Lord George North would bring eternal ruin to his dreams of permanent empire. Systems which attempt to question it deal . a man who at the time was the de facto. Bentham made his philosophical breach with the American republicans all the more clear in a lengthy tract titled An Introducti on to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780).In October 1776. and later in Venezuela. ``they `hold to be' a `truth self-evident. Lord Shelburne. That manuscript would not only prescribe the founding principles of British philosophical radicalism. Shelburne's political intrigues At the very moment of his taking up with Bentham. In June 1780. Sh elburne assigned to Bentham an English and Swiss editor in order to ensure the w idest dissemination of Bentham's works in both the English. Bentham's works would be even more widely circulated throughout L atin America during his years of intimate collaboration with the American traito r Aaron Burr. as well a s to determine what we shall do. consolidated under the guiding hand of William Petty.. For eight days. Burr.. pai n and pleasure. will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it. in caprice instead of reason. it would propel Bentham into the very center of a then-emerging new British Foreign Office and British Foreign Intelligence Service..... to secure these rights they are satisfied that government should be instituted. that . . Lord Shelburne. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do. in darkness instead of light. took up residence at the home of Bentham. In these tenets they have outdone the extravagance of all former fanatics. The so-called Irish reforms am ounted to little more than forced conscription of Irishmen into the British Army to fight in North America--a move Shelburne hoped would also defeat the pro-Ame rican republican movement inside Ireland that had nearly launched its own revolt against Britain in 1779. and the two men conspired to estab lish an empire.. who fanci ed himself alternately as the reincarnation of Sir Francis Bacon and as the ``Si r Isaac Newton of the moral sciences. through the East India Company and i ts allied Baring Bank. some one or ot her of those pretended unalienable rights is alienated. and to the h ospitals. if not de jure doge of Britain. The principle of utility--th e greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle--recognizes this subjection. Later. ostensib ly in protest over the granting of Irish reforms.... Bentham categorically rejected any distinction between man and the lower beasts. and with revolutionists Gen. Francisco de Miranda--a Venezuelan by birth who played a leading role as a paid agent of the British East India Compa ny in the Jacobin Terror in France--and Simón Bolívar. that nothing that was ever called government ever was or ever could be exercis ed but at the expense of one or another of those rights.. defining man instead as a creature driven purely by hedonistic impulses. Lord Shelburne was in the proc ess of launching his most daring political intrigues. To wit : ``Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters.'' in an apartment at his Bowood estate. first in Mexico.and French-speaking worlds. which had been signed as an Act of the Continental Congress on July 4th of that year: ``This.'' Shortly after penning this venom. and assumes it for the foundation. the Protestant rabble stormed Westminster. London was ransacked.. Led by Lord George Gordon.. bankrolled a Jacobin mob to descend upon London.'' he spewe d. sending pa rliamentarians and lords alike down flights of stairs. a 28-year-old English barrister named Jeremy Bentham wrote cont emptuously of the American Declaration of Independence.' At the same time. who joined in the assaul .

taking the name Israel Bar Abraham. which Smit h completed in 1776 under the title The Wealth of Nations. The final letter. Shelburne's agent provocateur: After a brief stay i n the Tower of London. Bentham demanded an end to all restrictions on usuri ous interest rates. King George III had declared himself wholly subservient to th e Shelburne-led East India Company faction--the Venetian Party. As the result of these events. he ordered the preparation of an apologia for free trade. the battle cry of the New Venice/New Rome was ``free trade. I n addition. persona lly ensured the maximum terror by delaying the reading of the Riot Act (which wo uld have called out the Home Guard) until violence had spread to every corner of the city. in a famous carriage ride from Edinburgh to London. The Jacobin insurrection in Paris during 1791-93 was a replay on grander scale o f the earlier Shelburne-instigated Gordon Riots. Lord Gordon made off to friendlier ground in the Netherlands. chas tized the India House economist for not going far enough in his embrace of unbri dled monetary dictatorship. and from that position p articipated in Shelburne's intrigues against the French Bourbons. but not thro ugh the deployment of military might or through claims of property title. took the position that the former colonies in North America must be once again brought under the British yoke. t o the astonishment of his Scottish Presbyterian cronies. North resigned as prime minister. Lord Shelburne. where. he became a convert to Jewish cabbalism. A postscript on Lord Gordon. as foreign minister.'' As early as 1763. Adam S mith. the shadow government formally took charge of the official state apparatus. Shelburne's leading intelligence agent Jeremy Bentham went one better t han Smith by publishing a series of letters from Russia that were assembled in a pamphlet titled In Defense of Usury. He shortly thereafter surf aced in Paris as an occult adviser to Marie Antoinette. Shelburne was himself in the new Rockingham cabinet as foreign secretary for the Northern District. From that post. down to the storming of the Bas tille prison and the unleashing of the criminals. the ministry of Lord North was in ashes as well. s ubsuming the North American colonies. employing the liberal argument that suppression of usury sti fles invention. By this time also. When the flames subsided. he would be the principal negotiator in Paris across the table from Benjamin Franklin. For Sh elburne. addressed to Smith.t on the Parliament building. Smith immediately wrote of Bentham's In Defense of Usury. foreshortened by Shelburne's personal intervention with t he crown. Shelburne had commissioned two works from one of his East India Company scribblers. ``The work is one of a superior man. Shelbur ne felt compelled to briefly take the formal reins of government in order to ens . Edward Gibbon. Smith Assigned To Scribble Against America Lord Shelburne. In 1787. as head of the interior committee of the House of Lords. he had commissioned Smith to prepare the research outlines for the study that would be later completed by another India House propagandist. First. The intelligence operations formerly housed at the Ea st India Company were henceforth run out of the Foreign Ministry and the British Secret Intelligence Services (SIS).'' Shelburne's own most eloquent plea for unbridled free trade and usury came durin g his brief tenure as prime minister from 1782 to 1783. on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire--a study critical to Shelbur ne's commitment to establish a new third Roman Empire headquartered in London. Although he had formerly preferred to steer British politics from behind the scenes in his capacity as c hairman of the three-man ``Secret Committee'' of the East India Company. and within months.

the Jacobin Terror was a British Eas t India Company-. If we continue united.. the monopoly of which you sordidly preserved to yourselves. where leaders o f the Jacobin Terror. S helburne's scheme for rapidly bankrupting and re-absorbing North America into th e British imperial domain. 27. Jacques Necker. Georges Jacques Danton. Although Necker had failed to block France from allying with the Americans durin g the American Revolution. Speeches were prepared by Bentham and translat ed and transported by diplomatic pouch and other means to Paris... a share in a trade.. Shelburne stood before the House of Lords to argue for ratific ation of the Treaty of Paris. had bee n installed through the efforts of Shelburne's leading ally in France.. Necker's daughter. with more capital. all we ought to covet on Earth is free trade. but guided by British strings. 1783. a nd the Englishman Samuel Romilly.. ``You have given America.. we had a government in America. but if there is any nation under heaven which ought to be the fir st to reject monopoly. what would be the probable operation of this step upon her politics? Would it not enable us to negotiate. as finance minister. British Foreign Office-orchestrated affair. Shelburne now sought to destroy France as an economic and milita ry rival on the continent. capable of excluding Gre at Britain from all our ports. They launched a crucial debate over the need for a strong federal constitution. 11..ure the launching of his new British imperium.. Shelburne and Bentham turne d their attention to another critical front across the English Channel in France . with whom ev ery call under the heaven urges you to stand on the footing of brethren. Situated as we are between the old wor ld and the new. Philippe Duke of Orléans. and Maximilien de .. Mono polies. and Shelburne readied the projected destabilization by creating a ``rad ical writers' shop'' at Bowood staffed by Bentham. But f or the Federalist debate and the resulting United States Constitution of 1787. with more ente rprise than any trading nation on Earth. would have probably succeeded. it ought to be our constant cry: Let ev ery market be open. m anning French guillotines... for commercial privileges of the most valuable and extensive kind in the dominion of that kingdom?'' Shelburne unleashes Jacobins against France Even with matters still unresolved in North America. and between southern and northern Europe. Alexander Hamilton was blunt in his Federalist Paper No. Jean-Paul Marat. "Destroy America with free trade" On Jan. formally bringing to an end the American Revolutio n and the conflict with France and Spain.. Some of the American Foun ding Fathers clearly understood the danger in Shelburne's free trade ruse. With more industry. published in Novemb er 1787: ``The adventurous spirit . They forbid rivalry. the infamous Madame de St aël. of America has already excited uneasy sens ations in several of the maritime powers of Europe. Economic crisis across France was the precondition for political chaos and insur rection. would later run one of Shelburne's most important Parisian salons. slavishly pro-British banker. with the fairest prospe ct of success. the Genevan Etienne Dumont. Protestant. I avow that monopoly is always unwise. The Seven Years' War of 1756-63 had stripped France of its once formidable mar itime capacity. it is the English.. Suppose for instance. From the outset. a Geneva-born. The bloody massacr e of France's scientific elite was systematically carried out by French hands. we may counteract a policy so unfriendly to our prosperity in a variety of ways.. he did succeed in presiding over the depletion of the French treasury and the collapse of its credit system. . and ri valry is of the very essence of well-being of trade. are very justly punished.'' Shelburne's policy of unbridled free trade between Britain and the United States nearly destroyed the American republic in its cradle. some way or other..

under the watchful eye of J . Bentham sponsored several generations of philosophical radicals. lesbianism. though a royalist in London. Bentham wrote to the Jacobin interior minister in October 1792: ``I should think myself a weak r easoner and a bad citizen. rang ing from his closest protégés.'' At the same time. called for criminals . Thomas Carlyle. the prime minister of Catherine the Great. Bentham's Slave Labor Scheme Bentham was so taken up with the events in France. Asked by Prince P otemkin. Bentham's long-suffering personal secretary. needless to say burying the role of the Shelburne-Bentham cabal in that blood-soaked tra gedy. penned the official British history of the French Revolution. a Shelburne spy. which sent many of France's greatest scientists and pro-Americ an republicans to the guillotine or to prison. and David Urquhart. 25. the indigent. Carlyle.'' Bentham's Panopticon scheme was a slave labor camp first designed by him in Russ ia in 1787 while he was visiting his brother. The energy expended by the children playing with the toys would dri ve the factory. should be free. he wro te to National Assemblyman J. Bentham wrote : ``Allow me to construct a prison on this model--I will be the jailer. and bestiality.'' During his tour of Russia and the Ottoman Empire. 1791. this jailer will have no salary--will cost nothing to the n ation. James Mill and John Bowring.S. reading: ``Had they been industrious when free. would later supervis e the publication of Bentham's collected works in an 11-volume series. when he devised his Panopticon scheme and wrote In Defense of Usury.'' "In Defense of Pederasty" It is therefore of little shock that we find Bentham also writing in 1785 an ess ay on the subject of pederasty--arguing against any sanctions against homosexual ity. Garran offering to move to Paris to take charge of the penal system. would ser ve as Lord Palmerston's agent-handler of the notorious Giuseppe Mazzini. merry-go-rounds. as love. You will see by the memoire. The more I reflect. Bentham argued that human labor--not steam powe r--ought to be sufficient. the more it appears to me that the execution of the p roject should be in the hands of the inventor. to Mill's son John Stuar t Mill.P. and wou ld instigate the Second Opium War against China from his post as emissary in Can . Bowring. and the retarded--along with their children--to be placed in jai l cells equipped with primitive machinery run by a central power source. like every other expression of natural law. Bentham wrote in his diary: ``It is an ol d maxim of mine that interest. which i n turn would be fueled by swings. had no place in Bentham's world of pleasure and pain. A central guardroom equipped with two-way mirrors would permit o ne guard to oversee the slave labor of hundreds. Records of East India Company paymen ts to these leading Jacobins are still on file at the British Museum. and see-saws in the children' s cellblock. Bentham was proposing to assume the post of chief jailer of th e Jacobin Terror. to help procure a steam engi ne to build up Russian industry. a republican in Paris. Bentham dismissed the harsh penal ties then in force against pederasty as the result of irrational religious fears born of the Old Testament destruction of Sodom and perpetuated by society's ``i rrational antipathy'' to pleasure in general and to sexual pleasure in particula r. His design. complete with elaborate architectural drawings. they ne ed not have drudged here like slaves. were I not. Enclosing a draft of his Panopticon proposal. masturbation.Robespierre delivered the fiery oratories. Mill. In the wake of the initial success in forcing France to its knees with the Jacob in Terror. that on Nov. Bentham made no bones about his l oyalties: In accepting the honorary title of Citizen of France. Above the main door of the Pano pticon was to be a sign. Christian morality.

Virginia on Sept.. would later become the ag ent-handler for Karl Marx. Since the days of Aristotle. It followed a presentation by Carol White on ``The Evil Bertrand Russell: Nucle ar Terror and the Destruction of National Sovereignty. The reasons for this h ave to do with the cancer growing on world history--the cancer of oligarchism. and cannot make sci entific discoveries. fleets. wherever it i s.htm This speech was delivered to the Labor Day conference of the Schiller Instit ute and International Caucus of Labor Committees in Vienna.D.'' Bertrand Russell thus stands out as one of the most evil persons in recent histo ry. and characteristic outlook to a new base of operations. The Venetian Party knows that ideas are more powerful weapons than guns. It is ther efore vital to the Venetians to control philosophy and especially science. Bentham's body was dissected and stuffed. We must now explain whence this evil comes. They can be called the `` dead souls'' faction. or perhaps the ``no-soul brothers'' of Venetian intelligen ce. The Venetian Party. fortunes. The Venetian Party has also created over the centuries a serie s of scientific frauds and hoaxes. they have attempted to suffocate scientific discovery by using formalism and the fetishism of authoritative prof essional opinion. We can identify the Venetian faction which has been responsible for the most imp ortant of these scientific and epistemological frauds. the mummified Bentham. say the Venetians. you can contro l the way they respond to events. the Venetian Party seeks to control the way people t hink. Three Groups Of Venetian Gamemasters . Upon his death in 1832. 4. the Ve netian oligarchy decided for various reasons to transfer its families. the a rea where human powers of hypothesis and creative reason become a force for impr ovements in the order of nature. The Venetian Party is implacably hostile to sci entific discovery.tripod. Urquhart. the shift of the Venetian Party from the Adriatic to the banks of the Thames. B etween 1200 A. In the 1990s. and bombs. believes in epistemological warfare. and this has been the main project of the w orld oligarchy during the past five centuries.ton. seated in his favorite chair inside a glass case. For year s. Toward the end of that time. whom the Venetians have done everything possible to destroy.D. was an ever-present participant in meetings of his radical circle. no matter what those events may be. Their factional creed is the idea that human beings have no creative mental powers. with a mask affixed in its place. the mummy would still enjoy a place of prominence at London University. his head was c ast in bronze and placed at his feet. This is because their factional pedigree is based on the belief that human b eings have no soul. These have been used to usurp the rightful honor due to real scientists. which turned out to be the British Isles. one of the youngest of the Benthamites. If you can control the way people think. and about 1600 A. and how it is possible that such a person could enjoy a public reputation as a scientist. which have been elevated to the status of inc ontrovertible and unchallengeable authorities. are incapable of forming hypotheses. the world center of gravity for the forces of oligarchism was the oligarchy of Venice. This was the metastasis of the cancer. The old program of a worldwide new Roman Empire with its capi tal in Venice was replaced by the new program of a worldwide new Roman Empire wi th its capital in London--what eventually came to be known as the British Empire . In order to secure acceptanc e for their imperial ideas.com/venscien. ----------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac.

The leading figure of the first grouping in the early 1500s was Gasparo Contarin i. Francesco Zorzi was the envoy of this group to Henry VIII. Sarpi was part of an impo . Sarpi and his friend Fulgenzio Micanzio were Servite monks. as reflected in the sympathy of Soviet writers for figures like Galileo. Zorzi illustrates the typical profile of a Venetian intel ligence operative in the early 1500s: He was a Franciscan friar whose main occup ation was black magic of the Rosicrucian variety. K ing Henry VIII of England. He was a conjurer. there is the group of Paolo Sarpi and his right-hand man Fulgenzio Micanzio. and the Italian crypto-Protest ants known as the Spirituali. Aristotle asserted that there is no thought which is not mixed with se nse impressions. It is with Pietro Pomponazzi that we see the explicit factional pedigree of the dead souls faction. Newton. Contarini was the cardinal of th e Roman Catholic Church who masterminded the early phases of the Catholic Counte r-Reformation. we have the group around Antonio Conti and Giammaria Ortes in the early 1700s. who were a ctive in the first part of the 1500s. there is no empirical human soul that you can be awar e of while you are still alive. the Venetians would work inside the scien tific community to take it over. and p layed a decisive role in establishing the Jesuit Order. a necromanc er. For several centuries after this. favoring black magic. Third. As the 1500s turned into the 1600s. These Venetian intelligen ce officials are the original atheists and materialists of the modern world. as a practical matter. and Francesco Zorzi. the case officers for Galileo Galilei . as the Venetian Party alw ays does. to whom he became the resident sex adviser. the posture of the Venetian Party toward science was one of mo re or less open hostility. But in the early 1600s. this profile began to present serious drawba cks and limitations. an d Voltaire as ancestors of what was later called dialectical materialism. but also remarked that the only time that the existen ce of the soul is really certain is when the person is already dead. In this way. Contarini also convoked the Council of Trent on an Aristotelian platform. First there is the gr oup around Pietro Pomponazzi. For Pomponazzi. including Martin Luther. They would claim to represent the highest expre ssion of scientific values. they could institutionalize the dead ha nd of formalism and the fetishism of authority. and you hav e the portrait of Zorzi. In other locations we have told the story of how Contarini. Contarini was the personal protector of Ignatius of Loyola. This was the group that opposed Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. an apparitionist. Pomponazzi started from Aristotle. this proved that the soul does not exi st. so as to stifle the process of d iscovery. since it has no immaterial substance. The chief of Venetian intelligence who made this possible was Paolo Sarpi. At the same time. Think of Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Not exactly a role model for science nerds of any age.We can approach these Venetian dead souls in three groups. For Contari ni. Sarpi and Galileo Return to Top Until about 1600. the gro up around Sarpi succeeded in changing their public profile from being the enemie s of science to being the embodiment of the most advanced and sophisticated scie nce. Gasparo Contarini. These three groups of Venetian gam emasters are responsible for a great deal of the obscurantism and garbage that w eighs like a nightmare on the brain of humanity today. for Venetian rais ons d'état. Contarini warned Pomponazzi not to tak e this matter any further. This meant that there is no part of our mental life which is no t contaminated by matter. Jean Calvin of Geneva. This was the group that created the Newton myth and modern materialism or utilitaria nism and combatted Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Second. set into motion the Protestant Reformation.

. He reported these sigh tings in his essay The Starry Messenger. Sarpi's companions at the Ridotto Morosini during the 1590s included the influen tial mystic Giordano Bruno. There are reports of a telesco pe made in Italy in 1590. and about one-half of the population of Ge rmany and surrounding areas. and the Elector Palatine Frederick. Galileo propos ed some of his first ideas on falling bodies to Sarpi. In this sense. Its magnifyi ng power was rather weak. and it was during his s tay on Venetian territory that he became a celebrity. The Giovani favored a policy of cooperation with Holland. Sarpi's version of these events is more revealing. telescopes began to turn up in Holland. who became powerful after 1582. but it was a telescope. ``our mathematician of Padua [Galileo ] and some of our other people who are not ignorant of these arts began to use t he telescope on celestial bodies. and G alileo says he was encouraged by reports of them to build his own telescope in 1 609. Susan Welsh has called attention to the research of Domenico Argen tieri on Leonardo's optical manuscripts. is a worthy predecessor to Bertrand Russell. the rings of Saturn.'' Notice: Galileo and some of our other people. the so-calle d Winter King. Paolo Sarpi personally exterminated about one-thir d of the entire population of Europe. . ``Once this was found. Sarpi also caused the assassination of King Henry I V of France when Henry opposed Sarpi's designs and exposed him as an atheist. Galileo's fame was procured when he used a small telescope to observe the moons of Jupiter. who enthused that Galileo had been born to solve the question of motion. which instantly made him the premier sc ientist in Europe and thus a very important agent of influence for the Venetian Party. the Ridotti Morosini. He wrote on March 16. a native of Florence .'' saying that he had `` frequently discussed with him at the time'' about the results of the telescopic observations. after Sarpi's death. . One contempor wrote of him: ``I can say about him without any exaggeration whatsoever that one in Europe excels him in the knowledge of [mathematical] sciences. But ary no is Sarpi in his own time was considered an eminent mathematician. It would appear that the obse rvations were made not from Padua. we see. Christoph von Dona. By 1608. there was also a professor of math ematics at the nearby University of Padua: Galileo Galilei. The first telescope had been built by Leonardo da Vinci about a hundred years be fore Galileo. The Vecchi. which were also quite extensive. the o ldies. therefore in spring 1 608. which met for discussions in the palace of the Morosini family on the Grand Canal. and France in con flicts with the Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs and the papacy. which demonstrates that Leonardo's tele scope had a convex lens at one end and a concave lens at the other. including on m agnetism.. The Morosini were the direct ideological heirs of Gasparo Contarini. because he found it occult. of Sarpi's right-hand man Micanzio. adjusting it and refining it for the purpose. but from Paolo Sarpi's Servite monastery in V enice.'' wrote Sarpi. The Morosini salon centered on a discussion of science. which was Sarpi's favorite. There is a correspondence on scientific subjects between Sarpi and Galileo. serviced the Venetian networks on the Spanish and papal side. using agents like Max von Thurn und Taxis. We have told in other locations how Sarpi organized and unleashed the Thirty Yea rs' War in Central Europe. 1610 th at a telescope had been found in Holland two years before. Galileo taught mathematics in Padua from 1592 to 1610.'' This the view of Sarpi held by Galileo Galilei. Galileo was a paid agent o f Sarpi and. and did not need to read what Galileo had written about them. Sarpi wrote about Galileo as ``our mathematician. the so-called Giovani. and it became the nucleus for the youthful faction of the Venetian oligarchy. Pa olo Sarpi. Starting in 1592. and the phases of Venus. England. Christian von Anhalt.rtant Venetian salon of the day. This entire telescope operation had been devised by Paolo Sarpi.

wrote that Galileo had not really been the inventor of the telescope. For Galileo. Kepler had written back urgin g Galileo to be confident and to go forward with the struggle for truth.. Kepler is hardly mentioned. while the discussion centers on Cope rnicus. Galileo thereupon sent a letter to Kepler. offerin g to find publishers in Germany if the Italian climate were too oppressive. Johannes Kepler had sent a copy of his new book. the question of physics and astronomy into a theologic al question. and this tragic misunderstanding has had terrible con sequences for human thought. The Spanish ascendancy is the backdrop for the trial of Galileo carried out by the Dominicans with Jesuit support. but that he ``had not dar ed'' to come forward with this view because of fear. or Thoughts. The gesture of repression against Galileo carried out by the D ominicans of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome established the equation Galileo= modern experimental science struggling against benighted obscurantism. but without giving Kepler credit. In Galileo's Dialogues on the Two Great World Systems. one of the characters says that he is surprised at Kepler for being so ``puerile'' as to attribute the tides to the attraction of the Moon. expounding his first and second laws of planeta ry motion--that the planets move in ellipses of which the Sun is one focus. Sarpi's achievement for Venetian intelligence was to abst ract the method of Aristotle from the mass of opinions expressed by Aristotle on this or that particular issue. the trial was one of the greatest public relations succe sses of all time. in the following years Galileo used materia l from Kepler in his lectures. At the end. and preferred to sit on the whole business because of the climate of opinion. But Galileo never commented systematically on Kepler's laws. Rey. which had no hope of accounting for the observed positions of the planets. This allowed the Venetians to . Sarpi's philosophical and scientific writings were not published until after Wor ld War II. with his perfect circle orbits of the planets around the Sun. reached the Alp s. In this way.'' so as to condemn Galileo as ``an excommunicated heretic'' and for ce him to ``recant all his views on this subject. Accordin g to Kepler's biographer Max Caspar. a Polish visitor to Venice. Lost in the brouhaha about Galileo is the more rele vant fact that Kepler had been condemned by the Inquisition more than a decade b efore.'' Sarpi in 1616 seemed to know very well what would happen more than 15 years later. but that the ``adviser. too. Sarpi had forecast that if Galileo went to Rome. to Galileo. and the Arte di Ben Pensare. and seemed ready to sweep down on Rome. Kepler commented with benevolent interest--and with subtle polemics--about Galileo's published wo rks. ``who is considered the gre atest mathematician here. That equa tion has stood ever since. and director'' o f the telescope project had been Father Paolo Sarpi. Mysterium Cosmographic um. During the first years of the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII Barberini. These are the Pensieri. Galileo was the semi-official scientist for the pope. It is evident that the scenario sketched here corresponded to Sarpi's own longterm plan.'' In 1597. This was the work in which Kepler proposed the Platonic solids a s the basis for understanding the harmonic ordering of the planetary orbits arou nd the Sun. was a follower of the Copernican or heliocentric view. In 1609. Gali leo did not do this. the Jesuits and others were likely to ``turn . well after his own death. the Art of Thinking Well. Some years e arlier. explaining that he. But in 1631. author. Kepler and Galileo were in frequent contact for over 30 years. when the Swedish Prot estant army of Gustavus Adolphus fought its way through Germany. Keple r published his Astronomia Nova. pub lished in 1533. and that the planets sweep out equal areas in equal times between themselves and the Sun as they revolve. Urban VIII turned abruptly from a pro -French to a pro-Spanish policy. and refused to comment in detail on Kepler's book.In 1611.. sense certainty could be kept as th e basis of scientific experiments. and Aristotle's embarrassingly outdated views on certain natural phenomena could be jettisoned.

After Galileo had been condemned. to put it better. added Micanzio.'' Indeed. the trademark of the Venetian dead souls faction. in which heat is explained as the effect a ``f iery minims'' of igneous atoms. Micanzio reminded Galileo of the as signment he had received from Sarpi 20 years earlier: to write a treatise on mot ion. not of o utside reality. Mica nzio therefore arranged for Galileo's book to be printed by the Dutch Elsevir pr ess in Leyden. He suggests that an impression made on our sensory apparatus by outside obj ects has to be distinguished from those objects. The Assayer. Galileo's epistemology is identical with that of Sarpi. Sarpi starts from sense perception and sense certai nty. such as the Jesuits of the Collegio Romano. Galileo responded to Micanzio's orders with the 1638 Discourses on Two New Scien ces. Galileo complained that he had been misunderstood: ``Against all the reason in the world. Gali leo was a reductionist. and time. If you brush a feather over the soles of the feet o r the armpits of a marble statue. and go for shapes. 24. In the Art of Thinking Well. Galileo threw further light on his own scientific me thod. For Galileo. the soul dies with the body. tastes. and noses. 1634). ``my way of phil osophizing is so different from his. And by the way. he could not be published anywhere that papal authority was strong. Because Galileo had been condemned by the Inqui sition. We can see this in Galileo's 1 623 essay Il Saggiatore. and Galileo's case officer became the Servite monk Fulgenzio Micanzio. smell s. tastes. w hich are objective.000 pages to write what Sarpi had put down in 30. while attacking exponents of the Aristotelian or Peripatetic school. Sarpi died in 1623. who took almost 1. Galileo makes the famous comp arison of these to tickling. Mechanics and Local Motion. you will cause that tickling sensation. but are already in Kepler. Aristotelian--teachings than many others. A gain. Galileo wrote back that the correct answer to this virtuoso is that although Galileo and Kepler ma y sometimes seem to agree about certain astronomical phenomena. numbers. but they are the basis of everything writt en by Sir Francis Bacon. The Bacon-Hobbes menage was in close contact with Sarpi and Micanzio. and written in mathematical characters. So.. you will not produce a tickle. and sounds. Galileo says. are mere words. This is what Galileo means when he denies Aristotle to say that the trut h is written in the book of nature. I have 258 pounds here for you. and never odors. Especially he points to tastes. ``the things tha t you bring are not new. Sarpi lists the immortality of the s oul as one on a list of wrong ideas. Mica nzio would procure Galileo a pension of 60 scudi per year from the coffers of th e Venetian state. tongues. In letters written in 1640.preserve the essential Aristotle. But if you do t his to a human being... Sarpi repeats the argument of Pomponazzi th at since there is no knowledge without sensation. 1640). and sounds. size. Later. which he thinks are a matter of our nervous system. I am accused of impugning Peripatetic doctrine. Galileo's epistemology comes straight from Sarpi. In 1634. In the same manuscript. They exist only for our bodies. 19. From this he proceeds quickly t o a reductionist theory of atoms. . sounds.'' (Nov. it is time to get rid of ears. whereas I profess and am certain of observing more religiously the Pe ripatetic--or.'' (Aug. colors. Sarpi can also be found in Locke. These writin gs by Sarpi have not been translated. Micanzio wrote to Galileo that he had been talking to an expert in scie nce and philosophy--called a virtuoso in the parlance of the day--who had commen ted that although he did not deny Galileo's scientific ability. odors. a nd motions. In a different category are ideas of quantity.

He denied and attacked the Ho ly Trinity. the practiti oner of cold and untinctured reason? No. As Keynes points out. Lord Lymington. Newton and Galil eo are the only two contenders for the honor of being the most influential think er of their faction since Aristotle himself. Some might try to dismiss these admissions as a distortion of Galileo's outlook caused by the crackdown of which he was still a victim. Sir David Brewste r. Newton's nineteenth-century biographer. Newton had a nervous breakdown and never regained his former consistency of mind. Newton emerged fr om his breakdown slightly ``gaga. paranoid. For Newton. Newton: A Cultist Kook Return to Top The next phase of the corruption of science by Venice depends on a rather obscur e Cambridge don by the name of Isaac Newton. but when he saw the contents. In the past decades. at the same time. A century passed. the last of the Babylonia ns and Sumerians. Newton was a suspicious.Galileo asserted that he had tried to study phenomena: ``that in all natural effects assure me of their existence. the last wonderful child to whom the Magi could do sincere and appropriate homage. 1640) . it was the British economist Lord John Maynard Keynes and a fellow Cambridge graduate who began to open the black box of Newton's real cha racter. a cultist kook. '' which suggests that he was a cabbalist. He was the last of the magicians. Th e box became known as the Portsmouth Papers. unstable personality. Among the oligarchs. But. their quomodo. Newton was a supporter of the Arian heresy. said Keynes. director of the mint. He decided to save Newton's reputation by printing a few selections.'' ``I do not fabricate hypotheses. he recoiled in horror and slammed the lid. the current owner. their an sit [if it be]. He once angrily a ccused John Locke of trying to embroil him with women. looked into the box. but I would submit that this is the real Galileo talking. whereas I gain nothing from their how. but other papers were scattered from Jersualem to America. ending his Cambridge career and beginning his new life in London as member and president of the British Royal Society.2 million words. The British oligarchy praises Newto n as the founder of modern science. Newton ``was wholly aloo f from women. Was Newton the first and greatest of the modern scientists. Keynes based his view on the contents of a box. they have been unable to keep secret the fact that Newton was a raving irrationalist.'' although he had some close young male friends. What was in the box? The box contained papers which Newton had packed up when he left Cambr idge for London in 1696. Pepys and Locke thought that he had become deranged. What Galileo is trying to express here is the same thing Isaac Newton meant with his infamous ``hypotheses non fingo. A few mathematical papers were give n to Cambridge in 1888. I n 1692. and therefore also the Filioque and the concept of imago viva Dei. resident magus of the new British Empire. as Keynes says. Aft er Newton's death. but he falsified the rest with straight fibbing. to worship Christ as God . Bishop Horsley was asked to inspect the box. so he had the rest auctioned off. Inside the box were manuscripts and papers totalling some 1.'' As Keynes stresses. For the oligarchy.'' (June 23. Newton was not the first o f the Age of Reason. In 1936. with a view to p ublication. needed money .'' Which brings us to Newton. K eynes thought that Newton was ``a Judaic monotheist of the school of Maimonides. the lid of the box has been partially and grudgingly opened by the Anglophile scholars who are the keepers of the Newton myth. What can we see inside the box? First. Keynes bought as many as he could.

Valentine the beautifully g reen Venus and the green Venereal emerald and green earth of Snyders with which he fed his lunary Mercury and by virtue of which Diana was to bring forth childr en and out of which saith Ripley the blood of the green Lyon is drawn in the beg inning of the work. Alchemy also involved the relations between the astrological influences of the p lanets and the behavior of chemicals. he drew up plans for King Solomon's Temple. What were Newton's findings? Let him speak for himself: ``Concerning Magnesia of the green Lion. 293. the sixt h of which reads as follows: ``The young new born king is nourished in a bigger heat with milk drawn by d estellation from the putrefied matter of the second work. And so it goes for more than a million words. Alchemy And Green Lions Newton's real interest was not mathematics or astronomy.'' (Westfall. Also Androgyne. Truly it has been said that Newton had p robed the literature of alchemy as it had never been probed before or since. the Rosicrucian leader of British speculative Freemasonry. nitre of the wise. male and female principles. it also occupied a privileged position among the reagents of al chemy. 292. all during the time he was supposedly writing his Principia Mathematica. 358 ). Even in the Church of England. .'' During the 1680s Newton also composed a series of aphorisms of alchemy. A sample from the 1690s: ``Now this green earth is the Green Ladies of B. With this milk he must be imbibed seven times to putrefy him sufficiently and then dococted to the whi te and red. Pan and Osiris. such as rejuvenation and eternal youth. It was alchemy. and in passing to the red he must be imbibed with a little red oil t o fortify the solary nature and make the red stone more fluxible. The alchemists hoped the philosopher's stone would give them other magical po wers. Here. The goal of the alchemists was the quest for the mythical philosopher's stone. Newton had to keep these views secret or face ostracism. Cambridge was fitted out for alchemy. It is the Saturnine stone. And what is alchemy? What kind of research was Newton doing? His sources were books like the Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum of Elias Ashmole. Newton expressed this with a picture he drew of Jupiter Enthroned on the obverse of the title page of this book. Also common mercury. pp. Newton owned all six heav y quarto volumes of Ashmole. and virgin verdant earth in which the Sun has never cast i ts rays although he is its father and the moon its mother.'' This would appear to have been written in the 1670s. Since the planet Jupiter had precedence am ong the planets. In additio n. the fires never went out during six weeks of the spring and six weeks of the autumn. The first goes on no further than to putrefaction the s econd goes to the white and the third to the red. It is called Prometheus & the Chame leon. his frie nds said. Instructio de ar bore solari. and later a chronology of Biblica l events which foreshortened that history by cutting out several hundred years. His lab oratory at Trinity College. And this may b e called the third work. w hich would permit the alchemist to transmute lead and other base metals into gol d. dew of heaven which makes the earth fertile.was idolatry and a mortal sin. One treatise that dealt with these issues was the Metamorphosis of the Planets. with Green Lions. Androgynes.

Hooke and Sir Christopher Wren claimed to have done the same thing at abou t the same time. by which they act at a distance. times a constant. Newton's love of alchemy and magic surfaces as the basis of his outlook. He never had one. we find that Newton himself confesses. I deduced that the forces which keep the Planets in their Orbs must be reciprocal ly as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve.. that his great achievement was cribbed from Kepler. But scientists in con . and of a mysterious medium he called the ether. for example. ``Have not the small particles of bodies certain powers.'' (Westfall. Newton's alleged law of universa l gravitation. Washington. which Leibniz rightl y mocked as black magic. "I began to think of gravity extending to the orb of the Moon and (having fo und out how to estimate the force with which a globe revolving presses the surfa ce of a sphere) from Kepler's rule of the periodical times of the Planets being in sesquialterate proportion of their distances from the center of their Orbs. 143). includi ng in his supposed scientific writings.: Schiller Institute. D. in an unpu blished note. It h as long been known that this was not really a new discovery. This was supplemented by a sec ond allegation. This was not a calc ulus and quickly sank into oblivion when it was published nine years after Newto n's death.. . Kepler had established that the cube of a planet's distance from the Sun divided by the square of its year always equ aled a constant. he asks. and supposed an entropic universe that would have wound down like clockwork if not periodically re-wound. By supplementing this with Huygens's formula for centrifugal ac celeration and making some substitutions. In reality. But the partisans of Newton still claim that Newton explained gravity. although for some strange reason he had never said anything abou t it in public print during a period of 30 years. but rather derived by some tinkering from Kepler's Third Law.. By 1710.'' This is Newton's notion of gravity as action at a distance. It was about that time that Newton and the British Royal S ociety launched their campaign to claim that Newton had actually invented the ca lculus in 1671. Take. By opening the lid of the box. Newton wrote:. or some other means unknown to me. What he cooke d up was a theory of so-called fluxions and infinite series. it turns out that he had no discoveries. How those attractions may be performed. Newton's system was unable to describe anything beyond the interaction of two bodies. European scientists had been working with Leibniz's calculus for several decades. This issue is settled in the appendices to The Science of Christian Ec onomy [by Lyndon LaRouche. which states that the force of attraction of two point masses is equal to the product of the two masses divided by the square of the distance bet ween them. 402). or forces.. you can obtain the inverse square rela tionship. What I call attraction may be performed by Impulse. These slanders against Leibniz were written up by Newton and put forward in 1715 as the official verdict of the British Royal Society.Newton's 'Discoveries' And what about Newton's supposed discoveries? Upon closer scrutiny. 1991].C. that Leibniz was a plagiarist who had copied his calculus from N ewton after some conversations and letters exchanged between the two during the 1670s. Newto n never in his entire life described a calculus. In his Opticks. Then there is the story of Newton's invention of the calculus. I d o not here consider. This is Newton's so-called inverse square law. Newton ``arrived at the inverse square relation by substituting Kepler's Third L aw into Huygens's recently published formula for centrifugal force'' (Westfall. What the basis of these is in alchemy is not clear.. virtues. The same line was churned out by scurrilous hack writers directed by Newton. Newton also wrote of an electric spirit.

tinental Europe, and especially the decisive French Academy of Sciences, were no t at all convinced by Newton's case. Newton's reputation on the continent was at best modest, and certainly not exalted. There was resistance against Newton in England, with a hard core of 20-25% of anti-Newton feeling within the Royal Soci ety itself. How then did the current myth of Newton the scientist originate? The Myth Of Newton As A Great Scientist The apotheosis of Newton was arranged by Antonio Conti of Venice, the center of our third grouping of the dead souls faction. In order to create the myth of New ton as the great modern scientist, Conti was obliged to do what might well have been considered impossible at the time: to create a pro-British party in France. Conti succeeded, and stands as the founder of the Enlightenment, otherwise unde rstood as the network of French Anglophiles. Those Frenchmen who were degraded e nough to become Anglophiles would also be degraded enough to become Newtonians, and vice versa. The British had no network in Paris that could make this happen, but the Venetians did, thanks most recently to the work of such figures as Mont aigne and Pierre Bayle. What the British could never have done, the Venetians ac complished for the greater glory of the Anglo-Venetian Party. Born in Padua in 1677, Conti was a patrician, a member of the Venetian nobility. He was a defrocked priest who had joined the Oratorian order, but then left it to pursue literary and scientific interests, including Galileo and Descartes. Co nti was still an abbot. In 1713, Conti arrived in Paris. This was at the time of the Peace of Utrecht, the end of the long and very bitter War of the Spanish Su ccession, in which the British, the Dutch, and their allies had invaded, defeate d, and weakened the France of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Louis XIV had only two more years to live, after which the throne would go to a regent of the House of Orléan s. In Paris, Conti built up a network centering on the philosopher Nicholas de Male branche. He also worked closely with Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, the perman ent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences, still the premier research cent er in Europe. Conti saw immediately that Fontenelle was a follower of Giordano B runo of the Ridotto Morosini. Conti become a celebrity in Paris, but he soon ann ounced that he was growing tired to Descartes, the dominant figure on the French intellectual scene. Conti began telling the Paris salons that he was turning mo re and more to Newton and Leibniz. He began to call attention to the polemic bet ween Newton and Leibniz. What a shame that these two eminent scientists were fig hting each other! Perhaps these two outlooks could be reconciled. That would tak e a tactful mediator, an experienced man of the world. Since the English and the German scientists were at war, who better than an Italian, a Venetian, to come forward as mediator? Perhaps such a subtle Venetian could find a way to settle t his nasty dispute about the calculus and propose a compromise platform for physi cs. A solar eclipse was in the offing, and Conti organized a group of French astrono mers to go to London and observe it--probably the London fog would be helpful. W ith Conti's help these Frenchmen would be turned, made members of the Royal Soci ety, and when they got back to France, they would become the first French Anglop hiles of the eighteenth-century French Enlightenment. Before leaving Paris, Cont i, with classical Venetian duplicity, wrote a very friendly letter to Leibniz, i ntroducing himself as a supporter of Leibniz's philosophy. Conti claimed that he was going to London as a supporter of Leibniz, who would defend his cause in Lo ndon just as he had done in Paris. By 1715, Leibniz's political perspectives wer e very grim, since his patroness, Sophie of Hanover, had died in May 1714. Leibn iz was not going to become prime minister of England, because the new British ki ng was Georg Ludwig of Hanover, King George I. When Conti got to London, he began to act as a diabolical agent provocateur. Tur ning on his magnetism, he charmed Newton. Newton was impressed by his guest and

began to let his hair down. Conti told Newton that he had been trained as a Cart esian. ``I was myself, when young, a Cartesian,'' said the sage wistfully, and t hen added that Cartesian philosophy was nothing but a ``tissue of hypotheses,'' and of course Newton would never tolerate hypotheses. Newton confessed that he h ad understood nothing of his first astronomy book, after which he tried a trigon ometry book with equal failure. But he could understand Descartes very well. With the ground thus prepared, Conti was soon a regular dinner guest at Newton's house. He seems to have dined with Newton on the average three evenings per wee k. Conti also had extensive contacts with Edmond Halley, with Newton's anti-Trin itarian parish priest Samuel Clarke, and other self-styled scientists. Conti als o became friendly with Princess Caroline, the Princess of Wales, who had been an ally of Leibniz. Conti became very popular at the British court, and by Novembe r 1715 he was inducted by Newton as a member of the Royal Society. Conti understood that Newton, kook that he was, represented the ideal cult figur e for a new obscurantist concoction of deductive-inductive pseudomathematical fo rmalism masquerading as science. Thanks to the Venetians, Italy had Galileo, and France had Descartes. Conti might have considered concocting a pseudoscientific ideology for the English based on Descartes, but that clearly would not do, sin ce Venice desired to use England above all as a tool to tear down France with en dless wars. Venice needed an English Galileo, and Conti provided the intrigue an d the public relations needed to produce one, in a way not so different from Pao lo Sarpi a century before. The Leibniz-Newton Contest Return to Top Conti received a letter from Leibniz repeating that Newton had never mastered th e calculus, and attacking Newton for his occult notion of gravitation, his insis tence on the existence of atoms and the void, his inductive method. Whenever Con ti got a letter from Leibniz, he would show it to Newton, to stoke the fires of Newton's obsessive rage to destroy Leibniz. During this time, Newton's friend Sa muel Clarke began an exchange of letters with Leibniz about these and related is sues. (Voltaire later remarked of Clarke that he would have made an ideal Archbi shop of Canterbury if only he had been a Christian.) Leibniz wrote that natural religion itself was decaying in England, where many believe human souls to be ma terial, and others view God as a corporeal being. Newton said that space is an o rgan, which God uses to perceive things. Newton and his followers also had a ver y odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, ``God Alm ighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time; otherwise, it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. '' This gave rise to the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, in which we can also see the hand of Conti. By now, the chameleon Conti was a total partisan of Newton's line of atoms and the void, the axioms of Newtonian absolute space. ``If there were no void,'' wrote Conti, ``all bodies would be equally heavy and the comets could not pass through heavenly spaces.... M. Leibniz has written his speech to Princess [Caroline], and he presents the world not as it is, but as it could be. '' (Badaloni, Antonio Conti, 63). Newton tried to get the ambassadors of the London diplomatic corps to review his old manuscripts and letters, hoping they would endorse the finding of the Royal Society that Leibniz had plagiarized his calculus. Leibniz had pointed out that the Royal Society had stacked the evidence. Conti used this matter to turn Geor ge I more and more against Leibniz. Conti organized the Baron von Kilmansegge, t he Hanoverian minister and husband of George I's mistress, to take the position that the review of documents would not be enough; the only way to decide the Lei bniz-Newton controversy was through a direct exchange of letters between the two . King George agreed with this. Conti encouraged Newton to make a full reply to

Leibniz, so that both letters could be shown to the king. When he heard Newton's version, the king indicated that Newton's facts would be hard for Leibniz to an swer. Conti tried to convince Leibniz to accept the 1715 verdict of the Royal Society which had given credit for the calculus to Newton. In return, to sweeten this ga lling proposal, Conti generously conceded that Leibniz's calculus was easier to use and more widely accepted. By now Leibniz was well aware that he was dealing with an enemy operative, but Leibniz died on Nov. 4, 1716, a few days before Con ti arrived in Hanover to meet him. Newton received word of the death of his grea t antagonist through a letter from Conti. Conti's Deployment To France Thanks to Conti's intervention as agent provocateur, Newton had received immense publicity and had become a kind of succès de scandale. The direct exchange mandat ed by George I suggested to some an equivalence of Leibniz and Newton. But now C onti's most important work was just beginning. Leibniz was still held in high re gard in all of continental Europe, and the power of France was still immense. Co nti and the Venetians wished to destroy both. In the Leibniz-Newton contest, Con ti had observed that while the English sided with Newton and the Germans with Le ibniz, the French, Italians, Dutch, and other continentals wavered, but still ha d great sympathy for Leibniz. These powers would be the decisive swing factors i n the epistemological war. In particular, the attitude which prevailed in France , the greatest European power, would be decisive. Conti now sought to deliver ab ove all France, plus Italy, into the Newtonian camp. Conti was in London between 1715 and 1718. His mission to France lasted from 171 8 through 1726. Its result will be called the French Enlightenment, L'Age des Lu mières. The first components activated by Conti for the new Newtonian party in France we re the school and followers of Malebranche, who died in 1715. The Malebranchiste s first accepted Newton's Opticks, and claimed to have duplicated Newton's exper iments, something no Frenchman had done until this time. Here Conti was mobilizi ng the Malebranche network he had assembled before going to London. Conti used h is friendship with Fontenelle, the secretary of the French Academy of Sciences, to secure his benevolent neutrality regarding Newton. Conti's other friends incl uded Mairan, Réaumur, Freret, and Desmolets. During the late teens and '20s in Paris, an important salon met at the Hôtel de Ro han, the residence of one of the greatest families of the French nobility. This family was aligned with Venice; later, we will find the Cardinal-Prince de Rohan as the sponsor of the Venetian agent Count Cagliostro. The librarian at the Hôtel de Rohan was a certain Abbé Oliva. Oliva presided over a Venetian-style conversaz ione attended by Conti, his Parisian friends, and numerous Italians. This was al ready a circle of freethinkers and libertines. In retrospect, the best known of the participants was Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu. Montesquieu, before Voltaire, Rousseau, and the Encyclopedia, was the first important figure of the French Enlightenment--mo re respectable than Voltaire and Rousseau--and the leading theoretician of polit ical institutions. Conti met Montesquieu at the Hôtel de Rohan, and at another sal on, the Club de l'Entresol. Later, when Conti had returned to Venice, Montesquie u came to visit him there, staying a month. Montesquieu was an agent for Conti. Return to Top Montesquieu's major work is The Spirit of the Laws, published in 1748. This is a work of decidedly Venetian flavor, with republic, monarchy, and depotism as the three forms of government, and a separation of powers doctrine. Montesquieu app

but the proof is co nvincing. In one letter. which was supposedly masterminded by the Spanish ambassador to V enice. This was an idea that we can also find in Conti's manuscripts. Beyond that. Voltaire's view of Shakespeare as sometimes inspired. Conti's collected works and one of his tragedies are in Vol taire's library. Voltaire writes that Shakespeare is considered the Corneil le of England. Count Bedmar. who was also a high school teacher. who wrote a profile of France c alled Historical and Political Discourse on the State of France between 1700 and 1730. The book which made Voltaire famous was his Philosophical Letters. This is a quote from Conti. We can th us associate Conti with Voltaire's first important breakthrough. is close to Conti's own practice. there are four chapters on Newton. The ground is being prepared for Newto n. Newton was the first discoverer of t he calculus. of course. After chapters on Francis Bacon and John Locke. the parlements. In the essay on Shakespeare.'' I agree with Conti.'' Voltaire als o translated Newton directly. His ``sublime ideas' ' and discoveries have given him ``the most universal reputation. The idea here was simple: to exalt Louis XIV as a means of attacking the current king. Voltaire's Philosophical Letters center on the praise of New ton. praising Britain's allegedly consti tutional monarchy as the ideal form. Louis XV. preserved at the Hermitage in St. Gradually this was shortened to Voltaire. Voltaire asks. by comparison. a main target of the Anglo-Veneti . Another Conti Agent: Voltaire Return to Top One of Conti's other friends from the Hôtel de Rohan was a Jesuit called Tournemin e. Voltaire admiringl y shares an anecdote about Conti and Newton. Voltaire knew both Conti personally and Conti's works. should we try to fin d the proof of the existence of God in an algebraic formula on one of the most o bscure points in dynamics? He cites Conti in a similar situation with Newton: `` You're about to get angry with me. One of his most incorrigible pupils had b een a libertine jailbird named Franc@alois-Marie Arouet. But most important. For Voltaire. sometimes cal led the English letters. Louis XV was. and the point w here Anglophilia becomes Anglomania in France. Montesquieu raises the theme of Anglophilia. the dismantler of the entire Cartesian system. Voltaire also relates Conti's version of the alleged Spanish conspiracy against Venice in 1618. provi ded you don't let metaphysics creep in. but barbarous and ``crazy'' for not respe cting French theatrical conventions. In his treatise. The Century of Loui s XIV. it's nothing more than a fascinating subject. Montesquieu points out that France has an independent ju diciary. that all geometry can give us are about 40 u seful theorems.ears to have taken many of his ideas from Conti. which had been published in Paris in 1726. says Voltaire. the pro-British bent of Conti's Enlightenment philosophes is established. Conti is referr ed to a number of times in Voltaire's letters. The Philosophical Letters were condemned and Voltaire had to hide in the liberti ne underground for a time. which became a main focus for Anglo-Venetian destabiliz ation efforts going toward the French Revolution. who was so stubborn and headstrong that his parents had always called him ``le volontaire. taken from the head note to Conti's t ragedy Giulio Cesare. With this. He began to work on another book.'' meaning se lf-willed. Petersburg. French literary historians are instinctively not friendly to the idea that the m ost famous Frenchman was a Venetian agent working for Conti.'' says Conti to Newton. because they are devoted to the exaltation of all thing s British. and published Elements of Newtonian Philosophy. which Voltaire had observed during his three years in London. ``but I don't care. the guts of the work.

we must remember. be cause after all. And then there is B uffon. the dominant figure was Andrea Memmo. when you were hanged. An agent shared by Memmo with the Morosini family was one Giacomo Casanova. These were libertines. the Nani. Satanists. Candide asks Pangloss: ``Tell me. Toward the end of the story. through the vicious caricature Dr. and an even higher percentage of female nob les. I'm a philosopher. a ho mosexual who was backed up by a network of lesbians. one of the leaders of European Freemasonry. cruelly beaten . did you still think that everything was for the best in this world?'' ``I still hold my original opinions. my dear Pangloss. The main point is that only with the help of Venice could the senile cultist kook Newton attain wo rldwide respect. and since pre-established harmony is the most bea utiful thing in the world. which gave Britain world naval supremacy. Pangloss. dissected. the Querini. Conti later translated one of Voltaire's plays. by this time more than two-thirds of male nobles. Echoes of Cont i have been found by some in Diderot's Jacques the Fatalist. The creation of a pro-Newton. anti-Leibniz party of French Ang lomaniacs was a decisive contribution to the defeat of France in the mid-century world war we call the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. along with the plenum and subtle matter. Conti was. Among Conti's masks was certainly that of worldly boredom. he died in 1749.'' When Candide visits Venice. the French Newtonians were indispensable for the worldwide consol idation of the Newton myth. and the Giustinian. In 1759. a distillation of Venetian cultural pessimism expressed as a raving attack on Leibniz. and forced to row in a galley. More research is likel y to demonstrate that most of the ideas of the French Enlightenment come from th e Venetian Conti. perhaps. the author of a book of Newtonian Philosophy for Ladies. who published Newton's book on fluxions in French. Another Italian intellectual in Conti's orbi t was Gimbattista Vico. and it wouldn't be proper for me to recant. there were Venetian writers like Voltaire' s friend Algarotti. Here we have the roots of Henry Kissinger's modern homintern . Conti and The French Revolution Return to Top Conti's discussion of the supremacy of the sense of touch when it comes to sense certainty is echoed in the writing of the philosopher Condillac. We are moving toward the world protrayed in Schiller's Geisterseher. never married. the Memmo. he meets Senator Pococurante. later popularized by Benedetto Croce. into Italian. In the episte mological war. In Venice he became the cen tral figure of a salon that was the worthy heir of Ridotto Morosini. Mérope. whom he considers a gr eat genius because everything bores him and nothing pleases him. Senator Pococur ante is clearly a figure of Abbot Antonio Conti. Conti's work was also the basis for the later unleashing of the French Revolution. freethinkers. This was th e sinister coven that called itself the philosophical happy conversazione (``la conversazione filosofica e felice'') that gathered patrician families like the E mo. th e man whom Voltaire quoted admiringly in his letter cited above telling Newton t hat he didn't care--non me ne curo. replied Pangloss. and world domination. Conti was active until mid-century. who labored to rehabilitate Galileo inside the Catholic Church. since Leibniz cannot be wrong. Venetian oligarchs turned t o homosexuality because of their obsession with keeping the family fortune intac t by guaranteeing that there would only be one heir to inherit it. in Italian. In Italy. New ton's ideas were also spread by Abbot Guido Grandi. After Conti's death.ans. Voltaire published his short novel Candide.

Ortes posited an absolute upper limit for the human population of the Earth. On Learned Ignorance]. whi ch he set at 3 billion. This is the model for Jeremy Bent ham's felicific or hedonistic calculus and other writings. Finally. Another agent of this group was Count Cagliostro. Emperor Napoleon later said tha t this operation by Cagliostro had marked the opening phase of the French Revolu tion of 1789. as supported by the Cammeralist school of Colbert. This meant that everything had to be expressed in numbers. Conti r eportedly said of the soul: ``Since it is united with a material body and mixed up with matter. In his Treatise on Ideas. the soul perished with the body itself. He even compared himself to Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. whom he destabilized through the ir own folly in the celebrated Queen's Necklace Affair of 1785. Franklin. Conti was accused of denying the existence of God. could never do any good. Louis XV banned Cas anova from France with a lettre de cachet. Newton. Casanova's main task was to target the French King Louis XV through his sexual appetites. says Conti. Conti also denied the immortality of the human soul. Conti described his own atheism as merely a version of the docta ignorantia [referring to Cusa's book by the same name. and the rest of Lo rd Shelburne's school of British philosophical radicalism in the time after 1763 . He commented that God is something th at we cannot know about. He produced a calculus on the value of opinions. in the same way that Galileo avoided Kepler. which he interprets as Plato' s self-criticism for the mistake of having made ideas themselves the object of p hilosophical attention. Conti's Legacy Of Evil Another member of the Conti-Memmo conversazione was Giammaria Ortes.'' Conti got off with the help of his patrician aristocrat friends. Ortes provided all of the idea-content that is found in Thomas Malthus. Jeremy Bentham. a calculus of the truth of history. He argued that government inter vention. and jokingly confessed his ignorance. a necessary precondition for mass insurrection against them. Using these methods. Surely it is time for an epistemological revolution to roll back the Venetian fr auds of Galileo. Ortes was like the constipated mathematician who worked his problem out with a pencil. One may speculate that Casanova's networks had something to do with the app roximately 25 assassination plots against Louis XV. Conti has left a commentary on Plato's Parmenides. Ortes carried out Conti's program of applying Newtonian methods to the social science s. Conti writes that the fundamen tal error of Plato is to attribute real existence to human ideas. a charlatan and mountebank who se targets were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. and Bertrand Russell. Ortes is the author of a manual of Newtonia n physics for young aristocrats. including a chapter on electricity which manage s to avoid Benjamin Franklin. All our ideas come from sense perceptions.. But this Senatore Pococurante still lives in every classroo m where Newton is taught. True to his factional pedigree. This is the first appearance of carrying capacity. the two Mills. Ortes was another def rocked cleric operating as an abbot. as well as by Grandi. Adam Smith. was an agent of Casan ova. and others . Ortes was adamant that there had never been and could never be an improvement in the living standard of the Earth's human population. a calculus of the pleasures and pains of h uman life. There is good reason to believe that Louis XV's foreign minister De Bernis. who carried out the diplomatic revolution of 1756. Cagliostro was a ble to make Louis and especially Marie Antoinette personally hated. In 1735 Conti was denounced to the Venetian Inquisition because of his reported religious ideas. -------------------------------------------------------------------- . who had bee n taught Newton by Conti personally.

in the last year of his life. After this. In fact. Ortes wrote that m ilitary service was always servitude.N. a defr ocked Camaldolese monk and libertine. euthanasia and other gris ly means. British and Dutch naval vessels operated freely in the northern Adriatic . At the sam e time. pacifism. scheduled to be held in Cairo in September of this year. the author of the infamous ``Essay on the Principle of Population.htm During their preparations for the United Nations' so-called International Confe rence on Population and Development.-sponsored genocide would identify themselves as followers of Parson Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-183 4).tripod. there is virtually nothing that cannot already be found in Ortes .N.N. Ortes was one of the most important ideologues of the Venetian o ligarchy in its final phase. decadent. During the first part of the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713 ). and moribund oligarchical societies the world has ever known. the genocidal bureaucrats of the U. Academic kooks like David Pimentel of Cornell University argue that the earth's carrying capacity is even lower. obliged slavishly to plagiarize their decadent Venetian originals.27 billion to be imposed for th e year 2050. are seeking to condition gov ernments and public opinion worldwide to accept the notion of a ``carrying capac ity'' for our planet. and his ``population possible to subsist on all the earth'' has long since been exceeded and today ha s been doubled. the ``optimum human population'' of ``num ber of people the planet can comfortably support. It is clear that the U. Some preliminary documents for the Ca iro conference set a world population level of 7. published the raving tract Reflections on the Population of Nations in Relation to National Economy. with which Austria absorbed Venic . which by now was also collapsing. The British empiricists were. Here Ortes set the unalterable upper limit for the world's human population at 3 billion. and its oligarchical supporters seek to exte rminate population groups in excess of the limit. and claim that their studies show the need to c ut world population down to 2 billion.N. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1732). In other words. After a las t war with the Ottoman Empire. butchers would like to establish scientific credibility for the idea that there is an absolute theoretical maximu m number of persons the earth can support. as usual. Ortes (1713-1790) was a Venetian charlatan and mountebank. From Passarowitz until the liquidation of the Venetian Republic by Napoleon's in vasion and the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. But all of Malthus's argument is already contained in a mo re explicit form in the writings of Ortes. of one of the most putrid.com/ortes. James Mill (1773-1836) and John Stuart Mi ll (1806-1873).http://american_almanac. The originator of the ``carrying capacity'' argument was Giammaria Ortes. Many current proponents of U. Venice and Ortes Venice during the eighteenth century was on the surface a state of almost total impotence. who in 1790. the Venetians s igned the Treaty of Passarowitz with the Ottomans in 1718. using compulsory abortion. and the Venetians were powerless to do more than protest. and anti-militarism with slogans striki ngly similar to the peace movements of the twentieth century. Venice fo llowed a policy of neutralism. An examination of the history of the ``carrying capacity'' argument reveals that it originated as one of the epistemological weapons of the dying Ve netian Republic during the late eighteenth century--that is.'' which w as published in 1798.'' But where does the idea of ``carrying capacity'' come from? Is there any scienti fic basis for attempting to posit any limit for the human family? There is none whatsoever. in the entire school of Brit ish Philosophical Radicalism after the time of the American Revolution--includin g Malthus. sterilization. the U. which once had been a jealously guarded preserve of the Venetians. Venetian territory was repeatedly violated by the contending French and Hapsb urg armies.

he set to work on the biography of Grandi. From this point on. music. where he also began to study law. In 1734. Orte s retained only the religious title of abate or abbé. By the time of Ortes.'' What Ortes means by this is that he was inspired to attempt the Newtonian or quantitative formal-arithmetical analysis of human a ffairs. and population. Count Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo ). the notorious adventurer Casanova was admitted to the four minor orders of the C hurch and thus also qualified as an abbé. he entered the monastery of S. who taught philosophy and mathematics. in 1741. but between Westminster and St. the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. tourism. In the process. the Serenissima was able to spin out an ``end of history. especially by weakening France and the economic school of Colbert. He re he studied philosophy ``with the Cartesian method'' and was found to be of ph legmatic temperament. a firm believer in the absurd propisition t hat everything that matters can be reduced to a column of figures.'' with the oligarch y drawing its income from landed estates on the Italian mainland. published in 1744. including pimps. This grouping. This completed the consoli dation of Ortes as an arithmomaniac. He says he began to doubt the v alidity of contracts. Giammaria Ortes entered t he Camoldolese monastery of San Mattia on the island of Murano in the lagoon. which was at it . the Venetians of Rialto remained unequaled. The center of the Venet ian Party worldwide was now no longer in the Rialto.e. the Venetians found ways to express their own devoti on to absolute. prostitutes. and t he service sector. Although the work of Galileo had been condemned by the Roman Catholic Church and would stay condemned until 1757. including his own monastic vows. chose ho ly orders and the religious life. while attempting--as always--to env elop and destroy any and all positive figures in art. From Grandi Ortes tells us he learned to think `` with the geometrical method. and the English countryside was filling up with Georgian copies of the Venetian architect Palladio. Here his professor was the Camoldo lese Abbot Guido Grandi. In November of 1727. after 15 years as a monk. Giovanni d ella Giudecca. including history. Ortes had three brothers and two sisters all of whom. and other parasites. satanic evil. Ortes became closely associated with one of the most importa nt salons or ridotti of the Venetian aristocracy. Among the Venetian assets devoted to these activit ies we find such figures as Giacomo Casanova. he got his vows nullified and returned to his family home. Now. which was his first book. science and intelle ctual life. economics. like Giammaria. gigolos. Ortes left Murano and became a student at the University of Pisa in a d ifferent country. When Ortes returned to Venice in 1738. Paul's. and the economist Giammaria Ortes. A second axis of Venetian attack was to undercut the influence of t he German scientist and philosopher Leibniz. A lthough more and more of the nobility was impoverished. This title should suggest to no one that Ortes was some kind of holy man: During this same period. Living in leisu re with the help of his father's modest income. the few dozen families w ho were not were among the very richest in Europe. So the general direction of Venetian intelligence operations was to act in suppo rt of the British Empire. And while Venice had no army at all and no navy to speak of. Ortes and the Venetian Oligarchy During these years. The general outlines of the life of Ortes are these: He was born in Venice in 17 13 into a family of well-off artisans involved in the production of glass pearls . its secret intelligence agencies and diplomats w ere among the most active and effective in all of Europe. Grandi was already t eaching a mixture of Galileo and the more recent views of the British charlatan and magician Sir Isaac Newton. the oligarchical cancer that was Venice had largely metast asized to the City of London and the new British Empire. Grandi was the e ditor of Galileo's works. But in many areas of intrigue and manipulation.

this turned out to be Girolamo Ascanio Giustinian. Emo was one of the leading candidates for the post of doge in 1752. the Vezzi. ``In a corrupt body. Memmo worked with Casanova on Venetian intelligence operations against France during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). in 1763. this Mocenigo was elected the third to last doge or ruling duke of Venice. the Erizzo. like Ortes. he also called hi mself a ``disciple'' of Ortes. * Andrea Memmo came from a family of so-called ``twelve Apostles'' patrician s.'' A total of three members of the Mocenigo family served as doge during the eighteenth century. In 1715. the Moceni go. Some of those who frequented this salon: * Alvise Zuanne Mocenigo. when world predominance passed into the hands of the British. and the Giustinian. where Ortes usually we nt on vacation. and thus an administrator of the centralized investme nt fund of Venice. and was a close personal associate of Casanova. * The Procurator of St.'' Nani exudes the historical and cultur al pessimism that is the hallmark of Ortes. * The abate Antonio Conti (1677-1749) was a Venetian nobleman who was the mo st celebrated intellectual of the conversazione.'' Some of Nani's essays are extant in manuscript a t the library of the University of Padua. Later. Mark's Zuanne Emo was one of the leaders of the Vene tian aristocracy during this time. he visited London and became a close personal ally of Sir Isaac Newton. and sometimes at the summer home of the Labia. Popular opinion was quick to give him the nickname of ``the Duchess. who were said to have participated at the election of the first doge in 697 A . Ortes modestly wrote that he ``had only been [Mem mo's] maestro for a few months and only out of friendship. * The patrician Giacomo Nani was. the Mem mo. Sometimes the salon would meet at the palace of the Emo in Venice. Andrea Memmo was one of the leading figures of European freemasonry.'' and thanked Memmo l ate in life for his ``old friendship'' and ``modern-day protection. Ortes had dedicated a poem to Mocenigo when he was made procu rator in 1737. Paolo Sarpi. who frequented the conversazione.s height during the period 1740-1760. These included the Labia. the Conti. ``all the ills of our Repu blic were less bad than the remedies. out of which had come Galileo. Ortes would contribute a sonnet to the m arriage celebration of another Mocenigo. For Nani. These include ``Political Reflections on the Government of Our City'' and ``Political Essay about the Aristocracy of t he Republic of Venice for the Year 1756.'' * When Ortes published his major work on national economy. was a Procurator of Saint Mark's basilica. Conti traveled to Hannover to meet Leibniz and to undertake operations against him in court intrigue as well as in epistemo logy. for whom he became an internat ional operative of great importance.'' wrote Nani. Conti was also well known for his pseudo-classical poetry and tragedies on Roman imperial themes. the Querini. obsessed with applying ``geome try'' to ``political science. he was told that a very high official of the Venetian government had greatly praised his labors. the Nani. called itself the ``conversazione filosofi ca e felice'' (``philosophical and happy conversation group''). but was defeated by Francesco Loredan. This was a Venet ian salon in the tradition of the ``ridotto Morosini'' of the second half of the sixteenth century. and attracted a ttention for his 1713 debates with the French philosopher Malebranche.'' Nani's starting point was the obvious de cadence and rottenness of Venice. If Memmo was unque stionably one of the leaders of Venetian foreign intelligence. ``everythin . The ``conversazione filosofica e felice'' was the ideological arm of a closely a llied group of Venetian oligarchical families.D. Conti translated Pope's ``Rape of the Lock'' into Italian. the Emo. and the Venetian orchestration of the Thirty Years' War. In 1759. a regular of the conversazion e.

pp.'' In the ensuing affai r. il p atriziato e la politica di Venezia'' in Giammaria Ortes: Un `Filosofo' Veneziano del Settecento (Florence: Olschki. no reforms or government actions would ever produce positive results. 125-182. Memmo descri bed Ortes as ``a good Christian. was outlawed by the Venetian censors. Ortes had built up his own d irect relations with other influential patricians like Tomaso Contarini. Ortes's first book on economics. These were the freemasons. He was also addicted to card playing.g is converted into evil juices and everything becomes bad food. as ``an indication of the ironic character of the definition. cabalists. In 1752.'' The latter two were determined by their belief either in quietism or what Nani called ``libertinismo. Ortes was writing to the patrician Fiordelis e Labia as her humble servant and to one of the Querini as ``my good patron and friend. charlatans. he always kept in touch with Memmo. gamblers. He said that the libertines really h ad ``a spirit that matched that of the Republic'' and represented the ``real. In a letter written by Andrea Memmo to his friend Giuseppe Torelli. and then two ideological groupings: the ``good or quiet one s'' and the ``strong and free spirits. ``the lesser evil is to leave everything the way it is. The libertines were a social mo vement especially in France from the days of Montaigne and Bayle through the Fre nch Revolution. By contrast.'' Nani classed hi mself and his friends among the libertines. was that of an ultra-clerical reactionary. and totally indiffer ent'' in the sense of being an agnostic. According to Ortes scholar Piero del Ne gro. especially after about 1760. necr omancers. Na ni thought. alchemists. and corresponded with a number of female singers and a ctresses. Ortes's friend and ideologue Nani divided the Venetian aristocracy into four par ties or classes: These were the ``signori.'' Therefore. But he was a passionate devotee of t he theatre and the opera.] In 1757. an attempt by Ortes to get a book publis hed in Bologna was blocked by the censors of the papal states. ``good Christian'' is underlined in the original.'' And as we have seen.'' ``original'' values of Venice. Ortes's book. the ``poveri. The libertines were a powerful force for the destruction of eighteenth-century E uropean society.'' [Piero Del Negro. All his life Ortes was officially celibate.'' or richest nobles. '' In addition to his friends of the conversazione.'' In other w ords. These facts about Ortes are important because they undercut the efforts of Ortes himself and of his Anglo-Venetian successors to present him as a lonely and ecc entric recluse. a po int repeated obsessively by Ortes. especially to the popular game o f faro. hedonists.'' or destitute nobles. ``Giammaria Ortes. This book c ontains a table in which widespread ``errors'' are answered by ``axioms'' formul . 1993).'' But during these same years. they were the social milieu through which Casanova and Cagliostr o moved. his 1771 Popu lar Errors Concerning National Economy is already largely given over to a defens e of the prebends and livings of the priesthood and the holy orders. The world of the libertines is evoked in Schiller's novel Der Geisterseher. Towards the end of his life Ortes wrote of himself as a man ``al most unknown to his own country'' who had ``very few friends and even fewer patr ons. Libertine networks were an important asset of Venetian intelligence. the public profile of Ortes. At the end of many of his writings Ortes added his motto: ``Chi mi sa di r s'io fingo?'' This means: ``Who can tell me if I am pretending?'' Those who co nclude that Ortes was indeed a faker and a libertine will be on firm ground. Voltaire and Rousseau. a philosopher. On another occasion. a Venetian abbé by the name of Milesi congratulated Ortes for ``the honor in which he was held by the main and most illuminated persons of this Republic. Calculation on the Value of Human Opinions. a good man. a Venetian lit erary newspaper attacked Ortes as being a ``physiotheist. and polyvalent procurers who advanced under th e banner of Hobbes and Locke.

'' In 1785. Bavaria.'' Axiom IV answers: ``The incomes of churchmen cannot be excessive. Ortes was also in contact wi th the Austrian Empire's ambassador to Venice. specifically against Gr eat Britain and Frederick the Great of Prussia. since Ortes was clearly assigned at the time as an Aust rian handler. Count Philip Joseph Orsini-Rosenb erg. could only be passed on to members of the same family or ecclesia stical community. Ortes was in France. comes down against the British-allied side. Ortes's itinerary of the peri .'' Error V: ``The inc omes of churchmen reduce those of the general population.ated by Ortes. but Ortes supported it as necessary for the stability of church and stat e. the two phases of the world war of the mid-eighteenth century from which t he British Empire emerged victorious. and began work on an Italian translation of Pope's ``Essay on Man'' which was p ublished three decades later. 17] This recalls Malthus's argument that a well-funded state church is necessar y to provide the effective demand needed to prevent crises of overproduction--an argument summed up in Malthus's creed that a ``church with a capacious maw is b est. The period of Ortes's intensive travel roughly coincides with the 1748 to 1756 i nterval of peace between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. es pecially land. At other times. the famous ``reversal of alliances'' which for the first time in cent uries saw French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs allied. and Spain were opposed to Great Britain. This is not surprising. A short unpublished manuscript is conserved in the archives of Venice's Bibliote ca Marciana in which Ortes. The economic writings of Ortes also show that he was aware of the existence of extreme poverty in England. Count Kaunitz would ask f or two copies of Ortes's book on national economy. he was in Tuscany with a lifelong contact. during the War of the Austrian Succession in w hich France. the Austrian fo reign minister. and not otherwise disposed of. During 1755. Between April and Augus t 1756 Ortes was in Berlin. Anticlerical forces attacked mo rtmain. 12. He went to Vienna in 1746. began to negotiate what became known as the Diplomatic Revolutio n of 1756. who had married a former lover of both Casanova and of Andrea Memmo. states that ``the survival of a principality depends on the amount of its own forces multiplied by its deception to defend itself from the f orces of its neighbors. which was under attack by the Venetia n government. gives his view s on a white paper of the Prussian government which set forth the official reaso ns for Frederick the Great's termination of his treaty with Austria. the Grand Prior of Hungary and a secret counselor (Geheimr at) of the Imperial Austrian court. which he descr ibes. 1756. Around 1745. Prussia. Austria. Ortes became interested in the English writer Alexander Pope. Count Octavian Karl Nic olaus von Sinzendorf. Ortes travelled extensively through It aly. Louis XV of France and Count Kaunitz. Ortes was also employed by Venetian intelligence as an operative in foreign coun tries.'' [Bartolo Anglani. Error IV reads ``The incomes of churchmen are excessive. Giusti niana Wynne. in 1776. During the summer of 1755. formally speaking. Mortmain was a device used in wills to guarantee that property. and Holland. p.'' [Errori popolari. Then Ortes went on to Vienna. In 1751.'' Axiom V: ``The incom es of churchmen increase those of the general population. 77] Ortes supports the Austrian p osition and thus. where his contact with Sinzendorf is confirmed. ever the arithmomaniac. p. and he returned to Vienna at the end of that year. Ortes. perhaps with Sinzendorf. Later. Ortes devoted another book to a defense of ecclesiastical mortmain (cal led fidecommessi or manomorte in Italian). During the following years. A short biography of Ortes provided by his posthumous editor Custodi states that Ortes also visited England during these y ears. writing from Vienna on Nov.

Vienna. 101-102. ``a species of men took over the actual representation of this spi rit. religion wa s represented as quasi-human and modelled on ``sublimated human authority. then it was certainly in the European race of that time. The ``necessity of the times created a similar authority.'' [Anglani. and the ex altation of backwardness and irrationality. in the absence of a sword. the desire to wipe out the Roman papacy. Aza and Zima embrace the typical doctrines of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.. with thunderbolts and dart s.'' Finally. The full story of Ortes's role in these events is still hidden in unpublished materials in the Venetian archives. The se men were destined to consider themsleves as mediators between that spirit and every other common man. For Aza and Zima. while the Euro pean philosopher answers with the ideas of Thomas Hobbes. the noble savage Aza. ``Ortes e Rousseau: Le `Rife lssioni di un Filosofo Americano' '' in Giammaria Ortes: Un `Filosofo' Veneziano del Settecento. expressed from a multicultural standpoint. and Berlin. Such is the case of Ortes's work Reflections of an American Philosopher of a Few Centuries in the Future on the Customs of th e Europeans of the Current Century. and they would have seen from the larger and more tranquil part of mankind w hat is their natural condition. living free and independent. Writing two centuries in the future from Ortes's time. with Some Considerations on these of a Europ ean Philosopher of the Current Century...] Then came the invention of ``another life'' after l ife on earth. This is a work full of hatred for wester n civilization. beyond that margin of the earth where they had so thoughtlessly multiplied thems elves.] Within society. Aza is later joined by anot her noble savage of the Americas. then as the arbitrary creator of laws.. without needs or desires which could not be easily satisfi ed.od touches three capitals immediately involved in the rapid policy shifts of 175 5-56--Paris.. but which have survived only in manuscript. 102. Given his need to preserve his cover as a churchman. named Zima. Aza t races the origin within western society of authority. The Outlook of Ortes Ortes often speaks most frankly in the works which he never published. and Asia.'' Aza continues: ``It is true that in order to realize their error it should have been enough [for the Europeans] to extend their thoughts beyond what their eyes could see. and not being able to assign it on earth. who offers further observations. offers a commentary on the decadence and corruption of `` those barbarians. Ortes targets in particular religion for a special attack. 101] The answer given to all th is by the European philosopher of 1760 is the brutal Hobbesian one that human be ings are compelled to live together in society in order to avoid the attacks and aggressions of which they would otherwise be the target. says Aza. they tried to make the spirit itself palpable.'' [Bartolo Anglani. Aza finds that ``if nature ever produced a bastard. Ortes was well advised not to have published this piece of writ . pp. 104. the cause of European decadence is the existence of society it self. T hen the entire package is commented upon by a European of the time of Ortes. they thought to extract it from the sky. Africa. It was agreed to give credence to a heavenly authority armed.. Here we see the constant themes of Venetian propaganda from the Third Crusade th rough the war against the Renaissance to Mazzini: the denigration of western civ ilization and Latin Christianity by a city-state that was always a part of the B yzantine-Orthodox tradition.'' Lat er. And to make that more persuasive. pp. without vices and not afflicted by any social establishment.'' [Anglani. first as custodian and int erpreter of the laws. to the vast tracts of America.'' that is to say of the Europeans. Here they would have see n humanity. a life of ``invariable and eternal length'' to be lived out by ``a special and separable essence'' called ``soul or spirit. one of the indigenous pe oples of the Americas. and formed that famous union among themselves which they called Church. giving it human form and making it visible for all time in a succession of lieutenants.

'' [Anglani. Ortes published two essays in one volume entitled Calc ulation of the Value of Opinions and of the Pleasures and Pains of Human Life. then. which would have placed him among the most raging libertines of his century . Ortes published nothing for more than a deca .. Ortes's main point in the Calculation of the Pleasu res and Pains of Human Life is that man is above all a creature dominated by pai n and suffering. . that one superstition does nothing b ut fight another. So that we would say that since in human affairs everything depends on p assion. I find myself to be of this species without complaining about it. and that the lazy man is the most abject among men because he is without passions and without superstitions. tha t pain in man is in greater supply than pleasure. since it is clear that riches change and buy opinions like any other type of commerce. and pleasure the brief exception. 1757 listed a series of propositions found by the reviewer in Ortes's book. If these doctrines are thought to redound to the discredit of humanity. After 1757.'' In the same year of 1757. But Ortes's published works are revealing enough.'' Ortes had written that: ``every man is inclined by nature to the pleasure of the senses. 147-148] It was the Calculation of the Value of Human Opinions that got Ortes in trouble with the censors and brought him under public attack as a ``physiotheist. p. This induce s him to live in society from which he derives a quantity of these pleasures. and thus become the common measur e of opinions as of all the products of nature and of art. and all are equally worth nothing. And when I say all.. precisely because it is a persuasion for which no reason can be furnis hed. Ortes sums up his argument thus: ``That man is subjected by nature to pain and not to pleasure. These riches. 126] During these years. In 1757. and if I conclude th at all the pains and pleasures of this life are only illusions.'' which Ortes was accused of having defined as ``a useful d eception. I can add that a ll human ratiocinations are only madness.'' [Anglani. that the number of pains and p leasures depends on the force of application--this can be said with certainty. everything depends on superstition. and prefigures the later hedonistic calculus of Jeremy Bentham.. Pain is the norm.'' The Venetian newspaper Novelle della repubblica letteraria of Aug. divided by the number of supporters of these opinions. that pain and pleasure proceed in man from the torment and from the relief of his fibers. Among these were that ``every man is equal to every other. and that what is called pleasure is merely the momentary absenc e of pain. 122] Ortes further asserted that: ``the value of opinions are riches. 27. pp. Here the abbé makes the following observation on the essence of gam bling and human nature: ``The fact that a passion for gambling is a superstition will not seem stran ge to anyone who considers that any human passion is just as much a passion and an error.. Ortes published his ` `Calcolo sopra i giuochi della bassetta e del faraone. Ortes was interested in contemporary French writers like Mau pertuis and La Mettrie. T he atmosphere here is Hobbes and Mandeville. t hat measure opinions are those that we possess or that we acquire or that we can make use of by means of these opinions.'' T hen came ``prudence.'' a mathematical study of card playing.. that the man who is considered the most important is the most superstitious.ing. I do not except my own calculations.'' [Anglani.

de. p. but will be roused to work as much as necessary to survive or to satisfy other needs. In the course of this argument.. 41-42] Ortes goes on to add some observations on what he calls ``economic good and evil '' or the abundance and deficiency of products. which means that nobody undertakes an action. Hence derives for Ortes the fixed and unimprovable level of the weal th of each nation. but is rat her contrary to what is usually advanced on this subject in public discourse. What Ortes means. Those who have insight can see that: ``national economy is a matter which cannot be improved in any way by any pa rticular action. the substances spread throughout a nation and by means of which the nation exists must be determined precisely by the needs of the nation. have to end up as useless efforts. as Ortes says: ``Having posited this truth.. Ec. Della Economia Nazionale (On Nation al Economy). no one will ever work more than is necessary for survival and for the satisfaction of t hese needs. I say again. these goods cannot fall short or be excessive in r elation to their need. Ortes published his principal work. without any abundance or deficiency. so if we suppose i n any nation some number of persons. and that it cannot exceed this need by even a hairsbreadth. and the reason for the production of these goods will only be precisel y providing for these persons. [Nuccio. and all attempts by persons seeking to organize national econom y according to a better system. The only problems that can be solved by hu man intervention or the policies of government are to some degree those of distr ibution. pp. be they the most common or the m ost bizarre. Ortes the Economist In 1774. thanks to the fact that if the goods were not there or we .'' [Nucci o. work. However.'' Ortes expands on this theme: ``But that the general wealth cannot be increased for some without an equal deficiency of them for others. he wrote to a friend that he had stopped studying. as f ar as I know. 43-44] This is doubtless a conscious parody of Leibniz's famous doctrine of sufficient reason. that no one can find himself better off without s omeone else being worse off. as regards provision or increase of goods. Ortes mea ns that a human being will normally tend to inert torpor. Because however these persons can only consume a determined quantity of goods. In 1761. by contrast. neither by the charms of a charlatan nor by t he work of a philosopher nor even by the work of a sovereign. As a Venetian Aristotelian. that the mass of c ommon goods is determined in every nation by the need. is done with sufficient reason . they will require certain goods in order to survive. be this motivation good or evil. which will always be the product of its population multiplied by this irreducible minimum amount of work. this is what. This is when he decided to become an economist. Naz. in secret murmurings and with all kinds of books. or job of any kind without an impulse of motivation for this. Or.. that everything that is done. or without somebody's suffering. Orte s believes that production is rigidly determined by the number of people involve d. Ortes sets up the single axiom upon which his en tire study of national economy will depend: ``This will be. is the most vulgar materialism and hedonism. and cannot otherwise be increased. He begins by dismissing as superficial those believers in progress and humanitarians who wish to improve the material prosperity of humanity. which for him was a principle of the intelligibility of causality. was never said or at least was never proven by anybody..

this good can only appear as a mixture of econ omic good and evil. Ortes starts off by noting that ``these writers are all accustomed to teach that the growth of population is a great advantage to a nation. without which nothing is ever done. p. and pleasurable for its maintenan ce. But economic good and the lack of it were equal under these two empe rors. or as the vecto r sum of forces which. 8] . which can be convincingly shown by the fact that no matter how many people Titus made happy. all those persons would not survive. so that wealth grew under Titus and decreased under Nero. commodious. whom he presents as a model of good and mild government.'' [Ortes. with the supposition of thus increasing wealth a nd by consequence the national greatness and power which depend on that wealth. then those goods would have been produced and would be kept without su fficient reason. Ortes contends that ``the population in any nation must be conta ined within certain limits.. without making anyone unhappy. which is c ontrary to our supposition. Ortes attacks foreign trade: ``I have no doubt in asserting that domestic trade is to be preferred to for eign trade in the certainty that domestic trade is the one by which a nation is provided with the goods necessary.'' [Ortes. understood as the possession of goods in excess of wha t is needed. since Titus purs ued his own interests without destruction and Nero pursued his interests with th e destruction of the common good. Ortes then argues that Roman soceity was just as well off under Nero as under Titus: ``people will certainly say that Titus promoted [the common good] in his tim e. p. published in 1790. 45] Ortes then proceeds to provide a graphic and extreme illustration of these absur d ideas. and since there is an inevitable lack of goods for some if the se are to be abundant for others. can only be expressed between the individual and the commonality as the number zero. and the emperor Titus.' ' Against this. [Nuccio.50] Which goes to show that a determined Aristotelian kook can ``prove'' literally a nything. who was certain ly a bloody and repressive tyrant. The experienced card-playing abbé makes this very explicit: ``The good therefore. said the Spanish proverb. and if the goods were excessive or were superior to the need. and Nero someone to make unhappy. Ortes as Demographer Ortes's most influential work was his Reflections on the Population of Nations i n Relation to National Economy. and no matter how many people Nero made unhappy in order to make himself happy.re inferior to the needs of all. p. Titus would nevertheless etern ally have found someone to make happy. destroy each other and resolve themselves into nothing. as we pointed out. to govern is to populate. and that Nero promoted it in the totally opposite direction. operating with equal energy in different and opposite dir ections..'' [Nucc io. but apparently written starti ng in 1775. p. The dirigists and kameralists of the eighteenth century were agreed that one of the main purposes of government was the promotion of population as t he key source of national wealth: gobernar es poblar. He sets up the contrast between the Roman Emperor Nero. 7] Alongside of population growth. which tends neither to one nor to the other.. and foreign trade is only a supplement for deficiencies in domestic trade.'' [Nucci o p. 44] Ortes has thus preceded John Von Neumann and others in defining economic reality as a zero-sum game.

10] What of the fact that the sovereign. without which there would be no sovereign.'' [Ortes. In his first chapter. The current century claims to be the most illuminated.. and this is a very false thing. 13] Economists o ught to be concerned about redistribution of wealth by ``diminishing the excessi ve wealth of the rich. But he quickly adds that: ``since the capital of money and of goods in every nation is in proportion t o its population. clothing. would by now be found to have grown to so many living per sons not only as to not be able to breathe on the earth. it must be said that the greater wealth of some only occurs th rough just as much greater poverty for others in the nation itself. Human population increas e is limited by mankind's need for products like ``food. to increase a nation's population and foreign trade with the goal of making that nation richer. government. p. greater. and great nobility of certain c ountries seem to be much wealthier than those of other countries? Ortes concedes that they may indeed be wealthier. [Ortes. This ma kes known that there is a necessary limit at which the progress of generations s tops.'' Therefore. but is in reality the most stupid and sensel ess of all. 12] To make the government and the nobility rich.'' These . and that given the same population it is not poss ible to increase them for some people without reducing them just as much for oth ers. in which instead of looking at the whole nation only a few are con sidered. H e assumes a natural and unalterable tendency of each couple to produce 6 childre n.5 billion.. arguing that such free trade would be equally beneficial for all concerned.In other locations Ortes endorsed free trade precisely as this type of supplemen t. such as the sovereign and the great nobles who shine most brightly.'' [Ortes. a population which doubles every 30 years will reach more than 7.'' Ortes star ts from his standard population sample of two men and two women of an age suitab le for reproduction.. He repeats h is creed that: ``the goods of a nation are in every nation in proportion to the population. Ortes has no trouble in denying the obvious fact that the standard of living and productive capacities do vary among nations. far greater masses of people are m ade poor. and dwellings of the vegetable and animal types as they are in use in human life. taking into account only time and the faculty of generation. but of these together with the rest of the popul ation.. Ortes then shows.000 years which are usually counted from the creation of the world until today. p.'' [Ortes. the pop ulation. after those 6.. entitled ``Unlimited Progress of Generations. and more powerful than the others is nothing but a fraud.'' but the economists do the opposite. but even so many as cou ld not be contained on all its surface from the deepest valleys to the steepest mountains. resulting in ``servitude and oppression. with two surviving parents and one surviving grandparent. the population will double every 30 years. that at this rate. p. Against all evidence. of which 2 die before reaching the age of 20.. without excess or deficiency. the limit to population growth is provided by the action s of mankind or by predators and other natural factors. because the nation is made up not just of this sove reign or of those great nobles. He produces furthe r tables to show that after 900 years. Ortes comments: ``Thus. packed numerous like dead and dried herring in their barrels. 28] In the case of animals. with tables. p. no great nobles and no nation at all.

Why had world population not already collide d with the 3 billion upper limit? Ortes blamed the rich. Ort es contrasted to this model of a ``natural'' nation the ``artificial'' nations. 34] Ortes always strictly ignored technological change and the impact that this migh t have on. He called for as many persons to re main celibate as got married. and a population density of 200 persons per square mile. Venice on the eve of its extinction. Therefore. the mutual intelligibility of di alects would be lost and the people would no longer speak the same language. this is somethin g that will happen after 840 years if the 7 persons assumed had found themselves alone on the earth at the creation of the world or after a universal flood. human population growth must also be limite d: ``In this way. There was no such thing as progress or improvement. frozen. polygamy. to dress. and ``other modes of incont inence used by the barbarous nations. all forms of production were fixed. In his view. agricultural production. since it is believed that all the products mentioned above as necessary for human life which can be extracted from the entire surface of the earth and from the animals that are found there are as many as are sufficient to feed. for example. wealth and population were concentrated in the congested capital and other big cities. Ortes ignored the primary data of economics and the main factors which determine relative potential poopulation de nsity in the real world.000 million persons. As undesirable alternatives to celibacy he listed prostitution.'' [Ortes. or infant mortality and life ex pectancy. Although Ortes set the world's ``carrying capacity'' at an immutable maximum of 3 billion.'' In the artificial states. which was a state of 5. If that progression [of population] were to proceed beyond this. and thus kept the poor too impecunious to be able to maintain any fa mily at all. Popu lation would expand. he estimated that in his contemporary world the total human populatio n was slightly more than 1 billion. . These arguments are deeply tinged with Venetian provincialism. 41] Later Ortes established his model of an ideal or ``natural'' nation. For this. p. and used tables to show that if this were the case . and did not double its surface for each new generation until it filled the immensity of the skies. characterized by ``immense numbers of people on lands that are even more immense in relation to their numbers. the parents would have to strangle their babies in their diapers or use them as food.. says the abbé. Ortes thought. this will therefore b e the maximum of persons capable of surviving at the same time on earth. unless the e arth were expand like a balloon blown up from the inside. leaving vast a reas empty.000 square miles of territory of the type found in the Italy of his day (The miles used by Ortes are old pre-metric system Italian miles which appro ximate nautical miles). he recommended celibacy. and to house up to 3. and never had and never would change. ``if men were less greedy or did not oppress each other with poverty and wit h excessive riches.'' [ Ortes. such a state would allow the optim al use of economic resources by minimizing the depradations of government and co urt. For him. He added that if a country got any bigger. p. and tha t progression will have to stop when it arrives at that number. p. 35] Ortes believed that it was necessary to stabilize world population in a zero gro wth mode. eunuchs. with a population of 1 million.are limited. In igno ring technological and scientific innovation. population would remain permanently stationary. Ortes is interesting only as a kind of Canaletto of eco nomic pathology who provides us with snapshots of a society of monstrous stagnat ion and decadence. who limited the size of their families in order to keep their wealth concentrated in a single line of i nheritance..'' [Ortes.

This gave a total Europ ean population of 160.000. It may be obvious already that Ortes had never studied population growth as such .000 inhabitants.. At this stage the city of Venice had a bout 160. Rodenwalt. This was the policy warmly recommended by Ortes as one of the main policy points of his Reflections on Population: a way of selling luxurious state rooms on the Titanic.'' Marx quotes Ortes's remark at the opening of On Nation al Economy that ``instead of projecting useless systems for the happiness of the peoples. in the seventeenth century this had r isen to 60%. The samples of Ortes's dem agogy proivded here may cast some light on the reasons for this affinity. according to his es timates. In volume I of Cap ital Marx praised ``the Venetian monk. Of the fourteen doges who rei gned between 1675 and 1775. political fixers. but summ oned only respect for the Venetian Ortes. Ortes also received high praise from Karl Marx.'' Doubtless instructed by his master D avid Urquhart. More than two-thirds of the daughters of the aristocracy had no hope of finding husbands. where the population density reached 200 per square mile. Marx railed against Malthus as a reactionary plagiarist. but was merely describing some aspects of the moribund society of which he was a part--decadent Venice a few years before its end. But he thought that Asia was more densely populated than either Africa. and in Venice's final century to 66%. I will limit myself to investigating the cause of their unhappiness. Holland. and Switzerland. only four were ever married--and this does not count the ``dogaressa'' mentioned above. The impoverished nobility formed a social class known as the barnabotti who reta ined their membership in the Maggior Consiglio. Austria. in the sixteenth century 51% o f Venetian male nobles remained unmarried. Prussia.. Great Britain. family membership in the Maggior Consiglio was offered in return for large ca sh payments at various times during the eighteenth century.'' For Marx. Ortes on Venetian Decadence Ortes admitted more or less openly that he was writing about Venice. In Russia and Euro pean Turkey he estimated 40 inhabitants per square mile.. with 220 million.000. with the youngest son often bein g given the responsibility for carrying on the line. a sizable decline from earlier centuries. Ortes always provides a class analysis imbued with class conflict according to the shi fting alliances of the various strata of Venetian patricians.000. and Pol and. His chapter s on the demographics of noble families reflected the Venetian decadence: for th e family fondo to remain concentrated in a single line of biological inheritance . In order to avoid the decimation of the ranks of the aristocrac y. but with a population of only 480. Ortes was distinguished by his steady contemplation of ``the fa tal destiny that makes misery eternal.000 because of an even lower popu lation density. or the Americas. with 240 million. According to E.'' In Marx's view. He estimated that Asia was five times bigger than Europe. In Spain. etc. In addition to having provided the main ideas for the English philosophical radi cals. but who were forced by their nob le status to abstain from any productive work and who thus tended to become corr upt state officials. Many b arnabotti lived on government welfare payments. spies for the Council of Ten. Ortes was ``one of the great economic writers of the eighteenth c entury [who] regards the antagonism of capitalist production as a general natura l law of social wealth. Ortes'' as ``an original and clever write r. Whether his ideal state has 1 million people or 3 million (as at various points in On National Economy) it is clear that he has only Venice in mind.Ortes thought that the more ``natural'' European states were the petty Italian a nd German states. all the sons but one had to remain unmarried. and generally ent ered convents and other religious institutions which quickly acquired a reputati on for licentiousness. he estimated a population density of 72 per square mile. France. Free housing and other provision s were offered to any of the barnabotti who agreed to remain unmarried and to ha ve no offspring. .

President Webster Tarpley chaired the panel on ``Lor d Palmerston's Multicultural Zoo'' at the Schiller Institute's conference on Feb . He has declared it here in the Ho uses of Parliament. On the continent they call h im Lord Firebrand. What follows is Tarpley's introduction. the Dutch. every Briton is a citizen of this new Rome. an d the Danes. the London of Dickens and Thackeray.In reality. and Gladstones--simply cannot match. Subtitles hav e been added. A New Roman Empire It is 1850. are the haunts of this nine teenth-century devil. saying that wherever in the world a British subject goes. In London they call him Lord Cupid. of John Stuart Mill and Thomas Carlyle .tripod. client. Lord Palmerston is engaged in a campaign to make London the undisput ed center of a new. Britain is the mistress of the seas. The empress is Queen Victoria. I am now standing in the shadow of the Houses of Parliament in the part of Londo n called Westminster.com/palmzoo2. but an evil Venetian charlatan. reducing every other nation to the role of a puppet. between 1830 and the end of the American Civil War. and for 35 years the re is scarcely a cabinet without Palmerston as foreign secretary or prime minist er. Yet it is in the name of doctrines of population stability an d world carrying capacity traceable back to this raving faker of Venetian intell igence that the international Malthusian movement and the United Nations bureauc racy propose to carry out the greatest genocide of human history. a Regency buck always on the lookout for a new mistress. Britain is not really a monarchy. th at son is Lord Palmerston. the Portuguese. Disraelis. perfectly at home in a ménage ô trois. then a Whig. It is the year of grace 1850. Lord Palmerston's campaign is not a secret. all of these. Palmerston was firs t a Tory. shortly to embrace between one-fifth and one-fourth of the total population and land area of the Earth. and as the ``choral'' backdrop to the historical drama. between Big Ben and the Foreign Office. who is largely occupied with Prince Albert in her business of breeding new litters of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to take over the royal ho uses of Europe. ``Civis Ro manus sum. the third Viscount Palmerston. But for all of Victoria's wealth and power . old Pam. The schoolboys of Vienna sing that if the devil has a son. 20. Around me lies Victorian Lon don. worldwide Roman Empire. always a disciple of Jeremy Bentham. He was a wri ter of excruciating boredom who managed to be a pedant while citing no authors o ther than himself. ``Pam'' is an occultist who loves Satanism and seance s. Henry Temple. Ortes was no economist. is Lord Palmerston. Schiller Institute U. And here. A quarter-century from now Victoria will be made empress of Indi a to reward her for so much breeding. it is an oligarchy on the Venetian model. He is attempting to conquer the worl d in the way that the British have already conquered India. It is the new Rome on the banks of the Thames. Tarpley served as tour guide through the centuries. introducing each of the seven speakers in turn and concluding the panel. Although in theory there are still empir es ruled by the French. the Spanish. This capital city is now the center of the greatest colonial empire the world has ever known. he can flaunt the laws. and fall-guy for British imperial polic y. secure that the British fleet will support him. the empire upon which the su n never sets. an d the most powerful leader of the British oligarchy in these times. --------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. the Belgians. The insanity o f Giammaria Ortes is one more good reason to boycott and shut down the Cairo Con ference. in this year of 1850.S.htm Speaking from the vantage point of Lord Palmerston's British Empire circa 18 50.'' thundered Lord Palmerst . Lord Palmerston. are but the satellites of the B ritish Empire. Palmerston is the man the others--t he Russells.

Lord P almerston likes to call these the ``arbitrary powers. civil war in Austria. Palmerston and the East India Company have been waging Opium Wars aga inst the Chinese Empire. For Britain to rule the world. M etternich presided over one of the most pervasive police states in history. and impose their direct rule in all of India. and Prussia had to be broken up. Typical John S tuart Mill.on. He. But in central and eastern Europe. the British will be in Beijing. The imperial theme was sounded in 1846 with the free trade policy. of course. Hindu soldiers will be tol d the cartridges are greased with cow fat. under the autocrat N icholas I or the reformer Alexander II. and the result will be what you would expect. the mastermind of secession. Palmerston and Joh n Stuart Mill at the British East India Company will start the Great Mutiny in I ndia. These projects will be closely coordinated with Palmerston's plans to elimi nate the only two nations still able to oppose him--the Russia of Alexander II a nd the United States of Abraham Lincoln. at l east for a time. Starting with Lord Byron's Greek Revolution in the 1820s. is the author of ``On Liberty. every government in Europe was toppled. After 1815. And in the midst of tha t war. Britain's dec laration of intent to loot the world in the name of the pound. Metternich of Austria and King Louis Philippe of France fled to London. and it will be calle d the Crimean War. S ince 1842. the French-be they restored Bourbons. not . Lord Palmerston arranged an insurrection in Sicily. with the help of his strategic catamite. During the Napoleonic Wars. Palmerston ha ted Metternich.'' Above all. Palmerston will detonate a rebellion in Poland against Russian rule. Napoléon III. Lord Palmerston will be the evil demiur ge of the American Civil War. partly to get them to open their ports to opium from In dia. Men said his rule was shored up by a standing army of soldiers. there was Prince Metternich's Austrian Empire . and in the course of that yea r. also know n as Napoléon le Petit. That started the great revolutionary year of 1848. Then. Shortly after that. As soon as the war against Russia is over. Orleanists. The only exception to the rule was Russia. Russia. and tumult in Germany. and also as a way to conquer China. or Bonapartists--are generally pliant to ols of London. the embodiment and ideologue of the Congress of Vienna system. the universal empire was proclaimed. Muslim soldiers will be told that new cartridges are greased with pig fat. British pol icy has been to play the card of national liberation against each of these rival empires. and a creeping army of informers. a sitting army of bu reaucrats. the Holy Alliance of Austria. Already the British have Hong Kong and the other treaty ports. in January 1848. a very strong land power. looting and bur ning the summer palace of the emperor. There was war in Italy. Lee. which some historians will call the Sepoy Rebellion. using British networks that went back to Lord Nelson. far more important fo r the Confederacy than Jefferson Davis or Robert E. where they now spend their time playing cards. There was vast Imperial Russia.'' The British would like to give China the same treatment they are giving India. There was the Kingdom of Prussia. the British managed to conquer most of the world out side of Europe. By 1860. and every monarchy badly shaken. and now Lord Palmerston is preparing to invade Russia. the British will back Napoléon in his project of putting a Hap sburg archduke on the throne of an ephemeral Mexican Empire--the Maximilian Proj ect. and with that. a kneeling army of priests. But in the conflagration the British will get rid of the Great Mogul an d the Mogul Empire. barricades in Paris. with the exception of the United States. There is also the matter of the dismemberment of the Ottom an Empire. That will start in about three years.

the Home Office. of human rights. there are some factories here. understood as racial nationalities. Pam has the Foreign Office. when the Stars and Bars are lowered over Vicksburg. when Lee's wav e breaks at Gettysburg. These Three Stooges--far more than the Union Jack. but Britain lives by loot ing the colonies. the bul ldog breed. But instead of Moe. and Curly. and that if you can control culture. an d Whitehall. and bombs against each other. the British Empire will be stopped--just short of its goal. in 1831. and the fleet--are the heart of what i s called the British Empire.] You understand: Their stock in trade was infantile violence. Bri tish hegemony will still be great enough to launch the two world wars of the twe ntieth century. you can control the way people think.'' `` Dio e Popolo. the thin gray line of heroes. [Slapstick episode from a ``The Three Stooges'' movie is shown to the audience.for the sake of Poland. Mazzini is adamant that there are no ina . Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. But their relations were never exactly placid. and then statesmen and fleets and armies will bend to your will. Larry. British geopolitics. Palmerston's Three Stooges How do the British do it? How can a clique of depraved aristocrats on this tight little island bid to rule the entire world? Don't believe the stories about the workshop of the world. Mazzini founded his Young Italy secret society. Mazzini teaches that Christianity developed the human individu al. is now over. Larry. our f irst Stooge. Then. and even against their august master. and Davi d Urquhart. despite the challenges. despite the defeats. of freedom. sent him articles for his magazine. Mazzini's terrorist revolution Mazzini has concocted a very effective terrorist belief structure. today's President of France. And as we l ook forward for a century and a half from 1850. Victoria. The fleet is formidable. but peopl es. Lord Palmerston himself. wi ll remain the dominant factor in world affairs. but also overrated. Mazzini's cry is ``God and the People. Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. But first. one thing must be understood. Moe. So do not be surpri sed if we find Palmerston's Three Stooges lashing out with slanders. The army is third-rate. From now on. but that the era of Christianity. Mazzini's father w as a physician to Queen Victoria's father. but when he needed to start the 1848 revolutions. one of Napoléon's freemasonic fronts. or when the time will come for the American Civil War. the protagonists of history are not individuals any more. and the third conflagration that will start in 1991. They are Lord Palmerston's Three Stooges. despite the putrefaction of Britain itself. but for the sake of starting a general European war agai nst Russia. Just short--and yet. these Three Stooges are named Giuseppe Mazzini. knives. But the British have learned f rom the Venetians that the greatest force in history is the force of ideas. Under Lord Palmerston England supports all revolutions--except her own--and the leading revolutionary in Her Majesty's Secret Service is Giuseppe Mazzini. Mazzini is a Genoese admirer of the diabolical Venetian friar Paolo Sarpi. he turns to a troika of agents. and very vulnerab le to serious challenges. We will get to know Lord Palmerston's Three Stooges better.'' which means that the people are the new God. and Curly often had to work together on this or that project. But when the Russian fleets sail into New York and San Francisco. For a while Mazzini worked for the Ca rbonari. Populism becomes an ersatz religion. Take our friend Lord Palmerston.

which is bad for Austria. and th e Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the south. death squads operated in Rome. without making her powerful. leadership of the Slavic world. God. ``is not the negation of all authority. a rabbi. posing as an Ameri can. Mazzini preaches an Italian revolution for the Third Rome: After the Rome of the Caesars and the Rome of the Popes comes the Rome of the People. Lord Palmerston said that Mazzini's regime in Rome was ``far better than any the Romans have had for centuries. a junior Lord of the Admiralty and a very high official of British intelligence. featuring himself. because he says it has deep roots among the people: You gue ssed it. and so forth. Mazzini was targeting Piedmont in the north. Mazzini thinks that each modern nation has a ``mission'': The British would take care of Industry and Colonies. According to Mazzini. is another of Maz zini's patrons. only a collective soul. who had joined Mazzini' s Young Italy in the early 1830s. For Easter 1849. the R ussians. General Ramorino. the Ea rl of Shaftesbury. Mazzini staged a monstrous mock Euc harist in the Vatican he called the Novum Pascha. The defense of Rome was organized by Giuseppe Garibaldi.'' says Mazzini. For this. Mazzini has tried to put this into practice just last ye ar. the Germans get Thought. In November 1848. all Grand Orient Freemasons. For some strange reason. One of Mazzini' s agents. His specialty is sending his brainwashed dupes to their dea ths in terrorist attacks. which would ha rm England. a wrecker. as is John Bowring of the Foreign Office. and has been having an affair with Carlyle's wife. Last year. Mazzini ruled the Papal States as one of three dictators. The French get Action. and their supporters. Stansfeld's father-in-law. armed Young Italy gangs forced Pope Pius IX to flee from R ome to Naples. Mazzini's role in Italy has been that of a marplot. an assassin. he rushed to Milan as soon as the Austrians had been driven out and tried to start trouble.'' There is no individual human s oul. there is no mission for Ireland. an Englishman. Ancona. Queen Victoria. In the coming century. From March to June of 1849. During that time.'' Right now Mazzini is here in London. the p ope must be driven out. One of Metternich's henchmen has said that Palmerston's policy is to make Italy turbulent. the duty of thought and action to ser ve the destiny of the racial collectivities. Garibaldi. But a French army sent by fellow Stooge Louis Napoléon drove out Mazzini. the civilizing of Asia. There is only one monarchy whi ch Mazzini supports. the man who will provo ke the second Opium War against China. John Stuart Mill of India House is another of Mazzini's friends. let the Austrian commander Radetzky outflank the Pie . and th e People. a Protestant fanatic who also happens to be Lord Palmerston's son-in-law. William Henry Ashurst. it is the negation of every authority that fails to represent the Collective Aim of the Nation. During this time he was planning to set up his own Italian national ch urch on the Anglican model. so Mazz ini does not support the independence of Ireland. There is only Duty. enjoying the support of Lord Ashley. and other cities. and many confessionals were burned. a ter rorist.lienable human rights. Bowring is Jeremy Bentham's literary exec utor. He hides out and always succeeds in saving himself. Every national grouping that can be identified must be given independence and self-determination in a centralized dictatorship. In the thirties and forties. In 1848. Mazzini's direct access to the British government payroll comes thr ough James Stansfeld. Mus solini and the Italian Fascists will repeat many of Mazzini's ideas verbatim. Stansfeld provided the money for Mazzini's Rom an Republic. ``Liberty. the Catholic Church. Mazzini i s close to the protofascist writer Thomas Carlyle. and every other institution which attempts to bring God to man must be aboli shed. the Poles. Ma zzini travels readily on the continent using false passports. the papa cy. Some churches were sacked.

Felice Orsin i. Napoléon will get the message that it is time to get busy and start a war again st Austria in 1859. A few years after that Mazzini will try another insurrection in Genova. For 30 years the prime ministers will be Mazzini's agents. poor. Because of the violent liquidation of the Papal States. there will be an attempt to blow up Napoléon by one of Ma zzini's closest and best-known lieutenants from the Roman Republic. Jürgen Ponto.'' Vi ntage Mazzini. when they ha ve none? Attempts to kill Napoléon are financed by the Tibaldi Fund. The killer was in touch with Lord Minto. of the stiletto. In 1860. ``In the hands o f Judith. Mazzini will be a hated and reviled figure. Ramorino was executed for treason. Mazzini's Young Italy is always the party of the dagger. but British propaganda and British support will keep him going. Alfred Herrhausen. holy the poniard of the Sicilian who began the Vespers. There are a gents and dupes. and ruining the economy. but Pi edmont had lost the first war for Italian liberation. Detlev Rohwedder. and divided. he will be thrown out of Naples as a pr ovocateur. arranged with Gioberti. Mazzini is actually doing everything he can to prevent Italian unity. in February 1858. In 1855. Mazzinis. The Mazzini n etworks offer us a fascinating array of movements and personalities. through an Italian confederation. now the king of Belgium. like DePretis and Crispi. Mazzini encompasses the world. cha ired by the pope. Palmerston's special envoy for Italy. still trying to break up Piedmo nt. members of Young Italy. a Mazzini agent named Giovanni Pianori will attempt to kill Napoléon III. In 1860. 20 years from now. stabbed Pellegrino Rossi to death. Mazzini is also an assassination bureau. M azzini will stage an abortive revolt against the Austrians in Milan. and Ma zzini tried to break up Piedmont with a revolt in Genoa. Have Napoléon's forces outshone the bungling British in the Crim ea? Are the British nervous about Napoléon's new ironclad battleship.dmontese and win the battle of Novara. Le . holy the arrow of Tell. At other times. Later. run by Mazzin i and set up by Sir James Stansfeld of the Admiralty. Stooge violence between Mazzini and Napoléon III is always intense. When unity comes. he will encourage Garibaldi to sail to Sicily. has been complaining to his niece Queen Victoria th at in London there is maintained ``a sort of menagerie of Kossuths. Italy w ill remain weak. London's future ability to assassinate men like Walter Rathenau. especially aft er Napoléon's army finished off Mazzini's Roman Republic. and then try to prov oke a civil war between Garibaldi's dictatorship in the south and Cavour's Piedm ontese government in the north. and a French court will convict Mazzini. and Ugo LaMalfa and his friends will continue Mazz ini's efforts to make sure that Italy is weak and divided. Three years from now. Cavour. holy was the dagger of Brutus. mainly to s top Russia from allying with Austria in the Crimean War. The king abdicated. After Mussolini. Mazzini 's agents. Like the Foreign Office and the Admiralty which he serves. it will come in the form of a highly centralized stat e dominated by Grand Orient Freemasons. there was a chance that Pius I X's very capable reforming minister Pellegrino Rossi could unify Italy and solve the Roman Question in a constructive way. fellow-travelers. and criminal energy typ es. the sword which cut short the life of Holofernes was holy. Mazzini tried to kill King Carlo Alberto of Piedmont. professional killers. bringing down one gov ernment after another. the Italian Republican Part y will identify with Mazzini. Mazzini's court of miracles was a public scandal. The Ethnic Theme Parks of Mazzini's Zoo Mazzini's work for the British extends far beyond Italy. the Catholics will refuse to take part in politics. Aldo Moro. stretches back in un broken continuity to the Mazzini networks of today. By that time. and other Piedmontese. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Got ha. holy was th e dagger which Harmodius crowned with roses. In 1848.

He is not thinking of a national community united by a literate language and a classical culture to which any person can become a ssimilated through a political choice. In a normal zoo there is an elephant house. Young Bosnia. and Greece. Young Italy. Garibaldi.'' Indeed. a masonic group in the United States is gearing up to support t he pro-slavery doughface Franklin Pierce for President in 1852. There was also Young Corsica. We have seen some Italian cages. a nationality means a race. Louis Kossuth. a fixed array of behavior like a breed of dog or a species of animal. plus similar groupings in Romania. Hungary. On Feb. Right now. Germans fight Poles.granges. an alligator pond. race is unchangeable. This is Mazzini's racist gospel of universal ethnic cleansing. It is a matter of blood and soil. By the end of this century we will have a Young Argentina (founded by Garibaldi) . The guiding light here was Ledru-Rollin. they are the rad ical wing of the Democratic Party. Each one is eager to submerge and repress other national groupings in pursuit o f its own mystical destiny. This is the Young Germany satirized by Heinrich Heine. In 1834. there is also a Palmerston-Mazz ini group for Jews. sometimes called Young Israel. to let loose occasionally on the continent to r ender its quiet and prosperity impossible. the Young Czechs. a Polish house. and U. a monkey house. and each finds a way to oppose and sabotage dirigist economic development. etc.. Felice Orsini. which was the mafia. These hatreds are t he main datum of sensory perception. was founded in 1831. a leader of the Hungarian revolut . and so on through all eternity. traitor and future President James Buchanan. For Mazzini. Mazzini founded ``Young Europe. there was also a Young Switzerland. who had published some material by an obscur e German ``red republican'' named Karl Marx. Young India. Young Europe was billed as the Holy Alliance of the Peoples. Ledru-Rollins. George Sanders: Mazzini. and sometimes called B'nai B' rith. next comes the Hungarian theme park in the zoo. Mazzi ni is especially interested in creating a south Slavic federation dominated by B elgrade. Our principal specimen here is Louis Kossuth. opposed to Metternich's Holy Alliance of despots. Young Armenia. attracting the young sailor G iuseppe Garibaldi and Louis Napoléon. an American house. And yes. Young Russia. and for that reason. Swi ss. a Russian house. Mazzini's warhorse is the Territorial Imperative. featuring Arnold Ruge. and t he like. who later became the interior minister in Lamartine's short-lived Second French Republic of 1848. as we have seen. Ledru-Rollin. . That will have to w ait for Mazzini's student Woodrow Wilson and the Versailles peace conference of 1919. one for each ethnic group.'' with Italian. We can think of Mazzini as the zookeeper of a universal human zoo. Arn old Ruge.. Each is obsessed with borders and terri tory. Shortly thereafter there followed Young Pola nd. a Hu ngarian house. Cats fight dogs. whose leaders included the revolutionaries Lelewel and Worcell.S. In th e future there will be the Young Turks. Let us walk through the variou s theme parks in the zoo and identify some of the specimens. French fight G ermans. Young Egypt. In Mazzini's human zoo there is an Italian house. this crew will come together at the home of the Americ an consul. Bulgaria. For Mazzini. and Polish components. and they call themselves Young America. There will also be a Peabody from the counting house. and ra ce is destiny. In that same year Mazzini launched Young France. 1854. Then came Yo ung Germany. Each of Mazzini's organizations demands immediate national liberation for its ow n ethnic group on the basis of aggressive chauvinism and expansionism. 21. he has a Serbian organization. By 1835. Stanley Worcell. Aleksandr Herzen. Mazzini's hum an zoo is divided into theme parks or pavilions. German.

Herzen. Serbs. Herzen will start publishing The Polar Star and The Bell. laying claim to Poland in its old Jagiellonian borders. London will be betti .'' Vintage Bakuni n. both leak sheets for British secret intelligence that will build up their reader ship by divulging Russian state secrets. the mir. By then. and w ith the military forces of the Croatian leader Jellacich. This includes an explicit denia l that any Ukrainian nation exists. Kossuth was therefore on cou rse for a bloody collision with the Illyrian movement for Greater Croatia. a close friend of Mazzini's who was with him last year during the Roman Republic. to the I llyrian Croatians. Poland is ``the Christ among nations. the main target. Hungarians and Serbians. ``O ut of an ocean of blood and fire there will rise in Moscow high in the sky the s tar of the revolution to become the guide of liberated mankind. which they did. Young Romania's program was to restor e the Kingdom of Dacia as it had existed before the Roman Emperor Trajan. Young Russia means the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin and the aristocratic ideologue Aleksandr Herzen. He writes of the nee d for a ``new Attila. claimed by the Hungarians but also by the Young Romania of Dimitirie Golescu. and to his Serbian south Slav entity. Right a fter the Crimean War. Mickiewicz argues that Poland is special because it has suffered more than any other nation. Y oung Poland's program also foreshadows the obvious conflict with Young Germany o ver Silesia. Romanians. and others. Herzen prints the ravings of Bakunin. meaning that Russia will take over all the other Slavic nations. another Mazzini agent. for Bakunin it is ``the peasant's axe'' th at will bring down the ``German'' regime in St. Ukrainian s.'' is totally hostile to western civilization. and will lose most of his readers. although he is usually called a ` `westernizer.'' the ``barbarians of the north. Herzen sees Russia as the ``center of crystall ization'' for the entire Slavic world. not only Hapsburgs and Romanovs. it proved p ossible for the Hapsburgs to save their police state with the help of a Russian army. There was also conflic t with the Serbs. The ethnic theme houses of the zoo thus sally forth to fight. the ally of Lincoln. Would they receive politica l and linguistic autonomy? Kossuth's answer was to ban all official use of the S lavic and Romanian languages in favor of Hungarian. who preaches p an-Slavism. Mazzini had promised the same territories to Hungary. but most of all. with ``communal ownershi p of the land'' plus the ancient Slavic workshop. Croatians. the British will have little use for Herzen. He wanted equal status for Hungarian s in the Austrian Empire--equal with the Austrians.'' Mickiewicz dreams of uniting all the west and south Slavs against the ``tyrant of the north . If Mazzini relies on the stiletto. In the orbit of Young Poland is the poet Ada m Mickiewicz. each other. Kossuth was for free trade. Then there was the ques tion of Transylvania. The Young Poland of Lelewel and Worcell demands the re-creation of the Polish st ate and rollback of the 1772-95 partitions of Poland.'' By this he means Russia. who wil l be able to tear down the old Europe. We will find the same thing in viewi ng the Polish and Russian pavilions. Germans. To block real industrial capitalist development. Hungarians and Romanians. perhaps American. anti-Bri tish reform in Russia.ion of 1848-49. the artel. stretching from the shor es of the Baltic to the shores of the Black Sea. Herzen will support Palmerston's Polish insurrec tion of 1863. In the moment when the British will seem so close to winning everything. perhaps both. Because of the ceaseless strife of Hungaria ns and Croatians.'' perhaps Russian. Once the American Civil War is over. Petersburg. he preac hes reliance on the aboriginal Slavic village. But within the Hungarian par t of the Hapsburg Empire there were many other national groups--Poles. Herzen is interested in sabotaging Alexander II and his policy of real. last year. The mir will never build the Trans-Siberian railway. But they go much further. Herzen's obvious target is Czar Alexand er II. So You ng Hungary and Young Romania were pre-programmed to fight to the death over Tran sylvania. Herzen is an agent of Baron James Rothschild of Paris.

S. Madrid. He also kept a harem for some time. He onc e met Mazzini. who lavi shly praised ``our David'' in his letters. This subversion will be showcased during the famous t our of Kossuth in the United States. Petersburg. The Second Stooge: David Urquhart Mazzini is the zookeeper for all of these theme parks. against the patriot Win field Scott. the United States will emerge as the only power friendly to Rus sia during the Crimean conflict. the Russian Countess Lieven. Urquhart's positive contribution to civilization was his popularization of the Turkish bath. Franklin Pierce. Urquhart was chosen for his work directly by Jeremy Bentham. sei zure of Cuba. since he will also be attempting to mediate a U. Mazzini will f avor both the abolition of slavery and the destruction of the Union through sece ssionism--the London line. Scott's Whig Party will be destroyed. let us view the cages in the American theme park in Mazzini's human zoo.'' Kossuth will try to blame even the problems of Italy on Russia. the unification of Italy is a Russian plot. the machinations of the court of St. He secured a pos t at the British Embassy in Constantinople and ``went native. such as William Lloyd Garrison. A v ery convenient view for Palmerston's Britain. During the American Civil War. ut already today we can see the conflicts ahead between Young Poland and Young ussia. The name was popularized in 1845 by Edwin DeLeon. Urq uhart also thought that late Ottoman feudalism was a model of what civilization ought to be. Kossuth will refuse to call for the abolition of slavery. Kossuth will get on we ll with the slaveholders. But there are other zooke epers. In the 1852 election. For Urquhart. Urquhart bought up working class leaders and drilled them in the . Kossuth will call for the United States to join with England and France in war against Russia--Lord Palmerston's dream scenario . In Turkey. During the years of Chart ist agitation. Urquhart became convinced that all the evil in the world had a single root: Russia. The keeper here is the strange and eccentric Scot. The leader of Young America is George N. which was always on the verge of w ar with Russia. Young America operatives will receive important posts in London. plus the Russian legal Marxists. the most aristocratic of Palmerston' s Stooges. Ko ssuth's line will be that the ``tree of evil and despotism'' in Europe ``is Russ ia. On th e eve of the Crimean War. Turin. The custodian s are Palmerston's two other Stooges. Here they will support Mazzini and his gang. all British agents. f B R s Now. but then found he liked Turks better after all. South Carolina. Sanders. Young America's view of Manifest Destiny is a sla ve empire in Mexico and the Caribbean. David Urquhart and Napoléon III. There is also a theme park for the English lower orders. the future ed itor of the Democratic Review. Kossuth will be accompanied by Mazzini's moneybags.ng on the nihilist terrorists of the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will). which meshes perfectly with the secessionist program. and concluded after ten minutes that Mazzini was a Russian agent! The usual Stooge on Stooge violence again! For this Russophobe. Mazzini's American contacts are either proto-Confederates or strict abolitionist s. Ed win DeLeon will later be one of the leaders of the Confederate espionage organiz ation in Europe.'' becoming an Otto man pasha in his lifestyle. who will inally kill Alexander II. Urquhart took part in Lord Byron's Gr eek revolution. Young America will back the dark horse doughface Democrat. and still more theme parks in the human. with Palmerston doing everything to isolate Russia. In the conflicts among Mazzini's national chauvinist operations. the Tuscan Freemason Adriano Lemmi. having been recruited by on e of his many mistresses. David Urquhart. Th is is Young America. we can ee the roots of the slaughter of World War I. the problem of Great Britain is that Palmerston is a Russian agent. the son o f a Scottish Rite. next year and the year after. multicultural zoo. Despite Ko ssuth's efforts. Jewish slave-trading family of Charleston. and other European capitals.

he failed and was exiled to America. Palmerston was forced out. The Fr ee Press. Another of Urquhart's operatives is Lothar Bücher. Napoléon le Petit. Les Idées Napoléoniques. he will meet Pius IX and will join members of Cardinal Newman's O xford Movement at the First Vatican Council in 1870. Soon an open Anglo-French en tente was in full swing. He began work on his book.'' were born. he started off as a Carbonaro and terr orist in contact with Mazzini. Otto von Bismarck himself. Napo léon III. and later of the Iron Chancellor. The preferred form of g overnment would be democratic Caesarism. causing hysteria on th e part of the Victoria and Albert palace clique.'' the `` Anglo-French. In 1836. Then Napoléon was gi ven a private study at the new British Museum reading room and frequented Lord P almerston. Marx is a professed admirer of Urquhart--acknowledging his influence more than that of any other living person. The Third Stooge: Napoléon III Our third Stooge is the current President and soon-to-be emperor of France. fat commie rat? How interesting that Urquhart should be the controller of British agent Karl Mar x. There Napoléon III used his name to become President. Palmerston understands that his subversive methods will always generate oppositi on from the Tory gentry and the straight-laced crowd. In 1848 Napoléon was working for the British as a special constable--a riot cop--t o put down an expected Chartist revolution. So he has taken the precau tion of institutionalizing that opposition under his own control. His main idea was tha t the original Napoléon was not wrong to be an imperialist. and open a theme park for right-w ing Catholics. Marx and Urqu hart agree that there is no real absolute profit in capitalism. France at last had been broken. This says enough about Marx's acumen as a political analyst. After hundreds of years of warfare. but only erred in tryi ng to expand his empire at the expense of Great Britain. Urquhart's remedy is to go back to the simplicity of character of Merrie England . A fter Gettysburg. a confidant of the German labor leader Lassalle. Does this talk of pre-capitalist economic formations strike a familiar chord? Do you smell a big. To these workers Urquhart teaches something he calls dialectics . stronger than ever. based on Urquhart's wild obsession that Pam is a Russian agent of influ ence. but he was soon back. placed under a more or less dependable British puppet regime. who earns his keep as a writer for Urquhart's paper. with a raving megalomaniac leader to discredit it. Marx will even compose a Life of Lord Pal merston. he was then shipped to Paris. The ``western powers. ``The people of Englan d were better clothed and fed when there was no commerce and when there were no factories. There is plenty of room for a French Empire as a junior partner to the British. Urquhart will move to France.litany that all of the problems of the English working man came from Russia via Lord Palmerston. and then organized a coup d'état tha t made him emperor. When Victoria came to Paris it was the first such visit by an English sovereign since Henry VI had been crowned King of France in Notre .'' That is vintage Urquhart. Palmerston quickly endorsed the coup. Urquhart's demonization of Russia foreshado ws something that will be called McCarthyism a century from now. in the sense of retrogression to bucolic medieval myth. and that technol ogical progress causes a falling rate of profit. Napoléon tried to parlay his famous name i nto a successful putsch. David Urquhart is the fo under of modern communism! It is Urquhart who will prescribe the plan for Das Ka pital. Napoléon III gave Palmerston one indispensable ingredie nt for his imperial strategy: a powerful land army. Urquhart will be a member of Parliament and he controls a weekly paper. As we have seen. with frequent plebiscites.

Napoléon III is Palmerston's strategic catamite. Napoléon III calls himself a socialist and will style the latter phase of his regi me ``the liberal empire. After his defeat in the Franco-Prussian war . When Napoléon joined Palmerston in attacking Russia in the Crimea. The French pavilion of the zoo is being redecorated with a new version of Britis h empiricism: This is positivism. he will bequeath to France a party of proto-fascist colonialists and revanchis ts beating the drum for Alsace-Lorraine. Palmerston will need a land war against Austria in northern Italy. existentialis m. and the French Socialist Party of today. Napoléon's pro-Confederate stance will be even more aggressive than Palmerston's own. During the American Civil War. the Venetians of the Rialto and Padua turned to a new-look Aristotelianism. and with a `Venetian constit ution. The future prime m inister Benjamin Disraeli will write in his novel Conningsby that the Whig arist ocrats of 1688 wanted ``to establish in England a high aristocratic republic on the model of [Venice]. Bismarck will defe at Napoléon and send him into exile in England. of sense certainty. each one the warden of some pavi lions of a human zoo. for one thing.' '' During the years after the Council of Florence in 1439. of hedonistic calculus. Here Napoléon will plan a comeback a fter the Paris Commune. featuring Aristotle's ch aracteristic outlook shorn of its medieval-scholastic and Averroist outgrowths. Under Napoléon. they call themselves the Venetian Party. only to have it fall under t he control of the British. The reason why must now be confronted. ethnologists. usually with as much will of his own as an inflatable sex doll. France will build the Suez Canal. and pragmatism. Along the way. Think of him as a blow-up British agent. the miserable outlook of Auguste Comte and Ern est Renan. It is the empire of British ph ilosophical radicalism.'' That means all of France as a theme park in the Briti sh zoo. Napoléon III will furnish the prototype for the fascist dictators of the twentieth century. of utilitarianism. Napoléon will be eager to send a f leet and an army. . The se revanchists will turn up again in Vichy. will oblige with the war of 1859 and the great Battle of Solferino.Dame in 1431. he will pick up a junior partner colonial empire in Senegal and in Indo-Ch ina in 1862. the Venetian enemies of Nicolaus of Cusa plotted to wage war on the Italian High Renaissance and Cusa's ecumenical project. In 1860 Napoléon will sign a free trade treaty with the British. and he has a b ladder ailment. This will lead to the French structuralists. And so it will come to pass that Lord Palmerston will attempt to rule the world through the agency of a triumvirate of Stooges. When the tim e will come for Maximilian's Mexican adventure. In 1870. The ideology of British Imperialism The British Empire exists in the mind of its victims. the empire of empiricism. To combat Cusa's Renaissance Platonism. it was the first war in 400 years to see France and England on the same side. This is the empire of sens es. the Fourth Republic. egged on by Camillo Benso di Cavour who knows how to play the interstices. Why are the British liberal imperialists called the Venetian Party? Well. which Napoléon will lose to Bismarck. Nap oléon. and even d econstructionists of the late twentieth century. something that will set the stage for the Vietnam War a century lat er. but he will need to be seen on horseback. The bladder operation designed to make him a man on horseback on ce again will instead kill him. making the kings into doges. After th e Crimea.

The British took Ft. Venice was a cancer consciously planning its own metastasis. Gasparo Contarini. in loa ding the American colonies with their prohibitions of settlement and manufacture . Calvin. The Peace of Utrecht left the British supreme on the oceans. and Henry VIII. and a ``little dark age. a n alliance of virtually every power in Europe threatened to wipe out the Venetia n oligarchy. Stamp Acts. Cromwell. the Austrian Succession followed by the Seven Years' War. The Venetians responded by launching the Protestant Reformation with t hree proto-Stooges--Luther. as British cash was used to hire states like Brandenburg and Savoy to fight the French. Contarini's relati ve and neighbor Francesco Zorzi was sent to serve as sex adviser to Henry VIII. Earl of Shelburne and Marquis of Lansdowne. In these years William Petty. and in that of Pomponazzi's pupil. The Venetian Party in England grew under the early Stuarts as Franci s Bacon and his wife Thomas Hobbes imported the neo-Aristotelianism of Fra Paolo Sarpi. the great Venetian gamemaster of the early 1600s. These were the founders of British philosophical ra dicalism. From their lagoon. violating the laws of nature without penalty. Edward Gibbon. Louisburg and then seized Quebec City. First. for nothing could now stand against them. Townsend Acts. his stooges. the ``Glorious Revolution'' of 1688 gave birth to the most perfect imitation of the Venetian oligarchical system ever created. The result was a century and a half of wars of religion. The British oligarchs of the day. were convinced that they could run wild. At the same time. and Intolerable Acts. William Pitt.'' culminating in the Great Crisis of the seventeenth century. subsidized Frederick the Great of Pr ussia to win an empire on the plains of Germany. and put Dante and Piccolomini on the Index of P rohibited Books. Grea t Britain set off on the path of empire with its new Hanoverian Guelph dynasty. and their characteristic epistemology. Louis XIV and Colbert were defeated by divid e-and-conquer Venetian geopolitics. After several decades of Walpole and the Hell-Fire Clubs. Contarini and his Jesuits made Aristotle a central component of the Catholic Counter-Refor mation and the Council of Trent. The War of the Spanish Succession in 1702-13 was the first war fought on a world scale and the last gasp for rivals Spain and Holland. and a menagerie of sectarians were brought to power in an all -Protestant civil war and Commonwealth. there came the great w ar of the mid-eighteenth century. But. driving the French out of Canada. This was the end of France as a naval power and worldwide rival for the British. The Venetians knew that France or Spain could crush them like so ma ny flies. Adam Smith. the British became the biggest slave merchants in the world. During the War of the League of Cambrai of 1509-17. their fondi. they set th e stage for the American Revolution. France was also c olonized. The wealth of Bristol and Liverpool would be built on slaves. world-encompassing Roman Empire with i ts center in London. their Quebec Act. After the defeat of Leibniz's attempt to save England. the Venetians chose a swamp and an island facing the North Atlantic--Holland and the British Isles. The British becam e the paramount power in India. and its Siamese twin . gather ed a stable of ideologues and operatives. After the depravity of the Restoration. The great Whig and Tory aristocrats set as their goal a new. Here the hegemomic Giovani party would relocate their family fortunes. Earl of Chatham. the monopoly on slave commerce with Spanish America. the most primitive form of Aristotle yet devised. When James I and Charles I disappointed the Venetians in that Thirty Years' War. Milton. These were Jeremy Bentham . like their suc cessors after 1989. By winning the coveted asiento. whose raging libido would be the key to Venetian hopes. but the main bets were placed further north. Zorzi brought Rosicrucia n mysticism and Freemasonry to a land that Venetian bankers had been looting for centuries.This was expressed in the work of Pietro Pomponazzi. the architect of the T hirty Years' War. This was the time of the Irish genocide and the foundation of the overseas empire in Jamaica.

He spoke on September 5. and third coalitions. leading to the outright Satanism of Bertrand Russell. There was a time when the center of oligarchy.htm Gerry Rose is a member of the editorial board of Executive Intelligence Rev iew magazine and the International Caucus of Labor Committees' executive committ ee. we see a portrait of pure evil. Napoléon shattered each of these coalitions. the oligarchical stupidity. 1825. This is not only on the level of geopolitics and the unbelievable savagery that the British Empire carried out in its usury and slavery. By now British policy was in the hands of Shelburne's student and protégé. began meeting in a salon known as Ridotto Morosini. In both masterpieces. but the beneficiaries we re the British. Gneisenau. in the wake of the war of the League of Cambrai. to reference the prime satanic evil that Venice re ally is. Pitt was able to unite the continental powers against France in the first. Hobbes. and 1830. where there is no right or . and the Prussian reformers. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815. After letting the Jacobin horrors of Bentham's agents brew up f or three years. Russia. It is the Venetian takeover of England and its creatio n of Freemasonry that is our subject today. Venice was a cancer pl anning its own metastasis. underscores the motivation that created the British Empire. there is no doubt that the New Age issued from England. There are two works of art which deal most effectively with the methods of Venice. I had become increasingly interested for many years. enragés. Aldous Huxley. usury. Metternich was still sitting on the lid of the boiling European cauldron. and incompetence of Metternich and Co. the Youngsters. Locke. second. I think it is important here. free trade.. In the sixteenth century. Aleister Crowley. etc. Shelburne was defeated by the superior ability of Hamilton. Using the armies raised by Lazare Carno t. They are The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlowe and The Ghostseer b y Friedrich Schiller. The British creation of Bacon. and Hume. beginning with my research into the American Revolution. The stated goal of the New Age is the destruction of monotheistic religion and a return to outright paganism. and sans-culottes. By 1830. ---------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. It is here that the future course of England and Britain was charted. and Washington. made possible the revolts and revolu tions of 1820. and Prussia. The reign of terror in the French Revolution was the work of agents and du pes of Shelburne among the Jacobins. the British were clearly the dominant force. fascism--at the British Foreign Office by Lord Palmerston and in his collaboration with Giuseppe Mazzini. 1993. but he did succeed in destabilizing and nearly destroying Fr ance. William P itt the Younger.tripod. as to why England seemed to be the source of such evil. Frankl in. Napoléon's final defeat was the work of Scharnhorst. but also on the l evel of culture.com/venfreem. This includes empha tically the creation of the Jacobins at the hands of Lord Shelburne and the crea tion of communism--with its twin evil. gr eed. These were the years during which the patrician party known as the Giovani. But under the regimes of Castlereagh and Canning. the group of islands in a lagoon at the top of the Adriatic. and geopolitics was Venice . but Lord Palmerston and his Three Stooges were stoking the flames underneath. Freemasonry is the instrument created to carry out this return to paganism. Lord Palmerston was ready to take contro l of the Foreign Office and begin his direct march to undisputed world dominatio n. but they were still obliged to make deals with Metternich. As you look dee per.

If you were Sherlock Holmes you would never find them. As you will learn. just corruption. and then corrupt him. man's progress is a mere illusion an d we are always infinitely far from the Creator. And the key is culture. What do I mean by that? We must proceed from what we know to be the case. For Aristotle. They are. and it should not come as any surprise that it was the University of Padua. this is liter ally gnostic. for it was Englan d that had the misfortune of becoming the new Venice and where Freemasonry was t o establish itself. For Aristotle. Webster Tarpley presented the documentation showin g how Venice created the Reformation and the Counterreformation in order to impl ement the New Age [published in a longer version in New Federalist in three inst allments. How do you proceed? you must use the method of the Necessary Existent. we will achieve a most startling result: We will learn that what we call mo dern scientific method is basically occult belief created by Freemasonry to dest roy the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. you will never be fooled. as Satan is. It was the Venetian creation of Freem asonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the Spir it which is theology and the science of matter. At our conference a year ago. both the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons. Now to our story. We will recount how this Venetian evil took over England and created the New Age. using traditio nal empiricist methods. It is important to state this. the Creator has nothing to do with the unfolding of the universe and the continuing creation. there is no righ t or wrong. Our major prob lem looking at this period is that we are trying to track two secret societies. they would leave contradictory clues and you would never be able to reach a conclusion as to who they are. Furt her. If they were careful. In The Ghostseer Schiller captures this in the most profound way. This is Satanic. run by Venice. he is scared. It is prima facie imcompetent to bel ieve that history is run by assassinations and gossip. Aristotle rejects Plato's method of successive approximations of perfection. This is not an epithet. because there is no knowable truth. and ethics is only a matter of convention. without first accounting for what are the cultural paradigms which are being fought out. Analyze the culture and no matter what name a thing is g iven. . bec ause any competent approach must focus on the cultural climate as the basis on w hich any intelligence operation can be run.wrong. He shows that the essence of V enice is that it is always on both sides of every issue--but the essence of its method is corruption: Find the adversary's weakness. 1992]. It is on the level of culture that our enemy must drop his guard. As w e can document. Its method is to degrade humanity and ta ke delight in that. primarily frauds. April 12. that trained t he elite of Venice explicitly in Aristotle. which bring one closer to the Creator. these cultists never dared debate him again. What do we know about all warfare? Ninety percent is cultural and only 10 percen t is physical. For Aristotle. The key to this is Aristotle. He is not that bright and when Satan is forced out on the level of culture. there is only eth ics but no morality. it is quite literally true. after the initial debates with Lyndon LaRouche on the question o f economics. April 5. For Aristotle. Cultural Warfare How did the ``New Age'' come into existence? This story will be told today. March 22. We will focus intensively on the Venetian takeover of England. It is evil for evil's sake.

Contarini led a dramatic return to Aristotle within the Catholic Church. I believe this story begins with the break of Henry VIII from continental Europe with his setting up of the Anglican Church. Contarini was able to create a a gr oup of ``reformers'' that created all the essentials of protestantism while rema ining nominally within the Catholic Church. but whose ability to defend itself on land was very limited because of its size. We could develop this more if there were more time. I wanted to reference it bec ause freemasonry and the New Age are a Venetian attempt to wipe Christianity fro m the face of the earth. In the Venetian ambassadors' reports to the Ve netian Senate. later kn own as ``I Spirituali. Yet. the leading Aristotelian at the University of Padua. as Webster documents. This cataclysm in English history s et up the basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centurie s. It was Christianity that asserted that all men were in the image of God. As the Venetians saw in the League of Cambrai.The Venetian Reformers After the League of Cambrai almost destroyed Venice in 1509-13. Contarini and his associates created Luthe r. As LaRouch e pointed out in his paper ``On the Subject of God. becau . Gasparo Contarini was trained by Pie tro Pomponazzi. The Venetians were not to allow this. Venice Invades England It is not an accident that Venice focused much of its attention on England. the very existence o f these institutions was a threat to Venice. The Venetians said it themselves.'' that decided that the hedonism that had overcome the Ve netian ruling families would have to change. They hated Christianity and the Re naissance's reassertion of this idea. England was the key to the destruction of S pain. One report outlines that Flanders and the Netherlands were the workshop of the Spanish Empire. It is in fact exactly what happens during the Thirty Years' War. It was the hope of the Renaissance men such as Erasmus and Colet and emphaticall y Sir Thomas More that England would become an island of great learning and a be nefit to all mankind. just as he dedicated his Education of a Christian Pri nce to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.'' the abiding commitment to Aristotelianism stemmed from an oligarchical outlook of tremendous contempt for humankind as imago viva Dei. from one of the leading noble families in Venice created a grouping. which are now public. Aristotelianism is an oligarchical disease. What was the purpose of this? From a limited standpoint it was clear that the very existence of the Catholic C hurch and a powerful Spain would always threaten a Venice whose naval power was formidable. which was to prosecute the war against the Reformation. which represen ted a mortal threat to the Venetian oligarchy. Indeed they c onsidered themselves the creators of the law. It was Contarini who set up the commission that led to the Cou ncil of Trent. Gasparo Contarin i. Under the g uise of Christian piety. Erasmus dedicated his Enchiridion of the Militant Christia n to England's Henry VIII. They believed themeselves to be t he ``Gods of Olympus'' and who thought themselves above God's law. something much more devastating was going on. If you could control the English Channel. on a deeper level. Venice's big concern ever since the League of Cambrai almost wiped them out was to assure that Spain was never to have a l eague with France and England again. while on the other side. in a profoundly personal way. then you could br eak the Spanish sea route to the Netherlands and weaken Spain irrevocably. The papacy had some interest in this. It is uncanny how accurate the Venetian report on this is.

in orde r to produce male offspring for the succession. Then something dramatic happened. The dispensation on which Henry's marriage rested. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome. and that the opposing passage was not applicable. had just fallen apart. Giorgi. b y virtue of having contravened scripture. was null and void. There was only one way to do that: Henry had to be induced to divorce Catherine. who were critical to the Venetian balance of power against Spa in. In their midst was the top Venetian agent Thomas Cromwe ll--I mean literally trained in Venice. Wolse y was perfectly happy to get some kind of dispensation from the papacy for Henry . This . The pretext for bringing in Giorgi was that he could read the original Hebrew of the Old Testament to discern whether Henry's marriage to Catherine had been valid i n the first place. If we look at English diplomacy during the League of Cambrai. so too. when Spain went into the league.se the contest between France and Spain tended to be fought out on Italian soil. There is one passage in the Old Testament recognizing a man's obligation t o marry his deceased brother's wife. who then died within a few mo nths. b ut more significantly it seems that Henry was induced to take the most violent p ath possible. According to Giorgi. assured Henry that he would . England had to break with Spain. who is soon to become the first archbishop of Canterbury agreeable to the break with Rome. in 1529. but there can be no doubt of Venetian control of the split. Such arrangements had been made before for reasons of state with papal sanction. C learly Henry was driven mad by this adventure if he were not mad already. I state this because the papacy was among the first to form the League of Cambr ai and declare a war on Venice. Besides the fact that a victorious Spanish army was on Italian soil. From the Venetian standpoint. To cov er all possibilities. according to Giorgi. Henry immediately declared war on France. Another way was to marry his lover Anne Boleyn while remaining married to Catherine. a papal dispensation had been issued permitting Henry's ma rriage to Catherine. His chief adviser for the initial phase was Cardinal Wolsey. Henry had never been legally married to Catherin e. Giorgi was now brought in to persuade Henry that the biblic al passage prohibiting such a marriage was authoritative. Henry dumped Wolsey and the Howard family beca me Henry's top advisers. tha t the French king was seized and held for ransom. He is sought out by Thomas Cranmer. At the Bat tle of Pavia in 1525. yet the papacy was the first to break ranks and conclude a peace with V enice. the daughter of the Spanish king. On the one hand. the ability to manipulate Henry against Spai n was greatly diminished. the French troops were so badly defeated by Charles V. and one passage forbidding the same. One can speculate on the exact way this was done. by the way. The pretext for divorce was to be Catherine's failure to produce a male heir. therefore. In the middle of this. the crown Prince Arthur. The pope had exceed ed his authority by issuing it. did England join. the Venetian friar and cabalist Francesco Giorgi (Zorzi) comes on the scene. an d Spain had a quarrel with France. There were ways that Henry could have resolved this matter peaceably without a divorce or a break with Rome. as long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon . with the full power of Venice behind him. Wolsey did not want anything too precipitous to happen because he had pretensi ons to be elected pope with French help. One way--it was suggested even by Henry--was to legitimiz e his bastard son so that this offspring could have been his rightful heir. the papacy under Spanish control could not allow any of this. Catherine's credible testim ony that her first marriage had never been consummated was simply ignored. The background is that Catherine had originally been married to Henry's elder brother. The league came within an inch of crushing them forever. This was the year 1525. had been sanctioned by the papacy in a previous case. The obvious point is that. When the alliance broke down. Venice panicked. the French.

he proves that there is only one way human beings can have knowledge of the O ne. therefore the only way to truly know God is to directly e xperience him through our senses. particularly in England. Yet. Henry was by now inflamed with passion for Anne Bole yn. The attack on the Aristotelian Schoolmen issuing from t he Renaissance is useful and has a spinoff effect. In Plato's Parmenides dialogu e. Here we get directl y to the point of Venetian epistemology. the granddaughter of Thomas Howard. This is the exact oppos ite of empiricism. They group around Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. It is striking that Gi orgi was aware of who his major enemy was. The idea that the one is directly knowable is a direct distortion of Plato.'' the face of evil is empiricism.'' by the m ethod of proving exhaustively that any approach that attempts to resolve the par adox of the one and the many leads to hopeless contradiction. They create a flowering of real Christianity and culture which leads to Shakespe . he leav es the reader of the dialogue with the necessity to hypothesize another solution . First. or the belief that the only t hing you can know is what is verified directly by your senses. second Duke of Norfolk. she goes much too far. I must add a cautionary point here which is indicative of how our enemies create myths. He introd uces two critical notions which set England up for Freemasonry. Giorgi makes a deadly cultural assault on England. So in her typical fashion. This is the essence of mysticism. G iorgi attacks Nicholas of Cusa. has done. Giorgi states: ``The seeker after the Mon as (the one) may retreat into negative theology and the Docta Ignorantia. is that indeed we can only kn ow through our senses.be supported in his break. more significant than his interpretation of scripture relating to the divor ce. The idea that God is directly knowable is a mystical notion. In his major work. The Warburg Institute is the major research institute into the Renaissance. In what should become known as the very founding statement of Speculative Freemasonry. Harmonice Mundi. As Lyn elaborates in his paper on ``His tory As Science.'' Harmonice Mundi is one of the first systematic works of the Neoplatonic so-calle d Christian Cabala. an enemy of ours at the Warburg Institute. of c reating a highly literate grouping around John Colet and others. Once Cranmer was named archbishop of Canterbury. Attack on the Renaissance It is here I want to develop what might seem like a diversion--but there is no w ay you can understand what happens next without such a discussion. he officially rendered a new de cision using Giorgi's reasoning. as critical as that was. It would seem tha t mysticism and empiricism are directly polar opposites. It is also e mpiricism. who travel to F lorence and learn ancient Greek. from an enemy standpoint. or he may seek to follow the divine Monas in its expansion into the three Worlds. Therefore. Giorgi and the Occult Giorgi was no minor figure. but her identification of the tendency is irrefutable. Appeals to Rome had now been made high treason. the Neopl atonic idea that the ``One'' is directly knowable. His family was one of the ten top ruling families of Venice and he became one of Venice's ambassadors during critical years after th e sack of Rome in 1527. It is Yates at Warburg who attempts to prove that the Renaissa nce came from an occult return to pre-Christian religions and a revival of Neopl atonism. some useful work on the creation of a pagan revival around the Platonic Academy of Florence. He proves it by a method later called by Cusa ``docta ignorantia. was that he was the transmission belt for a counter culture movement which was to culminate in the occult takeover of England and ev entually lead to the creation of Speculative Freemasonry. Frances Yates . The logic of the mystic Giorgi. and eagerly gras ped for Giorgi's conclusions.

And if.'' The fraud perpetrated by Neoplatonics of the second century was that Hermes was sup posed to have been living at the time of Moses and his creation story and the qu ote which I read you was all about 1. to understand what a relief it was to re introduce Plato in the original. in the solitary darkness of God. In the hermetic works that Ficino translated.. in his ``Or ation on The Dignity Of Man. but it opened the door to legitimizing what turned out to be a Neoplatonic fraud. He went back to a n idea of the world soul. shall su rpass them all. Presumably. One has to understand what insanity it was for Aristotle to be allowed to remain the predominant force in universities.500 years the co ming of Christ. his spirit. happy in the lot of no cre ated thing. as he insisted that the Cabala was the fou nt of ancient wisdom that Moses passed down to elite disciples. This de nied the individual soul and the uniqueness of the individual. Yet. and alone.'' gives his most dramatic formulation of this idea: ``. therefore. and most full of all good things. he withdraws into the center of his own unity. Ficino did not know that. alongside of this came a Neoplatonic fraud and the translation of an ancien t mystic by the name of Hermes Trismegistus.500 years before Christ. Hermes T rismegistus. Hermes Trismegistus was supposed to have foretold the coming of Christ. According to the legend believed in the fifteenth century. made use of these words: ``The Lord and Creator of all things. he will grow into heavenly being. Pico. an esoteric doct rine that only an elect can interpret. and that one could coax the spirit into matter t hrough the use of the soul. on just ground s says was symbolized by Proteus in the mysteries. which had come from Lactantius. and one only. he will be an angel and the son of God.'' Pico also went futher into mysticism. In reality it was dated about the second century A. he will be like a plant. If sensitive. It is a rejectio . Hence those metamorphoses ren owned among the Hebrews and the Pythagoreans. The Cabala The worst aspect of this came in through Pico della Mirandola. It should also be noted that Erasmus came out of the great teaching movement cal led the Brethren of the Common Life and not predominantly from Ficino's Platonic Academy. in the book titled The Perfect Word. If intellec tual. This useful work was translated by Ficino and f unded by Cosimo De Medici. The Neoplato nics belived in a world spirit. the body died but the world soul lived on. This is the idea that through the manipul ation of symbols you could directly acess God and His universe.. a father of the Church. Whatever seeds each man cultivates will grow to maturity and bear in him t heir own fruit.. whom we have thought right to call God.D. which was located midway between spirit and matter. Who would not admire this our chameleon? Or who could more great ly admire aught else whatever? It is man who Asclepius of Athens. He meant no heresy and was later defended by the Pope. The danger here is the same danger that wa s always inherent in the Neoplatonics as opposed to the real Plato. made one with God. Augustine was revulsed by this p ractice and strongly admonished Hermes for practicing such magic. and altogether loved Him as His own Son. Therefore. since H e made the second God visible and sensible. If they be vegetative. asserting that man participated only as a receptacle o f the world soul. This use of the soul is what is known as magic. If rational. who is set above all things.. He appeared to Him beautiful. He made Him fir st.are. Since. arguing from h is mutability of character and from his self-transforming nature. and He hallowed Him. the rev erence for Hermes was based on the belief that he foretold by 1. he personally was very struck by s ome of the Natural Magic elements that were in the writings.. he will become brutish.

received that doctrine not through written records b ut through a regular succession of revelations. Marlowe identifies the truth about the relationship between Arisotelianism and mysticism. by a sort of hereditary right. a Venetian grouping around Fra Paolo Sarpi. He successfully writes several pamphlets against Rome which are immediately translated into English and widely distribut ed. No less than Ch ristopher Marlowe took up the attack against it. The Creation of Freemasonry Now we pick up the story of the 1580s and how the Venetians created Freemasonry in England. called the Giovani. One of the main confusions that the pres ent-day Catholic Church has on the question of the Renaissance is that Aristotel ians in the Church used the identification of this Neoplatonic problem to attack the Renaissance as pagan and humanistic.'' It was shortly after this play was written that Marlowe was assassinated. the spring of understanding . that holy shape becomes a devil best. The pope puts Venice under the interdict. Marlowe identifies the problem of the whole Elizabethan elite. of course. when in fact this was launched as an o peration by Paduan Aristotelians in the guise of Platonism to destroy Cusa and C hristianity. Marlowe himself was an intelligence operative and was on the inside of ma jor decisions being made by Walsingham. was revealed. Marlowe directly references Giorgi. Marlowe's play caused complete pandemonium in the Venetian networks around Eliza beth. Marlowe sums up the problem of the age and exposes the mysticism and necromancy around the court of Elizabeth. In a coup de grace. divinely handed down to Moses. When Mephistophele s appears to Faust and he is too ugly. In exactly the same way. he survives. that is. and despite sev eral wounds to the neck and head. when the true interpretation of the L aw according to the command of God. a word which is the same among the Hebrews as `recept ion' among ourselves. the exact metaphysic of the intellectual and angelic forms. as Esdras with a clear voice justly declared. ``Go and return an old Franci scian friar. an d the stream of knowledge. for this reason. After Venice wins this battle. It is a jurisdictional dispute o ver money and the right to try criminals who happen to be under papal jurisdicti on. Sarpi is nearly assassinated. Presumably this was an attack on Aristotelian Schoolmen. the most steadfast philosophy of natural thi ngs. makes a deal with the devil. Venice gets into a war with the papacy in 1606. With the defeat of the Spanish Ar mada. Faust says.n of scientific method in favor of the manipulation of symbols.. occultism was pouring into England. the fountain of wisdom. it was called the Cabala.'' It is this movement that Giorgi is a part of and this branch of Venetian philoso phy founds Freemasonry and the New Age. In this. As I said. Pico wrote: ``35. in the end. Here is a point of enormous importance. The whole of Faust was that he was fed up with al l knowledge. who was in a sense CIA chief under Eliza beth. but Faust. that one man from another. the ineffable theology of the supersubstantial deity. The assassination attempt is put . Sarpi is chosen by Venice to defen d the city-state and is excommunicated... that is. In his play on Faustus. In these books principally re sides. decided to become more aggressive. that is. This occult Neoplatonism and Cabalism came pouring into England.

In the midst. Almost immediately. a significant counterweight to t Then the strangest thing occurs. but every side or wall is parted into t en figures. the upper part or ceiling. but that it was divided a ccording to the seven sides in the triangle. Venice always wanted parli amentary sovereignty as a form of government to control any king. Henry Wotton. and thereon this engraven: . you have a fundamental attack on scientifi .. and Venice had to bring a more radical government i nto power. one by Sarpi and the other by Paruta. nevertheless it was e nlightened with another sun. you shall God willing (that are desirous of our soci ety) behold the same with your own eyes. in the he Habsburgs. ``This is all clear and bright. the English diplomat. a friend of Henry Wotton and Paolo Sarpi. as they are trul y shown and set forth Concentratum here in our book. was a round altar covered over with a plate of brass. Sarpi becomes the most celebrated m an in Venice and England. ``Of the upper part you shall understand no more of it at this time. This stuff is straight Neoplatonic Cabalism. The political. and the height o f eight foot. Both are written in German and cir culated in the territory of the Elector of Palatine. when a royal marriage was arranged. Th eir hopes were that a Protestant League would form around the prince in his effo rt to take the Bohemian Crown and defeat the Habsburgs. At that point. ``Fama'': ``In the morning following. but what therein is contained. 1616. the wall or side. Consider two quotes. We would not be far off the mark if we said that from Venice's standp oint James was not adequate. was in touch with Sarpi the whole time. Although the sun never shined in this vault. The military adviser t o the elector was Christian Anhalt.'' It calls for the formation of a Bro therhood of the Rosy Cross and for the reformation of all knowledge.correctly at Rome's doorstep. The elector is massively defeated. and there appeared to our sight a vault of seven sides and corners. i s written..'' Several other documents on the Rosicrucian thesis were written. The year of the marriage the first Rosicrucian tract is written. several Rosicruci an documents are written and circulated. who hath taught us more than all men's wits could have found out. This m and was called the Marriage of the Thames and th to marry the Elector of Palatine. another document. Shortly t hereafter. The next escalation occurred in arriage was the talk of England e Rhine. the ``Confession. James I's daughter was t-Anglican marriage was. It is not t oo distant from what Francis Bacon. the ground or floor. It is called the ``Fama.'' again explicitly Rosicrucian. What were the Venetians up to? Now it becomes interesting. This vault we parted in three parts. every side five foot broad. as also the seven sides and the tw o Heptagoni: so we kneeled altogether down and gave thanks to the sole wise. Fludd is attacke d by Kepler as a mystic who uses numbers as a form of cabalistic symbolism. which was in the bright center. all published by the same publisher in the Palatinate. all confessing t o have solved the riddle of the relationship between the microcosm and the macro cosm. we opened the door. through go-betweens. which had learned this from the sun. a friend of Sarpi. is calling for. This Protestan view of Venice. It calls the pope the anti-Christ. Venetian side to this was totally obvious. every one with their several figures and sentences. praised be his holy name. It was they who supported Oliver Cromwell. and was situat ed in the upper part in the center of the ceiling. It is reported that the reason he was so defeated was that James of England refused to go along with the plan. instead of a to mbstone. This was also the name of a book written by Robert Fludd. sol e mighty and sole eternal God. This incident touched off the Thirty Years' War. and engages in a wild defense of his writings. Here is a description of the grave of Christian Rosenkreutz from the first pamphlet.

a frie nd of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. The f ourth is the best we can have in this miserable life.'' Now the most startling result. The coincidence is overwhelming. ``A Description of the Famous Kingdom of Macar ia. Bacon's ideas about inductive method w ere taken from the ``Arte di ben pensare'' and other of Sarpi's writings. Cavendish visited Venice and Padua in September 1614. through different routes. By their means. What was this movement? It becomes the British Royal Society and Freemasonry. the second with sense alone. In 1645. Paruta had been an empiricist: ``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth. The second is true but crude. The first is the worst. and Descartes. since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon. not what is. a meeting takes place for a discussion of the na . Bacon was of course a rav ing irrationalist. We date the formation earlier than was previously thought. When the Long Parliament started. with whom he was in close contact. acc ompanied by Hobbes. Now the plot thickens. Hobbes. The t hird is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like. ' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called `Candiscio'). Here I would like to quote from Webster Tarpley's series in The New Federalist: ``Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon. drawing into the mind the images of material things. pe rmitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. because from it we know what we would like to be. and was in the Palatinate during the fateful Rosicrucian years. nevertheless here below i t lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without th e help of bodily sensation. sometim es directly. Comenius wrote ``The Way of Light. Comenius was originally from Bohemia. and Hume. This is an important year because it was the beginning of the Long Parliament. a Venetian-style Rosicrucian. rathe r than adjusting what we would like to what is. who soon became a couple. Bacon. there was another outburst of ecstatic literature.'' They call for an ``Invisible Colle ge. This is no surpris e. and sometimes through William Cavendish. Fludd.c method. the third with reason and then sense. and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have bee n on the agenda. end up in England. along with the E nglishman Samuel Hartlib.'' which is a Rosicrucian code name. In Chatsworth House in C ornwall there is a manuscript entitled `Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters. ``This is clearly the inspiration for Francis Bacon's ramblings on method.'' This is Francis Bacon's inductive method. Locke. Accordi ng to Dudley Carleton. all claim to be Rosicrucians or searching for the R osicrucians. Earl of Devonshire. A yea r later. C omenius and Samuel Hartlib were involved. Th is Venetian cult actually runs the science establishment of Western Europe! Our scientists today are the most buggered epistemologically of any group in society ! The Royal Society Now to the creation of the British Royal Society. There was a series of meetings in England in 1640. One piece written by Hartlib in 1640. it represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them.'' is a utopian work addressed to the attention of the Long Parliament. Cavendish may hav e introduced Bacon to Hobbes. and a bugger. With the defeat of the Palatinate they both. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplat ions not by itself but awakened by sense objects.'' Sarpi was also an empiricist: ``There are four modes of philosophizing: the firs t with reason alone.

and the Theatrum Chemicum Britanicum of 1652. In the opening of this work he praises a myth ical event in which a brother of the Rosy Cross cures the Earl of Norfolk of lep rosy. an invisible college.'' It is interesting to note how clear the tradition is. theology. who at the time was the chaplain to the elector of Palati ne. What is fa scinating is that Elias Ashmole was one of the first recorded inductees into the Freemasons.. Historian Frances Yates.'' De Quincey states that Robert Fludd was the person most responsib le for bringing Rosicrucianism to England and giving it its new name. in particular Dee's Monas Hieroglyphicas. . who corresponded with Venetian superagent Paolo Sarpi. who in letters in 1646. Also. It was the Venetian creation of freema sonry that imposed upon science a radical split between the science of the spiri t. in 1660. While there are many stories about the ancient origins of the Freemas ons.. the Br itish Royal Society. again. explicitly Rosicrucian figure was Isaac Newton. who states. Robert Moray in Edi nburgh in 1641. which engages in total war with Cusa's influence upon Ke pler and Leibniz. in which he explicitly mentions the Ro sy Cross and pays homage to occultists Robert Fludd and John Dee. together with the ancient brotherhood of the Rosy Cross: the Hermetic Adepti and the company of Accepted Masons. refers to. whence it was re-exported to the other countrie s of Europe. The key to the actual Rosicrucian tradition in the British Royal Society is Elia s Ashmole. is falsely credited with contributing to the founding of scientific method. here is an announcement for one of their meetings in 1676: ``To give notice that the Modern Green-ribboned Cabal. Freemasonry in turn creates the British Royal Society. and the science of matter. Baron Verulam and Lord Chancellor of E ngland. Wilkins was the man behind the Oxford meetings which become.'' (Bacon.. In conclusion. as we uncovered earlier. in her book The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. John Wilkins writes a book in 1648 called Mathematical Magic. He had copies of both the Fama and the Confessio in his possession.'' His scientific works w ere a defense of John Dee's work. John Wilkins. Another founder of the Royal Society was Robert Boyle. He was unabashedly a Rosicrucian and in 1654 wrote a letter to ask th e ``Rosicrucians to allow him to join their fraternity. Captions ``What we call modern scientific method is occult belief. Ashmole was one of the official founding members of the British Royal Society. The Theatrum. in a chapter entitled ``Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. we have demonstrated that Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and creates Freemasonry. and the book compiled by Ash mole. This speech was prepared with the collaboration of Webster Tarpley and David Cherry. Bacon. from 1618. We have also accomplished a surprising result in understanding the war over what is called modern scientific method. created by freemasonry to destroy the work of Nicolaus of Cusa. T he other major. ``Freemasonry is neither more nor less than Rosicrucianism as modified by those who transplanted it in England. but the actual first recorded induction was Dr. Newton ha d a series of papers on the book of Daniel calculating the end times. Ashmole. was Newton's bible.tural sciences. Both Ashmole and Moray were founding members of the British Roya l Society. Newton monument): National Portrait Gallery Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626).'' quotes one De Quincey. Theodore Haak from the Palatinate and Dr. Present at the meeting are Mr. This is a compilation of all the alche mical writings by English authors.

Fitzwilliam Museum. led the Venetian party among the English nobility until his death in 1524. second Duke of Norfolk. Robert Fludd continued this tradition in Elizabethan Englan d. Ashmole was deeply interested in Rosicrucianism. Venetian friar and cabalist Francesco Giorgi counseled Henry that his marriage to Catherine had never been valid. Freemasonry in turn created the British Royal Society. Artist unknown. which engaged i n total war against Cusa's influence upon Kepler and Leibniz. and mystical writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus from about the third century A. one of the founders of the Royal Society. was set up as sexual b ait to detach Henry from Catherine. The Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard. Venice's ability to manipulate Henry against Spain was greatly dim inished. occult. an illustration fro m the title page of Fludd's Summum Bonum. in a drawing by Cornslys Mats ys.'' British Museum Henry VIII (1491-1547) toward the end of his life. New York Thomas Cromwell (1485?-1540) became Henry's first minister with the ascendancy o f the Venetian party. Titled Allegorical Monument to Isaac Newton. National Portrait Gallery Anne Boleyn.'' ``Venice created the Rosicrucian movement that dominates England and created fre emasonry. Frick Collection. as did Newton (1642-1727).'' The alchemical. which defends Rosicrucianism.'' ``As long as Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon. the other major Rosicrucian figure in the early Royal Society.D. and wrote in defense of the Eli zabethan astrologer John Dee. ``Giorgi's work was the transmission belt for a counterculture movement which wa s to culminate in the occult takeover of England and eventually led to the creat ion of speculative freemasonry. as delineated by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics. was a powerful living embodiment of the traditional alliance between England and Spain. ``This story begins with the break of Henry the VIII from continental Europe wit h his setting up of the Anglican Church. alchemist. the daughter of the Spanish king. from his post as president of the Royal Society.Elias Ashmole (1617-1692). two woodcuts of Hermes Trismegistus. . were insinuated into the Judeo-Christian tradi tion by its enemies. C lockwise from top left. it was painted by the Venetian artist Giovanni Battista Pittoni. This cataclysm in English history set t he basis for religious warfare that was to rip England apart for centuries. granddaughter of the second Duke of Norfolk. Cromwell had a clear vision of an amoral state as a law un to itself. National Portrait Gallery Henry VIII's queen. Catherine of Aragon. Cambridge A monument to scientific fraud Isaac Newton. This came to a head after the Sack of Rome.

--------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac.tripod.com/venlar93.htm Introduction The evaluation of the respective roles of the Protestant and Catholic churches, in respect to the sixteenth-century schisms between Reformation and Counter Refo rmation, requires a few points of emphasis for clarity. In point of fact, as we know in the case of the English established church, curr ents within that English established church did retain crucial, traditional elem ents of Christian belief, despite the fact that the schism of Henry VIII was com pletely a Venetian-orchestrated event, a playing upon the susceptibilities of a monarch who was, to all intents and purposes, clinically insane. [fn1] The cases of the Calvinists and Lutherans is more complex. Let us turn to the ca se of Luther first, and then consider the Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent itself. Essentially, whatever Luther may have believed otherwise, and whatever the Luthe ran Church may have been otherwise, the fact is, that the essential issue of con troversy over Lutheran doctrine involved in the schism, places Luther not only i n mere opposition to Catholicism, but in opposition to the most fundamental prin ciple of Christianity: such that, if one were to assume Luther's stated doctrine to be the true belief of Luther himself, rather than probably a factional sophi stry, one would have to conclude that Luther were not a Christian. It is not a q uestion of division of opinion, or a division of anything, in the ordinary sense ; but Luther's constructed rationalization of his schismatic act is, in its oste nsible form, a rejection of Christianity in its entirety. The issue is as follows: The essence of Christianity, and of Mosaic Judaism, is identified historically f irst, by Philo Judaeus in his commentary on the first chapter of Genesis, that i s, the account of Creation given by Moses. The point to be emphasized, is that m an is defined in the image of God: not by virtue of any outward physical attribu tes of form, but rather by the fact that man, unlike all animals, contains that spark of creativity which places the human species apart from and above the anim als in general. That spark is the crucial thing. This view of man, which is emphasized for Christianity by God become man in the form of Christ, defines all human beings as potentially reconciled with God, bec ause of that within them, that divine spark, which is in the image of God. Thus, the notion of any form of elect, or a preselection by grace, except by a m erit of choice by the individual who is self-selected, is an abomination. It is an abomination, because it denies the fundamental principle of Mosaic Judaism an d Christianity, the species of individual man in the image of God, by virtue of man's creative mental powers. By creative mental powers, we mean to include the notions of agapë or caritas; for mally, we signify those powers by which man changes human society's behavior thr ough progress in scientific and technological progress. This does not mean that this exercise of creative powers is limited to that. It means, that without that included manifestation, the agapic function of the creative powers of man are c ertainly not realized, the self-development of man in the image of God, is not r ealized. This is the point on which all these issues hang. It is a fact--forget the forma lities of other kinds of argument--that, if one believes in an Aristotelian dedu

ctive system, then, for that person, as Philo indicated, God does not exist, and certainly God in the image of man does not exist. Thus, we have all the problem s concerning the Averroists and the Aristotelians and the definition of the soul , including, of course, the case of the influential Pompanazzi. All of this hangs on the one point: That man is in the image of God by virtue of his agapic creative powers, and not by virtue of anything else. The Myth of Protestantism The popular falsehood, the myth which is pushed by the British Fabians and simil ar types, is that the rise of Protestantism was based and impelled by the rise o f the modern nation-state. That myth is pure bunk, despite the fact that it is h eavily documented to be bunk. The concept of the modern nation-state was first defined as we have defined it m any times, in terms of the work of Dante Alighieri, particularly in the issues p ertaining to De Monarchia. The resolution of the idea of the state, was clarifie d as the doctrine by Nicolaus of Cusa, over the course of his work, initially in his major work of 1431, Concordantia Catholica which is written in the concilia r context, but nonetheless the argument there bears out, even though Cusa himsel f modified his sense of what the application of that meant in the process of wri ting his Concordantia. So the idea of the modern nation-state, under a Concordantia Catholica of sovere ign nation-states, was established by the Catholic Church in the middle of the f ifteenth century. Thus, it is absolutely absurd to suggest that later, in the ea rly part to middle of the sixteenth century, that this issue became the crux of division between the Catholic Church and the emerging nation-states. That sophis t explanation of Protestantism is absolute nonsense, and there is obviously no g round on which to perpetuate that sophist explanation of Protestantism. The problem is essentially the problem of Venice, as Webster Tarpley has documen ted below. The essential evidence, as opposed to the apologetics written from th e North later on, is, that, as Paolo Sarpi's crowd emphasizes, that the Protesta nt formations in the North, were the basis for the casa nuovi, the group which b ecame the modern imperialist group, the modern British Anglo-Dutch imperialist g roup. And, that the other part of the Venetian oligarchical faction remained wit h its emphasis upon penetrating and corrupting the Catholic South. Here is where the problem has arisen, the point which Webster Tarpley addresses. There is no doubt, except to people who refuse to face facts, that the Protestan t political formation in the North, was essentially, relative to Christianity, s omething rather evil, which moved men and women in society generally away from C hristianity. This schism was the political basis for the emergence of the Enligh tenment, which was the evil which threatened to destroy Europe from the inside. But the other side of the matter, the casa vecchi, the Southern part of the usur ious oligarchy, which professed to ally itself with the Counter Reformation, was essentially just as evil as that which went North--in the sense that what it di d, is to focus on destroying the reconstituted church of the middle of the fifte enth century. As Webster Tarpley identifies the fact, the Reformation and Counte r Reformation were both an attempt to eradicate the church associated with Nicol aus of Cusa and to eradicate Cusa's influence specifically. [fn2] The unfortunate thing has been that (putative) modern historians and other relat ed commentators, have written on this subject from the standpoint of adhering to and apologizing for one faction or the other, Reformation or Counter Reformatio n as defined in the simplest terms, and have refused to see the matter from a tr uthful standpoint, from the standpoint of imago viva Dei and its implications, a

nd to see it from the practical historical standpoint of the fifteenth-century r eemergence of the church, in the context of the Council of Florence from the fou rteenth-century Dark Age. The Crucial Issue Now, focus more on the crucial issue. The key to understanding the religious sch isms and wars of sixteenth-century Europe, is irreconcilable opposition by Venic e and Genoa's usurers to that principled conception of imago Dei which is the co mmon feature of Philo's Mosaic Judaism and of Christianity. On account of this c entral issue, the oligarchy of usury-practicing families hated that Christian ch urch which this oligarchy sought then, and still today, to divide and conquer. T hese usurers and slave-traders hated most fiercely the 1439-1440 Council of Flor ence, which had reunited the church temporarily. They hated in the highest degre e that Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa who had played a crucial role in bringing about that reunification, and who was, not incidentally, also the Platonist founder o f modern physical science. The reason for this usurer's murderous hatred against the church and against Cusa is elementary. The principle of imago Dei, as Cusa defined it, or, Philo nearly 1,500 years ear lier, signifies that there exists but one, indivisible human race, such that eve ry individual member of humanity is born with an innate distinction which sets a ll mankind apart from, and above the beasts. This quality, which casts the indiv idual person in the image of God, is that divine spark of potential for developi ng the agapic power of true creative reason. This creativity, and nothing else, is the image of God in man. This agapic creative reason is the power to create illustrated by the initial di scovery, or fresh rediscovery of a valid, axiomatic-like principle of nature. Th is point is treated at length in sundry published locations, and so need not be redeveloped here. It is that quality of creative reason which renders each human life sacred, and defines all persons as born in the image of God, as imago viva Dei. This principle of the first Mosaic Book of Genesis defines as a most horrid abom ination the holding of any person in chattel slavery or any like condition of op pression. For related reasons, the practice of usury is among the most monstrous of all crimes against humanity. Venice's ruling oligarchy owed the basis for it s wealth and international power chiefly to usury, but also to Venice's leading position in the Mediterranean slave-trade. Hence, the usury-practicing oligarchy , then, or, now, like the evil Confederacy of President Lincoln's adversaries, c ontinues to be the mortal enemy of Christianity. In Mediterranean history, since the time of Plato, Plato's deadly adversary Aris totle has been used as the leading apologist for slavery and usury, and as the o fficial philosopher of those who denied the existence and free choice of the ind ividual human soul. The importance of Aristotle in service to the enemies of Mos aic Judaism and Christianity is located in Aristotle's deductive system of forma l argument. In Aristotle's essentially nominalist system of deductive sophistrie s, the individual soul cannot exist except as something arbitrary deus ex machin a. Aristotle's formalist method stultifies science, and eliminates the notion of imago Dei. For such and related reasons, the usurious oligarchy has adopted Ari stotle as its official court philosopher. The notion that God chooses arbitrarily to bestow the grace of election (of thos e to be saved) upon some members of society, is the most notable way in which th ese Venetian-sponsored sectarians rejected the principle of imago Dei, and allow ed usury and chattel slavery in their system. The schismatic quarrel of the sixteenth century is a reflection of about 2,600 y ears of European civilization to date, a continuation of the conflict between th

In point of fact. Let us turn to the ca se of Luther first. contains that spark of creativity which places the human species apart from and above the anim als in general. Notes 1. one would have to conclude that Luther were not a Christian. Return to text 2. which is emphasized for Christianity by God become man in the . traditional elem ents of Christian belief. the account of Creation given by Moses. the fact is.htm January 9. is identified historically f irst. are the standard of perfor mance by which nations and laws as well as churches are to be judged. in its oste nsible form.com/venlar93. 1979). extended famil y household. whatever Luther may have believed otherwise. to all intents and purposes. but in opposition to the most fundamental prin ciple of Christianity: such that. 1993 Introduction The evaluation of the respective roles of the Protestant and Catholic churches. there are strong indications. that the essential issue of con troversy over Lutheran doctrine involved in the schism. and whatever the Luthe ran Church may have been otherwise. Lycurgus's Sparta. Yates.e evil. and then consider the Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent itself. the n the welfare and creative self-development of all persons. This view of man. the Venetian Francesco Giorgi (Szorz i) attacked Nicolaus of Cusa's De Docta Ignorantia as follows: ``Those who retre at from the direct knowledge of the universe will retreat into the Docta Ignoran tia'' (as quoted in Francis A. rather than probably a factional sophi stry. in the ordinary sense . a rejection of Christianity in its entirety. a playing upon the susceptibilities of a monarch who was. The issue is as follows: The essence of Christianity. I'm not suggesting any necessary hereditary reason for this. despite the fact that the schism of Henry VIII was com pletely a Venetian-orchestrated event. which probably was not good for their mental health. places Luther not only i n mere opposition to Catholicism. and of all family ho useholds which give birth and nurture to new persons. that i s. it proba bly was simply that they were all raised in the same. Essentially. is that m an is defined in the image of God: not by virtue of any outward physical attribu tes of form. [fn1] The cases of the Calvinists and Lutherans is more complex. if one were to assume Luther's stated doctrine to be the true belief of Luther himself. but Luther's constructed rationalization of his schismatic act is. continuing. oligarchical model of slave society. and of Mosaic Judaism. That spark is the crucial thing. Writing in his 1540s Harmonice Mundi. It is not a q uestion of division of opinion. and the contrast ing overthrow of usury by the great Solon of Athens. Thus. If the person is imago Dei.tripod. requires a few points of emphasis for clarity. clinically insane. that the entire family was clinical ly insane. Return to text. The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan A ge (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. curr ents within that English established church did retain crucial. In fact. as we know in the case of the English established church. are the issues of Chr istianity and law of nations joined still today. by Philo Judaeus in his commentary on the first chapter of Genesis. unlike all animals. The point to be emphasized. in respect to the sixteenth-century schisms between Reformation and Counter Refo rmation. or a division of anything. but rather by the fact that man.

form of Christ. and not by virtue of anything else. over the course of his work. is that the rise of Protestantism was based and impelled by the rise o f the modern nation-state. All of this hangs on the one point: That man is in the image of God by virtue of his agapic creative powers. because it denies the fundamental principle of Mosaic Judaism an d Christianity. This is the point on which all these issues hang. was clarifie d as the doctrine by Nicolaus of Cusa. in the ea rly part to middle of the sixteenth century. It means. even though Cusa himsel f modified his sense of what the application of that meant in the process of wri ting his Concordantia. . The essential evidence. if one believes in an Aristotelian dedu ctive system. and certainly God in the image of man does not exist. the self-development of man in the image of God. particularly in the issues p ertaining to De Monarchia. and there is obviously no g round on which to perpetuate that sophist explanation of Protestantism. Concordantia Catholica which is written in the concilia r context. Thus. was established by the Catholic Church in the middle of the f ifteenth century. we have all the problem s concerning the Averroists and the Aristotelians and the definition of the soul . as opposed to the apologetics written from th e North later on. under a Concordantia Catholica of sovere ign nation-states. Thus. of course. This does not mean that this exercise of creative powers is limited to that. or a preselection by grace. as Philo indicated. for that person. the notion of any form of elect. is an abomination. by virtue of man's creative mental powers. is. the species of individual man in the image of God. is not r ealized. that without that included manifestation. It is an abomination. By creative mental powers. the point which Webster Tarpley addresses. that divine spark. that the other part of the Venetian oligarchical faction remained wit h its emphasis upon penetrating and corrupting the Catholic South. God does not exist. we signify those powers by which man changes human society's behavior thr ough progress in scientific and technological progress. the myth which is pushed by the British Fabians and simil ar types. then. The Myth of Protestantism The popular falsehood. but nonetheless the argument there bears out. Here is where the problem has arisen. So the idea of the modern nation-state. The problem is essentially the problem of Venice. That sophis t explanation of Protestantism is absolute nonsense. that the Protesta nt formations in the North. we mean to include the notions of agapë or caritas. the case of the influential Pompanazzi. except by a m erit of choice by the individual who is self-selected. the agapic function of the creative powers of man are c ertainly not realized. That myth is pure bunk. it is absolutely absurd to suggest that later. the modern British Anglo-Dutch imperialist g roup. The resolution of the idea of the state. And. were the basis for the casa nuovi. bec ause of that within them. initially in his major work of 1431. It is a fact--forget the forma lities of other kinds of argument--that. defines all human beings as potentially reconciled with God. the group which b ecame the modern imperialist group. which is in the image of God. as Paolo Sarpi's crowd emphasizes. for mally. as Webster Tarpley has documen ted below. Thus. despite the fact that it is h eavily documented to be bunk. including. that this issue became the crux of division between the Catholic Church and the emerging nation-states. in terms of the work of Dante Alighieri. The concept of the modern nation-state was first defined as we have defined it m any times. that.

For related reasons. focus more on the crucial issue. the practice of usury is among the most monstrous of all crimes against humanity. the casa vecchi. The principle of imago Dei. which had reunited the church temporarily. have written on this subject from the standpoint of adhering to and apologizing for one faction or the other. a nd to see it from the practical historical standpoint of the fifteenth-century r eemergence of the church. now. [fn2] The unfortunate thing has been that (putative) modern historians and other relat ed commentators. to divide and conquer. the usury-practicing oligarchy . but also to Venice's leading position in the Mediterranean slave-trade. This creativity. c ontinues to be the mortal enemy of Christianity. is that divine spark of potential for developi ng the agapic power of true creative reason. except to people who refuse to face facts. Venice's ruling oligarchy owed the basis for it s wealth and international power chiefly to usury. and who was. . which was the evil which threatened to destroy Europe from the inside. that the Protestan t political formation in the North. the Southern part of the usur ious oligarchy. Philo nearly 1. as Cusa defined it. relative to Christianity. This schism was the political basis for the emergence of the Enligh tenment. This agapic creative reason is the power to create illustrated by the initial di scovery. The reason for this usurer's murderous hatred against the church and against Cusa is elementary. Reformation or Counter Reformatio n as defined in the simplest terms. the Reformation and Counte r Reformation were both an attempt to eradicate the church associated with Nicol aus of Cusa and to eradicate Cusa's influence specifically. T hese usurers and slave-traders hated most fiercely the 1439-1440 Council of Flor ence.500 years ear lier. and still today. is irreconcilable opposition by Venic e and Genoa's usurers to that principled conception of imago Dei which is the co mmon feature of Philo's Mosaic Judaism and of Christianity. or. then. which casts the indiv idual person in the image of God. The Crucial Issue Now. s omething rather evil. The key to understanding the religious sch isms and wars of sixteenth-century Europe. But the other side of the matter. They hated in the highest degre e that Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa who had played a crucial role in bringing about that reunification. like the evil Confederacy of President Lincoln's adversaries.There is no doubt. Th is point is treated at length in sundry published locations. and so need not be redeveloped here. or fresh rediscovery of a valid. such that eve ry individual member of humanity is born with an innate distinction which sets a ll mankind apart from. is to focus on destroying the reconstituted church of the middle of the fifte enth century. and above the beasts. or. also the Platonist founder o f modern physical science. not incidentally. in the context of the Council of Florence from the fou rteenth-century Dark Age. was essentially just as evil as that which went North--in the sense that what it di d. which moved men and women in society generally away from C hristianity. This quality. This principle of the first Mosaic Book of Genesis defines as a most horrid abom ination the holding of any person in chattel slavery or any like condition of op pression. was essentially. It is that quality of creative reason which renders each human life sacred. signifies that there exists but one. which professed to ally itself with the Counter Reformation. from the standpoint of imago viva Dei and its implications. Hence. is the image of God in man. as imago viva Dei. As Webster Tarpley identifies the fact. the oligarchy of usury-practicing families hated that Christian ch urch which this oligarchy sought then. indivisible human race. and defines all persons as born in the image of God. axiomatic-like principle of nature. and nothing else. On account of this c entral issue. and have refused to see the matter from a tr uthful standpoint.

During the last dozen years. the benchmark for civilization. and as the o fficial philosopher of those who denied the existence and free choice of the ind ividual human soul. an d with our efforts to launch a new Renaissance today. and of all family ho useholds which give birth and nurture to new persons. was delivered on September 6. For such and related reasons. Notes 1. 1979). a continuation of the conflict between th e evil. and allow ed usury and chattel slavery in their system. Return to text 2. are the issues of Chr istianity and law of nations joined still today. which will be presented in the New Federalist in three parts. is the most notable way in which th ese Venetian-sponsored sectarians rejected the principle of imago Dei. If the person is imago Dei. the individual soul cannot exist except as something arbitrary deus ex machin a. irrationalist currents of thought that are called the Enlightenment. The importance of Aristotle in service to the enemies of Mos aic Judaism and Christianity is located in Aristotle's deductive system of forma l argument. The schismatic quarrel of the sixteenth century is a reflection of about 2. As has just been stressed. and the contrast ing overthrow of usury by the great Solon of Athens. the founder of modern science. there are strong indications. and in creating the pseudo-scientific. Yates. I would li ke to return to some of these themes today in order to explore them in greater d etail. continuing.tripod. I'm not suggesting any necessary hereditary reason for this. the n the welfare and creative self-development of all persons. extended famil y household. our philosophical association has advanced the thes is that many of the disasters of modern history have been rooted in the heritage of the former Venetian Republic. In Aristotle's essentially nominalist system of deductive sophistrie s. it proba bly was simply that they were all raised in the same. that the entire family was clinical ly insane. and eliminates the notion of imago Dei. Return to text. This includes the central role of the Venetian s in cutting short the Golden Renaissance of Italy. Pope Pius I . the usurious oligarchy has adopted Ari stotle as its official court philosopher.com/tarp93a. since the time of Plato. Our interest in exposing the Venetian war against the Italian renaissance of the Quattrocento is coherent with our commitment to the Renaissance as an ideal. The notion that God chooses arbitrarily to bestow the grace of election (of thos e to be saved) upon some members of society. Thus. and of his associate Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini.In Mediterranean history. Plato's deadly adversary Aris totle has been used as the leading apologist for slavery and usury. are the standard of perfor mance by which nations and laws as well as churches are to be judged.htm The following speech. the Venetian Francesco Giorgi (Szorz i) attacked Nicolaus of Cusa's De Docta Ignorantia as follows: ``Those who retre at from the direct knowledge of the universe will retreat into the Docta Ignoran tia'' (as quoted in Francis A.600 y ears of European civilization to date. The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan A ge (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. oligarchical model of slave society. In fact. religion and morality in the last half millennium is constituted by the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. Writing in his 1540s Harmonice Mundi. which probably was not good for their mental health. 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the S chiller Institute and the International Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern V irginia. Lycurgus's Sparta. ---------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. culture. Aristotle's formalist method stultifies science. in precipitating the Protest ant reformation and the wars of religion.

where leading patricians lectured on Aris totle. This painting hints at an important feature of Venetian method. p.) [See also Schnitzer. the most eminent doctor of the Germans. Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius saved western civilization from the Dark Age that had begun with the defeat of Frederi ck II of Hohenstaufen at the hands of the Black Guelph oligarchs. with new cults to be concocted as the need arose. Venice developed in Italy and in Europe an extensive Ar istotelian network. The Aristotelian Network During the Quattrocento. mobilized by Venice against Pius II's proposed crusade. The Barbaro f amily was represented by Francesco. and who is thus a prominent and typical repres entative of the anti-papal. saw religion as a tool of state power. Through their cooperation with the best representatives of Medici Florence in the time of the Council of Florence of 1439.). and politics through the expedient of conco cting a series of Aristotelian cults or schools which then contend among each ot her. During that Dark Age. ``Contributo. and the cult of Aristotle. usury. Giustinian-Querini recommende d Holy Scripture and Church fathers. and the ``modern'' Aristotle of Padova-Rialto. Giorgione's painting ``The Three Philosophers'' can be seen as depicting three A rsistotles: the scholastic Aristotle of the Paris Sorbonne. They appear to ha ve been thinking of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as it has in fact flourished among the Protestant sects.'' [Jedin. there would have been no Europe and no church by 1500.I. and Bessarion. The traditional rate of interest was above 20%--a Volcker prime rate.'' Gregory was the thug and agent provocateur who attempted to sabotage the work of Pius II. anti-imperial current among the electors and other p rinces (Fuersten) of the Holy Roman Empire. This was the stratum of oligarchs pl ayed by the Venetians during the conciliar movement. Bernardo Bembo. at the University of Padova. Paolo Morosini dedicated to Heimburg one of th e landmark propaganda pieces on the Venetian oligarchical system to be published during the fifteenth century. Venice. saying that the education of clergy must no longer be based on the ``fallacious erudition of the Parisians'' and similar ``pagan f ables. and the advance of th e Ottoman Empire.'' p. like Byzantium. the Venetian ambassador to Florence and the Florence handler for the Venetian Signoria was part of this (``The Venetians are called the new Romans. Cusanus. Another fam ily prominent in the effort were the Dona'. the Wars of the Roses. and later. and which would form the basis of Luther's support during the ``Reformation. 112] (Instead. the Averroistic Aris totle derived from the Arabs. who will pop up again and again in t his account. slavery. where the Venet ian nobles studied.'' The essence of Venice is oligarchism. as was his son Pietro Bembo. Ermaolao the elder and Ermolao the younger. Without Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius. Augustine. both against the backdrop of suc h events as the Hundred Years' War. religion. dedicated to Gregory of Heimburg. Venice opposed both through the Morosini agent Gre gory von Heimburg [Gilbert. per haps depicted here with the features of the younger Ermolao Barbaro. 236] . in their pioneering 1513 reform proposals addressed to Pope Leo X attacked the decadent s cholasticism of the Sorbonne. The Venet ians were the first in western Europe to read Aristotle directly in the Greek te xt--first at the School of the Rialto. ``Concerning the affairs and structure of the Ven etian Republic. namely the strat egy of dominating culture. We must remember that Venice was a branch of the Byzantine E mpire which became powerful enough to capture Constantinople in the Fourth Crusa de. 191].'' he wrote. the Roman Catholic Church had been substantially destroyed by the Avignon captivity and the Great Schism. In the 1400's the Aristotelian school-men of the Sorbonne were a formidable force in theology. especially St. after about 1400. shortly after 1200. But the Venetian oligarchs Giustinian and Quirini.

Venice sought help fro m the Ottoman Empire. pac kaging his own reform movement in a very similar ``anti-Aristotelian'' garb. a religious revival broke out. but between 150 9 and 1513 the French forces. demagogic preachers attempted to blame the disasters of Venetian policy on the new Jewish community. whose family will be at the center of our story. It included just about all of Europe: the France of Louis XII. A painting by Palma Giovane in the Doge's palace depicts Doge Loredan a nd the lion of St. Contarini. Pope Julius II.'' [Gilbert. Spain. It was also at this time that the Jewish community of Venice came in to existence. kept the Venetians on the b rink of doom. the Patriarch of Aquilea. Venice. Another prong of the Venetian war against the Renaissance was Venice's expansion inside Italy. the emerging great powers. 38] Indeed: 10% of the population were female prostitutes at any given time. lost all the land it had stolen in the course of centuries. hara ngued the Senate on Venetian immorality: ``Nunneries served the sexual needs of the rich and powerful. Venetian diplomacy i nvited France and Spain. As the Cambrai crisis deepened.'' [H. Previously Jews had been restricted to the role of moneylenders on the terraferma. des pite the Manichean dualism in Luther which led right back to Aristotle's method. But this does not change th e fact that Bacon's method was Aristotelian through and through. The Venetian s were driven back to their lagoon. to invade Italy. The League of Cambrai was the first broad coalition of European states against a nominally Christian nation. the Papal states and Naples. Florence. the King of Cyprus. but there is no qualitative diff erence. But the entry of the new great powers into Italy also prepared the great est shock in Venetian history: the War of the League of Cambrai. p. In the decisive battle of Agn adello. the Holy Roman Empire of Maximilan I. on the terraferma. When it proved impossib le to conquer Milan. spurr ed on by Antonio Contarini. Italy was indeed devastated by these rival armies. indebted and humiliated Venice survived the War of the League of Cambrai.500 flies. with Florentine money.500 patricians that the new Spanish power had reduced the republic from a great power to ``2. 150] A . who rides a bull and carries a shield e mbossed with the arms of the member states of the league. the Dukes of Ferrara. the Venetia ns thought they could pick up the pieces. Brown. [Gilbert. Mark fighting Europa. who se residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to w ear a yellow star of David. A badly mauled. the Duke of Savoy. 39] In the midst of the hysteria in the lagoon. There was a plan to carve up Venice. Bacon touted in duction as the great alternative to syllogisms. the Kin g of Hungary. the pseudo-scientific method cooked up by Francis Bacon using the ep istemological writings of Paolo Sarpi portrayed itself as tearing down the autho rity of Aristotle in favor of scientific experiment. and had to borrow from the Chig i of Siena. French troops crushed the Venetian mercenaries. Fighting began in 1509. Homosexuality was so widespread that female prostitutes h ad come to him complaining that they earned so little they had to exercise their profession into old age. The state was close to bankruptcy. Between the French conquest of Milan i n 1494 and the sack of Rome in 1527. Religious processions and demonstrations multiplied. Florence. even more important was the prevalence of sodomy. but was left with no allies.It should then come as no surprise to find Martin Luther. a sure marker for the presence of the Bogomil-bugger tradition in episte mology. 18. Milan . but the Doge told the 2. Mantova. p. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto. Some accounts include England. a few years later. as Machiavelli e xulted. for the deified state and the immortal fondi were in gravest danger. Similarly. their destruction was imminent. Pope Julius II was induced to drop out of the League of Cambrai. with the aim of conquering the entire Italian peninsula and then of using Italy to dominate the world.

vol. whose studies under the Aristotelian Pomponazzi were interrupted when Emperor Maximilian seized Pado va. Parts of this correspondence have survived.'' VI. who had gone to the Levant in 1507 (lo oking for Turkish help?). To make matters worse. Faith and Works The ``Thurmerlebenis'' brought Luther to the definitive standpoint of his theolo gy: that salvation is by faith alone. ``All the princes of the empire. identified as ``Sophi. Contarini had helped entertain Agostino Chigi when he was negotiating that v ital loan. perhaps to Constantinople. Another was Paolo Giustinian. generally regarded as the starting point of the Protestant reformation. they hold nothing sacred. what could Ve nice do to divide and rend Europe so thoroughly that it would tear itself to pie ces for more than a century? A Look At Contarini To see how this was done. so now plans began to hatch that would facilitate a metastasis of the Venetian cancer towards the Atlantic world. 2 27 ff. But once when in this tower I was meditating on those words. harbor a very ill will towards your most illustrious Lordship. (This proposes the death penalty for Jews who do not convert and a war with the Turks in alliance with the young leader of Persia. where he had been serving as the Venetian ambassador to the Empire. let us jump from Gasp aro Contarini in Venice in 1511 to Martin Luther in the tower of his Wittenberg monastery in the years 1513-1514.43]. in the midst of t he mortal emergency of Cambrai.'' [A lberi. but in reality they never think of God and.] . and God's justice ought to be the salvation of every believer. Quirini had seen that war wa s imminent. They soon struck terror in me who heard them. p. which they do regard as a deity. To put them in perspective. 743] One participant was Vincenzo Quirini. Back at Venice. Giustinian and Quirini became the advance guard of the C atholic reformation. Therefore it is God's justice which justifies us and saves us. he warned the Doge. This knowledge the Holy Spirit gave me on the privy in the tower.t the deepest level. there was talk of building a Suez canal. and was not a suitable base for world domination. the Portuguese access to India had undercut the Venetian spice monopoly through the Levant. except for the state. but this was abandoned. He is just. ``Pamphlet to Leo X'' to the Lateran Council. and soon my soul was revived..' I soon had the thought whether we ought to live ju stified by faith. [Schnitzer. who had just been in Germany. be they prelates or secular rulers. some patricians realized that the lagoon city could now be crushed like an egg-shell. p. p. p. therefore He punish es. Contarini gravitated to a group of young patricians w ho gathered at the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele on the island of Murano to discuss the salvation of their souls.' ' [Grisar. 506. Guistinian and Quirini turned away from their pa trician state careers and entered the austere Camaldolese order. let us look at Gasparo Contarini. `the just lives by faith.. During the grim winter of 1510-1511.. first on Murano and later near Arezzo.'' [Pius II Commentaries.' `justice of God. with the good works of charity playing no role whatsoever. which I have seen and touched with my hands. shaking up the Camaldolese order and later sending the firs t Catholic reform manifesto. and illuminate the actual orgins of the Protestant Reformation. Venice had always thrived through divide and conquer. Luther describes the experience thus: ``These words `just' and `justice of God' were a thunderbolt in my conscienc e. 6. If Europe could unite against Venice. Remember what Pius II had said of the V enetians: ``they wish to appear Christians before the world. the years of Luther's so-called ``Thurmerlbeni s'' or experience in the tower. series 1.'' This is a ll in addition to the attacks on the schoolmen mentioned above. As after 1200 there had been talk of moving the capital.] Gasparo Contarini corresponded with Quirini and Giustinian for more than a decad e. ``Luther.

James says: ``What doth it profit. The just shall live by faith. Considering the question of faith. Augustine. James contains a lengthy and trenchant polemi c against the obscurantists who.. were learned in the Scrip tures. Peter (2 Peter 3. Here we must read carefully because of Luther's attempt to dress himself in a neo-Augustinia n cloak..'' This prophecy of Luther comes from none other than St. When St. Paul leaves no doubt that while faith is cl early primary and prior to works. Paul were part of his polemic against the so-called Judaizers... Of course. Augustine warns... nor uncircumcision. faith. and may exp lain Luther's attempts to get St. These lines are of special importance for all Protestants today. as they do also the other scriptures.'' This passage was ripped out of scriptural and traditional context and made the t otal passkey. James thrown out of the New Testament altogeth er. though a man say he have faith. St. was at pains to convince the non-Christians in his audience that first justification and thus salvation could only come through fai th... L ooking back retrospectively over his life in his Retractiones. at cer tain places in his epistles. certain writings which so distinguished good works from Christian faith a s to say that it was possible to obtain eternal life without the former but not without the latter..17: ``For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as i t is written. like Luther. Paul such as the one practiced one and one-half millenia later by Luther: ``As also in all [St. and have not works? can faith save him?. Paul says that man is justified by faith and not by the obse . St. Augustine was in fact the author of an entire book in which he warn ed against precisely the kind of vicious error which Luther later promulgated. Paul. I received from certain laymen who however.. unto their own destruction . '' Beyond this. Augustine writes: `` . but faith which worketh by love.'' This is the subject of Augustine's book On Faith and Good Works. so faith without works is dead also. and not by faith only.6:``For in Jesus Christ neither circu mcision availeth any thing. speaking in them of these things. and w orks were a thoroughly disingenuous revival of an old controversy that had long been solved in theology by the magisterium of the Roman Church. ``we feel that we should advise the faithful that they would endanger the sa lvation of their souls if they acted on the false assurance that faith alone is sufficient for salvation or that they need not perform good works in order to be saved.This was Luther's celebrated explication of Paul's Letter to the Romans I. These observations by St . attempt to separate faith from wor ks..16).14-26) This debate was summed up several centuries later by St. a balanced reading of St. which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest. the epistle of St. my brethren. both faith and works of charity are necessary for salvation. Seest thou how faith wrought with [Abraham's] works. and by works was faith made perfect? . St.. in which are some things hard to be understood. and not through the works of the law without faith. Paul's] epistles. For as the body without the spirit is dead. Luther's allegedly new insights into the problems of justification. See for example Galatians 5. The New Testame nt itself contains a warning against one-sided interpretations of St. Ye see then how that by works a man is justified.'' (James 2.

if it is withou t works and therefore cannot save. then. According to such a gnostic view. after having stated in a certain passage. ' at once added. John. writing against it in their epistles and assert ing very strongly that faith is no good without works.'' faith formed by charity. but dead.. In those days of greater theological knowledge. for exampl e. Paul to mean that they did not have to lead a good life. so good works belong to the devil. and Luke. the ma terial world is inherently bad. and that is why we find some of them.. Compare for exampl e the following segment of his treatise Grace and Free Will: ``Because they fail to grasp what the apostle means when he says: `We reckon that a man is justified by faith independently of the works of the law... Someth ing not so different was professed by the Bogomils. What he means rather and what he wants us to understand is that man can be justified by faith.' some m en have understood him to say that faith is sufficient for man. and only the spiritual world can be good. love is the sign of the most steadfast faith. indeed. that we should not tell the fai thful that they will obtain eternal life if their faith is dead. B ut love is the form of faith giving to faith new being. ``Fides caritate formata'' was not coinc identally a citation that was capable of throwing Luther into hysteria during th eological debates.. he does not mean that good works are not necessary or that it is enough to receive and to profess the faith and no more.'' See also Nicolaus' On the Peace of Faith. James.' '' The best Renaissance Christian humanist theology shared this same view. the idea that good and evil are e qually necessary parts of the creation. even though he has not previously performed works of the law. Peter.. [St. the devil is an independent power who rules over the material world.rvance of the law. this could be clearly recognized as a new variation on Manicheanism. [T]his opinion originat ed in the time of the apostles. See Nico laus Cusanus in his On Learned Ignorance: ``For without love faith is not living. For the works of the la w are meritorious not before but after justification. For Luther. what a great mistake they make who think that they can be saved by a faith that is de ad!'' (On Faith and Works. It was he who. Luther's contemporary and so metime associate Philip Melanchton saw Luther in exactly these terms: ``Manichae . Augustine recapitulates his views.. it must b e formed faith. `For in Christ neither circumcision is of any avail nor uncircumcision. pp. and is not faith at all.. sayin g that: ``those who are preparing for baptism should be instructed not only in what they must believe but also in what they must do. `but faith which works through charity..'' ``Fides caritate formata. 55-56) These themes are constantly repeated in Augustine's writings. where we find the following: ``it is impossible that someone please God without faith. for without works it is dead. See. It is unthinkable that the Vessel of Election should hold this view. but rather that they will obtain eternal life if they have that faith of grace that works by charity. even though he l ives a bad life and is without good works. since t hey were assured of salvation as long as they had the faith. human reason is the ``bride and whore'' of t he devil. Peter] was aware of the fact that certain unrighteous men had interpreted certain rather obscure passages of St.'' (pp. However. is a common medieval and re naissance expression for the necessity that faith be expressed and developed by acts of charity towards one's neighbor. 23-30) In the concluding chapter of this work.

an delirium.'' Luther attempted to portray his own viewpoint as a return to St. Augustine's stress on grace as against the ethical notions of the late Graeco-Ro man world, but this was disingenuous. Luther's marginal jottings to Augustine's Confessions have come to light; an interesting one recaptures Luther's reaction to Augustine's polemics against the Manichaeans and their idea of the two coequa l cosmic forces locked in struggle. Luther's annotation: ``This is false. This i s the origin of all Augustine's errors.'' [see Socci and Ricci, and Theobald Bee r.] Luther appears to reflect the influence of the pseudo-Hermes Trismegistus an d his ``Book of the 24 Philosophers.'' Contarini and Luther But in the given historical context it is more than interesting that the top Ven etian oligarch of the day--Gasparo Contarini--in 1511 went through a Thurmerlebn is of his own. In the Camaldolese monastery of Monte Corona above Frascati in th e summer of 1943, the German scholar Hubert Jedin, acting on the advice of Giuse ppe de Luca, discovered 30 letters from Gasparo Contarini to the Cambai Camaldol ese, Giustinian and Quirini. One is from Eastertide 1511, when Contarini went fi rst to the Benedictine monastery on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, and then to San Sebastiano. Contarini would have us believe that he was contemplating be coming a monk himself, but concluded that even monastic life of asceticism and g ood works would never been enough to atone for his sins. This is similar to Luth er's starting point. A holy father told Contarini that the way to salvation is ` `much broader than what many people think.'' Contarini writes: `` ... I began to think to myself what that happiness [salvation] might be a nd what our condition is. And I truly understood that if I performed all the pen ances possible, and even many more, even if they were all taken together, they w ould not be enough to make up for my past sins, to say nothing of meriting that felicity. And having seen that that infinite goodness, that love which always bu rns infinitely and loves us little worms so much that our intellect cannot fatho m it, having only by its goodness made us out of nothing and exalted us to such a height ... We must attempt only to unite ourselves with our head [Christ] with faith, with hope, and with that small love of which we are capable. As regards satisfaction for sins committed, and into which human weakness falls, His passio n is sufficient and more than sufficient. Through this thought I was changed fro m great fear and suffering to happiness. I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw, for love of me, on the cross, with his arms ope n, and his breast opened up right to his heart. This I, the wretch who had not h ad enough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do p enance, turned to him; and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction which he, without any sins of his own, had made for us, he was quick to accept me and to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted, which I myself was incapable of satisfying.'' [Jedin, ``Ein `Thurmerlbenis' des junge n Contarini,'' p. 117 and Dermot Fenlon, ``Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine It al.'' p.8.] The parallels to Luther are evident, even though Contarini still allows hope and a little love a role in salvation, in addition to faith. Later, in a letter of 1523, after Contarini had seen Luther, he would go beyond this and wholly embrac e the Lutheran position: ``Wherefore I have truly come to this firm conclusion which, although first I read it and heard it, now nonetheless through experience I penetrate very well with my intellect: and that is that no one can justify himself with his works o r purge his soul of its inclinations, but that it is necessary to have recourse to divine grace which is obtained through faith in Jesus Christ, as Saint Paul s ays, and say with him: `Blessed is the man without works, to whom the Lord did n ot impute sin....' Now I see both in myself and in others that when a man thinks he has acquired some virtue, just at the moment it is all the easier for him to fall. Whence I conclude that every living man is a thing of utter vanity, and t

hat we must justify ourselves through the righteousness of another, and that mea ns of Christ: and when we join ourselves to him, his righteousness is made ours, nor must we rely on ourselves to the smallest degree, but must say: `From ourse lves we received the answer of death.' ''[Jedin, p. 127] Contarini was always much more careful in the writings he published; in his trea tise De Praedestinatione he says that Chrsitians should ``seek to exalt as much as possible the grace of Christ and faith in him, an d to humble as much as possible the confidence we feel in our works, our knowled ge and our will.'' These letters, first published in 1950, make Contarini the first Protestant, the undisputed caposcuola among those in Italy who argued for salvation ex sola fed e, and who were called evangelicals, crypto-Protestants, or ``spirituali,'' to w hom we will return shortly. ---------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac.tripod.com/tarp93b.htm The following speech, which is being presented in the New Federalist in thre e parts, was delivered on September 6, 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the Schiller Institute and the Internatinal Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern V irginia. Let us consider first whether there was any way that the tidings of Contarini's new stress on faith, developed during the Cambrai crisis, might have been transm itted to Germany. There was, in the form of a Venetian Aristotilean network whic h reached into the court of Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony, who prote cted Luther from Pope Leo X's extradition demands and from the ban of the empire placed on Luther by Emperor Charles V. Mutianus Rufus and Spalatin Our knowledge of this network begins with the figure of one Conradus Mutianus Ru fus, who was in the early 1500s the Kanonikus of the Marienstift in Gotha, a Lat in and Greek scholar and cleric who had travelled to Italy during the period 149 9-1503, and who had studied in Bologna and visited other cities, including Venic e. Mutianus Rufus had been in contact with members of the Signoria: ``I saw Vene tian patricians wearing a silken belt which hung down on one side and went aroun d one arm,'' [Briefwechsel des Conradus Mutianus, p. 249] he wrote to a correspo ndent in 1509. Mutianus came to know Aldus Manutius, the celebrated Venetian pub lisher of Latin, Greek, and other learned texts (and the target of Erasmus's sat ire in the hilarious Opulentia Sordida). With Aldus we are at the heart of the Venetian intelligence networks among the s elf-styled humanists around 1500. In February 1506, with the Cambrai war clouds on the horizon, Aldus had written to Mutianus's disciple Urbanus: ``I most highl y esteem S. Mutianus Rufus because of his learning and humanity and confess myse lf to be very much in his debt, on the one hand because he constantly speaks wel l of me, and on the other because he kindly procured for me the friendship of a man decked out with learning and holy ways like you. And therefore if I did not only esteem you and Mutianus and Spalatinus completely as men both learned and w ell-disposed towards me, but also love you so very much in return, I would be th e most ungrateful man of all. But I love you and honor and render you immortal t hanks because you have summoned me to this mutual good will.'' [See Briefwechsel , p. 37.] The other disciple of Mutianus Rufus named here, Spalatinus, is the one we focus on.

Georg Burckhardt was born in the town of Spalt, near Nuremberg, in 1484. His bir thplace is an omen, for Burckhardt, or Spalatinus in his humanist name, was dest ined to play a decisive role, second perhaps only to Luther himself, in the grea test church split [Kirchenspaltung] of recent history. Spalatin, a student at Er furt, became a protege of Mutianus Rufus in 1504, visiting him in his Gotha offi ce where ``Farewell to cares'' was inscribed on the door. Another of Mutianus's network was Johann Lang of Erfurt, who would shortly reside in an Augustinian mo nastery alongside a certain Martin Luther, who had studied in Erfurt after 1501 at the same time as Spalatin. [Irmgard Hoess, George Spalatin (Weimar, 1956)] In 1505, Mutianus Rufus found Spalatin a job at the monastery in Georgenthal, wh ere he was responsible for purchasing books for the library. The orders were mad e with Aldus Manutius in Venice, with payment by way of the Fugger copper mines in Hohenkirchen. In December 1505, Spalatin wrote to Mutianus to make sure that he included in the order the Castigationes Plinianae, written by Ermolao Barbaro the Younger. Later Spalatin became a personal secretary to the Elector of Saxon y, Frederick the Wise, gradually acquiring responsibility for Frederick's prized collection of relics of the saints, and also for the newly founded University o f Wittenberg and for its library. Gradually Spalatin became something like a jun ior minister, responsible for educational and religious affairs. In 1512, during the Cambrai war, Mutianus and Spalatin received a report that Al dus was on his way to Germany with a cargo of precious Greek and Latin manuscrip ts; Spalatin wrote to Aldus on March 25, 1512, proposing that Aldus meet with Fr ederick the Wise for a major book purchase. Was Aldus planning a mission in orde r to secure strategic help for the Most Serene Republic in Venice's hour of need ? Aldus apparently did not make the trip, but in December 1512, Frederick the Wi se wrote to Aldus, and Spalatin prepared the Latin text. In 1515, Spalatin place d a new book order for Greek and Latin texts with the Aldus firm. It is not known exactly when Spalatin met Luther for the first time, but Luther' s first extant letter to Spalatin is placed in about February 1514, in the middl e of the Thurmerlebnis [tower experience] period. Spalatin had asked Luther's op inion on the controversy over the Hebrew and Talmudic studies of Johannes Reuchl in, whom Frederick was supporting. This began a correspondence, of which 400 of Luther's letters to Spalatin, but only a few of Spalatin's to Luther, have survi ved. Spalatin appears as Luther's interlocutor in theology (``he influenced Luth er very strongly in the direction of clarity,'' says Hoess), but his adviser and indeed his controller in matters of political tactics and strategy. The letters peak in 1521, but continue therafter; ``there is no one in our group whom I wou ld prefer to you,'' wrote Luther to Spalatin on December 12, 1524. In 1515-16 Luther gave his lecture on salvation through faith alone, although th e first written expression of this seems to have been in a letter to Spalatin of October 19, 1516, where he wrote: ``First man must change himself; only then ca n his works be changed''--a leading idea expressed by Giustinian-Quirini. In September 1516 Spalatin joined the Kanzelei of Frederick. Here Spalatin acted as Luther's intercessor, especially after he became the confessor to the vacill ating and indecisive Frederick in 1517-18. After Luther, on Halloween 1517, had posted his theses on the door of the Wittenberg cathedral, it was Spalatin who c onvinced Frederick to keep the matter in Saxony, and not permit the case to go t o Rome. When Luther went to Heidelberg for a theological debate, Spalatin made s ure he had an escort provided by Frederick. In July 1518, Luther was summoned to Rome by the Holy See, and he appealed urgently for help: ``I now need your help most urgently, my Spalatin, and so does the honor of our whole university!'' At the next imperial diet, Cardinal Cajetan asked for money to fight the Turks, on ly to be answered by a rehearsal of the complaints of the German nation against the Holy See. Here Frederick was able to convince Maximilian to allow Luther's c ase to stay in Germany. The anti-papal and anti-imperial princely oligarchical p

ich kann nicht anders'' [``Here I stay. Here Contarini was also present. Later. the empire shortly went to war with France in one of the seque lae of Cambrai. Spalatin appealed for and got from Erasmus a st atement in support of Luther against Rome. Eck. for Pier Paolo made prepara tions to leave for Saxony. Writing on October 19. he had a stan ding commission from Frederick the Wise to purchase books and relics for the Ele ctor's outstanding collections. b . seeking to exploit the Luther issue in order to suppress humani stic learning. Ap parently the response from Spalatin was encouraging. he stated that he had met Pier Paolo [Vergerio]. a practice Luther condemned as idol atrous. the Elector's counsellor. Were there other channels of Venetian communication between the lagoon and Saxon y during this period? There was at least one other. (This puts Luther's ``Hier stehe ich. but a message from Spalatin then arrived telling him that the danger was past. Perhaps because of his kinship with the Ernestine branch of the Saxon ruling line. Here Luther's fame and following grew rapidly while he enjoyed immunity. present as the Venetian amb assador to Charles V. 131) When Luther was called to Augsb urg. humanistic learning was Platonic. Erasmus warned that those handling Luther's case on behalf of the Roman curia were in effect acting as provocateurs.) After Luther had publicly burned Leo X's bull of excommunication in December 1520. warned him to flee. had been a reader in theology at the Franciscan convent of San Nicolo' in Venice. Spalatin would go on to become Saxony's chancellor or pri me minister. a gifted youth who ranked high am ong the students of law at Padova [Padua] and was well trained in the humanities . Frederick protected him from extradition. At one point Luther was requesting that official documents of Saxony be falsely dated to protect him. Schenk then turned his attention to another member of the Vergerio c lan. was interested in completing his lega l studies at Wittenberg. and Luther organized a farewell dinner in his cl oister. a German friar. and adviser. 1521 to Georg Spalatin. Schenk asserted. I cannot do otherwise''] in a new light. though all sources consulted are suspiciously emphatic that Contarini. never met personally with Luther. For Erasmus. (Hoess. by indirect means. which involved Frederick's h obby of collecting the relics of the saints. 1518: ``For I know that I can make m yself more agreeable to our most illustrious prince by appealing rather than by recanting. 136) Later the same autumn. After Charles V had set the ban of the empire on Luther. Burckhard Schenk von Simau. The young Capodistrian. who told him that the eastern coast of the Adriatic was a rich hunting ground for relics and suggested that younger members of his family might be available to make del iveries to Saxony. This made what Leo X had dismissed as ``a q uarrel among monks'' into the Reformation. spin doctor. One of Schenk's most useful Italian contacts pro ved to be [Pier Paolo] Vergerio's brother Giacomo. the friar urged that he be strongly recommended to the Elector. Spalatin secured an escort. a fellow Franciscan. Spalatin.'' (Hoess. So sure was Luther of Frederick's support (and Spalatin's influence) that he cou ld write to Cardinal Cajetan on October 18. Accordingly. In his response. Later we find Spalatin unsuccessfully telling the hot-headed Luther to keep a lo w profile.arty coalesced in support of Luther. he was deterred from starting his journey. p. There is every ind ication that Cajetan. p. Spalatin organized the coup de main which brought Luther into the safety of Fred erick's Wartburg Castle. only to turn back at Innsbruck on account of illness. although the two were at the plenary sessions. Spalatin accompanied Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521 as his principal handle r. Aurelio Vergerio set off on a trip to the domain of Frederick the Wise. and others acting in the name of Leo X were indeed doing what Erasmus suggested. in July 1521. Aleandro. Assuring Spalatin that Vergerio would be a credit to th e university. however. and he could remain. fearing Luther was in danger. ``Since 1515.

Awa reness of all this came to Valdez. through ``esperienza. Here the common man is so well instruct ed that he thinks (and rightly so) that only faith and confidence toward God. p. 30-31. would be very great. which were however without merit. Frederick the Wise considered it prudent to cease collecting relics. By the following summer the invitation had been withdrawn.. interested in the writings of Juan Valdez of Spain. and Spain. during the period of the Smalkaldic League.) According to another account. who was about to b ecome a bishop. but they a pply themselves with so much determination and perseverance that they succeed as well in various manual crafts as they do in letters. In 1516. p.'' [Alberi. the abbot of the Benedict ines of San Giorgio Maggiore. Vergerio belongs to the group of Spiritual i around Contarini. for in Venice they probably cost mo re and are valued more highly than here. Spalatin informed Schenk that in the light of the recent religious developments in Wittenberg. like Contarini. p. they are robu st and courageous in war.'' [H. said Valdez.y reports of an outbreak of plague along the route... When Contarini returned in 1525 from his mission with Charles V in Germany.. 1522. Spalatin wrote to an unnamed ``Venetian merchant'' at this time: ``I am returning herewith the relics as well as the crucifix.'' Valde z's followers were mainly oligarchs. was to take this Beneficio Cristo given to us through the Holy Spirit and manifested in good works. Along with Contarini there were now: Gregorio Cortese. they are only small. a member of the former English ruling house of Plantagenet now living at Pietro Bembo's villa (B . and his works were published in Venice. as we have seen. Contarini began meeting with a group of patricians who represented the heart of the Italian evangelical or cry pto-Protestant movement. they are suspicious but not fraudulent or malicious. 8] The Spirituali Pier Paolo Vergerio of Capodistria attended the University of Padova and married Diana Contarini of the Contarini family in 1526.G. [Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutsch land. The meetings were oft en held in the gardens of Cortese's San Giorgio Maggiore. the Protestant alliance which warred against Charles V in 1546-47. a year before Luther's Wittenberg theses. but because of the divisions which exist among them. are enough. 21] Venetian publishing and Venetian networks would now be mobilized to guarantee th e spread of Lutheranism and its variants all over Germany in order to perpetuate and exacerbate these divisions. The forces of Germany. the Low Countries. 14] He later became a papal diplomat and met with Luther in Wittenbe rg in 1535. they are not sublimely intelligent. in hopes you w ill sell them as advantageously as possible. I. Spalatin added that he could promise nothing further to the Vergerios. These were the Spiritu ali. and who would launch the Reformation inside the Roman C atholic Church during the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. Contarini then. who had come to Naples to teach that justification was given to us as God's gratuitous gift.. Our respon sibility. Vergerio was to become an acti ve publicist in the Protestant cause. the English emigre Reginald Pole. an d brotherly love.'' (Schutte. pp. served as Venetian ambassador t o Charles V and the Pope.. Haile. During the early 1530s. in which many are now devo ting themselves and make great profit. they have little regard for death. he told the Senate: ``The character and customs of the Germans are close to feral. Later. ``On July 28. if they were un ified. Contarini wrote De Officio Ep iscopi a treatise of church reform for his friend Lippomanno.

going over to Protestantism. Henry VIII appealed to s cholars and universities for their opinions. in which marriage be tween a man and his brother's wife was forbidden. co-founder of the new Theatine Order and later Pope Paul IV. Reginald Pole had been sent to Padova by Henry VIII because his claim on the Eng lish throne was as good as or better than Henry's: Pole was a Plantagenet. Around 1540. Giorgi remained at the English court until his death in 1540. refused to grant an annullment. As for Pole. In 1541. under o ccupation by Charles V. who tended towards militant and inquisitorial methods.5-6. Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga would come into the picture. and Vittoria Colonna. Pole was the governor of Viterbo in the Papal states. Pole on one occasion advised V ittoria Colonna that she should believe as if salvation depended on faith alone. he is important because of his later role in England. and included especial ly Pole. The Beneficio had been written by a Benedictine (Benedetto Fontanino) using Calvin's ``Institutes of the Christia n Religion'' of 1539. the Ben eficio was published in Venice in 1543. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a s . Vergerio. and others. the year of the Sack of Rome. Many ideas common to this group were expressed in a tract called the Beneficio d i Cristo. and to marry the court lady Anne Boleyn. accompanied by the Hebrew scholar Marco Raphael. and G. her kinsman. Vermigli. Contarini dedicated his treatise on the freedom of the will to Vittoria Colonna. [Fenlon. joined by Mar cantonio Flamminio.M. Giorgi assured Henry VIII that the Bib lical text applicable to his situation was Leviticus 18:16. Then there were the zelanti.000 copies in that city alon e. conciliatory. accusing them of heresy. Vitto ria Colonna was known as a poetess whose ``Rime Spirituali' expressed some of th e favorite themes of the pro-Venetian Spirituali. journeyed to England. One such opinion came from the Fran ciscan Friar Francesco Giorgi. through the circle set up by Reginald Pole at Viterbo . he was influenced by a certain Padre Marco of the Paduan Benedictines of Sa nta Giustina. Pole was close to the Venetian banker Alvise Priuli. was irrelevant. and Vermigli later became apostates. chapter 5] With the help of Marcantonio Flamminio. The English Schism In 1527. the spirituale bishop of Verona on Venetian territory. Giorgi. This Benedetto had been at Cortese's San Giorgio Maggiore around 1534. and sold 40. waged civil war against Pope Paul III Farnese but was defeated. Ochino. Gi orgi was the author of De Harmonia Mundi (Venice 1525). Ascani o Colonna.embo had changed his lifestyle enough to become Bishop of Bergamo and would beco me a cardinal). who had given him a daughter but no son . Catharine had been previously married to Henry's brother Arthur. a mystical work with inf luences deriving from the Hebrew Cabbala. and who came into confl ict with Spirituali like Pole and Morone. w here they arrived in 1531. Giorgi-Zorzi told Henry. There was the pap al legate Vergerio. who presided at the last sessions of the Council of Trent. tolerant. linked to the Oratory of Divine Love in Rome. Later. The Spirituali later tended to separate into two wings: The first were liberal. She had been in the Juan Valdez circle and the Oratory of Divine Love. Caraffa of Naples. while acting as if it were dependent on good works as well. Arrayed later around these were the Bishop of Carpentras Jacopo Sadoleto. like Caraffa . When he joined the general post-Cambrai shift out of Aristotelian letters and into pi ety. open to dialogue with Protestants. where he developed a close relation with Vittoria Colonna of the Roman black nobility. in which such a marriage is prescribed. G iberti. Morone. Ochino. Deuteronomy 25. Contarini had died before this division became pronounced.P. When Pope Clement VII Medici. and Cardinal Moro ne. G. a member of the Venetian Zorzi patrician clan. King Henry VIII began to mature his plan to divorce his wife Catharine of Aragon. and were popular among Benedictines.

.'' P ole wrote later. that [Cromwell] found means of access to the king's presence and suggested to him that policy of making himself head of the Church of England. Your miserable apes Your pestilential flatterers. according to Pole. [Pole. and in this case he had the law of God actually in his favor. xxiii] But The Prince was published years later.'' Pole wrote this in a dedicatory epistle to Charles V. This was the man who judicially murdered St. ``It explains every means whereby religion. Cromwell had all the marks of the Venetian ag ent. Contarini and Giorgi becam e close friends. Such were the masonic beginnings of the Venetian Party. xviii] this evil..'' Pole wrote. ``I know that your deeds are the source of all of the kingdom is called into doubt for love of a our lies is punished by death. 456) Giorgi and Raphael were clearly acting for t he Signoria and the Council of Ten.. Later. But a king was abov e the laws. the eminent Erasmian. Henry VIII later called on Pole for his opinion on ``the king's great matter. ``I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race. Thomas Cromwell replaced Cardinal Wolsey a s the chief adviser to Henry VIII. By the stench of upon such tricks.'' ``The succession harlot. ``I have long been aware that you are afflicted wit h a serious and most dangerous disease. Robert Fludd.chool of Venetian pseudo-Platonic mysticism in England. among other names.. seeing that even Wolsey ``could no longer advance the project [of his divorce].. and. Edmund Spenser.. just after Cardinal Wolsey's fall . and those about him rejoiced for a while in the belief that he would abandon a policy so fraught with danger. T homas More. p. Anyone resisting y of sophists talk nonsense.'' [ Dwyer. and seemed to think p rinces bound by the same principles as private persons were. but Contarini had the ins ide track: Giorgi lived in Contarini's immediate neighborhood. as he had the power to change them. was at one time the clerk or bookkeep er to a Venetian merchant. Shortly before the arrival of Giorgi.. Sir Philip Sydney. This was later called Ro sicrucianism.'' [Dwyer.'' which would enable him to have his own way in the matter of the divorce and give him other advantages as well. Henry. They wer e considering the interests of his subjects more than his. (Dittrich. was heard to declare with a sigh that he could prosecute it no longer... by the accession of James I.. ``Yet it was apparently at this very time.'' Pole responded with a violently provocative tirade designed to goad the paranoid Henry into a homicidal fit. writing nine or ten years later. Cromwell had reportedly been a mercenary soldier in Italy during the wars o f the early 1500s. 113-140] Pole says that Cromwell offered him a copy of Machiavelli's The Prince.. which h e highly recommended. p. But he had scarcely remained two days in this state of mind when a messenger of Satan (whom [Pole] afterwards names as Cromwell) addressed him and blamed the t imidity of his councillors in not devising means to gratify his wishes. his mind a flatterer happens .. which. p. and influenced such figures as John Dee. he tells us. and Sir Francis Bacon. One version has Cromwell working for 20 years for a V enetian branch office in Antwerp. So at least we must suppose from the testimony of Cardinal Pole. Epistolae. Bembo and Pole had their own contacts with cabbalists. and any in clination toward virtue could be destroyed. be came the dominant force in British life. justice. and Contarini gre w up and went to school with Giorgi's nephews.

and direct his military might to wiping out Henry's regime . Cortese of San Giorgio Maggiore. Mary's succession was helped by Sir William Cecil. Their claim is dubious. who had early gone over to the opposition to Bloo dy Mary Tudor. Gibert i. series I. Pole. Pole returned to England as the chief adviser and virtual controller of the Catholic Queen Mary Tudor. acting under instructions f rom Pope Paul IV. Paul III had studied with the humanist Pomponius Laetus. Pole. since one day they do one thing and the next day they do another. 271-78] Since Pole could easily have assumed the role of Plantagen et pretender. Earlier Pole had been considered a candidate to marry Mary. [Dwyer. These measures made Mary so unpopular that it was clear that she would not have a Catholic successor. also insisted on full restitution of the church lands and prop erty seized by Henry VIII. Cardinal Farnese wa s known as the petticoat cardinal. This fe eds the resistance of those who have accepted the new laws. Pietro Bembo. two of whom he made cardinals and governors of provinces controlled by the church. usually see n by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. It was Paul III who elevated Contarini. Pole. pp. as was seen in the rebellions of 1549. Paul III had several children of his own. and othe r Venetians and Venetian assets followed. who had bot h stayed behind in England and whose fate Pole had curiously neglected when he s ent his challenge to Henry. the first Baron Burghle y. In his 1551 report to the Venetian Senate. Mary was wed to Philip II of Spain. were the essence of Venetian policy. which added to his mental i mbalance. The creation and preservation of a Protestant regime in England was one of the p rincipal goals of Venetian policy. Sadoleto. even though they have been most severely punished. Morone. plus prelates from Salerno and Brindisi--an overwhelmingly Venetian commission. ``among whom nothing is more inconstant than their decrees on matters of rel igion. That successor would be Elizabeth. And in truth.'' Pole. since they are closer to t he court. could be highly inquisito rial when the interests of Venice required slaughter to create religious emnitie s that would last for centuries: Between 1553 and 1558. and one Anglican prelate described Pole as ` `butcher and scourge of the Anglican church. 242-43] The Counter-Reformation What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese.Pole also revealed to Henry that he had urged Charles V to cease hostilities wit h the Ottoman Empire. if they had a leader. This was the Consilium de Emendenda Ecclesia . The Contarini commission at the outset sought to identify the cause of the evi . Later. Daniele Barbaro remark ed on the religious habits of the English. In 1537. but now he wa s a cardinal and papal legate. known as Bloody Mary. pp. Wars between England and France. there is no doubt th at they would rebel again. Because G iulia Farnese had been Alexander VI's mistress at this time. After the death of Henry VIII and the death of his son Edward VI. Paul III directed Contarini to chair a commission that would develop wa ys to reform the church. and Caraffa and the rest of the Venetian group to the cardinalate. which would have wiped out a large section of the Eng lish nobility. Sadoleto. but who find them mo st offensive. Henry had to take this very seriously. even though he was one of the Spirituali. volume 2.'' [Alberi. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia. Contarini was joined by Caraffa. and between England and Spain. creating the possibility of an Anglo-Spanish rapprochement that was highly unacceptable to Ve nice. under th e dominant influence of Cecil. Henry took revenge by executing Pole's mother and brother. Pole and Mary presided o ver what many British historians claim to be the largest number of politically m otivated executions in the history of England. It is true that the people of London are more dispose d than the others to observe what they are commanded. a Venetian agent who had been a key figure of the last period of Edward VI's reign. but some 300 persons were burned for heresy.

The commission said nothing of oligarchism or usury.'' in the document th at opened the campaign for the Council of Trent. and the path of truth to the ears of the prince was always a very difficult one. to the point that because of us. then and now. The accusation made here is almost identical to Luther's. The refor m undertaken by the Contarini commission was going in a very different direction . because of us we say. a nd the German Protestant Sturmius. must b e the rule which directs these operations and action. pp. and Paul III offered to make him a cardinal on one occa sion. XII. Contarini and Pole had both co rresponded with Erasmus. whatever it might be. an d had attacked Luther's ideas of the bondage of the will with a reaffirmation of the Platonic concept of the freedom of the will. as if from a Trojan horse. who had told Era smus. ``You are not pious!'' The Vatican archives. and some of the works of Pius II were shortly placed on the Index of Prohibite d Books. multiple benefices. And from this source. the English version was issued by one Richard Morsyne in 1538. The news of these things has reached the unbelievers (as Your H oliness is told by experts) who ridicule the Christian religion chiefly for this reason. just as in any republic. in which colloquia there are many things d souls towards impiety. ``From this results. so in the ec clesiastical governance of the church of Christ. but gave all the blame to the excessive power which the Roman pontiffs had arrogated to thems elves. From which it results with out doubt that whatever the pope wants is also sanctioned by law. Luther. Holy Father. including simony. 135. The leading anti-Aristotelian P latonist of the day did not escape condemnation: ``And since they habitually read the colloquia schools. even more because adulation always follows the supreme power just as a shadow follows a body. this rule has to be observed be fore all others: that the laws have to be complied with as much as possible. sybaritic lifestyles among prelates. the name of Chri st is blasphemed among the peoples. For we do not think we are permitted to exempt ourselves from these laws. that. who teach that the pope is master of all benefices. An honest at tempt at reform would have based itself explicitly on these proposals. moral failures. it necessarily follows that the pope cannot be accused of simony. except fo r an urgent and necessary reason. The Vatican wanted the Contarini commission's report to be kept secret. 141) Erasmus had broken with Luther very early. so that the will of the pope. despite the maneuvers of Spalatin. 134-35] The overall thrust of the document is best summed up in the following two passag es: ``We think. emphasis in original) Thus. that we now see the church afflicted almost by desp air of recovery.'' [Concilium Tridentinum.'' (p. have come into the church of God so much abus e and such serious sickness. contained the detailed reform proposals elab orated by Pius II and Nicolaus of Cusa during the previous century. Contarini was instrumental in convincing Paul III to approve the creati . as the doctors immediately proclai m. but it w as promptly leaked and published by such diverse sponsors as Vergerio. and the like. on that account. bishops who d id not live in their sees. therefore the readings of f the same type ought to be prohibited in literary of Erasmus to children in the which shape these uncultivate these things and any others o classes. that this has to be established before all other th ings: as Aristotle says in his `Politics'. In 1539. Aristotle was made the guiding light of the ``reform.'' (p.ls and abuses of the church. since a master can by law sell what is his.

attribute d to Aristotle's logic a perfection so total that ``scarcely anyone has surpasse d him in any point. all of Machiavelli. The anti-Platonic and pro-Aristotelian bias of the Index was a barometer of who now held power in Rome. especially in the last mill ennium. Caraffa started a reign of terror against the surviving Spirituali. Caraffa tur ned against Pole during the conclave and accused him of ``certain errors'' in re ligion. there were no fewer than seven Venetian cardina ls. Pius II had also retracted youthful writings on love themes. Pope Pius II. 1463. the Praise of Folly. Also outlawed were the scabrous Facetia of Pogg io Bracciolini and the writings of Pietro Aretino. T hen Marcellus II Cervini died after a month in office. while retaining some role for the justitia inhaerens. which wa s alleged to be by Calvin. Juan Valdez. where he proposed a compromise solution on the k ey issue of justification. and the 1531 Augsburg Confession were banned on pain of excommunication and possible jail or banishment. As it turned out. At the death of Paul III Farnese in 1549. the Anabaptists. one of the largest if not the largest national caucus. many of them his former associates. who took the name of Paul IV. these sustained theses of the conciliar movement.'' added Toledo. and reigned from 1550 to 1555. Pole was almost made Pope by imperial acclamation.on of Ignazio de Loyola's Society of Jesus as a holy order. one of the defenders of the church and of civiliza tion: The Index banned those writings which Aeneas Silvius had retracted. 296] Interestingly. and was succeeded with Ve netian help by Caraffa. Lorenzo V alla. Contarini w as the papal representative along with Morone at the discussions among Catholics and Protestants in Regensburg. . and Pole was instructed to return to Rome to face a tri al for heresy on account of his activities in Viterbo. the Venetian banker. The first session of the Council of Trent was convoked under Paul III. Mo rone was jailed in 1557. receiving support from the French cardinals led by Guise. Pole died a few hours after Mary. Pole was protected by Mar y Tudor. the Koran. Melanchthon. ``it appears that he has been more received by the church than other philosophers. most of the works o f Erasmus (including the Colloquies. a professor at the Collegio Romano. The c ompromise was rejected by both Wittenberg and Rome. During one ballot.'' [Bouwsma. Finally. the effec t on all of Pius II's works was chilling. t he general of the Jesuits would be Bellarmine. He was assisted by Priuli. and others). on the one hand recognizing a justitia imputata to sa tisfy the Lutherans. [Index. who had been steeped in Aristotle from his youth. and to some it seemed that C ontarini had been trying to create a third camp. Caraffa claimed that Pole had maintained ``a platoon of heretics and of highly suspect persons'' in his home in Viterbo. 1564] It was no surprise that the wri tings of Luther. In the early 1600s. p. Guise accused Pole of leaving t he Council of Trent in order to avoid a debate on justification. Cardinal Del Monte was elected as Julius III. Zwingli. The anti-Spanish Caraffa was the other homestretch contend er. In 1557.'' ``Moreover. presum ably in a papal bull of April 26. Calvin. By 1565. Most stunning is the presence of Aeneas Silvius Picco lomini himself. and even a text identified as Alcuin's commentary on the Trinity. since Ca raffa preferred to act as an autocrat. Contarini's friend Cardinal Morone w as released after two years in jail and became the presiding officer of the fina l session of the Council of Trent. Contarini died in 1542. The Index The pontificate of Paul IV marked a long pause in the Council of Trent. At one point. Francesco Toledo. Pole turned out to be the papal cand idate of the Emperor Charles V and of the Spirituali. Caraffa instituted the Index Lib rorum Prohibitorum. with Pole and Caraffa as members of the committee of cardinals to oversee the proceedings . Pole came with in a single vote of a two-thirds majority and thus of Peter's chair. Pole was one of his seven commissioners for the protection of the faith. In 1541. Venice: Aldus. But also on the list were all of Peter Abelard. Dante's De Monarchia. and he has been used in the instruction of youth to the exclusion of all others.

Venice entered into a permanent commercial cri sis. ``We are always acquiring happiness. It is evident that family fondi that had been inve sted in the monti [loans] were being transferred elsewhere as flight capital: On e destination was certainly the Amsterdam Bank. we have never acquired it and never wil l. Venice was in rapid decline. full of contempt for man and for human rea son. Holland. who had been educate d by a father who had been in Italy as a soldier and probably imbibed Venetian t eachings. so that by 1600 a ll had been liquidated. Sarpi admired the French essayist Michel de Montaigne. Antonio Querini. and Venice had been widely attacked for making a separate peace with th e Ottomans. The Giovani were determined to be more aggressive against Spain. which was founded at about this time. This w as made easier by going from a gold to a silver standard in 1562. using Sarpi and his precursor Pao lo Paruta. was pursuing a policy of totally retiring the public debt. the Monte Novissimo. 1992 at a conference co-sponsored by the Schiller Institute and the International Caucus of Labor Committees in Northern Virginia. and the Thirty Years' War. Leonardo Dona. Later in the century there would be the Bank of England. and food supplies did not return to normal u ntil 1594. with tens of thousands of deaths in Venice. Out of the Ridotto Morosini would come the French Enlight enment. I n 1590. Montaigne himself had made the pilgrimage to Venice. the oligarchical Venetian government institutions were controlled by the Giovani. was delivered on September 6. [Pensiero 250] Paruta had been an empiricist: ``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth. a cabal of patricians who had emerged from a salon of strategic di scussions called Ridotto Morosini. th ere was an outbreak of the plague.tripod. Man was a creature of ap petites. t he Monto Novo. there was a serious famine.Crisis in Venice During the second half of the 1500s. After the Cyprus war. especially the libido dominandi. Sarpi was a precursor of Bentham's hedonistic calculus. The participants included Morosini. The Giovani were interested in France. nevertheless here bel . Textile production of silk an d wool also declined.htm The following speech. In 1600. the Servite monks Paolo Sarpi. Let us sample the epistemology of the giovani. British empiricism. The Cyprus war had cost 6 million ducats. and the Monte di Sussidio. but the government now paid off the Monte Vecchio. Part of this impoverishment was due to the fact that Venice. in spite of its wre tched economy. and against the papacy: these Sarpi called the Diacatholicon. Shipbuilding in the arsenal diminished. and sometimes Giordano Bruno. Sarpi agreed with Montaigne that man was the most imperfect of animals. The giovani were skeptics.com/tarp93c. which occupied Milan and Naples. and England as counterweights to the Diacatholicon. Protestant Germany. In 1575-77. The naval vict ory of Lepanto in 1571 had not been sufficient to regain Cyprus from the Ottoman Empire. The same happened with printing in part because of the Ind ex Librorum Prohibitorum. After 1582.'' wrote Sarpi. which is being presented in the New Federalist in thre e parts. in part because of English and Dutch rivalry. ----------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. Nicolo Co ntarini. and these were insatiable. Galileo Galilei. and Fulg enzio Micanzio. Venice was reported to have a reserve hoard in coin of 12-14 million ducats.

but in man . naked. With Paolo Paruta. 206] Sarpi was an empiricist: withou images forms contem ``There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone. and subject to many needs. The third is bad because we man y times distort what is into what we would like. the s econd with sense alone. rather than adjusting what we w ould like to what is. whom it makes poor. A papal nuncio assigned to s urveil the two wrote that Fulgenzio ``greatly exalts faith in the blood of Chris t and the grace of God for our salvation. the politics of the Tartars and the Indians are different. we already have the economic man enshrined in the myths of Ad am Smith: ``The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live. because from i t we know what we would like to be. and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things. that is to be dissolved and to fall to eart h. 1951 . constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men. the third with reason and then sense. arguing that ``we despise knowledge of things of wh ich we have no need. [Pensiero 371] Sarpi was brought up on Duns Sc otus and William of Ockham. Fulgenzio Micanzio. Nature provides the brute animals with the things necessary for their lives. he said. experience means the perception of physical objects by the senses. it inserts this desire f or riches and gives him intelligence and industry to acquire them. The fourth is the best we can h ave in this miserable life. were very much Sp irituali on the ex sola fede line of justification. Bacon's ideas about inductive method w ere taken from the Arte di ben pensare and other Sarpi writings. p.'' [Bouwsma.'' [Bouwsma. permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. p . the buildi ngs. By their means. Pensiero 146) That is Francis Bacon's inductive method. 211] A speaker in Paruta's dialogues expresses the views of the Physiocrats.'' [Pensiero 289] Sarpi was also a cultural relativist. and ``therefore the republics.'' [Pensiero 159] . By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual plations not by itself but awakened by sense objects. p. 212] Paruta's treatment of the fall of the Roman empire appears to be the starting po int for Gibbon: ``This stupendous apparatus. [Bouwsma. p. saying t hat wealth derived from farming and grazing is ``more true and natural'' than ot her forms.'' he wrote disparagingly. had finally ru n the course common to human things. The first is the worst. it represents these things to itself and in this way its concepts of them. Sarpi and his right-hand man. and leaves out or rarely refers to wor . 283] In religion.'' [Bouwsma . (Scritti filosofici e teologici. The second is true but crude. Sarpi was also a pragmatist. Fo r Sarpi there are no true universals: ``Essence and universality are works of th e mind. Bari: Laterza. and a precursor of David Hume: Every cultu re has its own idea of order.ow it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations t the help of bodily sensation. not what is. drawing into the mind the of material things. For Sarpi. and the fourth beg inning with sense and ending with reason.

p. p. and Venice led all Italian cities in the number of editions of B acon's works. Locke. 498] Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon. who soon became a couple. As for Sarpi. One letter in Latin from Bacon to Micanzio has been located. who was an official of the Venetian regime. According to Dudley Carleton. Spain also started peace talks with the Ottoman Empire. Spain was showing signs of economic de cline. and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish. 156] Fulgenzio Micanzio was literary agent for Ba con in Venice. Earl of Devonshire. since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon. the giov ani had favored a more aggressive policy against the papacy and the Hapsburgs. and a bugger. accompanied by Hobbes. The son of the Venetian agent William Cecil (Bacon's uncle) was Robert Cecil. and translated by Nathaniel Brent.'' [Bouwsma. well into 1607. Bacon himself was attorney general and lord chancellor for King James I. English ambassadors like Dudley Carleton and Sir H enry Wotton were also important intermediaries. 155] Venice and England The contacts between Venice and England during the period around 1600 were so de nse as to constitute an ``Anglo-Venetian coalition. sometimes directly. Especially the Spanish truce with the Dutch was viewed wi th alarm by the Venetians. Bacon w as of course a raving irrationalist. since this would free up veteran Spanish troops who c ould be used in a war against Venice. Pope Paul V Borghese responded on profile by declaring Venice under the papal interdict. Hobbes. arranging for the translation and publication of his writings. where tremendous sympathy for Venice was generat ed by an avalanche of propaganda writings. here Bacon discusse s a plan for a Latin edition of his complete works. Bellarm ine puffed the pope as the arbiter mundi. Spain made pe ace with France in 1598. Venice passed laws that made it harder for the church to own Venetian land and dispose of it. and. [De Mas. this was followed by the arrest of two priests by the c ivil authorities.'' as Enrico De Mas asserts. the court of last resort in world affa irs. a Venetian-style Rosicrucian. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes. and was attempting to retrench on her military commitments. wh o visited Venice shortly after 1600. a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda. and was soon one of the most famous . and Hume. after decades of warfare. This is no surprise. Bacon was also in frequent conta ct by letter with the Venetian senator and patrician Domenico Molino.ks. p. Towards the end of the sixteenth century. which remained in force for almost a year. [De Mas. The Venice of the giovani was horrified by the apparent winding down of the wars of religion. In Cha tsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled ``Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters. above all those of Sarpi himself. his History of the Council of Trent was first published in English in London in an edition dedicated to King James I. The Jesuit Bellarmine and others wrote for the papacy in this pamphlet war. Sarpi. Bacon knew Italian because his mother had been active as the translator of the writings of Italian heretics.'' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called ` `Candiscio''). A fter 1600. soon became the idol of the libertines and freethinkers everywhere. The use of the papal interdict against a nominally Catholic country caused a sen sation in the Protestant world. Another translator of Bacon was the Archbishop of Spalato and Venetian agent Marcantonio de Dominis. Cavendish visited Venice and Padova in September 1614. After taking over Venice in 1582. be gan to negotiate with the Dutch. There was a Bacon cult among the Venetian nobility in those years. with England in 1604. who tur ned against Rome and stayed for some time as an honored guest of the English cou rt before returning to Rome.

and included in his alliance proposals plans to get Venice to go Protestant. James w as the pedantic pederast who claimed that he got his divine right directly from God. (Capolago. 1833. Ho lland. Swiss and Dutch Calvinists were for Venice. an emissary of the Elector of the Palatinate reported that he had been taken by the English ambassador to Venice t o visit a Calvinist Congregation of more than 1. as Davi d Cherry has shown. the Grisons (the Graubuenden or Gray league of the Valtellina region i n the Swiss Alps. The former Calvinist King Henry IV of France might be won for such a league.and most controversial persons in Europe.000 people in Venice. In the end. [Scelte Lett ere Inedite di Fra Paolo Sarpi. including 300 of the top patricians. Venice. foreign Protestant armies would fight on Venetian soil. In a battle between Venice and the papal states. 1608'' by Robert Cecil. The grand design Sarpi peddled to Protestants called for an apocalyptic war betw een Catholics and Protestants with the latter led by James I and the Dutch Unite d Provinces. the Venetians used the conflict around the Interdict to inflame the religious passions of Europe so as to set the stage for a revival of the wars of religion. The project included a plan f or James to become the supreme commander of the Protestant world in a war agains t the pope. Sir Henry Wotton advanced the idea of a Protestant alliance encompassing England . ``You must warn the Pope not to drive us into despair. by asserting an independent Catholic Church under state control during the interdict. but none supported Venice more than the degenerate King of England. During this period. pp. th e Venetian government released the two clerics to a French cardinal who had unde rtaken a mediation. James was delighted with Sarpi's arguments. also appeared to be following the exa mple of Henry VIII and the Anglican (or Anglo-Catholic) Church. and with their seeming victory. But later Sarpi and the Venetians found reason to be bitterly disappointed with the refusa l of James I and Charles I massively to intervene on the European continent. The Doge Leonardo Dona' of the giovani group even threatened indirectly to lead Venice into apostasy an d heresy. Much was made of national sovereignty . and the French gave the clerics back to the pope. As part of the scheme. according to one account. He forwarded this to London where it was marked in the margin ``The Project of Venice. Charles Diodati. staged Guy Fawkes' Gunpowder Plot. The seventeenth century would thus repeat the hecatomb of the sixteen th on an even vaster scale. The Venetian gambit of a clash with the Vatican set the stage for the Thirty Years' War. This was the Cecil who. Venice and James I French Gallicans and Huguenots. an alleged Catholic attem pt to blow up the king and the Houses of Parliament. Sarpi invited the Germ an Protestants to come to the aid of Venice in case of war. some thought. cxi-cxii] The Roots of War In reality. This was clearly a line that Sarpi and company sought to feed to the megalomaniac James I. the Vatican was obliged to remove the interdict without securing any expression of penitence or regret. for in defending Ven etian territory they would be helping the Protestant cause as well. James I.'' he told the p apal nuncio. Venice. was brought to Venice to preach. which appeared to have checked the inex orable advance of the Counter-Reformation. of which Sarpi was the leader. making possible the religious conversion o . and the Protestant princes of Germany. and not by way of the pope. Lutherans and Calvinists cheered Venice. sought by Spain as a land route between Austria and Milan). ``because we would then act like desperate men!'' Sir Henry Wotton took this literally. in order to guarantee that James would be suitably hostile to Rome and Spain. one of the Italia n Spirituali who had fled to Geneva. which the Venetians said they were defending against the pope in the name of a ll nations. Canton Ticino: Tipografia e Libreria Elvetica.

from the senate. Academic accounts of the Thirty Years' War often stress the conflict over the su ccession in Juelich-Cleves (around Duesseldorf) after 1609. similar to th e pre-1914 or post-1945 European military blocs. During the Interdict battle.. [Julius Krebs. he'll do it. Verona. His b usiness has been to attempt to impede in any way possible any peace or truce in Flanders. etc. say. But the survival of the withered mummy of Venice for a century or two would be possible only if all the other European powers wer e throughly devastated. and of usurping the main functions of the government. not in Italy.f the terra ferma (Bergamo. The Ten had been accused. Some accounts portray . and in the 1870s the Archives of the German city of Bernburg contai ned a correspondence between Christian and Sarpi. 1609 to Pope Paul V on the activities of the Venetian ambassador. Beyond that. and although he has not been able to do much in this direction. Christoph von Dona and his brother Achatius von Dona kept up a corres pondence with Paolo Sarpi in their own right [Cozzi. 1957. or Pregadi. thus surviving at least unt il the process of the metastasis of the fondi into northern Europe could be comp leted--until the time. he has always compo rted himself in the same way: His most confidential dealings are with the agents of various German Protestants. he sent one Christoph vo n Dona (or Dohna) to talk to Sarpi in Venice about the entry of Venice into this alliance. the oligarchs would seek to preserve the Rialto as a cu ltural and ideological center.. a Catholic League was formed under the aegis of Maximilian of Bavaria with Spanish support. but beyond the Alps in Ger many. 21-22] Within a year of the creation of the Protestant Union in 1608. Christoph von Dona met with Sarpi in Venice. Antonio Foscarini. he has been in a big rush to se t up this league of Protestants in Germany. The Venetian diplomatic corps was mobilized to exploit the Interdict to create t he Protestant Union. a close associate of Sarpi: ``From the first day that he came here. 45] When Christian von Anhalt created the Protestant Union. First came the creation of the Protestant Union of 1608. Vicenza.. La Politica Veneziana Dopo L'Interdetto. [Cozzi. Christian of Anhalt was a vital node of Paolo Sarp i's network. The c onflagration was set. who can be considered his houseguests. p. The Protestant Union was organized by Prince Christian of Anhalt. 265-68] At a deeper level.'' [Federico Seneca. in any case I am sure that if he can contribute to t his. wh o were called the Vecchi (old) and who favored a more conciliatory line towards Spain and the papacy. 245. Sarpi told Christoph von Dona. The first step was to organize Germany into two armed camps. P adova. and Sarpi told Dona about the measures taken by the giovani in 1582 to ``correct'' the functions of the Council of Ten and its subcommittee of three (Zonta). Sarpi's intelligence agencies went into action to c reate the preconditions for such a war. with the English ambassador and with two or three French Huguenots. Venice wanted a catastrophic gener al war in Europe from which Venice could hold aloof. In addition to these fine projects. of the founding of the Bank of England at the end of the 1600s. p.) to some sort of Calv inism.. with the Dutch. pp. includin g foreign policy. It is remarkable to observe how many of the key protagonists who detonated the T hirty Years' War can be identified as Venetian agents. Brescia. In August 1608. o f being arrogant. which up until that t ime had constituted a factional stronghold of the adversaries of the giovani. pp. helped by the crushing of the free city of Donauwoerth by the Counter-Reformation under Maximilian I of Bavaria. which embroiled the Dutch and the Protestants against the imperial Catholics. the senior adv iser to the Elector Palatine. 258]. The papal nuncio in Paris reported on March 3.

In any case. Venetian land forces crossed the Isonzo River and laid siege to Gradisca. Some skeptical historians consider that this was a cover story for a Venetian in trigue in which the Spanish governor of Naples. pp. Cou nt John Ernest of Nassau-Siegen raised forces totaling 5. and it would be decades before the Fronde was suppre ssed to the point that France was capable of international action once again.000 Huguenots in 1572. 151] . So in December 161 5. But Spanish forces did reach t he front. and also against the Vene tians.'' ``How did it happen that that great principle was put to sleep?'' he wrote to another correspondent that summer. 42 ] In the spring of 1618. or at least by thos e who were moving around him. although apparently minor.'' [ Parker.'' [Cozzi. Uzkoks settled in Segna and some other ports of the eastern Adriatic whe re they operated as corsairs against Turkish shipping. This was the signal that something big was coming. ten English and twelve Dutch warships maintained a blockade of the Adriatic against any ships from Spain or Naples which might h ave sought to aid their Austrian Hapsburg allies. Sarpi complained. The Austrian Hapsburg s. The Thirty Years' War In 1615.. Palmer. The uzkok war. in order to defend their frontier with the Ottoman Empire.'' [R. was important because it brou ght a general European conflict perceptibly nearer. p. 40. who sent it on to Rome and to the Venetian government. Bartholomew's massacre o f 20. executions in Venice were attributed to the discovery by the Council of Ten of an alleged Spanish plot to overthrow the Venetian regime. who passed it to the papal nuncio. Henry's death meant that France. the Venetians started a border war with Austria. Hen ry's death increased the tensions among the German Protestant leaders. a p ower Venice ultimately hated and feared just as much as Spain.. Henry IV ``had decided to reveal to the pope and to the Venetian Republic what was being plotted in Venice by Sarpi. p.000 men in the Dutch Re public to assist the Venetians. Pope Gregory XIII had called those killings ``more a greeable than fifty Lepantos. Writing to Christoph von Dohna on 29 September 1608. A recent study hig hlights the significance of this Venetian-staged conflict in the runup to the ge neral conflagration: ``The uzkok war was one of the more bizarre episodes of the earlier seventee nth century. just before Henry IV was assassinated by the alleged Catholic fanatic Ravaillac. 106] In the 1600s this civil st rife was called the Fronde. ``that is also the reason why it is impossible to incite others.'' [Cozzi. it cemented or occasioned alliances that favored aggression. were depleting the Venetian treasury. was to declare himself in dependent under Venetian auspices.Henry IV of France as eager to attack the Hapsburgs in Milan and on the Rhine du ring 1610. through their depradations and through the cost of measures u ndertaken against them. Osuna. On the diplomatic plane. Accor ding to other accounts. forcing the Venetians to accept a negotiated peace. p. 259] Sarpi's animus against Henry IV suggests that the superficial explanati on of Henry's assassination in 1610 may not be the correct one. The uzkoks. ``The King of France has written that Venice is in favor of religion. and he has played a very bad role.'' This letter was intercepted by Henry IV of Franc e. would be plunged again into the internal conflicts epitomized by the St. Sarpi was soon aware of what had happened.R. yet it offered an alarming example of how a minor political conflic t in a remote corner of Europe could threaten to engulf the whole continent with war. employed a force o f refugees from the Balkans called uzkoks (``uzkok'' is the Serbian word for ref ugees). Wotton's secr etary] has been very helpful. who accused Henry IV of being a threat to the Catholic Church. called the Guerra Arci ducale. [Carl J.. Friedrichs. Giovanni Diodati wrote to his friend Philippe Duplessis Mornay tell ing him of the ``petite eglise reformee'' (small reformed church) there. 257] From Venice. p. since the y had now been deprived of their protector. Diodati added that ``the English minister and ambassador [William Bedell. referring to the French mediation of the Interdict cr isis.

XLV. pp. [Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. This is the senior branch of the family. Rosicrucians in particular were heavily present at the electoral Pal atine court. 104-06] Finally. after Frederick had been deposed by the Catholic forces. The Bohemians. counted Christi an von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona among his most trusted advisers. p. Histoire des Rose-Croix. the Bibliotheca Palatina. whose lengthy treatise on universal harmony. including especially the branch of th e Hussites known as the Utraquists. he went into the history books as the ``unlucky Winter King. who was reputed to be clos e to the Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II. After the rout. They chose Frederick V. 1618.'' Let us attempt further to reveal the fine Venetian hand behind these events. who had his court in Heidelberg. and this led directly to the defenestration of Prague of May 23. and Utraquists. he made his career as a general in later phases of the war. He had captured some of the suburbs of Vienna when he was forced to retreat. He wa s vehemently opposed to the election of Ferdinand as Holy Roman Emperor. now styling himself King Frederick of Bohemia. During the campaign leading up to the rout at the White Mountain. within the framework o f other anti-Protestant measures. There followed the celebrated defenes tration of Prague of 1618. the Elector Pala tine. [Yates. was routed at the battle of the White Mountain in 1620. pp. Torre e Tasso.The immediate detonator for the Thirty Years' War is usually considered to be th e revolt of the Bohemian nobles against the new Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferd inand II. had married Elizabeth. the daughter of King James I of En gland. Under Rudolph II. Thurn's parents had become Protestants. and the English presence at the Palatine court in Heidelberg was associat ed with the same sorts of cultist kookery we have observed in the cases of Zorzi and Bacon. who was also the King of Bohemia. the Bohemian nobles had been granted the Letter of Majesty of 1609 which gua ranteed them their religious self-determination (ignoring the cuius regio eius r eligio) and the right to elect their own king. One of them was the English irrationalist and freemason Robert Flud d. but he entered the imperial army and fought during a campaign against the Ottoman Empire. pa rts of the Heidelberg library. When Ferdinand sent troops to restore his authority. which is otherwise known as della Torre. One of Fludd's friends was a cert ain German Rosicrucian alchemist named Michael Maier. feared that Ferdinand would introduce the militant Counter-Reformation into Bohemia. were confiscated by the Inquisition and moved to Rome. As a rewa rd he had gotten the important post of Burggraf of Marlstein in Bohemia. Hussites. many of whom were Calvinists. [See Serge Hutin. The key figure among the Bohemians is the Count Heinrich Mathias of Thurn-Valsas sina (1567-1633). which are the opening rounds of the Thirty Years' War. 125] Such Venetian-Rosicrucian irrationalism may provide the key to the Winter King's . in which two representatives of Ferdinand were thrown out of the window by a group of Bohemian nobles organized by the Count of Thurn . and later as Thurn und Taxis. Heinrich Mathias von Thurn demanded and go t the Letter of Majesty. and who. His announced program was the maintenance of Bohemian liberties for these nobles. During the course of th e Thirty Years' War. Here Th urn built a base among the local nobility. let us look at Frederick V the Elector Palatine himself. the previous emper or. 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of ``C hristian Rosenkreuz first appeared in Germany. The future Win ter King. H e was named to a special committee of 30 Defenders of the Faith in Prague. the Utriusque cosmi historia was published on the Palatine city of Oppenheim in 1617-19. When the E lectoral Palatine. In the face of Ferdinand's military response. a Calvinist. as we have seen. Thur n was constantly disputing with the Palatine Elector's generals about who was in command. the Bohemian nobles depos ed him and decided to elect a new king. Thurn then incited the Bohemians to rebel. Thurn was made the commander of the Bohemian a rmed forces. originally from Venet ian territory. and Fer dinand responded by attempting to oust Thurn as Burggraf. which soon turned into the apple of Bohemian discord.

who wrote. Considerations Touching a War. Frederick vacillated over whether or not to accept the Bohemian crown offered to him by Thurn and his cohorts.'' [Bacon. plus the Bohemians. wr ote in September 1619 that ``this business in Bohemia is like to put all Christe ndom into combustion.'' and ``the great an d learned Padre Paolo. In about 1624. he never stopped ret reating. Ludwig Dehio and other historians have pointed out that the characteristic Venet ian methods of strategy were also typical of the later English and British colon ialism. The Thirty Years' War.'' Gaining str ength under James I. who had repeated praise for Fra Paolo.legendary mental lability and failures of strategic planning. Bacon addressed a memorandum to the new King Charles I in which he urged that E ngland declare war on Spain in order to help restore the Elector Palatine (and C harles's sister) in Heidelberg. Dudley Carleton. In August-September 1619. More on Bacon Even after he was ousted from all his court posts in the wake of confessed bribe ry and corruption. he failed to rally the Palatinate for a war of self-defense. It was the Venetian asset and architect of the English religious schism. Grisons. Some advisers wrote position papers for Frederick warning hi m not to take the crown. Bohemia was prime Hapsb urg territory.. the Anglo-Venetian representative of James I in the Hague. p. Frederick V was encouraged to believe that with the aid of a few troops fr om Venetian-allied Savoy. and then found himself in a hopelessly exposed position. We must also reme mber that the Elector was constantly controlled and advised by Sarpi's friends C hristian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona. Thomas Cromwell. Bacon stres sed the Venetian contribution: ``It is within every man's observation also that Venice doth think their sta te almost unfixed if the Spaniards hold the Valtoline. Francis Bacon remained a loyal Venetian agent. Navarre. After the White Mountain. ``this realm of England is an empire.'' Indeed. Another was John Milton. closely follows Sarpi's account . saying that ``acceptance would begin a general religiou s war. and it was clear that Frederick could not keep Prague without som e serious fighting. rushed to Prague. The alliance proposed by Bacon was to include ne w variations on the usual Paoli Sarpi constellation: France. one was Izaak Walton. one German account of these events speaks of ``Anhalt 's crazy plans''. '' ``Padre Paolo the great Venetian antagonist of the Pope. The death of Gustavus Adolphus some years later closed the boo ks on Frederick V's hopes of being restored in the Palatinate. Bavaria. Mi lan. 55] But Christian von Anhalt and his friend Camerarius answ ered that such a war was inevitable anyway as soon as the twelve years' truce be tween the Spanish and the Dutch ran out.] Sarpi had many English admirers.'' Frederick accepted the Bohemian crown. a thoroughly utopian underta king. the Protestant leader Gabor of Transylvania. Christian was notorious for his adve nturism and brinksmanship.'' [Parker. is thus exposed as a piece of utopian-geopolitical tinker ing from the satanic cell around Fra Paolo Sarpi. which extirpated about half of the population of Germany between 1618 and 1648. The Sarpi networks were fully mobilized . the author of the famous Compleat Angler. and n ow even Persia.'' the one dealing with the Council of Trent. Naples. he could break the Spanish-Austrian-Catholic hold on central Europe. Savoy. and was pe rmanently ousted. the Venetian party acted out its imperialist impulse during . and support from a few other Germa n states. which was attempting to seize the straits of Hormuz. a whole passage in Milton's famous ``Areopagiti ca.. Milton called Sarpi ``Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Tridentine Council. these included the ambitious project of wiping out the House o f Hapsburg and making Frederick Holy Roman Emperor.

How the Nation was Won] Thus it is that the Ven etian methods that were used deliberately to provoke the wars of religion of the sixteenth century. a bellum omnium contra omnes (war of each against all) whic h no nation and no people could seriously hope to survive. * Enrico De Mas. ed. ``Nuntiaturen des Vergerio 1533-1536. 1921). Haile. 1902). Paolo Sarpi fra Venezia e l'Europa (Torino. 1972). * Aurelius Augustinus. * Aurelius Augustinus. Georg Spalatin 1484-1545 (Weimar. 1980). Frankfurt 1968). 1892. to which the British historian Trevor-Roper has referred under the heading of th e ``little Dark Age. 1956).'' in Roemische Quartalsch rift. and Venice (Cambridge. 19 72). Thre Free Choice of the Will. * Felix Gilbert.'' in History: Choice and Commitment (Cambridge. 1913-17). 188-242. 1980. * Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums (Vienna. and most obviously under the post-1688 oligarc hical system. * Dermot Fenlon. gutted cities and ethnic conflicts of the late twen tieth century. Graham L owry.'' Today the shadows of another such nightmare epoch lengthe n over the ruined economies. On Faith and Works. * Karl Gillert (ed. 274-97. Gregory J. * Horatio Brown. 1988). * Eugenio Alberi (ed. trans. pp. 1952). by Robert P. XXXII. 1968). ``Der Reformentwurf Pius des Zweiten. 1876). Lombado (New York: Newman Press. 1978).). * H. the combine d effect of the Venice-sponsored Protestant Reformation and the Venice-sponsored Counter-Reformation was to visit upon Europe the renewed horrors of 1520-1648.). David Cherry. Rudolph Haubst. D. * Concilium Tridentinum (Freiburg im Breisgau. and later the Thirty Years' War itself. * Carl J. Russell (Washington. ``Der Froeliche Wechsel und Streit'' (Einsiedeln: Johannes Verlag. The Age of the Baroque (New York. XLVIII (1953). * Dictionary of National Biography * (London. ``Religion and Politics in the Thought of Gasparo Contarini . 1890). ``Der Reformentwurf des Kardinals Nikolaus Cusanus. * Hartmann Grisar. Grace and Free Will. * Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Leipzig.. 1911. 1853). pp. Luther: An Experiment in Biography (New York: Doubleday. 1975). Sovranita' politica e unita' cristiana nel seicento anglo-v eneto (Ravenna. * Cozzi. Franz Dittrich. Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy: Cardinal Pole and the Counter Reformation (Cambridge University Press. .'' volume 1 of Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland 1533-1559 (Gotha. Bibliography * See the published and unpublished works of Al and Rachel Douglas. * Theobald Beer. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty (Berkeley. [See Graham Lowry. Mass.'' in Hi storisches Jahrbuch. * Irmgard Hoess. * Walter Friedensburg (ed. * Bouwsma. * Felix Gilbert. Those wishing to survive must learn to defend themselves from the Anglo-Venetian hecatomb now looming. Gasparo Contarini 1483-1542 (Nieuwkoop. 1977). for Christian von Anhalt a nd Frederick V Elector of the Palatinate. Later. 1968). ``Der Briefwechsel des Conradus Mutianus'' in Geschich tsquellen der Provinz Sachsen (Halle. can be discerned in the global strategic commitments of today's British oligarchy tending to unleash a global cataclysm. and Pietro Cicconi. * Stephan Ehses. Mass. The Teacher. The Venetian Republic (London.. Einaudi. The ascendancy of Venice after 1200 was instrumental in precipitating the near-c ollapse of European civilization between about 1250 and 1400.the Stuart and Cromwell periods.).G. 1882).: Catholic University of America Press. Le Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al Senato dur ante il secolo decimosesto (Firenze. Luther (London. 1901). 1980). The Pope. Friedrich.C. His Banker.

'' Historisches J ahrbuch LXX (Munich-Freiburg. Palmer. Peter Delphin General des Camaldulenserordens 1444-1525 (Munich. * Geoffrey Parker. 1973). Kansas. consciously modeled on Venice's met hod of evil. Cardinal Contarini at Regensburg (Oxford. pp.R. 1965).. 1872). Canton Ticino. Geschichte der Paepste (Freiburg im Breisgau. 1964). most serene Prince. overlooks the Grand Canal of Venice. * John Leon Lievsay. * Frances A. The Jews in the Renaissance (Philadelphia. 1984). * Pius II. which enjoins kissing the hand we are unable to cut off. Switzerland. von der Pflaz durch Jacob I. 1971). Faustus.'' in La civilta' veneziana del rinascim ento. * Elmar Weiss. ed. * Reginald Pole. * Ludwig Pastor. ``Luther: Manichean Delirium. A History of the Modern World (New York. * R. 1951). * Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Venice. writing to the Doge in 1519 St. 1904).'' --S ebastian Giustinian.* Serge Huttin. La Politica Veneziana l'Interdetto (Padova. 1926). 1992. Venetian Phoenix: Paolo Sarpi and Some of his English F riends (1606-1700) (Wichita. requires this: an observance o f an old proverb. 1966). A victim w . * Julius Krebs. * Reginald Pole.'' Scenes from William Shakespeare's Othello and Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta (right). Ma rlowe shows us the Devil: Mephistopheles . ``In his play.. Pier Paolo Vergerio: The Making of an Italian Refor mer (Geneva. II. and The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (London. * Federico Seneca. But he foolishly fails to realize that he himse lf is a puppet of gamemasters at a higher level. pp.. adorned by the four bronze horses looted from Constant inople in 1201. * Fra Paolo Sarpi. 1972). 54-61. Histoire des Rose-Croix (Paris. * Cecil Roth. Epistolae (Farnborough. Pole's Defense of the Unity of the Church . Paolo Sarpi. * Joseph Schnitzer. 1961). * Hubert Jedin.. Scritti Filosofici e Teologici (Bari: Laterza. ``Ein `Thurmerlebnis' des Jungen Contarini. Venetian ambassador to England. 1564). * Peter Matheson.'' ``Barabas is skilled in the Venetian art of turning one's adversaries agains t each other to protect oneself. with a set number of informers for each ward and p arish. See also Hubert Jedin. Joseph Dwye r ( Maryland. October 1939 ff. Faustus. Die Unterstuetzung Friedrichs V. The Thirty Years' War (London and New York. Mark's Cathedral.'' in 30 Day s. The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr. ----------------------------------------------------------------``The nature of the time. 1967). 1957). 1979). 1977). von England im Dreissigjaehrigen Krieg 1618-1632 (Stuttgart. Christian von Anhalt und die Kurpfaelzische Politik am Begin n des Dreissigjaehrigen Krieges (Leipzig. * Anne Jacobsen Schutte. 1972). The city was divided up. 115 ff. Yates. ``The Three ruled with the help of an elaborate network of agents and inform ers. 1833). Scelte lettere inedite (Cap olago. Smith College Studies in History. ``Il con tribut veneziano alla riforma cattolica. 1951). An early seventeenth-century poster advertising performances o f Marlowe's Dr.'' ``Sometimes the Three's justice was too swift to permit a burial. und Karl I.. Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (London. * Antonio Socci and Tommaso Ricci. The Commentaries. 1959) and A History of the Jews in England (Oxford.

Spain.'' For several years. He then pointed me in the direction of where to learn about this metholodogy of evil. I asked. For example. or Beethovens? His reply (see below) was not what I had anticipated.'' A fifteenth-century engraving of a merchant vessel in Melhoni. Switzerland. he said I should read the works of Christopher Marlowe. They were indeed the most exciting histories that I have ever read. These were no aca demic accounts of events. The major Christian powers of Europe have allied together into the League of Cambrai. The ambassadors. The preamble of the League's treaty states that its purpose i s to end ``the insatiable cupidity of the Venetians and their thirst of dominion . Venice was the preeminent international financia . What was it about Venice which provoked the wrath and military might of the lead ing powers of the continent. th ese. sixteenth. Venice is s aved only in 1516. also wrote lengthy summaries of their missions. failed to produce great artists. pointing to the last act of the latter play as characterizing Venice' s methods. uniting the usually contentious nations of Europe? By the early sixteenth century. * * * The year is 1508. Why. cultural and military warfare against their enemies. a late e ighteenth-century engraving of party-goers on a Venetian street. at the end of their assignments. a seventeenth-century engraving of Venice's famous Rialto. a Venetian ou tpost in Greece. that I would find the answer. It was by studying Venice and its methodology of evil. a se venteenth-century engraving of the Doge in his boat on the Grand Canal. Schillers. Their purpose was to give the Venetian leadership the me ans to formulate strategies for economic.ould be found floating in the Grand Canal. and composers comparable to those of Europe after the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century? Why no da Vinc is. LaRouche asserted that the answer was to be found by going back hundreds of years. but on-the-scene intelligence evaluations of the ambas sadors' host countries. poets. He specifically cited Marlowe's Dr. and Hungary have joined against the relatively tiny Italian cit y-state of Venice. France. which sought to annihilate the accomplishments of the Renaissance. the destruction of Venice is all but assured. when the Vatican arranges a peace agreement. This article makes use of a few of these reports and attempts to tell the reader what I have learned about the Venetians' methodology of evil. under the banner of Pope Julius II. reminiscent of the police-state atmosphere created in the city-state by the Doge's huge network of spies and informers. the g reat English playwright. Faustus and The Jew of Malta. had the United States. were a ``treasure trove'' of historical information and lead s. his throat slit open by one of Venice 's paid assassins. LaRouche also stressed the importance of reading the dispatches of the fifteenth -. to understand the oncemighty empire of the Italian city-state of Venice.and seventeenth-century Venetian ambassadors. I was able to obtain copies of many of these dispatches and final reports. Venice: The Methodology of Evil Preface Return to Top I once asked Lyndon LaRouche a question that I had been mulling over for a numbe r of years. LaRouche said. in its over 200-year-long exist ence. Germa ny.

Othello finally murders her and then destroys himself. Th e years following the League were one of reflection and reformulation of her pol icies. The Ghost Seer. Venice had seen its position as the ga teway to Asia begin to wither away. espionage. the resemblance between the maddened Othello and the King descend ing into madness is there. For a quarter-century. an order of the Benedictines.l power of the West. Friedrich Schiller takes the reader step by step i nto the jaws of a Venetian trap. but with t he African sea route discovered. She knew that such an alliance of nations against her must never happen a gain. as he is dragged off to execution. Germany's Friedrich Schiller. with a welldeserved reputation as pure evil. it grew to an empire of over one and a half million people by the end of the fourteenth century. Whether he inten ded it or not. the main character. the Turk. Venice learned its lesson from its near-destruction by the League of Cambrai. that the theological doctrines of what would become radical Prot estantism were developed. centers of trade shifted north to cities such a s Antwerp. the drama's main charact er. Instead of freeing the Holy Lan d from the Infidel. In the year 1202. apparent friend and comforter to Othello--a Moorish general retained to defend Venice--Iago (``hone st Iago. In his story. In Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. is psychologically broken and put under the control of the Venetian oligarchy. Such famous Venetian explorers as Marco Polo 200 years earlier had made her the center of commerce for the world. later. in their isolated cells. After their near destruction by the League of Cambrai.'' as the deluded Othello calls him) plays upon the Moor's latent jealou sies until Othello is driven to madness. a usurer. and diplomatic warfare. Convinced by Iago's unbearable psycholo gical manipulation that his beloved (and innocent) bride Desdemona has betrayed him. Venice's empire was built through a combination of military power and deceit. liv ing as hermits. Moor of Venice is perhaps t he best case-study of the Venetian method. is skill ed in the Venetian art of turning one's adversaries against each other to protec . Barabas. the monstrous Iago is laughing over their bodies. The Venetian Method Above all. who is visiting Venice. Venetian manipulations caused the rerouting of what has become known as the Fourth Crusade. a group of young Venetian noblemen went from the University of Padua into the monasteries of the Camaldes e monks. the evil that was Venice was seen by her contemporaries in her manipu lation of events and individuals through conspiracy and deceit: a kind of modern pioneer in religious warfare. the Crusaders never reached their destination but actually ended up sacking Christian cities for Venice. It is an open question whether Shakespeare intended to evoke in the character of Othello the character of Henry VIII and his manipulated jealousies--his Venetia n-manipulated jealousies--with their catastrophic consequences. From a small city on the lagoons off the Adriatic S ea. Intimate adviser. since the Portuguese discovery of the trade route a round Africa's Cape of Good Hope in 1486. slave-trader and military plunderer. It was here. and create the anti-Church Protestant movements fro m without. For over five centuries. Venice's agents would then be deployed to subvert the Catholic Church from within. At the end of the pl ay. The result would be the Thirty Years' War which would devastate the c ontinent of Europe. The character of Iago in Shakespeare's play Othello. It was that ch aracteristic of Venice that formed the subject for so many great dramatists of t he period--including the Elizabethans William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlow e--and. Here a foreign prince. Venetian ``policy'' h ad dominated world politics.

the Arsenal employed 16. a galley was put togethe r and launched in two hours. how Venice applies its methodology o f evil to diplomatic warfare. Three magistrates or keepers were in charge. Marlowe consciously modelled Mephistopheles' tr ickery on Venice's method of evil. and from which it carries out its evil work to this day .000 seamen. are kept in nearly 300 rooms in a Venetian pala ce. I have reviewed several editions of the diplomatic dispatches of Venetian ambass adors to England and elsewhere in Europe. Today these doc uments. The Arsenal The heart of Venice's power was a city within a city called the Arsenal. But Barabas foolishly fails to realize that he himself is a puppet of gamemasters at a higher level: the Knights of Malta for whom he performs as a m oney lender and financial wheeler-dealer. Barabas reflect s triumphantly--and yet pathetically--on his modus operandi. But there is another. Shall be my friend. loving neither. Founded at the end of the thirteenth century. Faustus. Queen of the Adria tic): . which became the center of its new base of operations. The Venetians were the first to build ships on a grand scale. the Venetian hand behind the religious war s of the sixteenth century and later.t oneself.5 million of them. when he says: ``And thus roundly goes the business. Making a profit of my policy. portrait of this evil power available to us today. combined with the final ambassadorial reports mandated by Venetian law. Each keeper was on duty fifteen days at a time and kept the key to the only en trance to the Arsenal. Purgatorio. Marlowe has made it quite clear that Barabas is as muc h the victim as the victimizer. will I live with both. (Venice. The Diplomatic Dispatches Venice as seen through the eyes of the poet and dramatist is a foul sight indeed . how Venice utilized both thes e capabilities to launch its takeover of England. second. they were o bliged to inhabit three official houses called Paradiso. are the best sources available for a study of Venice. Before the battle of Lepanto in 1570. and finally. This series of articles will make use of a small amount of this material. however. Historian Clara Er kstine Clement writes in her 1893 history of Venice. all 1. In the play's closing. Lastly. The se ries is divided into three sections: first. which Venice was first to patent. And he from whom my most advantage comes. Feeding on Faust's weaknesses.'' To the audience. When Henry III of France visited Venice. Thus. Such dispatches. in his play The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr. it was dedicated to shipbuilding and arma ments. By the end of the fifteenth century. the Arsenal was producing one new galley e very 100 days. M arlowe shows us the Devil: Mephistopheles. and found them full of leads and infor mation about the actions and intentions of the Venetian oligarchy over the centu ries.000 shipbuil ders and 36. and Inferno . with many documents in cipher and probably in invisible ink. This is the picture that can be constructed by the study of the dispatches of Venice's network of ambassadors and diplomats throughout Eu rope. Mephis topheles purchases Faust's soul. perhaps even more accurate. For years t hese items were kept secret in Venice's archives.

All kinds of goo ds carried in Venetian ships were obliged to be taken to Venice before they coul d be sent to any other port. the beginning of manhood.'' At a time when most of the world was ruled by monarch s or despots. and no ship not commanded by a Ven etian was permitted to sail from the lagoons. For example. Venice's Doge was a ceremonial figurehead. and had their prows made cannon proof.'' Venice's navy was the power which was the basis for its domination of world trad e from the thirteenth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century. But Venice's ``republ ic'' was hardly one open to an educated citizenry. Venice controlled all commerce between the East and the West. went through Venice. To graduate from the Grand Council to the smaller Senate. usually comprised of 1. Clement writes of the young noblemen: ``He could follow no personal tastes in studies or pursuits. dressed in scarlet. the Grand Council's powers were assumed by the Coun cil of Ten. next to the torture chamber and above the city's dungeons. Venice established mail routes. From among the Ten came the ``Inquisitors''--the Council of Three.'' Sometimes the Three's justice was too swift to permit a burial. their chief and the seat of sta te power. he must enter the Great Council. the voyages all being made accordin g to regulations. it was hardly an example of free enterprise. his throat slit open by one of Venice's pai d assassins. go thence to the Senate. The Grand Council was open to only 180 noble families and their descendants. The saying was ``The Ten send you to the torture cham ber. T . Sometimes the enemy of the state was made into a public example: Hi s body could be found in the public square of St. At the age o f twenty five. the Three to your grave.. With it s geographical location.000 to 2. serve on laborious committees. participating in free electio ns.. China. At that age every boy of the noble class had to claim admissio n to the larger Great Council. unless it went on dangerous routes over land. their galeasses permitted sixteen hundred men to fight on board. The Venetian State controlled all commer ce.``Their transport ships could carry a thousand men with their stores. hanging between the ca thedral's famous ``columns.. the Doge.'' After the League of Cambrai. The Serenissima Republica A myth started over 500 years ago by the Venetians themselves. Mark's. and put up a t auction to be bidden for by the merchants. Ships of war guarded the mouths of the rivers. and all foreign vessels were liable to inspection. the Three were a terrible sight to behold. was that Venice w as the ``model republic. while they carried fi fty pieces of heavy artillery. Clement writes: ``Private owners of vessels were not allowed to send cargoes to ports where Venice sent fleets. Private own ers were licensed before freightening a ship.'' To support this trade. and a good share of the profits paid to the State. Operating out of a small chamber in the Doge's pal ace. Vessels were built and fitted out by the State. i. and the Mideast. was a rigorous process st arting at age 20..000 members.e. Venice was ruled by a Grand Council.'' The Three ruled with the help of an elaborate network of agents and informers. All trade with India. she had week ly mail with Nuremberg in 1505. A victim would b e found floating in the Grand Canal. Two of the ``Three'' dressed in black.

and wer e forced to live in special sections of the city. the Venetians were approached by one Alexius. and for a period of time Jews could not bury their dead.'' (the origin of that now-familiar term).'' The Crusade That Wasn't In 1201. predating the Nazis by at least 5 00 years. Syn agogues were forbidden. no ships--but then he offered a deal. In response.000 silver marks. But only the Venetians had the ships capable of transporting the troops. ruler of the Ottoman Turks.'' Notwithstanding his plea. and the Netherlands sent troops to retake the Holy Land. imperious t o the dagger of the assassin. the agents of th e Three were increased in number until they became an invisible enemy. with a set number of informers for each ward and parish. Still. Even the nobility were not protected from the prying eyes of the Three. Christian cities were sacked and looted. was appointed to the Council of Three in 15 30. The Do ge. Those who strove to wrestle with it clasped empty air. All Jews had to wear special b adges on their clothes and no Jewish home could close its doors at any time. T he historian Rawdon Brown wrote of the Council of Ten: ``More terrible than any personal despot. It can confident ly be stated that in every great noble's palace there was at least one informer. about 80. What happened is an example of the dep th of deceit and evil of Venice.500 horse for the price of 3 40. Germany. ``it belongs to Christians. While at camp in Zara. drove a hard bargain. this dark unscrutable body ruled Venice with a rod of iron. your trusted retainer. your own familiar friend: they c ould all be paid spies. Dandolo proposed that on the way to Jerusalem. Evas ive and pervasive. To seek its overthrow was in vain. the famous Venetian who was to become a cardinal and play a fut ure pivtoal role in the Reformation. It would be difficult to overestimate their number or their omniscience. Pope Innocent III excommunicated Veni ce. they struck at it. Most of the Christi an nations of the time participated. because of impalpable. blind and over 80 years old. but the very essence of tyranny. and ships launched.000 men and 4.000 kilograms of silver and equal to eight times t he yearly income of the King of England or France at the time. it was ordered that no more than eight nobles assemble together privately. and you are pilgrims. Dandolo said no money. and no man in his senses would have talked politics in front of a waiter or ser vant. After Ga sparo Contarini.he city was divided up. The Venetians had another sto pover. a slight detour be made in lieu o f the final payment. Jews were forbidden to own property and enter the professions. One historian writes of the Three's all-pervasive spy network: ``Venetians and visitors were to amuse themselves and cease to bother their heads about serious matters. one of these was called ``The Ghetto. But no military forces ever reached the Holy Land. An agreement was made that the amount be paid in four payments. Italy. The deal made was that the Crusaders join Venice in reconqu ering the Christian city of Zara. Soldiers were mobilized. Instead. a former Venetian possession. th e city was sacked and looted. He agreed to provide 480 ships to transport 35. Pretended priests. France launched what would be called the Fourth Crusade to liberate Jer usalem from Saladin the Infidel. and to make sure that they did so. France. Enrico Dandolo. The soldiers assembled on the doc ks of Venice but part of the last payment was still owed. armies dispatched.'' The ``Serene Republic'' pioneered racist laws. it was no concrete despotism. but the blow was wasted on space. the Crusaders did not move on to Jerusalem. who . the Pope's representative came out pleading. When the ``Holy' ' warriors reached the city gates.

With the opening of the route around southern Africa i . At the beginning. who danced.'' Many of the sacred objects in Venice's holiest church. and the beautiful ornaments of the church.000 marks.'' Diplomatic Warfare A mere shadow of its former glory after the League of Cambrai. In 1515. One writer says: ``the magnificence of the New Rome was transferred to Venice. Venice formulated o ne strategy to ally with France against the Holy Roman Emperor. The Venetians. The icons were ruthlessly tor n down from the screens or were broken. the pulpits. With the conquest of Constantinople. The priest's r obes were placed by the Crusaders on their horses.'' Venice continued to conquer territory until its empire included millions of peop le. At the time. the Serenissima sent one of her most capable diplomats. a growing power. Monks and priests were selected for insult. The soldiers made the chief church of Christendom the scene of their pr ofanity. Henry VIII. Venice used every trick and deceit to try to play off one nation against the other to regain her empire. In return. Her main weapon was her diplomats.claimed to be the son of the rightful Emperor of Constantinople. he acknowledges his instructions to act with deceit to accomplish his mission. and will endeavour to ingratiate myself well with these lords. Maximillian. In one of his first dispatches from London. the League of Cambrai reduced Venice down to her lagoons. which we will focus on. and were therefore the first bu ildings to be rifled. and of the result. was to keep England. Sebastian Giust inian.'' four antique bronzes. When the Peace of Cambrai was signed in 1516.. The sacred buildings were ransacked for relics or their beautiful caskets. A prostitute was seated in the patriarchal chair. and the doors. France would aid her in reconquering her lost cities. The ambassador's task was to profile England's n ew King. wit h one-third of it set afire. Horses and mules were taken into the Churc h in order to carry off the loads of sacred vessels and the gold and silver plat es of the throne. The historian Pears writes: ``Every insult was offered to the religion of the conquered citizens.000 pounds still owed by the Crusaders. St. Part of her strate gy. and his court. gain Henry's confidence and manipulate him t o Venice's ends.. Constantinople was the richest city in Europe and it followed the G reek Orthodox Eastern Rite. The real face of the so-called ``Christian'' Venetians was clearly demonstrated by what they did to Constantinople. with the Crusaders as their batterin g ram. Giustinian's diplomatic dispatches provide an insight into the ``principle of evil'' at work. besides the riches.'' Guistinian's assignment to England came at a transition point in Venice's strate gy for control of Europe. many cities and islands became theirs. The Venetians and the crusaders sacked the city. agreed in return for 200. and sang a ribald for the amusement of the soldiers. Mark.. however. Mark's were looted fr om Constantinople: Venice's famous ``Horses of St. neutral. my letters shall inf orm your sublimity. were also stolen. diplo macy. Venice's territory was greatly expanded. Church es and monasteries were the richest storehouses. to London. Alexius asked t hem to get his kingdom back. He writes: ``I shall keep well on the watch to learn everything. The Venetians got half the booty plus 50. Clara Clement writes of Venice: ``now her former strength was replaced by the only weapon left to her.

after all.. and increase of the King of Portugal. he used his knowledge of the kin g's love of music to win his friendship. to England and t he Netherlands. adding many other arguments however. The new ambassador is young and is easily manipulated. and he said.n 1498. assuring the ambassador that Venice would never side with the In fidel. and resume the arms of Christ [sic]. On hearing this. with the help of Francis I of Franc e. He writes the Doge: ``Touching his assertion about aid actually given to the Soldan [the Turk]..'' Finally. to acknowledge our faith. and can only b e absolved by the Pontiff. Now in London. who Giustinian visits on the way to his new post in the court of Henry VIII. Venice. and especially those to whom you were linked by such strong ties of f riendship.'' Giustinian then ``ingratiates'' himself using praise and lies to manipulate the young Portuguese ambassador. and consequently of the Ch ristian religion through his Majesty.'' G iustinian himself was a trained musician. and although it seems that our citizens are so mewhat injured by the spice trade being turned to Portugal. Giustinian's ability to ``ingratiate'' himself is immediately app arent in his masterful dealing with the new Portuguese ambassador who comes to t he court. which is Mahommedan. confuting his accu sations. from the great exploit. to Henry's great delight.. and that there was no one in Venice but wh o felt anxious for all India. I added the following fac t. Gius tinian writes that Henry ``practices [on musical instruments] day and night. They meet over dinner. than for a little additional emolument.. is Christi an.. the Portuguese ambassador accuses Venice of siding with the Turks to disrupt the spice trade Portugal has just established with India. We have already discussed the effects of the League of Cambrai o n the Serenissima: Now. Gius tinian replies. which he did. that in our Senate there are about 250 members who deliberate on Stat e affairs. and has ever derived such. the King invited him to play with his court musicians. with all moderation and gentleness. glory. beginning wi th the Italian cities of Brescia and Verona. namely.. nor would a similar proceeding tally with the religion of our State. should these arguments fail to convince him.. w hich experiences extreme consolation. In his final report to the Senate. knowing that whosoever gives counsel or favour to the infidels against the Christians is excommunicated.' '' The Venetian would next turn his ``skills'' on his main targets. your language and manner convince me that you are innocent of all deceit. and I owe myself vanquished and receive you as that good and very dear friend which you have always been to me. Immediately. He continues: ``. A year . nor is it credible that they would sacrifice the salvation of their s ouls. the center of world trade had shifted north from Vnice. When Giustinian first arrived at Henry's court. he ought to know that your Excellency might be mo re reasonably suspected of anything than of favouring the infidels against the C hristians. both in artillery and counsel." The Venetian then turns up the heat. implying that all of Venice would be affron ted to dare be accused of siding with the Infidel. yet are we more zeal ous for the Christian faith. for the indulgence of any passion. and your Signory likewise. `Domine O ratoz. He continues: ``. Giustinian writes of his success in deceiving his dinner guest--probabl y after a few more goblets of wine: ``After a while my gentleness overcame his arrogance. Venice hatched a plan to regain her empire.

this being customary with .' '' ``He is about forty-six years old. He. offices. where. and the other is pushing the fortune. let th eir nature be what it may. the reader learns why the ambassador gives such short shrift t o Henry. First we learn of the good side of the Cardinal. ``He is pensive. and indefatigable. and they are all hung with tapestry. wherever he may be. hearing their suits. and councils of Venice. and has the reputation of being extremely just: He favours the people exceedingly. however.'' Like a thief planning his robbery in ad vance. and all state affairs.000 ducats. he used to say to him. learned. at this present he has reached such a pitch that he says. harms no one. giving Venice further intelligence access to Henry's private and state affairs. very handsome. by degrees.'' Having shown that Cardinal Wolsey is the real power in England. the ``Signory'' would send Venice's top organist.000 ducats. Guistinian conti nues his report. he played to the ``incredible admiration and pleasu re of everyone. `We shall do so and so'. of vast ability. Henry's Lord Chancellor. The Final Report Ambassador Giustinian's final report to the Senate analyzing his mission is an e xcellent source document to understand how Venice ``represents a principle of ev il.'' What follows next is key. Giustinian writes of Wolsey: ``He is of low origin: He has two brothers. a Friar Meno.'' The cardinal has invited Giustinian to his palace for dinner.000 ducats. which is changed once a week. and you corrupt them by knowing the princi ple of corruption which is imbedded in every person.'' At first the reader is surprised that the report devotes barely one paragr aph to the monarch of England. Next we see how a master intelligence operative works.'' Shortly. and especially the poor. Henry VIII. In his own chamber there is always a cupboard with vessels to the amount of 30. both civil and criminal. he went forgetting himself. gracious. and his silver is estimated at 150. transacts the same business as that which occupies all the magistracies. where one traverses eight rooms before reaching his audie nce chamber. one of whom holds an untitled be nefice.later. He always has a sideboard of plate worth 25.'' Henry immediately appointed him court organist. The ambassador use s the opportunity to ``case the joint. and a perfect example of the Venetian method as descri bed by Lyndon LaRouche: ``You go to an individual person. to Londo n. His target is Cardinal Wolsey. `I shall do so and so. extremely eloquen t. Giustinian writes. and seekin g to despatch them instantly. an d commenced saying. He h as a very fine palace. he commits to memory every item of value in sight. On the ambassador's first arrival in England.--`His Maj esty will do so and so: subsequently. likewise. are managed by him. even the items in the cardinal's bedroom: ``He is in very great repute--seven times more so than if he were Pope. ``This Cardinal is the person who rules both the King and the entire kingdom . he also makes the lawyers plead gratis for all pau pers. alone. Giustinian writes: ``He is affable. does not covet his neighbour's good s and is satisfied with his own dominions.

a belief more fully developed in th e Christian concept of imago viva Dei. Henry angri ly accused the ambassador of ``perfidy. The ambassa dor next proposes the deal. placating Hen ry's anger. Aristotle's philosophy provided the justification for ancient Greec e's system of slavery. retelling the incident later. ``He is supposed to be very rich indeed. the othe r two are divided between the King and the Chancellor. in money.. however. she had become the greatest slave-trading state in history. which enjoins kissing the hand we are unable to cut off.. according to LaRouche. How is this possible? The answer is obvious. in a dispatch to Venice. and the years of religious wars which followed. Venice's adoption of Aristotle is not surprising. his friendship with Henry VIII came close to rupturing. and.'' Giustinian ended his mission to England successfully.'' A few years later. It was this Platonic conception that the evil of Venice has sought to eliminate. Like Mephistopheles. The senator has quickly determined that just the value of the items visible in the cardinal's palace alone are four times hi s annual income. England kept out of any al liances with continental Europe against Venice. One-third of the fees derived from the great seal are his.. requires this. writes. the bishopric of Bath 8. for which he asked several times. Giustinian then reports on the sourc es of the cardinal's income: ``The archbishopric of York yields him about 14.000 ducats. 1515 through 1519. he makes some 15. Venice made full use of Aristotle. man made and living in the image of God.000. By the new year's gifts. Venice seeks to purchase the cardinal's soul. Giustinian. and household stuf f. The Cardinal's share amou nts to about 5. The ambassador urged the Senate to make this present. is based on convincing people that ``that which affects their senses and their appetites and their impulses. . Late r in this series we will report on the consequences: Henry VIII's divorce from C atherine of Aragon and the shattering of the English-Spanish alliance. Once. Henry fell under total control of his Venetian advisers. Perhaps the cardinal will accept a bribe from the Signory . which he receives in like ma nner as the King. most serene Prince. is of primary importance.'' The above is only one side of the equation. During his o wn lifetime.'' The reader should now put himself in the seat of a Venetian senator listening to Giustinian as he gives his report.000 ducats. it woul d render the Cardinal friendly to our nation in other matters. Th is present might make him pass a decree in our favour.'' suspecting that Venice was secretly al lying with England's enemies. calmly replied. at any rate. Counterposed to this is the Platonic conception which locate s man's identity in his creative capacities. an observance o f an old proverb.the English nobility. ``The nature of the time. ``Cardinal Wolsey is very anxious for the Signory to send him one hundred Da mascene carpets. Venice Against the Church Venice's methodology. his break with the Catholic Church. During his mission. by the fifteenth century. The ambassador. for no one obtain s audience from him unless at the third or fourth attempt. plate. To confront Plato's conceptions. and expected to receive them by the last galleys.000 ducats.

. James. the heir of Saint Mar k. Clement says. Venice had already turned eastward and built a new chapel to St. is a good example of the truth com ing out into the open.'' which is the Venetian Doge. All her treaties were nullified. the Pope excommunicated all of Venice. But 1 00 years later. but the Chapel of the Doge. Theodore. asserts that the Holy Spirit proceeds from both God the Father and from Go d the Son. I t was forbidden to trade or eat with a Venetian and they could be sold into slav ery.'' The Roman Catholic popes battled with Venice repeatedly over the centuries. dedicated to St. Clara Clement describes the Venetian oligarchy's relationship to the Church: ``The Church was a national church. Such a program was anathema to Venice. Saint. This was Nicolaus of Cusa's ideal of t he Catholic Concordance. The Filioque. geometry and science. King Henry VIII's Lord Chancellor. as each individual human being participates in Christ. and the development of populations which could eventually function as educated. banks. the peer of the heir of Saint Peter. In t he fourteenth century. reflected down to modern times in the Nicene Creed adopted at Flor ence. . in the East. was. Outwardly Christian. Particularly alarming to the Venetians was the mid-fourteenth-ce ntury Church Council of Florence. The following is an ambassadorial dispatch by Sebastian G iustinian. and factories were forced open. at which Nicolaus of Cusa and his allies succe eded in uniting the western and eastern churches around the principle of the Fil ioque. that of destroying the Christian nation-state. sacked and des troyed. the Doge was its head equally with t he Patriarch and indeed in a certain way more important. ``In England. while the Cha pel of San Marco was far more powerful than the Bishop. All her property a nd that of all its citizens were sequestered. therefore. The cultural program of the Council of Florence spurred Western Europe's Golden Renaissance of advances in painting. re .. It is addressed to ``your Sublimity. owing i ts allegiance to the Catholic Church and the Pope. Venetian countinghouses. since it is the state's role to nurture these abilities.D. for the chief Church of Venice was not that of the Patriarch. the merchants were robbed . on occasion. in France. self-governing citizenries.'' Venice's first Church was established in 452 A. The politi cal program of the Council sought to capture these great advances in culture in the establishment of a revolutionary ordering of human affairs in both East and West: the creation and strengthening of sovereign nation-states committed to eco nomic growth.The Venetian hatred for the potential power of man's creative abilities was and is at the root of its goal. much honored in the Oriental church. in Italy. It being a strictly Venetian or State Church. as it spelled doom for the oligarchical s ystem based on the oppression of most of the human population through such insti tutions as slave trading and usury.'' Venice's Trojan Horse role within the Catholic Church was. who. from the Venetian point of view. discover ed. who was officially its s uperior. and its Patriarch. sculpture. was ``a young Syrian soldier. eac h individual has the potential for creative participation in the development of the universe--the essence of Christian natural law. One revealing interview by Venice's ambassador to England with Cardinal Thom as Wolsey. Venice continually sought to subvert the Catholic Church--especially its role as an institution dedicated to imago viva Dei. A new Crusade was called against Venice and for seizure of all her property .

you can see the examples of how that method is by the Venetians. several times that he held me not in the slightest account. Queen of the Adriatic. you go among a peop le.H. That principle of corruption is the person's self-ego as an autonomous ego.The Oligarchical System From a recent comment on historical research by American statesman Lyndon LaRouc he. by making sense-certainty primary and convincing people that sense-certainty is primary. and that God and the p otentates of the world would avenge such deeds. not the individual as imago Dei--in the im age of God the Creator--but the individual as a sensual creature in war against not all but the all. is the principle of evil. Boston: C. and that your Signory would also find t hat his majesty took this thing very much amiss. past and present. Rawdon.. to one's advantage. and were accustomed to proceed with deceit and mendacity. is the principle of evil. To get a sense of how the Venetians understand this principle and use it. as Adam Smith echoes this outlook in his Theory of the Moral Sentiments and again in his treatise on free trade. for she will see what victory s he will gain. but playing sides aga inst one another. To convince people that that which affects their senses and their appe tites and their impulses. * Brown. That is what materialism is. in counterpositio n. 1893. (2 volumes). for welcoming with open ar an English cardinal expelled from Rome following his participation in an effo to poison Pope Leo X.ad or ms rt by the Council of Three. the real power in Venice. and to persecute the good. as a reflection of the macrocosm. introduced it [into western philosophical thin To cultivate this sensuality. repeating. by reason of my other good qualities. Four Years in the Court of Henry VIII. You go into a country.'' To be continued. and that the city of Venice would be a seat for conspirators against the Pontiffs. what Gasparo Contarini. Not the individual as a part of a macroco sm. in struggle.' and write to t he State to proceed favouring rebels against me. as a microcosm. as he did.. The Wealth of Nations . Guistinian writes: ``I could not express to your Highness the rabid insolent language used by h im. London: Smith. and opposed to the Pontiffs. he regretted m y being the minister of such iniquities. in the form in which people like Pompanazzi. a nd for this you had done penance. though at the same time. Once you understand consciously applied empiricism is. LaRouche: Venice Represents a Principle of Evil Return to text above. 1854. and so forth. saying. Return to Table of Contents: Venice -. both against your Sublimity and myself. Simon ds & Co. that method. References * Clement. against the macrocosm. Elder & Co. you go to an individual person. and you corrupt them by knowing the principl e of corruption which is imbedded in every person. `Go on. who we wont to favour ribalds and rebels. to correct the ordinary reading of Hobbes. nor yet the Venetians. Clara Erkstine. The Venetian method is the method of not taking sides. king]. and that your Highness was alway s for the rebels of the Church. through sense-certainty. on which accounts he meant to be the State's bitter enemy and min e. Venice. It opens with the ambassad feigning shock over an attack by Wolsey on Venice. in philosophy and elsewhere. one sh .

--------``The nature of the time. which is a completely different thing . is a Physiocratic standard. Schillers.'' Scenes from William Shakespeare's Othello and Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta (right). to understand the oncemighty empire of the Italian city-state of Venice. with a set number of informers for each ward and p arish. as opposed to the gold reserve standard. ``In his play. adorned by the four bronze horses looted from Constant inople in 1201. The issue of the gold standa rd. ``The Three ruled with the help of an elaborate network of agents and inform ers..ould study the Venetians in action. a se venteenth-century engraving of the Doge in his boat on the Grand Canal.'' ``Sometimes the Three's justice was too swift to permit a burial. The city was divided up.. his throat slit open by one of Venice 's paid assassins. That was a case of pure Venetian evil corrupting the United States: the gold standard . An early seventeenth-century poster advertising performances o f Marlowe's Dr. and composers comparable to those of Europe after the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century? Why no da Vinc is. Mark's Cathedral. But he foolishly fails to realize that he himse lf is a puppet of gamemasters at a higher level. a Venetian ou tpost in Greece. poets. Venice: The Methodology of Evil Preface Return to Top I once asked Lyndon LaRouche a question that I had been mulling over for a numbe r of years.'' ``Barabas is skilled in the Venetian art of turning one's adversaries agains t each other to protect oneself. is a good case in point from the late nineteenth century. You'll find all thes e populists to this day are still whining about their blasted gold standard. Why. It was by studying Venice and its methodology of evil. Then you see how the populist phenomena in t he United States in various expressions. Faustus. Lis ten to their argument. writing to the Doge in 1519 St. overlooks the Grand Canal of Venice. Ma rlowe shows us the Devil: Mephistopheles . The gold standard. in order to corrupt the United States. I asked. You're listening to the voice of evil coming right out of their stomach or some place lower. requires this: an observance o f an old proverb. A victim w ould be found floating in the Grand Canal. in its over 200-year-long exist ence. or Beethovens? His reply (see below) was not what I had anticipated. LaRouche asserted that the answer was to be found by going back hundreds of years. had the United States. which sought to annihilate the accomplishments of the . was used by the Venetians of Britain an d elsewhere. Venetian ambassador to England. for example. The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr.. consciously modeled on Venice's met hod of evil. Faustus. reminiscent of the police-state atmosphere created in the city-state by the Doge's huge network of spies and informers. failed to produce great artists.. most serene Prince. which enjoins kissing the hand we are unable to cut off. of course. a seventeenth-century engraving of Venice's famous Rialto.'' --S ebastian Giustinian.. a late e ighteenth-century engraving of party-goers on a Venetian street.'' A fifteenth-century engraving of a merchant vessel in Melhoni.

Spain. The preamble of the League's treaty states that its purpose i s to end ``the insatiable cupidity of the Venetians and their thirst of dominion . in their isolated cells. Such famous Venetian explorers as Marco Polo 200 years earlier had made her the center of commerce for the world. * * * The year is 1508. Venice's agents would then be deployed to subvert the . he said I should read the works of Christopher Marlowe. Their purpose was to give the Venetian leadership the me ans to formulate strategies for economic. In the year 1202. For over five centuries. that the theological doctrines of what would become radical Prot estantism were developed. France. were a ``treasure trove'' of historical information and lead s.and seventeenth-century Venetian ambassadors. Switzerland. Th e years following the League were one of reflection and reformulation of her pol icies. sixteenth. He then pointed me in the direction of where to learn about this metholodogy of evil. an order of the Benedictines. a usurer. the Turk. also wrote lengthy summaries of their missions. After their near destruction by the League of Cambrai. centers of trade shifted north to cities such a s Antwerp. It was here. uniting the usually contentious nations of Europe? By the early sixteenth century. a group of young Venetian noblemen went from the University of Padua into the monasteries of the Camaldes e monks. under the banner of Pope Julius II. but with t he African sea route discovered. They were indeed the most exciting histories that I have ever read. This article makes use of a few of these reports and attempts to tell the reader what I have learned about the Venetians' methodology of evil. From a small city on the lagoons off the Adriatic S ea. For a quarter-century. She knew that such an alliance of nations against her must never happen a gain. it grew to an empire of over one and a half million people by the end of the fourteenth century. Venice is s aved only in 1516. Faustus and The Jew of Malta. These were no aca demic accounts of events.'' For several years. and Hungary have joined against the relatively tiny Italian cit y-state of Venice. What was it about Venice which provoked the wrath and military might of the lead ing powers of the continent. For example. The ambassadors. but on-the-scene intelligence evaluations of the ambas sadors' host countries. The major Christian powers of Europe have allied together into the League of Cambrai. th ese. cultural and military warfare against their enemies. Germa ny. pointing to the last act of the latter play as characterizing Venice' s methods. liv ing as hermits.Renaissance. when the Vatican arranges a peace agreement. Venice learned its lesson from its near-destruction by the League of Cambrai. Venice was the preeminent international financia l power of the West. slave-trader and military plunderer. Venetian ``policy'' h ad dominated world politics. the destruction of Venice is all but assured. since the Portuguese discovery of the trade route a round Africa's Cape of Good Hope in 1486. with a welldeserved reputation as pure evil. Venice had seen its position as the ga teway to Asia begin to wither away. He specifically cited Marlowe's Dr. I was able to obtain copies of many of these dispatches and final reports. Instead of freeing the Holy Lan d from the Infidel. Venetian manipulations caused the rerouting of what has become known as the Fourth Crusade. that I would find the answer. at the end of their assignments. Venice's empire was built through a combination of military power and deceit. LaRouche also stressed the importance of reading the dispatches of the fifteenth -. the Crusaders never reached their destination but actually ended up sacking Christian cities for Venice. LaRouche said. the g reat English playwright.

Catholic Church from within. Germany's Friedrich Schiller. the evil that was Venice was seen by her contemporaries in her manipu lation of events and individuals through conspiracy and deceit: a kind of modern pioneer in religious warfare. Barabas reflect s triumphantly--and yet pathetically--on his modus operandi. It was that ch aracteristic of Venice that formed the subject for so many great dramatists of t he period--including the Elizabethans William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlow e--and. however. Othello finally murders her and then destroys himself. Thus. apparent friend and comforter to Othello--a Moorish general retained to defend Venice--Iago (``hone st Iago. At the end of the pl ay.'' as the deluded Othello calls him) plays upon the Moor's latent jealou sies until Othello is driven to madness.'' To the audience. The Venetian Method Above all. M arlowe shows us the Devil: Mephistopheles. Feeding on Faust's weaknesses. as he is dragged off to execution. portrait of this evil power available to us today. the main character. when he says: ``And thus roundly goes the business. . loving neither. In Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. later. in his play The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr. The character of Iago in Shakespeare's play Othello. Here a foreign prince. It is an open question whether Shakespeare intended to evoke in the character of Othello the character of Henry VIII and his manipulated jealousies--his Venetia n-manipulated jealousies--with their catastrophic consequences. Barabas. will I live with both. the monstrous Iago is laughing over their bodies. Shall be my friend. Mephis topheles purchases Faust's soul. the resemblance between the maddened Othello and the King descend ing into madness is there. In his story. Lastly. and diplomatic warfare. who is visiting Venice. But there is another. and create the anti-Church Protestant movements fro m without. Making a profit of my policy. Whether he inten ded it or not. And he from whom my most advantage comes. But Barabas foolishly fails to realize that he himself is a puppet of gamemasters at a higher level: the Knights of Malta for whom he performs as a m oney lender and financial wheeler-dealer. Friedrich Schiller takes the reader step by step i nto the jaws of a Venetian trap. Marlowe has made it quite clear that Barabas is as muc h the victim as the victimizer. is skill ed in the Venetian art of turning one's adversaries against each other to protec t oneself. espionage. Moor of Venice is perhaps t he best case-study of the Venetian method. perhaps even more accurate. This is the picture that can be constructed by the study of the dispatches of Venice's network of ambassadors and diplomats throughout Eu rope. is psychologically broken and put under the control of the Venetian oligarchy. In the play's closing. The result would be the Thirty Years' War which would devastate the c ontinent of Europe. Marlowe consciously modelled Mephistopheles' tr ickery on Venice's method of evil. Intimate adviser. Convinced by Iago's unbearable psycholo gical manipulation that his beloved (and innocent) bride Desdemona has betrayed him. the drama's main charact er. The Diplomatic Dispatches Venice as seen through the eyes of the poet and dramatist is a foul sight indeed . The Ghost Seer. Faustus.

Ships of war guarded the mouths of the rivers. all 1. For years t hese items were kept secret in Venice's archives. Clement writes: ``Private owners of vessels were not allowed to send cargoes to ports where Venice sent fleets. With it s geographical location. the Venetian hand behind the religious war s of the sixteenth century and later.5 million of them. This series of articles will make use of a small amount of this material. Private own ers were licensed before freightening a ship. and found them full of leads and infor mation about the actions and intentions of the Venetian oligarchy over the centu ries. and all foreign vessels were liable to inspection. they were o bliged to inhabit three official houses called Paradiso.000 seamen. i. it was hardly an example of free enterprise. how Venice applies its methodology o f evil to diplomatic warfare. Queen of the Adria tic): ``Their transport ships could carry a thousand men with their stores. went through Venice. By the end of the fifteenth century. second. which Venice was first to patent. unless it went on dangerous routes over land. combined with the final ambassadorial reports mandated by Venetian law.I have reviewed several editions of the diplomatic dispatches of Venetian ambass adors to England and elsewhere in Europe. Vessels were built and fitted out by the State. and Inferno . and from which it carries out its evil work to this day .e. and had their prows made cannon proof.000 shipbuil ders and 36. while they carried fi fty pieces of heavy artillery. Such dispatches. and no ship not commanded by a Ven etian was permitted to sail from the lagoons. the Arsenal employed 16.'' To support this trade. Today these doc uments. Historian Clara Er kstine Clement writes in her 1893 history of Venice. the Arsenal was producing one new galley e very 100 days. All kinds of goo ds carried in Venetian ships were obliged to be taken to Venice before they coul d be sent to any other port. are the best sources available for a study of Venice. All trade with India. The se ries is divided into three sections: first. and put up a t auction to be bidden for by the merchants. a galley was put togethe r and launched in two hours. with many documents in cipher and probably in invisible ink. how Venice utilized both thes e capabilities to launch its takeover of England. and a good share of the profits paid to the State. Venice controlled all commerce between the East and the West. Before the battle of Lepanto in 1570. their galeasses permitted sixteen hundred men to fight on board. When Henry III of France visited Venice. Each keeper was on duty fifteen days at a time and kept the key to the only en trance to the Arsenal. Venice established mail routes. are kept in nearly 300 rooms in a Venetian pala ce. it was dedicated to shipbuilding and arma ments. and the Mideast. Founded at the end of the thirteenth century. Purgatorio.'' Venice's navy was the power which was the basis for its domination of world trad e from the thirteenth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century. (Venice. Three magistrates or keepers were in charge. which became the center of its new base of operations. the voyages all being made accordin g to regulations. she had week . For example. The Venetians were the first to build ships on a grand scale. China. The Venetian State controlled all commer ce. and finally.. The Arsenal The heart of Venice's power was a city within a city called the Arsenal.

000 to 2. and wer e forced to live in special sections of the city. The Serenissima Republica A myth started over 500 years ago by the Venetians themselves. the Grand Council's powers were assumed by the Coun cil of Ten. At the age o f twenty five. Clement writes of the young noblemen: ``He could follow no personal tastes in studies or pursuits. with a set number of informers for each ward and parish. and for a period of time Jews could not bury their dead. the Three to your grave. next to the torture chamber and above the city's dungeons. T he city was divided up. the beginning of manhood. it was ordered that no more than eight nobles assemble together privately. he must enter the Great Council. From among the Ten came the ``Inquisitors''--the Council of Three. Operating out of a small chamber in the Doge's pal ace.'' At a time when most of the world was ruled by monarch s or despots. and no man in his senses would have talked politics in front of a waiter or ser vant. predating the Nazis by at least 5 00 years. A victim would b e found floating in the Grand Canal.'' (the origin of that now-familiar term).000 members.'' The ``Serene Republic'' pioneered racist laws.. It can confident ly be stated that in every great noble's palace there was at least one informer.'' Sometimes the Three's justice was too swift to permit a burial. dressed in scarlet. Sometimes the enemy of the state was made into a public example: Hi s body could be found in the public square of St. But Venice's ``republ ic'' was hardly one open to an educated citizenry. the Three were a terrible sight to behold. Jews were forbidden to own property and enter the professions. was appointed to the Council of Three in 15 30. All Jews had to wear special b adges on their clothes and no Jewish home could close its doors at any time. your own familiar friend: they c ould all be paid spies. their chief and the seat of sta te power. participating in free electio ns. was a rigorous process st arting at age 20. At that age every boy of the noble class had to claim admissio n to the larger Great Council. Even the nobility were not protected from the prying eyes of the Three. The Grand Council was open to only 180 noble families and their descendants. hanging between the ca thedral's famous ``columns. the agents of th e Three were increased in number until they became an invisible enemy. Syn agogues were forbidden. go thence to the Senate. his throat slit open by one of Venice's pai d assassins. It would be difficult to overestimate their number or their omniscience. Venice was ruled by a Grand Council.'' After the League of Cambrai. the Doge.. the famous Venetian who was to become a cardinal and play a fut ure pivtoal role in the Reformation. usually comprised of 1.'' The Three ruled with the help of an elaborate network of agents and informers. Two of the ``Three'' dressed in black. Pretended priests. one of these was called ``The Ghetto. Venice's Doge was a ceremonial figurehead. was that Venice w as the ``model republic. T he historian Rawdon Brown wrote of the Council of Ten: . The saying was ``The Ten send you to the torture cham ber. and to make sure that they did so. serve on laborious committees.ly mail with Nuremberg in 1505. Mark's. After Ga sparo Contarini. your trusted retainer. One historian writes of the Three's all-pervasive spy network: ``Venetians and visitors were to amuse themselves and cease to bother their heads about serious matters.. To graduate from the Grand Council to the smaller Senate.

they struck at it. and ships launched. The deal made was that the Crusaders join Venice in reconqu ering the Christian city of Zara. and the Netherlands sent troops to retake the Holy Land. and you are pilgrims. ruler of the Ottoman Turks. Monks and priests were selected for insult.000 pounds still owed by the Crusaders. a former Venetian possession. Instead. Alexius asked t hem to get his kingdom back.000 marks.'' The Crusade That Wasn't In 1201. with the Crusaders as their batterin g ram.. Dandolo said no money. Italy. but the blow was wasted on space. An agreement was made that the amount be paid in four payments. But no military forces ever reached the Holy Land. Mark's were looted fr . who danced. Church es and monasteries were the richest storehouses. agreed in return for 200. The Do ge.500 horse for the price of 3 40. drove a hard bargain.'' Many of the sacred objects in Venice's holiest church. When the ``Holy' ' warriors reached the city gates. because of impalpable. But only the Venetians had the ships capable of transporting the troops. the Pope's representative came out pleading. France.. Christian cities were sacked and looted. the Crusaders did not move on to Jerusalem. and sang a ribald for the amusement of the soldiers. armies dispatched. Those who strove to wrestle with it clasped empty air. no ships--but then he offered a deal. Pope Innocent III excommunicated Veni ce. the pulpits. He agreed to provide 480 ships to transport 35. Dandolo proposed that on the way to Jerusalem. A prostitute was seated in the patriarchal chair. In response. Most of the Christi an nations of the time participated. about 80.. Soldiers were mobilized. The priest's r obes were placed by the Crusaders on their horses. this dark unscrutable body ruled Venice with a rod of iron. ``it belongs to Christians. and were therefore the first bu ildings to be rifled. At the time.``More terrible than any personal despot. the Venetians were approached by one Alexius.'' Notwithstanding his plea.000 kilograms of silver and equal to eight times t he yearly income of the King of England or France at the time. th e city was sacked and looted. Horses and mules were taken into the Churc h in order to carry off the loads of sacred vessels and the gold and silver plat es of the throne. The sacred buildings were ransacked for relics or their beautiful caskets. The soldiers assembled on the doc ks of Venice but part of the last payment was still owed. The soldiers made the chief church of Christendom the scene of their pr ofanity. The Venetians and the crusaders sacked the city. who claimed to be the son of the rightful Emperor of Constantinople.000 silver marks. it was no concrete despotism. a slight detour be made in lieu o f the final payment. wit h one-third of it set afire. St. France launched what would be called the Fourth Crusade to liberate Jer usalem from Saladin the Infidel. and the beautiful ornaments of the church. The historian Pears writes: ``Every insult was offered to the religion of the conquered citizens. imperious t o the dagger of the assassin. What happened is an example of the dep th of deceit and evil of Venice. Still. The real face of the so-called ``Christian'' Venetians was clearly demonstrated by what they did to Constantinople. Constantinople was the richest city in Europe and it followed the G reek Orthodox Eastern Rite. Germany. blind and over 80 years old.000 men and 4. The Venetians. but the very essence of tyranny. and the doors. The Venetians got half the booty plus 50. To seek its overthrow was in vain. Evas ive and pervasive. The icons were ruthlessly tor n down from the screens or were broken. While at camp in Zara. Enrico Dandolo. The Venetians had another sto pover.

and especially those to whom you were linked by such strong ties of f riendship. to England and t he Netherlands. They meet over dinner. diplo macy. He writes: ``I shall keep well on the watch to learn everything. and will endeavour to ingratiate myself well with these lords. Her main weapon was her diplomats. We have already discussed the effects of the League of Cambrai o n the Serenissima: Now.. a growing power.'' Guistinian's assignment to England came at a transition point in Venice's strate gy for control of Europe. When the Peace of Cambrai was signed in 1516. Venice hatched a plan to regain her empire. which we will focus on. and his court. France would aid her in reconquering her lost cities. Venice used every trick and deceit to try to play off one nation against the other to regain her empire. neutral. Venice. were also stolen. the center of world trade had shifted north from Vnice. I added the following fac . Clara Clement writes of Venice: ``now her former strength was replaced by the only weapon left to her. assuring the ambassador that Venice would never side with the In fidel. was to keep England. many cities and islands became theirs. In 1515. One writer says: ``the magnificence of the New Rome was transferred to Venice. Giustinian's diplomatic dispatches provide an insight into the ``principle of evil'' at work. He continues: ``. to London.om Constantinople: Venice's famous ``Horses of St." The Venetian then turns up the heat. with the help of Francis I of Franc e. the Portuguese ambassador accuses Venice of siding with the Turks to disrupt the spice trade Portugal has just established with India. the League of Cambrai reduced Venice down to her lagoons. he acknowledges his instructions to act with deceit to accomplish his mission. besides the riches. Maximillian. In return.'' four antique bronzes. implying that all of Venice would be affron ted to dare be accused of siding with the Infidel. both in artillery and counsel. gain Henry's confidence and manipulate him t o Venice's ends. He writes the Doge: ``Touching his assertion about aid actually given to the Soldan [the Turk]. Gius tinian replies. Sebastian Giust inian. the Serenissima sent one of her most capable diplomats. With the opening of the route around southern Africa i n 1498.. is Christi an. Mark. beginning wi th the Italian cities of Brescia and Verona. Part of her strate gy. Venice formulated o ne strategy to ally with France against the Holy Roman Emperor. The new ambassador is young and is easily manipulated. should these arguments fail to convince him. after all. Immediately. who Giustinian visits on the way to his new post in the court of Henry VIII. The ambassador's task was to profile England's n ew King. and of the result. Now in London. At the beginning. With the conquest of Constantinople. Henry VIII.'' Venice continued to conquer territory until its empire included millions of peop le. Venice's territory was greatly expanded. my letters shall inf orm your sublimity. he ought to know that your Excellency might be mo re reasonably suspected of anything than of favouring the infidels against the C hristians.'' Diplomatic Warfare A mere shadow of its former glory after the League of Cambrai. In one of his first dispatches from London. however. Giustinian's ability to ``ingratiate'' himself is immediately app arent in his masterful dealing with the new Portuguese ambassador who comes to t he court.

for the indulgence of any passion.'' Shortly. Gius tinian writes that Henry ``practices [on musical instruments] day and night. he used his knowledge of the kin g's love of music to win his friendship. and the other is pushing the fortune. Giustinian writes of Wolsey: ``He is of low origin: He has two brothers. the King invited him to play with his court musicians. knowing that whosoever gives counsel or favour to the infidels against the Christians is excommunicated. giving Venice further intelligence access to Henry's private and state affairs.. to Henry's great delight. one of whom holds an untitled be nefice. to Londo n. Giustinian writes: ``He is affable. your language and manner convince me that you are innocent of all deceit.t. and your Signory likewise. which is Mahommedan. a Friar Meno. the ``Signory'' would send Venice's top organist. yet are we more zeal ous for the Christian faith. he used to say to him. from the great exploit. The Final Report Ambassador Giustinian's final report to the Senate analyzing his mission is an e xcellent source document to understand how Venice ``represents a principle of ev il. that in our Senate there are about 250 members who deliberate on Stat e affairs.'' Henry immediately appointed him court organist... and has ever derived such. nor would a similar proceeding tally with the religion of our State. w hich experiences extreme consolation.'' Finally.'' G iustinian himself was a trained musician. he played to the ``incredible admiration and pleasu re of everyone.. and consequently of the Ch ristian religion through his Majesty. When Giustinian first arrived at Henry's court. and although it seems that our citizens are so mewhat injured by the spice trade being turned to Portugal. the reader learns why the ambassador gives such short shrift t o Henry. In his final report to the Senate. On hearing this. which he did. gracious. Next we see how a master intelligence operative works. `Domine O ratoz.. and resume the arms of Christ [sic].' '' The Venetian would next turn his ``skills'' on his main targets. Henry's Lord Chancellor. however. than for a little additional emolument. ``This Cardinal is the person who rules both the King and the entire kingdom . nor is it credible that they would sacrifice the salvation of their s ouls.'' At first the reader is surprised that the report devotes barely one paragr aph to the monarch of England. His target is Cardinal Wolsey. and I owe myself vanquished and receive you as that good and very dear friend which you have always been to me. Henry VIII. adding many other arguments however. Giustinian writes. to acknowledge our faith. confuting his accu sations. Giustinian writes of his success in deceiving his dinner guest--probabl y after a few more goblets of wine: ``After a while my gentleness overcame his arrogance. and that there was no one in Venice but wh o felt anxious for all India. and can only b e absolved by the Pontiff. A year later. namely.'' Giustinian then ``ingratiates'' himself using praise and lies to manipulate the young Portuguese ambassador. where. He continues: ``.--`His Maj . harms no one. and he said. glory. with all moderation and gentleness. does not covet his neighbour's good s and is satisfied with his own dominions. On the ambassador's first arrival in England. and increase of the King of Portugal.

000 ducats. of vast ability. hearing their suits. and has the reputation of being extremely just: He favours the people exceedingly. and indefatigable. he makes some 15. likewise. ``He is supposed to be very rich indeed. very handsome. learned. offices.'' Having shown that Cardinal Wolsey is the real power in England. Like Mephistopheles. by degrees. `I shall do so and so. the bishopric of Bath 8.esty will do so and so: subsequently. He always has a sideboard of plate worth 25. In his own chamber there is always a cupboard with vessels to the amount of 30. in money. and they are all hung with tapestry. The senator has quickly determined that just the value of the items visible in the cardinal's palace alone are four times hi s annual income. ``He is pensive. and especially the poor. Venice seeks to purchase the cardinal's soul. he also makes the lawyers plead gratis for all pau pers.000 ducats.'' What follows next is key.000 ducats. One-third of the fees derived from the great seal are his. even the items in the cardinal's bedroom: ``He is in very great repute--seven times more so than if he were Pope. alone. First we learn of the good side of the Cardinal. at this present he has reached such a pitch that he says.'' Like a thief planning his robbery in ad vance. let th eir nature be what it may.000. By the new year's gifts.'' The reader should now put himself in the seat of a Venetian senator listening to Giustinian as he gives his report. transacts the same business as that which occupies all the magistracies.' '' ``He is about forty-six years old. for which he asked several times. where one traverses eight rooms before reaching his audie nce chamber. `We shall do so and so'. The ambassa dor next proposes the deal. ``Cardinal Wolsey is very anxious for the Signory to send him one hundred Da mascene carpets. He. and expected to receive them . The ambassador use s the opportunity to ``case the joint.000 ducats. and a perfect example of the Venetian method as descri bed by Lyndon LaRouche: ``You go to an individual person. wherever he may be. he commits to memory every item of value in sight. and you corrupt them by knowing the princi ple of corruption which is imbedded in every person.000 ducats. he went forgetting himself. and his silver is estimated at 150. and councils of Venice. Perhaps the cardinal will accept a bribe from the Signory . the othe r two are divided between the King and the Chancellor. both civil and criminal. Guistinian conti nues his report. are managed by him. How is this possible? The answer is obvious. The Cardinal's share amou nts to about 5. plate. which is changed once a week. extremely eloquen t. and all state affairs. an d commenced saying. He h as a very fine palace. this being customary with the English nobility. Giustinian then reports on the sourc es of the cardinal's income: ``The archbishopric of York yields him about 14.000 ducats. which he receives in like ma nner as the King.'' The above is only one side of the equation. and household stuf f.'' The cardinal has invited Giustinian to his palace for dinner. and seekin g to despatch them instantly.

eac h individual has the potential for creative participation in the development of the universe--the essence of Christian natural law. It was this Platonic conception that the evil of Venice has sought to eliminate.'' A few years later. England kept out of any al liances with continental Europe against Venice. she had become the greatest slave-trading state in history. Venice made full use of Aristotle. an observance o f an old proverb. a belief more fully developed in th e Christian concept of imago viva Dei. . Late r in this series we will report on the consequences: Henry VIII's divorce from C atherine of Aragon and the shattering of the English-Spanish alliance. retelling the incident later. is of primary importance. sculpture. most serene Prince. it woul d render the Cardinal friendly to our nation in other matters. at which Nicolaus of Cusa and his allies succe eded in uniting the western and eastern churches around the principle of the Fil ioque. for no one obtain s audience from him unless at the third or fourth attempt.. therefore. that of destroying the Christian nation-state. Counterposed to this is the Platonic conception which locate s man's identity in his creative capacities. The Filioque. his break with the Catholic Church. by the fifteenth century. asserts that the Holy Spirit proceeds from both God the Father and from Go d the Son. During his o wn lifetime. Once. at any rate.. This was Nicolaus of Cusa's ideal of t he Catholic Concordance. geometry and science. To confront Plato's conceptions. Henry angri ly accused the ambassador of ``perfidy. The Venetian hatred for the potential power of man's creative abilities was and is at the root of its goal. owing i ts allegiance to the Catholic Church and the Pope. man made and living in the image of God. as each individual human being participates in Christ. according to LaRouche. self-governing citizenries. Venice continually sought to subvert the Catholic Church--especially its role as an institution dedicated to imago viva Dei. and. in a dispatch to Venice. ``The nature of the time. requires this. The ambassador urged the Senate to make this present. Outwardly Christian. placating Hen ry's anger. which enjoins kissing the hand we are unable to cut off.by the last galleys. reflected down to modern times in the Nicene Creed adopted at Flor ence. Th is present might make him pass a decree in our favour. since it is the state's role to nurture these abilities. and the development of populations which could eventually function as educated.. The cultural program of the Council of Florence spurred Western Europe's Golden Renaissance of advances in painting. Venice Against the Church Venice's methodology.'' Giustinian ended his mission to England successfully. Henry fell under total control of his Venetian advisers. his friendship with Henry VIII came close to rupturing. and the years of religious wars which followed. however. calmly replied. Giustinian.'' suspecting that Venice was secretly al lying with England's enemies. During his mission. The ambassador. Venice's adoption of Aristotle is not surprising. 1515 through 1519. writes. The politi cal program of the Council sought to capture these great advances in culture in the establishment of a revolutionary ordering of human affairs in both East and West: the creation and strengthening of sovereign nation-states committed to eco nomic growth. Aristotle's philosophy provided the justification for ancient Greec e's system of slavery. is based on convincing people that ``that which affects their senses and their appetites and their impulses. Particularly alarming to the Venetians was the mid-fourteenth-ce ntury Church Council of Florence.

for welcoming with open ar ms an English cardinal expelled from Rome following his participation in an effo rt to poison Pope Leo X. a nd for this you had done penance. as he did.'' which is the Venetian Doge. on which accounts he meant to be the State's bitter enemy and min e. All her property a nd that of all its citizens were sequestered. nor yet the Venetians. Guistinian writes: ``I could not express to your Highness the rabid insolent language used by h im. for she will see what victory s he will gain. and its Patriarch. in Italy. .' and write to t he State to proceed favouring rebels against me. for the chief Church of Venice was not that of the Patriarch. the peer of the heir of Saint Peter. several times that he held me not in the slightest account. the merchants were robbed . and opposed to the Pontiffs. in the East. References .'' Venice's Trojan Horse role within the Catholic Church was. Saint. but the Chapel of the Doge. on occasion. and factories were forced open. was ``a young Syrian soldier.. and were accustomed to proceed with deceit and mendacity. sacked and des troyed. It is addressed to ``your Sublimity.D. Venice had already turned eastward and built a new chapel to St. the heir of Saint Mar k. dedicated to St. the real power in Venice.'' Venice's first Church was established in 452 A. in France. who was officially its s uperior. he regretted m y being the minister of such iniquities. by reason of my other good qualities. repeating. though at the same time. and that your Signory would also find t hat his majesty took this thing very much amiss. re ad by the Council of Three. Clement says. Clara Clement describes the Venetian oligarchy's relationship to the Church: ``The Church was a national church. The following is an ambassadorial dispatch by Sebastian G iustinian. and to persecute the good. But 1 00 years later. King Henry VIII's Lord Chancellor. and that your Highness was alway s for the rebels of the Church. banks. James. and that God and the p otentates of the world would avenge such deeds. while the Cha pel of San Marco was far more powerful than the Bishop.'' To be continued. It being a strictly Venetian or State Church.. ``In England.'' The Roman Catholic popes battled with Venice repeatedly over the centuries. It opens with the ambassad or feigning shock over an attack by Wolsey on Venice. both against your Sublimity and myself. I t was forbidden to trade or eat with a Venetian and they could be sold into slav ery. was. discover ed. past and present. the Doge was its head equally with t he Patriarch and indeed in a certain way more important.Such a program was anathema to Venice. One revealing interview by Venice's ambassador to England with Cardinal Thom as Wolsey. as it spelled doom for the oligarchical s ystem based on the oppression of most of the human population through such insti tutions as slave trading and usury. Venetian countinghouses. who. All her treaties were nullified. is a good example of the truth com ing out into the open. much honored in the Oriental church. `Go on. Theodore. and that the city of Venice would be a seat for conspirators against the Pontiffs. from the Venetian point of view. In t he fourteenth century. who we wont to favour ribalds and rebels. A new Crusade was called against Venice and for seizure of all her property . the Pope excommunicated all of Venice. saying.

1893. To get a sense of how the Venetians understand this principle and use it. in the form in which people like Pompanazzi. is the principle of evil. and you corrupt them by knowing the principl e of corruption which is imbedded in every person. in struggle. you go to an individual person.H. you go to an individual person. and so forth. Venice. as a microcosm. which is a completely different thing . Simon ds & Co. you can see the examples of how that method is by the Venetians. in order to corrupt the United States. Return to Table of Contents: Venice -. that method. That principle of corruption is the person's self-ego as an autonomous ego. was used by the Venetians of Britain an d elsewhere. what Gasparo Contarini. is a Physiocratic standard. as a reflection of the macrocosm.. to one's advantage. * Brown. The Venetian method is the method of not taking sides. as a microcosm. king]. you go among a peop le. That was a case of pure Venetian evil corrupting the United States: the gold standard . Four Years in the Court of Henry VIII. You go into a country. of course. 1854. Elder & Co. in struggle. (2 volumes). Return to Table of Contents: Venice -. LaRouche: Venice Represents a Principle of Evil Return to text above. in philosophy and elsewhere. but playing sides aga inst one another. you go among a peop le. introduced it [into western philosophical thin To cultivate this sensuality. and you corrupt them by knowing the principl e of corruption which is imbedded in every person. for example. To convince people that that which affects their senses and their appe tites and their impulses. through sense-certainty. as opposed to the gold reserve standard. is the principle of evil. That is what materialism is. is a good case in point from the late nineteenth century. You'll find all thes e populists to this day are still whining about their blasted gold standard. Queen of the Adriatic. Once you understand consciously applied empiricism is. Clara Erkstine. The Venetian method is the method of not taking sides. but playing sides aga inst one another.The Oligarchical System From a recent comment on historical research by American statesman Lyndon LaRouc he. The gold standard. That principle of corruption is the person's self-ego as an autonomous ego. Rawdon. as Adam Smith echoes this outlook in his Theory of the Moral Sentiments and again in his treatise on free trade. You go into a country. The issue of the gold standa rd. in counterpositio n.. as a reflection of the macrocosm. Then you see how the populist phenomena in t he United States in various expressions.The Oligarchical System From a recent comment on historical research by American statesman Lyndon LaRouc he. in counterpositio n. Lis ten to their argument. The Wealth of Nations . You're listening to the voice of evil coming right out of their stomach or some place lower. ----------------------------------------------------------LaRouche: Venice Represents a Principle of Evil Return to text above. not the individual as imago Dei--in the im age of God the Creator--but the individual as a sensual creature in war against not all but the all. Not the individual as a part of a macroco sm. not the individual as imago Dei--in the im . against the macrocosm. London: Smith. against the macrocosm. to one's advantage. by making sense-certainty primary and convincing people that sense-certainty is primary. Not the individual as a part of a macroco sm. one sh ould study the Venetians in action. Boston: C. to correct the ordinary reading of Hobbes.* Clement.

htm Introduction In the first part of this series. an order of the Bene . of course. a faction of the Venetian nobility decided to regroup. To get a sense of how the Venetians understand this principle and use it. The Wealth of Nations . You'll find all thes e populists to this day are still whining about their blasted gold standard. king]. as opposed to the gold reserve standard. killing millions and devastating nations. we introduced the reader to the Italian city-s tate of Venice. through sense-certainty. and corrupted the kings and the courts of Europe. We will see how Venice instigated the religious wars of Europe during the sixte enth and seventeenth centuries. That was a case of pure Venetian evil corrupting the United States: the gold standard . also called the Serenissima or ``most serene republic. we will make extensive use of the contemporary repo rts written by the ambassadors of Venice. Venice's goal w as to turn the victims of both sides into a mindless. by making sense-certainty primary and convincing people that sense-certainty is primary. You're listening to the voice of evil coming right out of their stomach or some place lower. is the principle of evil. they end up believing in none. you can see the examples of how that method is by the Venetians. especially in the very battl es they provoked.age of God the Creator--but the individual as a sensual creature in war against not all but the all. is a good case in point from the late nineteenth century. what Gasparo Contarini. commenting on the spread of Protestantism. to correct the ordinary reading of Hobbes. The issue of the gold standa rd. by turning nation against nation through the perfected use of the art of ``divide and conquer. in philosophy and elsewhere. in order to corrupt the United States. doubts and u ncertainties arise in men's minds.com/venphau2. as Adam Smith echoes this outlook in his Theory of the Moral Sentiments and again in his treatise on free trade. profiled.'' This sm all city on the Adriatic Sea was. Venice responded and rebuilt. introduced it [into western philosophical thin To cultivate this sensuality. is a Physiocratic standard. said that ``as a result. targeted. Then you see how the populist phenomena in t he United States in various expressions. Reflecting this knowledge are the words of one Venetian ambassador. was used by the Venetians of Britain an d elsewhere. A ne twork was formed. Lis ten to their argument. is the principle of evil. In the wars between Catholics and Protestants. who. in the form in which people like Pompanazzi. not satisfied with any of them. That is what materialism is. they don't know which is the true faith. Such a mob coul d then be easily used as a battering ram against the institutions of Venice's en emies. consisting of young nobles from the University of Padua.tripod. for example. using their own words to illustrate on e point: Venice's strategy was to never take sides. As in Part I of this series. and.'' Alarmed by Venice's near-annihilation by the League of Cambrai. and so forth. The gold standard. practiced by its ambassadors throughout th e world.'' In this second part we hope to give the reader an understanding of how the Seren issima's methodology of evil sought to reach into and steal mankind's very soul. which is a completely different thing . and a nother group which had decided to become Camaldolese monks. W e saw that an alliance of European nations with the Vatican wiped out Venice's e mpire between 1509-1513. To convince people that that which affects their senses and their appe tites and their impulses. -----------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. one sh ould study the Venetians in action. pagan mob. Once you understand consciously applied empiricism is. We learned how its methodology of evil. and to formulate a new war strategy. for over 600 years a major European empire. that method.

Gasparo's intensive study of Aristotle prompted a frien d to say that. especially of Aristotle. Gasparo is 18 years old and he is going to complete his educat ion at the University of Padua. The f amily itself dated its ancestors to the Roman tribunes of the fifth century. the Venetian Senate had voted up funding for the fir st chair dedicated to the study of Aristotle. We w atch. the Vatican would be just one more tool in Venice's policy of divide and conquer. dedicated to a member of the Contarini famil y. Enter the Devil. his belongings packed. A decade later. The year is 1501 and we are sitting in a gondola on one of Venice's canals.dictines. the one institution which could unite the C hristian nations of Europe. but provided an up-to-date philosoph ical justification for Venice's empire-building as well as for its massive trade . and had secured a renowned Greek s cholar for the position. But he was being prepared for other things. in 1514. Contar ini knew them so well he would be able to write them down from memory. Let's take a quick trip back in time to learn more. Once this was accomplished. Pomponazzi's questioning of the im mortality of the soul had caused a furor in the Catholic Church. Venice's targeting of the Roman Catholic Church was on the level of epistemologi cal warfare. these cultural warriors laid the ideological groundwork for radical Protestantism as the new weapon of religious warfare. Venice's key agent in its new strategy was the Venetian nobleman Gasparo Contari ni. At Padua.. while simultaneously creati ng a mass anti-Catholic movement to destroy the Church from the outside. leaves his palace for the day 's trip to Padua. the Lateran Council of the Church had declared such writings heretical . Venice's strategy was to snuff out this spark forever or. and jointl y define the theological basis for the Enlightment and Protestantism. Fou r years before his arrival. The strategy was twofold: to penetrate and corrupt the Church itself. Faustus. The discovery o f the trade route around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa in 1486. was especially targeted by Venice. and is therefore endowed by the Creator with a spark of divinity which se parates men from the beasts. Contarini threw himself into his studies. Gasparo's brothers had entered business or were managing the fam ily's extensive land holdings.000 people a century earlier to an empire of millions. 15 years earli er. England. two years later. the Contarinis would give the city of Venice eight dog es and 22 bishops..'' if all of Aristotle's works were lost. Venice by this time had grown from a city of 65. Pomponazzi would publish his famous wo rk. in 1516. Together. The Vatican and the Catholic Church. like the Devil in Christopher Marlowe's play The Tragical Historie of the Life and De ath of Dr. Venice was on the decline and the power of Spain. Contarini embarked on a philosophic investigation which brought him in contact with the works of Pietro Pomponazzi. as Gasparo Contarini. Contarini. Thr oughout Venice's history. On the Immortality of the Soul. had already shifted trade centers to the northern cities of Europe. The Church's responsibility was to protect this spa rk given to man. Gasparo and Pomponazzi would maintain an extensive correspondence. Pomponazzi' s works were thoroughly based on Aristotle. and France was growing. Venice. Venice's real enemy was the concept that man is made in the image o f God. All the noble families of Venice had been sending their brightest sons to Padua for many years. of course. But as Gasparo took the road to Padua. would be on both sides. Pomponazzi exerted tremendous influence over his student. Venice's role as the crossroads between East and West was being eclipsed. At Padua. Nevertheless. to steal man's soul. ``hypothetically.

with hope. and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction whic h he. and with that small love of which we are capable. the first cannons were fired on Venice. or tower experience. As regards satis faction for sins committed. turned to him. an d his breast opened up right to his heart. with his arms open. Through this thought I was changed from gre at fear and suffering to happiness. and even many more. for it expre sses a view of mankind which would later be adopted by radical Protestants. since the immortal is not fitting for the mortal: just as immortal wrath is not fitting for mortal man. now Camaldese hermits. that love which always burns i nfinitely and loves us little worms so much that our intellect cannot fathom it. Pomponazzi's book. At Padua. the University of Padua was forced to shut down. We must attempt only to unite ourselves with our head [Christ] with fait h. without any sins of his own.. For if man will be moderate. And having seen that that infinite goodness. The League's treaty states that it was dedicated to end ``the insatiable cupidity of the Venetians and their thirst of dominion. had made for us. Justification By Faith In 1508. even if they were all taken together. for love of me. is writing at least three years before Martin Luther goes throug h his famous Thurmerlebnis. and into which human weakness falls. which is a mean between the mortal and immortal'' (p. Contarini writes: ``I began to think to myself what that happiness [salvation] might be and wh at our condition is. In one of the numerous letters that Contarini wrote from Padua to his Venetian f riends. having only by its goodness made us out of nothing and exalted us to such a hei ght. they would not be enough to make up for my past sins. nor does it suit him. a s Aristotle says in Rhetoric ii. Venice lost all her territories. and Contarini returned home. asserts tha t man is by nature an animal and is not capable of seeking higher ideals which. which I my . the Peace of Brussels was signed. By 1516. His passion is sufficient and more than sufficient. would pick up on the themes of Pompon azzi's work.. and two n obles: Tammaso Giustinian and Vincenzo Querini who later became Camaldolese herm its. of the famous Zorzi family of which we will hear more later. he outlines the anti-Christian principles which w ould.'' A year later. split the Church. in 1509. Cont arini. he was quick to accept me an d to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted. he says. Gasparo developed a circle of Venetian friends which included Sebastia no Zorzi. And I truly understood that if I performed all the penances possible. 357). The letter is important. most of Europe's Christian nations and the Pope formed the League of Ca mbrai. Ada m Smith in his Theory of Moral Sentiments. events outside the g ates of the university would intervene. on the cross. But Gasparo would never complete his studies in Padua. however. and barely saved herself. to say nothing of meriting that felic ity. who are in no wise dependent on matter and change. Whence we first suppose that each thing a propo rtionate end is assigned.in human slaves. two decades later. the revelation which leads to h is break with the Church. he will not desire the im possible. I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw. The opposite of this occurs in the human race. B y 1513. the wretch who had not had en ough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do penanc e.. On the Immortality of the Soul. For to have such happiness is proper to the gods .'' Two hundred and fifty years later. This I. Pomponazzi writes: ``Nor ought a mortal to desire immortal happiness. is the province of the ``gods.

man is fulfilling God's command in Genesis Chapter 1.. Venice's two main foes were Spain. a mere worm. and even some heretics'' [emphasis added]. was even more blunt about Venice's plans to use religious strife: ``Once an idea takes root in a Spaniard's mind it is very hard to remove it. .'' Contarini's letter contains the kernel of the conception that man's salvation li es through faith alone. or as Contarini says. since religious faith lends itself very well to subverting and destroying monarchies.'' In France. which he calls ``us little worm s. If some misfortune allowed religious dissension to spread... Eight years later. which can hardly be expected to act on love through creative works. Contarini's model of man is the lowest of the beasts. the most populous nation in Europe. a kernel which would later grow until it split the Churc h.'' Contarini's mankind is devoid of love or of what the Bible calls charity--[ agapë]--for his fellow man.. I ndeed.. In his 1573 final report. and France. Suriano lays the blame on Mart in Luther. in 1581. Religious Warfare In the latter half of the sixteenth century. To be a real Christian means to act out of love for on e's fellow man. Venetian ambassador Michele Suriano was also reporting on th e power of the Protestant movement to subvert nations. Contarini's beliefs are anti-Christian because without love or charity man is re duced to a creature whose sensual gratification becomes the central purpose of h is existence and whose reason. led by the Holy Roman Emperor Philip II. some claim that pres ent circumstances would make stamping it out a very dangerous process. The peasa nts might prove especially susceptible to this disease. plays no role. in 1562. writes of the devastating power that Venice had developed 50 years earlier a nd that the city-state now hoped to use against Spain. and when it becomes great there is nothing to be done about it. Gianfrancesco Moro sini.. Dona writes: ``Spain might be quick to rebel if there were a leader courageous enough to direct a revolt. Spain would be particularly susceptible because ther e are so many there who are Moors at heart. by acting in the image of the Creator--doing creative works.. whom he calls that ``insignificant man. the Venetian ambassador to Spa in.'' The Venetian oligarchy was acutely aware that the success in defeating their ene mies lies on this level of epistemology and that the battle was for the minds of the population. ``Everyone knows that the first to revive old heresies and introduce the new .. while maintaining Venice' s public guise as defender of the Catholic faith.'' Suriano reports: ``There is a great deal of truth in the old saying that you must look sharp at the beginning of things because when an evil is small no one considers it dan gerous. Yet equally important is his view of mankind. There would be a special danger if the rebels used religion as a battle standard. instead the Veneti an substitutes an empty construct of ``faith alone. because the tithe of all income which is paid to the churches is a particularly heavy burden for them. the Venetian ambassador to Spain. verses 26-28. Leonardo Dona.self was incapable of satisfying. intellect. In doing so. many others who secretly remain Jews .

a nd made use of many arguments which the chancellor admitted. By 1514. Aldus directed one of the larg est publishing houses in Europe from his headquarters in Venice. 16.. 1992 conference of the Schiller Institute. Later. Contarini reported: ``I urged the chancellor strongly to maintain the friendship with England. Frederick the Wise. but leaders of the Erasmian faction of reformers.sects of our own times was a single insignificant man. when Luther was ordered to Rome to face charges of heresy. 1524. 16. so I believe him no w to be better disposed than he was formerly. his publishing house handled not only the Protesta nt authors. His instructio ns from the Serenissima were to keep ``an indissoluble league'' between Charles V and Venice's ally Francis I of France and also maintain England as an ally. wh house in Venic According to o direction of c The first written expression of Luther's doctrine of salvation through faith alo ne was in an Oct. and then adroitly to dispel them. 19. Later. Key players in this transmission belt were the Venetian Aldus Manutius and the G erman Georg Burckhardt. Spalatinus ``influenced Luther very strongly in the larity. also known as Spalatinus. and when he once takes an impression he becomes ob stinate. the Elector of Saxony. A blunt example of the Venetian art of psychological manipulation is descri bed in a dispatch Contarini sent to Venice on Aug. is indicative of the degree of trust Venice already had in him. Sweden .'' But did the discussions of the young Contarini and his hermit friends ever get f rom Venice to Luther in Germany? Was Venice really behind the rise of Protestant ism? In a speech at the Sept. to prevent his going. and all the northern countries. This incident incited a faction of German princes to later break from Rome. Gattin ara. Ambassador Contarini While many of Contarini's friends entered into the service of the Church. in 1518. The appointment to such an important am bassadorship... It is requisite above all to susta in the fancies of the chancellor. ne historian. Ev en more important. because he i s a man of very small brains. Aldus's extraor dinary influence in publishing and distribution of books was one of Venice's key weapons of cultural warfare. Aldus was also an admirer of Spalatinus. the Holy Roman Emperor.'' . he was to keep Charles out of Italy and away from Venetian in terests. Contar ini himself embarked on a different path--the diplomatic service of Venice. Spalatinus became the personal s ecretary to the future protector and defender of Luther. 1516 letter to Spalatinus.. After a meeting wit h Gattinara. Spalatinus and Luther were in regular correspondence.'' Wittenburg. including Erasmus himself. it was Spalatinus who interceded wit h Frederick. In 1501.. At a ge 39. Contarini spent 52 months at Charles V's court. Contarini was appointed ambassador to the court of Venice's most feared e nemy. Charles V. the Elector of Saxony. and changed the religion of not on ly Germany but also Denmark. both Spalatinus and Martin Lut her resided in an Augustinian monastery. his torian Webster Tarpley traces a pathway that Contarini's Venetian network could have used to spread their anti-Christian doctrine into Germany where it was then adopted by Martin Luther. Spalatinus was also in charge of the library of the University of ere he was responsible for ordering books from Aldus's publishing e. Contarini put a great deal of effort into profiling Charles's chancellor. and yet the disease spre ad to many parts of the world in a few years. starting in 1521.

Contarini's efforts failed. The pope was freed.. we have been the Church's frontline defense against the Turks . they were to meet aga in 15 years later in Regensburg. and a nobleman of that city. the doge continually exhorted Contarini. With typical Venetian duplicity. Germany.. Gleason re ports that Contarini ``praised the Hapsburg ruler's seriousness. The following year.'' Despite this expression of confidence.. Charles's Protestant mercenary forces had sacked Rome and captured the pope that year. Contarini tried to convince the pope. Contarini's job as ambassador was to use his ``skill and pl easant manners'' to keep the pope focused on Charles V as the cause of all his s ufferings. Venice continued to occupy the papal cities of Ravenna and Cervia. Contarini had made use of Charles's own confessor. according to his biographer Elisabeth Gleason. England. that if you were not the Venetian ambassado r. As we shall see. he won the pope's confidenc e. Venice had occupied the cities a year earlier when France. nevertheless. who had informed him that the emperor had ``an inability to forgive injuries readily. ``I trust you to such an extent. '' Contarini reported that the pope had told him. and to keep the papal cities in the possession of Venice. Venice.Contarini. seeing that I am not displeasing him. So we are still. it is necessary to p roceed step by step in this business. Contarini told the pope: ``In the past.. In my judgment. while profiling the curia. Contarini's appointment in 1528 came at a time when Venetian forces were occupyi ng the papal cities of Ravenna and Cervia.'' but then cited a trait the Venetian is less than happy about. the Emperor Charles V himself. Contarini left Charles V's court in 1525. and wil lingness to work long hours. ``to draw Clement VII into firmly supporting anti-Hapsburg forces. In this way I can always drop some word or make some courteous and appropr iate gesture. whom in h is dispatches he called ``timid and cowardly. Pope Clement reached an accord with Charles V in 1529. especially since the Venetians were known to knife one in the b ack--and then ask forgiveness.'' In dispatches between 1528-1530. habits. are greater enemies of the Ho ly See than the Turks!'' Contarini reports that despite his ulterior motives. and to use all possible skill. Venice was forced to return Ravenna and Cervia to the Vatican. . and especially Pope Clement VII. ``I continually seek to placate the mind of His Holiness by various means. Now the Lutheran Germans . The cities provided Venice with lucra tive tax revenues which it did not want to lose. I would place all my disagreements in your hands . It was he re that Contarini honed his skills in the art of deception. Milan. had a more difficult t ime in dealings with Gattinara's boss..'' For Venice. in Gle ason's words. this trai t was dangerous.'' and ``gave him credit for his devotion to the Cat holic religion. which certainly does no harm. T herefore I sometimes try to be in his presence.'' that it was Venice which had sav ed the papal cities. Contarini's next assignment was as Venetian ambassador to the Vatican. and the pope had joined forc es against Charles V.

The reform commission. attacked the pope for his ``worldl y'' concerns. which. Contarini used his position as cardina l to advance Venice's operations against Rome. to meet in a private house. the dreaded Council of Three. Another memb er.'' These same ideas would later be taken up again by the British. t ook away from the worship of God. Both men denied the possibility that man's faith in God could be based on his re ason. Cardinal Contarini In 1535. his condition. There is little known about Contarini's activities for the following five years when he served on the ``Three. would play a major role in destabilizing the English monarchy after its break from the church. Though he wou ld publicly refute Pomponazzi. the Council of Ten. and reporting back to Venice. true faith could only come through ``revelation'' and the ``non-rational. be taken up by the English Puritans. Contarini became part of the group that commanded life-and-death power over a ll of Venice and sometimes beyond. and reified as relig ious doctrine. In today's terms. t he ``Three's'' operations were secret. In September 1530. . unless related. is that during Contarini 's tenure. through its Consilium. a commission to ``reform'' the Church. he returned to Venice. spying. Contarini moved to his last and final assignment: He was named by Pope Paul III to the College of Cardinals. As cardinal. What we do know. the Good being whatever one wants it to be. insisting that he remain solely a ``spiritual'' father. would in 1557 be imprisoned by the Inquisition. Such attacks w ould.'' It included the English Cardinal Reginald de la P ole who. a century later. Labeling this great art irreligious. He also called for a halt to the visual portra yal of the saints through paintings by such contemporary artists as Michelangelo and Raphael. Cardinal Morone. Shortly afterwar d. without th e knowledge of the Venetian Senate. In a letter to his friend Gabriele he writes. right or wrong. the ``Ten'' concluded a peace treaty with the Turk. laws were passed which reinforced the Venetian oligarchy's top-down d ictatorship.Contarini spent three years in the halls of the Vatican. they asserted. he struck out at the Italian Renaissance and its celebration of the power of human creativity. Contarini's ``reform'' commission became the center of operations within the chu rch called the ``spirituali.'' where there is no difference between good and evil. profiling. he said. ``everyone should choose the good which is most appropriate and in accordance with his own nature.'' Though now a cardinal. i ncluding ideologues such as Jeremy Bentham. Contarini.'' As we noted in the first part of this series. He joined what could be called today a ``Project Democracy''-type movement. as potential heir to the throne of England. As cardinal. and his time. instead. where he was appointed to the government's ruling body. He attacked the absolute power of the pope over matters of Church doctrine and criticized the adoration of the saints. An other law placed the power of the Council of Ten above all state prosecutors and attorneys. Like a termite which gnaws away at the fou ndation of an edifice until it collapses. his philosophy could be summed up as ``doing your own t hing. Contarini immediately began work to dismantle the Church from withi n. Contarini's ``reforms'' would later be ech oed by the Protestants. the two were in total agreement on fundamentals. Contarini resumed his correspondence with Pomponazzi. making it a crime for more th an eight members of the nobility. and be the basis for a modern Satani c movement. Contarini's writings take a noticeable turn toward the Sa tanic. One law restricted even the nobility. Also.

who was fighting to stop the Turks ' advance into Hungary.'' Con tarini submitted a draft unabashedly reflecting Venice's contempt for man's abil ity to develop his reason. who accused the pope of practicing simony.. In his commentary supporting the article. Let the pious ] knowledge and capacity way as to be understood st in clarity. The Turk had taken Buda. a compromise was made.in a letter to the pope. ``May God gran t that Contarini achieves something good .'' Regensburg No history of Cardinal Contarini would be complete without including a discussio n of his role in the 1541 Diet of Regensburg. however. When it came to the critical discussion of how a human being may be redeemed. Venice made sure the reconciliation would never happen. proposed that the Church stop granting benefices and c harging fees for services. fully half the income of the Church would have been cut and subsequently its operations drastically reduced. sp lit along religious lines. since he is a blood brother of Luci fer. Luther himself was directly under the protection of the Elector of Saxony. only to abruptly turn aga inst them. to come to Regensburg to work out an agreement to reunite the Church. but Ferdinand's army was holding Pest on the east side. His draft urges priests to keep their ``sheep'' ``ign orant. The Diet was initiated by Charles V in an attempt to ally the German princes. Florence's representative to Rome commented. Contarini's stand on the key issue addressed by Article V is pure Venetian obfus cation. Contarini's reforms were later taken up by the P rotestants. In the end. on the west side of the Danube. Charles needed the support and money of the German princes to aid his brother Ferdinand. At first. t he talks went surprisingly well. he sided with the Protestants. three Protestant and three Catholic. On hearing the news that Contarini had been appointed papal l egate to Regensburg. avoid discussing these deep questions before the ignora and prudent preacher therefore descend to the [level of of the people. The Diet was possibly the last cha nce to reconcile the split within the Church between Catholics and Protestants.. Each morning and each night. and treat of the divine things in such a by the people and be able to instruct the sheep of Chri . If his proposals had been accepted. Raising the reinforceme nts was dependent on Charles's success at Regensburg.. he wrote. Contarini met privately with the Catholic delegation.'' Contarini writes: ``We must definitely nt people. Contarini performed the role at which he was a master: He playe d both sides. Paul III next asked Contarini to draft ``a formul a to be used for preaching everywhere in Germany. Called ``Article V.'' Venice saw the Diet of Regensburg as an opportunity to discredit both Charles V and the Vatican. and elsewhere. Italy.. When the six theologians first sat down to work out the articles of agreement. which they weren' t.'' the compromise was actually an endors ement of the Protestant belief that man is justified by faith alone. Despite rejecting his reforms. Though the Vatican did not officially participate. The Catholic principalities were in the south of Germ any and the Protestant ones to the North. without the necessity for good works. it did send a legate--none other than C ardinal Contarini. failure was ensured. Charles appointed six leading theologians..

Contarini now told the Catholic princes that he rejected any agreement ``in toto . because I would certainly have been stoned by various groups . the very day the princes had agreed to meet to review all the A rticles. and some would have even become heretics in order to make me appear to be one. He was ordered to submit everything to the Apostolic See for approval. . than with them'' [emphasis added].. Luther opposed the Regensburg program. Soon some of the German princes left Regensburg. as did a number o f the German princes.``Those who say that we are justified through works are right..'' He wrot e. Be of good cheer. The reader should take note of Contarini's concluding sentence. but word of Article V leaked out. The Vatican had sent a dispatch to Contarini charging that he or someone in his household had leaked the content of the discussions at Regensburg. Contarini sent a letter to Venice in which he wrote that the fai lure of the discussions at Regensburg was ``the greatest good fortune. and those who say that we are not justified through works but through faith are also right. At this point.'' he is speaking not as a Catholic or a Protestant. Charles V had ordered that all negotiations be con ducted in secret. . I now see clearly that the greatest good fortune which I had in the course of this legation was that no co ncord was achieved. Charles V commanded the theolog ians to remain to complete the agreements. ther e was a bare outline of an agreement after all-day sessions at Charles's quarter s.. Clearly. he exclaims. considered the founding council of the Counter-Reformation. On June 8. everything came to a halt. .'' Despite the compromise. 1541.'' He then urged the Pope to call a council immediately. The dispatch called Article V ``ambiguous. when he writes ``more are with us. allowing them bac k into the Church. the Diet broke down and Contarini made a total policy reversal. Contarini rejected this completely. ``Now concord is entirely out of the question. He accus ed Venice and France of allying with the pope against him. Some of the Catholic princes wanted to lead a war against the Protestants and get rid of Charles.'' At the beginning of the Diet. more are with us... Contarini was called before the emperor. On July 10. Charles angrily told him th at he neither got a religious agreement or money for stopping the Turk. C harles had wanted to grant the Protestants limited toleration. but as a Venetian. and the Council of Trent. After the Diet. Nothing is to be found in it w hich does not stand in our writings. On reading Article V. would be convened.. Cont arini's call would be joined by others. For they have committed themselve s to the essentials of what is our true teaching. The Diet was declared over and Charles left Regensburg. Copies of Art icle V and letters detailing the talks were being published in Venice and circul ated throughout Italy.'' and Contarin i was ordered not to approve any resolution either as the papal legate or privat ely. Let us look in on John Calvi n as he sits with the Protestant members of the Strasburg delegation at Regensbu rg. Four years later. ``You will marvel when you read the copy [of the article on justification] . Two weeks later. that our adversaries have conceded so much.

Between the years 1562-1598. He th than any other nation in Venice. accepts justification by faith. In his letters to Cardinal Pole. Contarini maintained a lively correspondence with the ``spirit uali'' network within the Church. To conclude this section we'll examine what h appened in France as a case study and as recorded through the eyes of Venice's a mbassadors. Ambassador to France Michele Suriano writes daughter of the Church.. In his 1562 final report to that France is the ``eldest ty in the fifth century. were capable of defeating any enem y. arms. Both were little boys when they became king. like myself. and the Camaldolese monks in the second decade of the sixteenth centu ry had. indeed as the basis of the Christian religion. Queen Catherine de Medici. France would suffer one of the most brutal rel igious holocausts in history. The queen. France was wracked by eight different wars of relig ion. when united. the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. and has been so receptive to them that they were by no means ineffective.After Regensburg. By 1572. but the truth is today that great engine rests o n weak supports. ``yesterday her power and smiling fortunes made her a bulwark to her friends and the terror of her enemies. especially what the signory of Venice has had to say. The Hugue nots had originally come from Germany and Switzerland to be recruited into the F rench army. the Calvinism of the Huguenots had spread throu ghout France. I can say that I n oticed definite signs that she is not happy about the disorders in the kingdom. The seven teenth century would be far worse. By the time of Suriano's report. ``The foundation of the Lutheran edifice is most true and we must not contra dict it in any way. and weal Europe but then adds.. led to 300. The worst of the French wars of religion had occurred under the reigns of King C harles IX and Henry III.'' having accepted Christiani describes how France has more people.'' Ten years after Suriano's report. Venice considered France the power most to be feared. that France ``rests on weak supports. Despit e her small territory.'' must have been for Venice a signal. was a primary target for Venetian profiling and manipulation. ``the whole thing was the work of the Queen. this is because she is afraid that if she uses force this will lead inevitabl y to civil war.'' The king was also in debt for 15 million ducats in gold. His report.'' Contari ni continued to play both sides. The Venetian s would report. he addresses him ``as a friend who. writing to Pole.'' The massacre bega n late on a Saturday night and led to the wholesale slaughtering of tens of thou . Militarily. a F lorentine. by the century's end. P omponazzi.. but must accept it as true and catholic. I also know that she has always been glad to hear urgings of oth ers on the matter. France's population of 16 million was twice that of Spain 's. Ambassa dor Suriano reveals just how effective Venice had been when he writes: ``I don't know her Majesty's personal religious opinions. Next to Spain. and both w ere under the regency of their mother.000 deaths in religious wars. France's armies. If she has not been that energetic about suppressing them as we would like to se e. much like blood in the water is a signal to a pack of sharks.'' Religious Wars in France The seeds of evil that Venice germinated in the discussions between Contarini. one-sixth of the French nobility had converted.

in his 1572 final report. and King Philip of Spain wrote Catherine that ``to hear of it was the best and most cheerful news which at present could come to me. Venice's Michiel placed the entire responsibility for the massacre on Catherine. Venice per base of operations in London. in 1598.. Henry united France once again.'' The massacre began with the failed assassination of the military and Huguenot le ader Admiral de Coligny. and eighth. See "Venice Moves North -. The ghastly events are described by Suri ano's successor. If one man hated another because of some argument or lawsu it all he had to do was say. sixth. Giovanni Michiel. By the end of the seventeenth century. an army which was the terror of Europe and especially Venice. a new King of France. They had no feeling.. seventh. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . The ``explanation'' for the massacre was that the Catholics attacked out of fear of a suspected retaliation by the Huguenots for the assassination attempt. no mercy on anyone.'' Since the ambassador's final reports were semi-public. The whole matter was placed on Catherine's shoulders. The Venetian Senate did vote to send congratulati ons to France afterward.) If their victims threw themselves in the river as a last resort and tried to swim to safety. The admiral had acted as a unifying force between the religious factions and was in the process of rebuilding France's divided army. I think I should tell your Serenity what I have managed to learn from some very importan t people who are in on the secrets of the government. issued the Edict of Nantes and reconciled the Huguenots to his rule. Bartholome w's Day Massacre ended that immediate threat and soon led to the fourth war of r eligion followed by the fifth. Europe would be devastated by religious turmoil. and not just men who had never done them any harm but in most cases people they know to be their neighbors and even relatives. The St. they chased th em in boats and then drowned them. This time the Thirty Y ears' War. Henry IV. In England. who was stabbed to death in the holocaust. and put it into execution. I can state to your Sereni ty that from start to finish the whole thing was the work of the queen. but on hi s death. as many did. But the reader should recall the ``urgings'' by the previous Venetian ambassador ten years earlier. Michiel made no mention o f Venice's own part in the massacre. ``The killing spread to all the provinces and most of the major cities and w as just as frenzied there if not more so. He wrote: ``Serene Prince.sands of French Huguenots by Catholics. It brought to an end a period of religious peace in Fra nce. there are different opinions as to whether the death of the admiral and what was done to the Huguenots was spontaneous or planned. accompanied by the plague. Finally. Venice would ith the divorce of Henry manently established its n the next and last part consolidate its grip over the monarchy that had begun w VIII. even those who kneeled before them and humbly be gged for their lives.. On eve ry street one could see the barbarous sight of men cold-bloodedly outraging othe rs of their own people. plotted it. This story will be told i of this series. would bring on the death of millions. claiming that Catherine was jealous of the admiral's influence over the young k ing. `This man is a Huguenot' and he was immediately kil led.'' The nation of France suffered from the loss of Admiral Coligny. She conc eived it.The Metamorphosis of England" for Pa rt III. (That happened to many Catholics. To be continued. He wrote: ``The massacre showed how powerfully religion can affect men's minds.

. We believe that the nation-state must be constituted to guarantee and provide th at right to each individual. after the Queen. about 500. a s slaves or serfs. There's no nation on this planet which has the honor that the United States has. They call it the Overseas Development Office now. but of a very special form. Lyndon LaRouche's observations about America's historic en emy. and everything else that we believe. under the personal. and we acquired an oligarchy. The Crown Agents who ran the colonies still function. It's not true . which brings out a meaningful potential from the mortal life. was the gift of Reason.com/enemy. is the Church of England.. groundbreaking EIR studies: in November 1994. called the American System of Na tional Economy. in particular. The Colonial Office was never disbanded. in Europe. Number One on the Privy Council.tripod. So. We didn't fully succeed in getting a pure modern nation-state.http://american_almanac. of the Nation. 22 by EIR magazine. Now the British Empire today... and with very. from an interview with the weekly radio program. These 500 people run the British Empire. stayed on in Europe. entitled. the access to a choice of life opportunity. And that this gift. the British Empire. ``The Sun never sets on the new Britis h Empire. But we represented the high point of civilization. direct command of the Queen through a thing called the Corps of Co . ``Britain's `Invisible' Empire unleash es the dogs of war.. and are given a certain quality which enables them to exert dominion over the other things in nature. ``EIR Talks'' Aug. very good re ason. whereas under the previous systems of government. was founded in Christianity: the belief t hat man was made in the image of God--man and woman are made in the image of God . and in June 1996. we present excerpts from two earlier. from beginning to end. against the British Monarchy. The basis for our Re public. and a Southern slave-owner trad ition. as human cattle. a Wall Stre et oligarchy. and no American should ever forget that. 12. as some suitabl e kind of life opportunity. as now. we became the model for the modern nation-state. 9 5% of the population of every culture we know of on this planet. They operate whole countries around the world.'' Following LaRouche's commentary. represent two absolutely opposite conceptions of M ankind. They think--they bel ieve a silly fairy tale. Most people don't know how the British Empire functions. the thing we cultivate in an adult. The merc enary forces we see in Africa and elsewhere are British mercenary forces. They believe that the Queen of England is a figurehead. the head of the Church of England. was a belief which. that the British Parliament runs Britain. because relics of the old financier oligarch y. The Parliament is a joke. that 95% of the people lived as cattle. is [that] the British Mo narchy. and then a whole lot o f other people... contrary to what most Americans are misled to beli eve. in terms of its form of government. whether from hi story or pre-history.'' I think everyone knows that the United States was engaged in a couple of wars.. in this case here at hand. including th e apparatus of its old Colonial Office. It does not run the Monarchy. or worse.. is still an empire. through a Privy Council. as the Christians understood it. He was responding to a question about the dramatic new exposé pub lished Aug. a New England blueblood oligarchy. a ctually more than two. It's called the Commonwealt h.htm We excerpt below. It's an adaptation. and sometimes didn't. The difference then. and the form of economy. The Queen runs from the top down . ``The coming fall of the House of Windsor''. the thing that we cultivate in a child by giving it a good education. which we sometimes used. They do n't know what's going on. by giving the adult the opportuni ty to express the power of reason as developed within the adult. That is. a reform of the Monarchy. and our Constitution. It's not true.

or Congressman Chris Smith from Tren ton.S.tripod. officers and high-ranking non-coms usually.mmissionaires. It's one of the horrors from the bowels of human history. has betrayed the United States and everything else. And it's time that the American people knew what is really going on in the fello w making funny noises in the next room. agents for the genocide being p erpetrated in Africa. which includes some of the Pentecostalists. But. But the cover of that disaffection is used for the enemies of the United Stat es--the British--to actually create terrorist threats--I'm talking about the kin d of thing that happened in Oklahoma City--inside the United States. and ag ents for various other British operations inside the United States. a c hurch which is not a church running the state. And so mebody has resurrected it against us here in the United States. angry people. both from the British Commonwealth system. it's run for the Queen! And the religion is shaped. Pat Robertson. which is a British Intelligence front. in addition to those like--for example. w hich is a Pentecostalist--but other charismatic operations. nonetheless. It's a very dangerous thing. we have reached a sit uation where over 50% of the eligible voters of this country do not even bother to register to vote. or people like Americans . Because of what's happened to destroy our society from wh at it had been in the middle '60s. the various members of the British Commonwealth. just honest. [This] has led to the creation of a great security risk. and his investment newsletter operation. who are ex-GIs. over the past 30 years. officers and soldiers. an agent of the British Monarchy today! This is a case of an empire. not in the militias the mselves--most of them are honest people. It's is also key to congressmen like Congres sman Wolf. Now this group has been targetted for manipulation by people like Lord William Rees -Mogg. they seize u pon the mechanisms of religious belief among sections of our population--especia lly our military. which is run. in large degree. It also is a major security--it's key to the genocide. who are. And this has become a major security threat. through an operation run through the Church of England. who believe that go vernment has turned bad.com/contents. at the same time. of course. a state running the ch urch--so the church is not run for God. The greates t single security threat here. disaffected. Not to serve God. because they don't think Washington's their frien d. That a very intense brainwashing operati on. from Within What has happened is that this crowd has moved to take over and destroy the Unit ed States from within. But. as was the case with Ollie Nor th. run by the British Queen. Pat Robertson is. in fact. Frank Wolf of northern Virginia. We have a great disaffected population. It's about time we paid attention! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------http://american_almanac. and the Cult of Apollo. Destroying the U. and things like that. run by the British Q ueen directly--has taken over large chunks of denominations in the United States . and people like that. It includes. th at is. these are generally retired military veterans. agents for covering it up inside the United States. the greater Anglican communion. but a church created and organize d and directed by a state. New Jersey--these men who are agents through the Christian Solidarity Inter national. and the Babylonian Empire. who don't know where to turn. It's what the old Roman Empire.htm#venice . and the Byzantine Emp ire did before. it includes a lo t of people like that. the Episcopal Church in the United States. and manipulated to serve the interests of the Queen and what she rep resents in terms of the Empire. that is. through some of the Epi scopal hierarchy. run largely through the Anglican communion. under George Bush. that is. were recruited as mercenary auxilia ries within the British mercenary system. the holocaust which the B ritish have been running in Africa.

The American Almanac. Summer. October. 1997. at Proje ct Gutenberg. by Michael O. Sep tember 5. Available from Bo oks and Subscriptions. Wertz. Billington. March 24.Solon vs. 1993. * It Is The Poets Who Shape History-. The Enlightenment. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Republicanism vs. II . Conference Speech. * Links to articles on Schiller -. * Leave this site for: Schiller's History of the Thirty Years' War. Volumes 1. Helga ZeppLaRouche. and Other Works by Nicholas of Cusa. Vol. Billington. Fidelio Magazine.Imago Dei. The Ode to Joy.Universal History * 'For He Was One of Us': Friedrich Schiller. printed in The Ameri can Almanac. 1993. October. Schiller's poems and some plays in German. with some English translations. Lycurgus Sitemap Return to Overview Page Renaissance -.THE AMERICAN A L M A N A C Table of Contents Site Map What's New? Home Page Search Engine For This Site Overview Page Purchase Publications and Subscriptions Home Page End of Page Sitemap Return to Overview Page Schiller -. Published in The American Almanac. Towards a New Council Of Florence. Poet of Freedom. translated by William F. Capax Dei * Nicolaus of Cusa's "On The Vision Of God. biography. Oligarchism -. Address to the Schiller Institute Labor Day Conference. Wertz.The Internal Crisis of Modern European Culture: The Renaissance vs. The American Almanac. 2. 1993.including a link to the Schiller Institut e page in Germany. by Michael O. by Gabrie le Chaitkin. "On The Peace Of The Faith". * Available from Books and Subscriptions. Address to the Schiller Institute Labor Day Conference. 2 and 3. Schiller's poems put to music. * Friedrich Schiller. 1993. 1993. o Table of Contents for Article . No. September 5. * Confucianism and Imago Viva Dei. the Poet of America. 1996. by William F. * Toward The Ecumenical Unity of East and West: The Renaissance of Confucian China and Christian Europe. October 4." and the Concept of Negentropy.

Published in The American Almanac. March 22. Counter-Reformation . by Joan of Arc . March 22.King Louis XI * The Commonwealth of France's Louis XI: Foundations of the Nation. March 13. 1993. September.State. o Leave this site to: + The Donation of Constantine Return to text + The Councils of Basle. by William F. o Links to ancient and medieval sources referenced in article. 1993. * How The Brotherhood of the Common Life Educated Orphans. o Part II. Ferara and Florence. The American Almanac. 1996. P ierre Beaudry. * Leave this site to: Link to Works by Aristotle. 1429 Return to text Sitemap Return to Overview Page The Brotherhood of the Common Life. The New Federalist. April 5.* The Council of Florence o Leave this site to: Documents on Church Councils. Erasmus. April 12. o Part I. Wer tz. Aristotle * Leave this site to: Link to Works by Plato. 1993. The Campaigner. and the Debate on the Filioque Sitemap Return to Overview Page The Renaissance and the Creation of the Nation State . Thomas More. and the Renaissance Id eal of Universal Education * The Irish Monks: Pioneers of the European Renaissance. 19 81. Jr. * Leave this site to: Link to Works by Erasmus at the The Erasmus Text Proje ct Sitemap Return to Overview Page The History of Epistemological Warfare: Plato vs. April 1. 1993. 1431-1445 Return to text + Letter to the King of England and his Generals. The American Almanac. by Paul Gallagher. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Venice -. * Venice: The Methodology of Evil. 1995. by Webster Tarpley: o Preface by Lyndon LaRouche. July 3.The Oligarchical System * The Venetian Conspiracy. o Part III. by Donald Phau: . The American Almanac. and Thirty Years' War. * The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in the Reformation. by Webster Tarpley. The American Almanac. The American Almanac. 1995. 1993. Enlightenment.

the Renaissance vs. Venician in England o The Leibniz vs. * How the Venetians Took Over England and Created Freemasonry. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Venice Moves North -. The American Almanac. September 4. by Webster Tarpley. * Giammaria Ortes and the Venetian Hoax of "Carrying Capacity". by Webster Tarpley. The American Almanac. The Executive Intelligence Review. April 15. . June 20. * Leave this site for: How The Venetian System Was Transplanted Into England . Kepler vs . Graham Lowry. September. The Executive Intelligence Review.The Case of Henry VIII. April 15. Galileo and Fludd. + LaRouche: Venice Represents A Principle of Evil o Part II. 1994. by H. January. by Jeffrey Steinberg. by Gerald Rose . Multicult ural Zoo. o The Bestial British Intelligence of Sheburne and Bentham. 1994. May 16. by Paul Gallagher. 1995 The American Almanac. by Webster Tarpley. by Webster T arpley. by Webster Tarpley. American Almanac. o Sarpi and Galileo o Newton: A Cultist Kook o Antonio Conti. Confer ence Speech at Schiller Institute Conference. April 15. 1994. and Worst. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The History of Epistemological Warfare in Science: Leibniz vs. June 13. Newton Contest . 1994. * 650 Years Ago: How Venice Rigged The First. 1996. Newton. Faustus + The Jew of Malta Return to text at Marlowe. 1996. * Palmerston's Zoo: Speeches at the 1994 Schiller Institute Conference: o Palmerston's London During the 1850s: A Tour of The Human. Global Financial Co llapse. The American Almanac. The Executive Intelligence Review. November 29. May 23. by Chr istina N. 1995. Huth. 1996. January. o Friedrich Schiller's Ghost-Seer o James Fenimore Cooper's Bravo o Works by Christopher Marlowe + The Tragedy of Dr. Confer ence Speech given September 4. by Gerald Ros e. 1995. June 3. Part III-. The American Almanac. o How The Venetian Virus Infected and Took Over England. The American Almanac. 1994. The American Almanac. The American Alma nac. 1993. o The Venetian Takeover of England: A 200-Year Project.The Metamorphosis of England * Venice: The Methodology of Evil. 1994.o Part I. * Leave This Web Site for following references: o Shakespeare's Othello Return to text at Shakespeare. April 15. 1994. the Enlightenment * How The Dead Souls of Venice Corrupted Science. The Executive Intelligence Review. 1994. * How The Dead Souls of Venice Corrupted Science.

November 6. spe ech to the Annual Meeting of the World Bank in Hongkong. 1995. . by Webster Tarpley. The Executive Intelligence Review. to "Shock Therapy". In The Tradition of hristmas Carol". The American Almanac. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. Rousseau. 1997. LaRouche.. The America n Almanac. Bentham. * Sergei Glazyev: "From A 5-Year Plan of Destruction to a 5-Year Plan of Col onization". * The Taiping Rebellion: The International Diplomacy Of The Confederacy. by Linda de Hoyos. Billington. China. by Lyndon LaRouche. * The Chinese Opium Wars: The Queen of England Pushes Dope. 1993. 1997. MacTutor + Leibniz + Denis Papin + Famous Curves Index * The Enlightenment's Crusade Against Reason. Jr. 1997. American Almanac. 1997. Papin and the Steam Engine: A Study of British Sabotage of Scienc e. * The Challenges and Opportunities We Face. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The Evils of "Free Trade" -. American Almanac. May 29. The American A lmanac. by Dr. * Russia's Liberal Reforms: Anatomy of a Catastrophe. * Why Adam Smith Is Worse Than Karl Marx.From the Potato Famine to the Opium Wars. EIR Article b y Lyndon H. October 3. December. by Paul Gallagher. 1993. 1996. 1997. July. 1997. EIR Article by Lyndon H. December.Not By The Market Place Alone!. Calvinist? -.Steam Power vs. American Almanac.The "Enlightenment" o Another Conti Agent: Voltaire o Conti and the French Revolution * Leibniz. Text of article available by leaving this We bsite for the EIR web page. February 7. July 5. The American Almanac. 1979. * Leave this site for: Links to Charles Dickens' Attacks on Free hus. Published in The American Almanac. by Robert Trout. on September 20. first version published in Fusion Magazine. by Philip Valenti.. LaRouche. Malt Story.o Voltaire. Montesquieu -. the Royal Society o Leave this site to: History of Mathematics Archive. * Michael Novak. A Re Dickens' "C 1996. Mahathir Bin Mohamad. February 8. o Hard Times. by Michael O. 1995. speech for Bonn Conference "On A New Bretton Woods System". o Chronology -. March 27. by Charles Dickens Sitemap Return to Overview Page Trade. and Adam Smith: o The Christmas Carol. to Currency Wars * 150th Anniversary of Genocide: How British Free Trade Starved Millions in Ireland's Potato Famine. by Charles Dickens + How Speaker Gittrich Privatized Christmas: A Ghost flection on Newt Gingrich's Contract On America. Jr. June 14.

in text f ormat: o The Evidence on General Albert Pike. November. The American Almanac. by Fred ric W. 1992. available at EText.Treason in America * Free Trade. January 3. September 21.From the Civil War to C. The Executive Intelligence Review.S. 1992. 1992. 1992.. * Leave this site for articles on Albert Pike. 1991. Fred Kleinknec ht. 1992. + Leave this site for: Text of LaRouche's other 1992 TV Broadcas ts * See Entries Under Lincoln. as listed in Books and Publications: The Political Econom y of the American Revolution. 1992. and to the Confederate Constit ution * Reconstruction: The Civil War Battle Yet To Be Won. o Leave this site for: Text Version. * Time To Bury The Dead Culture of The Confederacy. * D. Constitution o Leave this site for The Confederate Constitution o Leave this site for Links to the U. Executive In telligence Review. and subsequent entries in American System Section Below. The American Almanac. 1992. by Anton Chaitkin. Conference Speech by Lyndon LaRouche. August 28. Slavery o Leave this site for The U. text of TV Broadcast by Lyndon LaRouche . Lincoln. assembled by Graham Lowry. Available at in text format at EText. January 3.S. available at Etext. * Colonial Precursors of Hamilton. printed in The American Almanac . October. the Careys * Books available. o Confederate Constitution Promotes Free Trade. o Albert Pike and Satanism . Henderson . the Confederacy. 1996. by Fredric W. o Leave this site for: Text Version.The American System -. available at EText.Hamilton. o "Principalities and Powers". by Anton Chaitkin.The British Creation of the Slave-Trading Confederacy as a Project in Empire and Free Trade -. Henderso n. . November 11. 1992. and Frederick Douglass. Henderson. by Mark Calney. Griffith and the Making of "The Birth of a Nation": How The Confeder acy Revived the KKK and Created Hollywood. by Nancy Spannaus. The American Almanac. 1992. December 4. o The Genius of Gottfried Leibniz * Colbert's Bequest To The Founding Fathers. The Civil War and the American System * The Roots of the American System: From Cameralism to the American System o f Economics. and The Political Economy of Slavery. The Executive Intelligence Review. o Why Albert Pike's Statue Must Fall: Defeating the Scottish Rite's KK K Project. by Frederic W. W. The American Almanac. Executive Inte lligence Review. Sitemap Return to Overview Page National Economy -. March 20.

excerpts f rom The Harmony of Interests: Agricultural. excerpts from Hamilto n's 1791 Report. Executive Intelligence Review. August 22. Henderson. The Executive Intelligence Review. 1992.The National Railroad Sys tem. * Henry Carey o Henry Carey Ripped Britain's "Free Trade" Looting System. o Part I: Who Made the US a Great Power?. printed in The Executive Intelligence Review. by Anton Chaitkin. James Madison. * Alexander Hamilton o Writings by Alexander Hamilton: + Leave this site to: Link to The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton. 1997. o Part III: The USA and Peru's War of the Pacific -. * The Franklin School Starts Modern England. 1986. August. o Henry Clay and the War of 1812. Wikrent. o Links to: Excerpts of Writings by Henry Carey * Henry Clay o Henry Clay: "In Defense of the American System and Against the Briti sh Colonial System". April 11. February 8.* What Is The "General Welfare"?. January 3. + Hamilton's Letter to Bayard o Eulogy for Hamilton -. by Anton Chaitkin. by Don ald Phau. 1989. 1992. o Henry Clay's Warhawks Win A Victory Over British Terrorism. Manufacturing. + Abraham Lincoln's "Bank War". and Commercial. 1992. o Henry Carey and William McKinley -. by Edward Spannaus. Published in The American Almanac. 1986. January 3. * American Prometheus: Who Made the US A Great Power?. The American Almanac. printed in the Albany Sentinel. 1986. 3. * The Chinese Model for American Canals -. o Hamilton's Final Years: The Christian Constitutional Society. Pr inted in New Solidarity Newspaper. the I mperialists. 1986. 1986. 1996. . 1986. British Free Trade. 1992.America vs. o America Was Built by Dumping Britain's Doctrine of Free Trade. 1791. The American Almanac. 1832. 1986. + Abraham Lincoln's Imposes Science on American Agriculture. o Part II: Philadelphia and Germany. a series by Anton Chaitkin.Robert Fulton. 2000. extract from the 1790 Document by Alexander Hamilton. March 21. by Marcia Merry-Baker and Anton Chaitkin. May 15. Alexander Hamilton. printed in The Executive Intelli gence Review. + "Report on a National Bank". 1851. + Arguments For The Establishment of a National Bank (excerpts).Commending attacks on Adam Smith. by An thony K. January 3. printed in The American Almanac. December. 1804. January 3. and 6. pri nted in The Executive Intelligence Review. 1995. 1992. The Executive Intelligence Review. o The Lincoln Revolution. August 1. September. May 30. 1986. by Frederic W. The Executive Intelligence Review. by Anton Chaitkin. + "Report on the Subject of Manufactures". Published in The American Almanac. January 3. excerpts of a speech delivered February 2. Abraham Lincoln's Favorite Speech of t he 1860 Presidential Campaign. February 5. and John Jay. 1989. by Anton Chaitkin. The Executive Intelligence Review. 1986: + Abraham Lincoln's "Space Program" -. * Abraham Lincoln o "Discoveries and Inventions".The American System vs. May 1. printed in The Executive Intelligence Review.

1995. An Editorial by Frederick D ouglass. Published in The Atlantic Monthly. 1901. August 3. by Denise and Frede ric Henderson. The Executive Intelligence Review. by Denise Hend erson. o Frederick Douglass Attacks "Free Trade". Executive Intelligence Review. by Rochelle Asc her. 1992. Executive Intelligence Review. o Frederick Douglass: Oration In Memory of Abraham Lincoln. Vol. 1998. T he American Almanac. The American Almanac. May. Conference Speech by Rochelle Ascher . o Frederick Douglass: Oration In Memory of Abraham Lincoln. 1992.-Russian Entente That Saved The Union. B. * A Project To Develop American Infrastructure. 1871. by W. + Part II: How Lincoln Financed the Fight for the Union. 1992. o Frederick Douglass: Friendly Word To Maryland. o The U. available in text format from Etext. NY.A Speech Given D uring Tariff Debates in 1852. Washington. and November 2. and Ban kruptcy. The American Almanac. by Graham and Pam Lowry. Maryland on 17 November. An Address Delivered in Baltimore. February 15. E-text link at th e University of Virginia Electronic Text Center. 1997. * President Garfield and the Pythagorean Theorem. 87. In Three Parts: October 12. October 19. printed in The New National Era. * Thaddeus Stevens: "Free Trade" Is For Barbarian Tribes -. available from Abraham Lincoln Online * Frederick Douglass o Frederick Douglass and the Lincoln Tradition. DC. February. + Part I: The New President Faces Treason. * General O. O. compiled by Pamela Lowry. 1992. availab le in text format from Etext.o How Abraham Lincoln Mobilized The Economy for War and Peace. from the Revolution to the C ivil War. 1992. o Leave this site for: Lincoln's Speeches and Writings. January 3. In Lin coln Park. o Links to other Speeches and Articles by Frederick Douglass * How The Founding Fathers Fought For An End To Slavery. by Anto n Chaitkin. by Konstantin George.S. DC. September. * The Mission of America's Military Nation Builders: Global Development. The American Almanac. Published in The American Almanac. March 15. Published in The American Almanac. In Lin coln Park. 19 92. Insurrection. o Leave This Website For Link To: "The Freedmen's Bureau". 1876. E. + Part III: Defeating Slavery and Building the Nation. + Why Lincoln Built The Railroads + How Lincoln Made Farmers Scientific o The Lessons of Abraham Lincoln. Reprinted in The New Federalist. Delivered At The Unveiling of the Freedmen's Monument in Memory of Abraham Lincoln. August 17. January. Dubois. Sitemap Return to Overview Page . April 14. Washington. June 8. January 3. 1993. 1876. The American Almanac. 1996. 1864. a book review by Suzanne K lebe. o Leave this site for: Why The British Killed Lincoln. available in text format from Etext. Delivered At The Unveiling of the Freedmen's Monument in Memory of Abraham Lincoln. The American Almanac. Howard's Fight for Education of the Freedmen. April 14. by Denise Henderson. 1993.

* Demitri I.S. by Jonathan Tennenbaum. by Lawrence F reeman and Marsha Bowen. January 3. Printe d in The Executive Intelligence Review. * Witte: Tariff Helped Build Our Industry -. 1992.Dmi tri Mendeleyev and the Discovery of the Periodic Law. February 19. translated by William Jones. 1992. * List and Ireland: What Is Sinn Fein? The American System vs. LaRouche. January 3. 19 92. Sergei Witte. by Michael Liebig. 1994. Mendeleyev: Scientist-Statesman Fought British "Free Trade" in Russia -. * Leave this site for: The National System of Political Economy. by Friedric h List. I ngersoll. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR w eb page. and plan to battle economic warfare. January 3. Adapted from Friedric h List: Outlines of American Political Economy in Twelve Letters to Charles J. by Paul Gallagher.National Economy -. 1992. The Executive Int elligence Review. 1995. 1997. and Sun Yat Sen Russia * The U. Commentary. 1989. * Sergei Witte: The Fight For Russian Industry -. by Konstantin George. Publish ed in The American Almanac. The Executive Intelligence Review. Available at Sitemap Return to Overview Page List's "American System" in Russia. * The Case of Mendeleyev: LaRouche's Method and the Physical Sciences -. January 3. translated by Sidney Harcave. 1992. by Rachel D ouglas and Barbara Frazier.Excerpts from 1891 Tariff Report by Barbara Frazier. The American Almanac.from The Memoirs of Count Witte . * Friedrich List and the 'American System of Economy'. January 18. British Geopo litics in Ireland. 1992. on the occasion of Lebed's reference to Count Sergei Witte's p olicy of reconstruction for Russia. January 9. The Executive Intelligence Review. by Anton Chaitkin. * The Legacy of List's "National System of Political Economy". August 3. December. The Mejei Restoration. * Friedrich List and The Program for Europe Today. 1891.Excerpts From "Lectures on Political Economy and State Finance".Friedrich List * Book available. * General Lebed Shakes the Press. * The Fight To Bring the American System to 19th-Century Russia. as listed in Books and Publications: Friedrich List: Notes On the American System. The Ex ecutive Intelligence Review. Japan and China: The American Civil War Alli ance.-Russian Entente That Saved The Union. The A merican Almanac. January 3. Th e American Almanac. 1997.. Sitemap Return to Overview Page . Jr. EIR Editorial by Lyndon H. April 14. The Executive Intelligence Review.

1991. 1994. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The British Geopolitical Aim in Creating WWI: Mackinder. 1992. The American Almanac. The American Almanac. Conference Speech by We bster Tarpley. the Dreyfus Affair. Spring 1997 issue. 1992. . by Jacques Cheminade. The Executive Intelligence Review. Chicago. Fash oda. February 22. The Executive Intelligence Review. and WWII. Helga Zepp. October 18. Versailles. Exce rpts from the Book by Carol White. The Enlightenment". Leibniz Inspire d America's Founding Fathers". Sitemap Return to Overview Page The "Entente Bestiale": France Submits to the "Brutish Empire" -. Edward VII. Billington. 1853. * Hamilton Influenced Sun Yat-sen's Founding Of The Chinese Republic. Conference Speech. o Table of Contents * Emmerich de Vattel and the Founding Fathers. Liberty. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The Leibnizian Roots of the American Revolution * Leibniz. an d the Pursuit of Happiness: How the Natural Law Concept of G. March 24. WWI * Time To Destroy The Myth of Napoleon Bonaparte. by Mic hael O.Napoleon. China * How Henry Carey And The American Nationalists Built The Modern World. by Philip Va lenti. January 3. by Kathy Wolfe. 1997. The American Almanac. * Gabriel Hanotaux. * The Versailles Thesis: The Roots of WWI. read: Fidelio. section of Helga LaRouche's C onference Presentation. July 7. Illinois. 1992. F or a longer work on Vattel. January 3. 1997. by A nton Chaitkin. 1992. January 3. 1996. * Hamilton's Ghost Haunts Washington From Tokyo: Excerpts from Leaders of th e Mejei Restoration. The American Almanac. Extract from A Manual Of P olitical Economy. "Life. 1997. Reparations * Britain's Plot To Destroy Civilization: The New Dark Ages Conspiracy. The Executive Intelligence Review. Schiller Institute Food For Peace Conference. June 20. W. Inspired the Declaration of Independence.LaRouche.The Inte rnal Crisis of Modern European Culture: The Renaissance vs. and How London Orchestrated the Dest ruction of the Franco-German Alliance. Ju ly. The Executive Intelligence Review.Japan * Erasmus Peshine Smith: "Man Is Lord Of Nature". Not Locke. by Dana Scanlon. see above: "It Is The Poets Who Shape History-. The American Almanac. by Robert Trout. May.

The American Almanac. by Edward Spann aus. September 25. 1994. The A merican Almanac. * The Conservative Revolution and Education Cuts -. a book review of Raymond Massey 's Dreadnought: Britain. beginning Vol. * The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek: Fascism Didn't Die With Hitler.The Bushes and the "Trading With T he Enemy Act" (HTML Version) + Text Version Available at EText o Chapter III: Race Hygiene -. 1995. F reeman and J. 1995.or. and the Coming of the Great War. by R.The 1935 Nazi World Population Conferen ce. o Chapter II: The Hitler Project -. September 18. by Nancy Spannaus.British Lord Repeats the Policy -. The Unauthorized Biography . and the 1994 UN Cairo Conference -. 1995. 1992. Post-W ar Environmentalism. * The Mandeville Model for Fascism. o Links to other World War I Documents Sitemap Return to Overview Page The Establishment Creates Hitler. 1995. September 25. by Nancy Spannaus. * The "War Guilt Clause" of the Versailles Treaty. Septe mber 25. 1995.this link will take you to . by Webster Tarpley.. by Webster Tarpley. Th e American Almanac. October. printed in The American Almanac. 1995. and the New &quotConservative Revolutions" * The Threat of Fascism Today. by Webster Tarpley.(HTML Version) + Text Version Available at EText -. Defeating the Newt Fascism. Schiller Institute Conference spe ech. by H. The A merican Almanac. serialized in The American Almanac. published by The Executive Intelligence Review. Graham Lowry. * King Edward VII: Evil Demiurge of World War I. printed in the Executive Intelligence Review. Address to the Schiller Institute Conference. Starting With London's Newt Gingrich . May 8. 1995.* Sir Edward Grey Turned Sarajevo Crisis Into War. September. 1995. * Leave This Site For: Chapters from George Bush. by Stuary Ros enblatt. by Gabriele Liebig. Pre-War Eugenics. The New Federalist. by Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin. 1992.More of the Same. November.Text Version Available at EText + Part 2 -. Schachtian Economics. September 3. The SAmerican Almana c. * "The Lamps Are Going Out All Over Europe". V. The Ame rican Almanac. Printed in The American Almanac. 1995. Germany.3 Bush Family Alliances (HTML Version) + Text Version Available at EText o Chapter X: Rubbers Goes To Congress (HTML Version) + Part 1 -. 1995. #39. * The Fascist Legal Theories of The Conservative Revolution. * Eugenics and Population Control -.Text Version Available at EText o Table of Contents For All Chapters -. 1992.Only Educate the Top 5%. March. Steinberg.

Wolfe o Part I. o President Seeks To Expedite Jones Trial. 1998. Published in The New Fed eralist Newspaper. July 11. * Leave this site for: How The Harriman Gang Started The Cold War.EText LaRouche Subdirectory. July 25. The American Almanac. Published in The Executive Intelligence Review.by L. February 6. The American Almanac. 1995. And How It Was Defeated. by Lawrence K. 1994 * Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address. 1995.S.The Sun Never Sets on the New British Empire -. February 6. 1998. 1998.The American System Against the British Empire * The Other War. Published in The Executi . Sitemap Return to Overview Page FDR vs. o Arabs View Netanyahu's "Bad Tripp" Results. Published in The Executive Intelligence Review.Financi al Control and the Destabilization of Governments * The Assault Against the American Presidency: o LaRouche Declares War on "Get Clinton" Mob. 1997. 1998. by Edward Spannaus. Roosevelt at Casablanca * FDR vs. July 18. In The Age of the Anglo-American "Special Relationship". Printed in The Am erican Almanac. by L onnie Wolfe. The Executive Int elligence Review. February 6. April 21. FDR's Battle Against Churchill and the British Empire. * Leave this site for: Britain's Pacific War Against The U. February 6. The American Almanac. 1995. o Europeans Smell A Rat In Attack on Clinton. The American Almanac. 1997. 1998. a series beginning March 21. Churchill -. January 31. The American Almanac. Wall Street: Morgan's Fascist Plot Against the United States. by Webster Tarpley. May 12. Published in The Execut ive Intelligence Review. o Hillary Clinton Comes Out Swinging. Published in The Executi ve Intelligence Review. made March 4. July 14.02 to bush. Published in The Executive Intelligence R eview. 1998. Freeman.32 * Richard Mellon Scaife: Who Is He Really?. 1998. Published in The Executive Intelligence Review. o Timeline: The Assault on the Presidency. February 6. * Roosevelt's "Grand Strategy" To Rid The World Of British Colonialism: 1941 -1945. 1998. From there link to bush. 1994 o Part II. Published in The Executive Intel ligence Review. o Carville Tackles The Post. November 13. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The "Winds of Change" -. 1933. 1994 o Part IV. August 28. February 6. The American Almanac. July 4. February 6. Published in T he Executive Intelligence Review. o The Bush Gang Suspected in New Assault on Presidency. Published in The Executive Intel ligence Review. The American Almanac. 1998. o LaRouche Speaks Out On Assault on President. 1997. 1994 o Part III. by Webste r Tarpley. February 6. o The British Oligarchy Moves To Oust President Clinton.

* The Sun Never Sets on the New British Empire. The American Almanac. The Executive Intelligence Review.: The Crown Jewel. Published in The Exec utive Intelligence Review. February 6. Game Park Preserves. o Defense Systems. o Executive Outcomes: Arming For The Post-Nation State Era. by Jeffrey Steinberg . o The Queen's Powers: They're Real. * Who Controls Africa's Minerals?. Ltd. 1997. by Scott Thomp son. 1997. The American Almanac. 1998. The American Almanac. August 25. LaRouche: The British Israelites. 1997. Text av ailable by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. by Dean Andromidas. by Dean Andromidas. 1997.. o The Witches of Whitewater. o Her Majesty's Prerogative Powers. by Lyndon LaRouche. Jr. February 6. Published in The Executive Intelligence Review. The American Almanac. o The Crown Jewels -. 1998. by Scott Thompson.The Queen Is the Ultimate Insider Trader. o Know Your Enemy. 1995. The American Al manac. 1998. August 25 . The American Alm anac. 1997. August 25. 1997. Sitemap . Goldberg and Tripp. Published in The American Almana c. The American Almanac. 1997. o The Nazi Roots of the House of Windsor. a series beginning March 21. 1998. February 6. by Edward Spannaus. o Richard Mellon Scaife: Who Is He Really?. by Dean An dromidas. January 11.The Fight for National Sovereignty in Africa * Africa's Crisis from the Vantage Point of Universal History. by Muriel Mir ak-Weissbach. April 26. by Allen Douglas. August 25. LaRouche. by Scott Thompson. o The Wall Street Journal: Tool of Destruction. o The Dogs of War: Her Majesty's Irregular Forces. o Chatham House Heralds Imperial Revival. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. o Crown Agents: The Queen's Managers. by Scott Thompson. and Depopulation Now -. Published in The Execu tive Intelligence Review. by Scott Thompson. LaRouche. by Joseph Brewda. * Britain's Invisible Empire Unleashes The Dogs of War. * Africa: Looting Ground for Bush. or Bread Basket for the World. September 4. o The Queen's Corps of Commissaries. 1997. August 25. December. by Dean Andromidas o Hugh de Courcey vs. Clinton. The Ameri can Almanac. * Mubarak Slams London for Harboring Terrorist Groups. The Executive Intelligence Review. Pub lished in The Executive Intelligence Review.. Jr. 1997. 1997. * Why The British Hate Sudan: The Mahdia's War Against London. o The Largest Empire In The History of the World. LaRouche. Speech by Lyn don H. Inc. 1997. 1997. IMF Controls. August 25. by Jeffrey Steinberg . by Sco tt Thompson. Speec h by Lyndon H. o The Wall Street Journal's Hate Propaganda vs. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Africa -. Raw Material Cartels. Published in The American Almanac.Colonialism and Depopulation Then.ve Intelligence Review. February 6. March.

o How The Green Fascist Movement Was Created.Why Environmentalists Perpetrate Frauds. The American Almanac.The Scientific Evidence That the Sky Isn't Falling.How the Malthusians D epopulated Ireland. 1997. July 18. August 25. S tevenson. 1994. * What The Malthusians Say. Printed in The American Almanac. October 13. The American Almanac. * An Oceanographer Looks At the Non-Science Of Global Warming by Robert E. Th e American Almanac. by Mark Burd man and Roger Moore.. The American Almanac. o Pince Philip's Malthusians Launch New Age Killer Cults. The Hoax of Global Warming * Sir William Petty and British "Population Studies"-. July 18. 199 4. The Executive Intelligen ce Review.More of the Same. The American Alamanac. o British Empire Pushes Treaty After Treaty. 1997. 1994. Jr. quotes from prominent proponents of population c ontrol. 1997: o "Tinny" Blair Blares for Prince Philip's Global Eco-Fascism. and Pr opose Killing People * Books available. by Lyndon H. The Executive Intelligence Review. quotes from British Pr ime Minsiter Tony Blair's Speech on June 23 at the United Nations Earth Summit I I in New York. The Executive Intelligence Review. 1997. by Laurence Hecht. July 18. 1997. 1995. by Rogelio Maduro. 1997. and the 1994 UN Cairo Conference -. * Giammaria Ortes and the Venetian Hoax of "Carrying Capacity". November 3. * Excerpts from The Holes In the Ozone Hole -.Script for Slide Show. 1997. * Leave this site for: Popular Misconceptions About Science: Science Is Not Statistics. o Ugandan Mass-Murderer Chairs "2020 Vision". Ph. 1997. July 18. January 16. July 18. by Paul Gallagher. published in The American Almanac. * Eugenics and Population Control -. . July 18. * Has A New Ice Age Already Begun? Why "Global Warming" Is A Scientific Hoax . 1997. July 18. in his own words. 1997. by Webster T arpley. 1997. LaRouche. The American Almanac. by Jeff rey Steinberg. Prince Philip. 1994. + JFK Opposed British Colonialism In Africa * We Need To "Cull" The Surplus Population.Return to Overview Page The Population Control Racket -. o The African Wildlife Foundation: A Study In British Counterinsurgenc y. October 27. 1997. * Leave This Site For: Chapter from George Bush. The Executive Intelligence Review. o Blair Delivers Gaseous Emission at UN Summit. as listed in Books and Publications: The Holes In The Ozo ne Scare. * The Fall Of The House of Windsor -. July 18. 1994. * EIR Feature: "Tinny" Blair Blares For Prince Philip's Global Eco-Fascism.The 1935 Nazi World Population Conferen ce. by Gabriele Liebig.. The Unauthorized Biography.D. The Executive Intelligenc e Review.Prince Philip and the World Wild Life Fund -. The Executive Intelligence Review. American Almanac. by Marsha Merry Baker an d Joseph Brewda The Executive Intelligence Review. June 20.

November 6. by Robert Trout. published by The Executive Intelligence Review. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. * George Bush and the "Ibykus Principle": Foreword to the EIR Special Report . by Richard Freeman. November. Sitemap Return to Overview Page How Speculation and Virtual Reality Are Destroying Production Worldwide and Brin ging on a Global Financial Collapse -. * FDR-PAC Calls for Expanding Movement to Tax Securities Transfers. 1992. 1992. Published in The American Almanac.Derivatives and Agricultural Commodity Tra nsfers o Derivatives Create Mass Global Unemployment. * The Taiping Rebellion: The International Diplomacy Of The Confederacy. Text of Foreword available by leaving this Webs ite for the EIR web page. George Bush and the 12333 Serial Murder Ring. * Derivatives Threaten Shaky World Financial System. 1993. 1996. September 13. 1997. Rebuild t he World Economy. Published in T . * Leave this site for: Jonathan Swift's Attack On the Malthusians: A Modest Proposal. 1996. by Paul Gallagher. 1992. The American Almanac. February 13.by Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin. Billington. V. The American Almanac. als o printed in The New Federalist. Press Re lease by the FDR-PAC. September 6. by Richard Freeman. February 7. June 14. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Dope. by Christoph er White.Making Corruption The Biggest Business In The World * The Chinese Opium Wars: The Queen of England Pushes Dope.the Case of Financial Derivatives * A Lesson In Physical Economy: How New York's Slumlords Created A Financial Bubble. by Michael O.Text Version Available at EText * Leave this site for: On the Subject of Evolution: The Descent to Bush From Man. October 15. by Lyndon LaRouche. serialized in The American Almanac. Would a P resident Bob Dole Prosecute Drug Kingpin George Bush.3 Bush Family Alliances (HTML Version) + Text Version Available at EText o Chapter X: Rubbers Goes To Congress (HTML Version) + Part 1 -. 1995.Text Version Available at EText + Part 2 -. Pop The Financial Bubble. o Part I: What Are Derivatives o Part II: How Derivatives Grew o Part III: Case Studies -. * How To Bring the Cancerous Derivatives Markets Under Control. beginning Vol. 1993. -. * George Bush's "Crack Force": Foreword to the EIR Special Report. Publis hed in The American Almanac on . pri nted in The Executive Intelligence Review. * Pamphlet: Tax Derivatives Speculation. #39. 1997. 1997. Inc. 1993. o Chapter III: Race Hygiene -. July. September 6. American Almanac. American Almanac. 1996.

S. Wolfe. 1997. May 5. by Gail B illington. serialized in The American Almanac. Chapters include North's invo lvement in running drugs for guns during the Contra operation.(HTML version available at tar pley.02 to bush.net) + Text Version Available at EText -.net ) Text Version Available at EText: # Part 1 # Part 2 # Part 3 o Chapter XX: The Phony War On Drugs -. 1997. 1997.he American Almanac on . by Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin. as listed in Books and Publications: (1) Dope..The Destruction of the Nation State * Why the "Asian Tiger" Economic Miracle Is An Endangered Species. spe ech to the Annual Meeting of the World Bank in Hongkong. o Direct British Control of the U. * Books available. September 21 . May 5. The American Almanac.. * George Soros to Mahathir: "I Am Not A Moron". The American Almanac. o The Cartelization of the Media. The American Almanac.. 1997. 1997. October 3. May 5. 1997. Media.S. China. From there link to bush. and quotes from t he Kerry Committee report. o Brainwashing: How The British Use the Media For Mass Psychological W arfare. May 5.S.this link will take you to EText LaRouche Subdirectory. Wolfe. Mahathir Bin Mohamad. The Unauthorized Biography . Summer. Senate Campaign. V.. published by The Executive Intelligence Review. by Dr. Media. 1997. 1997. * Leave This Site For: Chapters from George Bush. The Executive Intelligence Review. May 5. 1992. The American Almanac. o Chapter XVIII: Iran Contra -. available at EText o Table of Contents For All Chapters -. by L. Incorporat ed. o British "Fellow Travellers" Control Major U. The American A lmanac. Mass Brainwashing * The Media Cartel That Controls What You Think. Executive Intelligence Review October 3. 1997. by L. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Mass Media. Text of Foreword available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page.(HTML version available at tar pley. (3) George Bush and the 12333 Serial Mu rder Ring Sitemap Return to Overview Page Globalization and Privatization: -. The American A lmanac. George Bush. 1994. (2) Drug Super Kingpin. beginning Vol. on September 20. That Son-Of-A-Bush.(HTML version available at tarpley. #39. by Jeffrey Steinberg. Mass Entertainment.net) + Text Version. . April 7.. from the prepared text of th e speech by George Soros at the IMF-World Bank Meeting in Hongkong.32 * Defeat Ollie North. released by Nancy Spannaus in a fo llow-up to her U. 1997. * The Challenges and Opportunities We Face. by Jeffrey Ste inberg. 1992.

printed i n The Executive Intelligence Review. by Jonathan Tennenbaum. and others. by Michael Minnicino.Text of Weekly Radio Interview With Lynd on LaRouche. Printed in The Executive Intelligence Re view. * How The SDI Was Created: The LaRouche Method and New Physical Principles. 1997. 1993. April 7. * How To Overcome Errors in Economics.13 for text versions. 1993. * Leave this site for: Turn Off Your TV: The Making of a Fascist Society. Wolfe. by L. by Professor Taras V. 1992. from Gauss . 1997. February. DaVinci. Sitemap Return to Overview Page The LaRouche Model of Physical Economy * Leave this site for: EIR Talks -.The Three Levels Of Mathematics. * Mind Over Mathematics Series. printed in The American Almanac. by L. * The Fraud of the Inverse Square Law. by Lyndon LaRouche. * The Evil Philosophy of Political Correctness. including exercises in paradoxes. Wiener o Questions of Negentropy o Russia's New SDI Offer Heralds Scientific and Strategic Revolution o How The Russian Plasma Weapon Works . 1993. May 5. * Mind Over Mathematics: Higher Arithmetic -. Wolfe. 1992. Part II -. 1997. by Hunter Cobb.Calendar. This link will take you to EText LaRouche Subdirectory by John Covici. a discussion of LaRouche's book So Yo u Wish To Learn All About Economics. May 1 7. Conference Speech by Jonathan Tennenbaum. 1992-3. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Paradox and Creative Thought * Seeds Of A New Renaissance -.o Tavistock's Language Project: The Origin of "Newspeak". * What Is Economic Infrastructure?. o LaRouche vs. April 7. The American Almanac. Link from there into series of t v. Th e American Almanac. Printed in The American Almanac. The American Almanac. November 8. by Douglas Mallouk.02 to tv. The American Almanac.. May 5. 1997.. a series run in The American Almanac. Muravinsky. 1997. * Leave this site for: Who Is Wagging Your Neighbor's Tongue? Militias and P entecostalism As British Subversion. * Leave this site for: Rant Radio Promotes The Politics of Rage To Brainwash American Citizens. The American Almanac. o For Whom The Polls Toll. Kepler. Leibniz. Conference Presentation by Bruce Director. Se ptember 29. The Am erican Almanac. by Anton Chaitkin.How Gauss Determined The Date of His Birth.

* On The Battle For A "True Fourth Development Decade". * IMF Demands Weimar Style Hyperinflation. 1997.* Return to the Machine Tool Principle. 1997... 1997. EIR Article by Lyndon H. 1997. Jr.. * Water Projects: No More Floods! Build the Missouri River Development Proje ct. LaRouche. available at EText. Jr. Jr. 1997. * So. 1991. November 28. November 28. LaRouche. or. 1994. December 7-8.. LaRouche. printed in The Americ an Almanac. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR we b page. * War on the British. by Lyndon H. Executive Intelli gence Review. * An Outline of the Productive Triangle.. LaRouche. * The Alternative to Neo-Liberalism: The LaRouche-Riemann Method. the Oasis Plan and Greening of the Deserts . October. The American . * Clinton Must Convene A New Bretton Woods Conference. Lyndon H. The Mountain Will Come To Clinton.. Text available by leaving this Websit e for the EIR web page. by L yndon H. 1997. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. Text avai lable by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. LaRouche. J r... Speech avai lable by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. Executi ve Intelligence Review. Execu tive Intelligence Review. Speech available by leaving this Website for the EIR web p age. The American Almanac. December 4. The LaRouche Program to Save America. November 28. 1997. the Industria lization of Africa. Jr. LaRouche. Lyndon H. LaRouche's First Presiden tial Campaign 2000 Speech. Speech by Lyndon H.. took solace from the flood . June. Published in The American Almanac. June 5. * Your Time Is Running Out. reprinted in The A merican Almanac. by Lyndon H. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. LaRouche. C onference Speech. November. Jul y.. January 22. Sitemap Return to Overview Page How To End Poverty and Develop the World -. Text available by leaving this Websi te for the EIR web page.. LaRouche. * What Economics Must Measure. * Leave this site for: Text Version of Lyndon LaRouche's 1992 Presidential C ampaign Book. * It Is Now Nine Years Later.The Silk Road Project. Jr.. Speech available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. Jr. Executive Intelligen ce Review. by Lyndon H. Speech to the Schill er Institute Conference.. 1997. Text available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. 1994. 1997. July 23. Jr. by Ralf Schauerhammer. Executive Intelligence Review. by Lyndon H. February 15. in Guadalajara. LaRouche. JFK and Great Projects Devotees of the Great Gaia . Warren Hamerman. 1997. How to Save the Economy. September 18. 1997. by Anthony DeFranco. Mexico.. * How To Survive A Financial Meltdown: Greenspan Fails to Lull Markets.

o Documentation: 1992 Report Published In Rome For The Transaqua * The Potential of the Nile River Basin. printed in The Executive Intelligence Review. by Marcia Merry. o The Eurasian Landbridge -. o Moles Seek To Wreck USA-China "Summit"... LaRouche. Jr. Speech at Schiller Institute Conference. Text availabl e by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. Text ava ilable by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. 1991. by Marcia Merry Baker. February 5. * The Transaqua Project: Water Development in Africa. 1996. o Ring Around China: Britain Wants War. 1997. printed in The Executive Intelligence Review. 1997. FDR-PAC Policy Speech by Lyndon H. December. 1997. 1997. Lyndon H. Text available by leaving this Webs ite for the EIR web page.. September. Speech Transcript by Helga Zepp LaRouche. pri nted in The Executive Intelligence Review. 1997 . 1991. November. * Helga Zepp LaRouche Speaks at Nigerian Economic Summit: "The Success of th e Chinese Economic Reform. Jr. November. November 23. The American Almanac. 1997. Printed in The American Al manac. LaRouche. by Lyndon H. January. The American Almanac. LaRouche. Pu blished in The Executive Intelligence Review on November 11. and the Economic Development of Sud an.Almanac. 199 7. and Its Significance for Nigeria -. LaRouche. Speech available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page . o The Eurasian Land-Bridge: Locomotive for World Development. available t hrough The Executive Intelligence Review. * Libya Turns on the Great Man-Made River. October 10. * Mubarak: Toshka Project Opens Way Toward New Civilization in Egypt. February 5. 1992. November.. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Exploring Space. by Lyndon LaRouche. Jr. Text available by l eaving this Website for the EIR web page. Speech available by leaving this Website for the EIR web page. o The USA-China Strategy. * Russia's Science: A Strategic Assessment. Published in The Executive Intelligence Review on April 9. o Hamiltonian Credit Creation o Germany: The Program of Friedrich List o The Proposals of Lautenbach and Draeger * The Oasis Plan: Peace Through Development in the Middle East.. Published in The Ame rican Almanac on . July 20. 1997. * The Eurasian Landbridge: o Script for Slide Show: The Eurasian Landbridge Projects. 1997. Colonizing Mars. o US-China Partnership Hastening Slowly. Making Breakthroughs . FDR-PAC Policy Speech by Lyndon H. by Mar cia Merry Baker.Africa's Secret W eapon for Peace!".The Most Important Strategic Question of the Day. Published i n The American Almanac on . 1997. 1995. 1993. Jr. The American Almanac. prin ted in The American Almanac. * Where Do We Get The Money To Pay For Great Infrastructure Projects. LaRouche. printed in The E xecutive Intelligence Review. Jr. Lyndon H.

Cold Fusion. * Lazare Carnot's Grand Strategy for Political Victory. by Kevin Pearl. by Richard Freeman. Organizer of Victory -. shown April 22. March. o Chronology . 1997. * Mag-Lev Trains Will Allow Us To Fly At Zero Altitude. May 12. The American Almanac. The American Almanac. 1996. The Executive Intelligence Review. by Stu Rosenblat t. May 1992. p ublished in 1992 as part of Lyndon LaRouche's Presidential Campaign. July 21. Transcript of A Broadcast by Frontline. by Jonathan Tennenbau m. 1993. by Pierre Beaudry.Lazare Carnot's France o Britain and Venice Steered the French Revolution o Lazare Carnot's General System for Military Operations in the Next C ampaign. 1997. January 30. September 20. American Almanac. * Leave this site for Chapters from LaRouche's Program To Save The Nation. The American Almanac.Restore the US Transportation Grid. by Dino de Paoli. as listed in Books and Publications: How We Got To The Moo n * A Manned Mission to Space: The Ultimate Money Frontier. 1996. Th e Executive Intelligence Review. 1997. * The Science Behind Maglev. * Columbus. The American Almanac. The Leibnizian o The Corrupt Influence of Cauchy * The Field of Battle Is The Human Mind: The Lessons of Xenophon and Alexand er. February 5. 1997. 1794 o Carnot.* Book available.How The "Calculus of Enthusiasm" Sa ved France. 1991. * Leave this site for link to: Nuclear Reaction: Why Do Americans Fear Nucle ar Energy. and the New Age of Discovery. * Build Maglev -. Text availa ble from EText: o Chapter 4: Maglev: The Technology of the 21st Century o Chapter 5: Nuclear Fission: Bridge to Fusion Power o Chapter 11: Frontier in Space: LaRouche's Moon-Mars Program Sitemap Return to Overview Page How To Win The War: The Strategic Thinking of the Great Generals * Hammer and Anvil: Sherman and the Principle of the Flank. Sitemap Return to Overview Page Exonerate LaRouche * Leave this site for: Has Your Neighbor Been Brainwashed About Lyndon LaRou . 1993. A Policy Statement by Lyndon LaRouche. * Lazare Carnot. The American Almanac. by Ralf Schauerhamme r.

by Marianna Wertz. 1995.che? * Text of the McDade-Murtha Bill.including response to Janet Reno's attack on the McDa de-Murtha bill.Franz Schubert: Striving For The Highest In Art. by Johann Wolfgang Goethe. translated by Paul Gallagher.S . and type in "H. The American Almanac. "The Citizens Protection Act of 1 998" o To follow the progress of this bill. 1997. o Availability of Slide Show On Presentation * That Which Underlies Motivic Thorough-Composition -. Government Site for Texts of Congressional Legislation. September 1. * Heinrich Heine: Only Genius Has A New Word For A New Thought. 1995. by Kathy Wolfe. Conference Speech. But Beauty. Dvorak and the Spirituals * The Battle Mozart Won In America's War With Britain. 1995. 1996. September 6.No t Force. Printed in Fidelio Magazine. Sitemap Return to Overview Page "Poets Are The Legislators of the World" * Composing Music From Bel Canto -. Summ er. 1997. July.Musical Memory and Th orough-Composition. October 9. Novem ber 10. Senate. o May Day Celebration.Every Child Has The Right To Sing. * The Power of Great Poetry To Shape Character And Build the Nation: Dante. Published in The Executive Intell igence Review. by Muriel Mirak-Weissbach. and Helen Keller. * The African-American Spiritual And The Resurrection of Classical Art -. * Anton Dvorak and the Fight For American Musical Culture. The American Almanac. Will Change America. * Testimony of the Schiller Institute to the Committee on the Judiciary. R. Publis hed in The Executive Intelligence Review. . The American Alma nac. The American Almanac. by Dennis Speed. 1998 -. September. 1993. go to the U. * Editorial: Take Off The Gloves For McDade-Murtha. Schill er Institute Conference. U. by Elisabeth Hellenbroich. HR 3396. LaRouche. * The Strange Case of J. December 8 and 15. 1996. by Dennis Speed. 2000.For a Musical Civil Rights Movement . translated by Rick Sanders. February 18-19. * On His 200th Birthday -. The American Almanac. 1998. Translated and with commentary by John Sigerson. 3396" at the Search p rompt. Jr. Edgar Hoover. The Executive Intelligence Review. by Lyndon H.S. o Leave This Site For Link to: + Dante's Divina Commedia + Dante Page editted by Otfried Lieberknecht * Wilhelm von Humboldt's Classical Education Curriculum. by Debra Freeman. by Edward Spannaus. Humboldt. by David Shavin. July 13. by Stephan Marienfeld. 1991.

NATO. The inner circle of the Committee of 300 is the Order of the G arter. John Coleman coleman300. the Queen of Denmark and the royal families of Europe. Each is a hierarc hy with an inner circle at the top. the think tanks and research institutions con trolled by Stanford and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations and last.The American Almanac. thus. Venetian Black Nobility. Ther e is no need to use "they" or "the enemy" except as shorthand. presided over by a hierarchy of conspi rators this is the enemy. under a "Totalitarian Global Government". its ownership o f the U.htm The Committee of 300: A Brief History of World Power. It is interesting to note that the Windsor's changed their name from the Germanic Saxe-Coburg-Gotha during WWI. Today. Secret societies exist by deception. duping them into following a web of compartmental ized complicity." --Walter Rathenau. through many powerful alliances. The enemy is clearly identifiable as the Committee of 300 and its front organiza tions. headed by Queen Elizabeth Windsor II. founder of the mammoth German General Electric Corporation The Committee of 300 is a product of the British East India Company's Council of 300. The Committee of 300 with its "aristocracy". 1993. the matriarch of the Venetian Black Guelphs that. March 15. who deceives those below with lies. the Tavistock Institute. such as claiming a noble agenda. but certainly not least. foundations.. be cause of anti-German sentiment. direct the economic destiny of Europe and choose their successors from among themselves. th e Club of Rome.. communications networks. the Com mittee of 300 rules the world and is the driving force behind the criminal agend a to create a "New World Order". Constitution and is a ROOT of the problem. which is a private for profit corporation that violates U. the military establishment. the Q ueen of the Netherlands. CFR and all its affiliated organizations.N. it would be ne cessary for its aristocratic members to "go into business" with the non-aristocr atic but extremely powerful leaders of corporate business on a global scale. Federal Reserve banking system. It made vast fortunes in the opium drug trade with China and became the larges t company on earth in its time. giant corporatio ns. all of whom know one another. they own t he stock of the Federal Reserve. U. 1909. in order to gain world-wide control.org/Oligarchy.S. The East India Company was chartered by the British royal family in 1600. is. the enemy. Roots of Today's Ruling Oligarchy by Dr. ============================================================== http://investigate911.com "Three hundred men. the Black Nobility. The Committee of 300 is the ultimate secret society made up of an untouchable ru ling class. Through their illicit banking cartel. and so the doors to ultimate power were opened to what the Queen of England likes t o refer to as "the commoners". which includes the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II).. . We know who "the y". insurance companies. These aristocrats decided at the death of Queen Victoria.S. such as the Royal Institute for International Affairs (Chatham House).

The Committee of 300 is re sponsible for the phony drug wars here in the U. Queen. Ormsby and Al Gore. absolutely con trolled "new" society only it isn't new.The decadent American families of the unholy partnership. and Ted Turner.P. Obscene profits went straight into the royal coffers. and England profited nothing fro m "opium revenues". ran the Unite d States from top to bottom through their secret upper-level. whose revenues were piped direct ly into the City of London banks and Merchant banks. government didn't know. Lord Halifax. Queen Elizabeth II. G. under the careful guidance and dir ection of the British Crown. their idea of what constitutes a better wor ld. the ultimate secret societ y. House of Orange. Prince Phi lip Duke of Edinburgh. India. Paul. J. Some notable members of the Committee of 300 include: The British royal family. never profited from the gold mining industry. where huge assets can be seized without trail and no proof of guilt neede d. James's Square from the Astors). but as it was part of the conspiracy. Sir Wi lliam Hesse. as its prin cipal method of creating masses of people all over the world who will become its "welfare" recipients of the future.S. the Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA). located in England (across St. it helped to keep the lid on information rather than let the truth be known. Queen Beatrix. having drawn most of its ideas from the Clubs of Cultus Diabolicus. all-powerful government is more in control of the United States in 2006 than ever before. in his work commissioned b y the Committee which Wells boldly called: "The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution". its foreign policy executive arm. The ordinary people of China. Duke of Alba. Warren Buffet. Queen Juliana. George Bush. Asset forfeiture is a prime ex ample. as a softening-up technique for bigger things to come. The Committee of 300 looks to social convulsions on a global scale. and made them bill ionaires. Sir Earnest and Harry of the Oppenheimer Illuminati bloodline." and the removal of any lead er who dared to stand in the way of the Committee's global planning to reach the foregoing objectives. Its members. John Forbes. thoroughly corrupted a nd wallowing in tainted opium money. Cecil Rho des. which has a 150-year history. William and McGeorge Bundy. Max and Felix Warburg. Henry Kissinger. Averill Harriman. which is tightly meshed with the Committee of 300. This called for an attack upon Christianity. parallel governmen t.G. Aldous Huxley. Colonel Mandel House. Winston Churchill. Therefor e the command to multiply and subdue the earth found in Genesis had to be subver ted. The current criminal agenda of the Committee of 300 is further evidenced by rece ntly leaked Club of Rome documents. It strives toward a One World Government rather we ll described by one of its late members. That secret. Not that the U. we have some of the most brilliant intellects assembled to form a completely totalitarian. King Haako n of Norway. referred to by the Committee of 300 as "surplus population.S. Industrial progress supports population growth. Giuseppe Mazzini. the slow but sure disintegrat ion of industrial nation states. Elizabeth II. Dutch royal family. George Schultz. H. Lord Carrington. M organ. is the head of the Committee of 300. John J acob and Waldorf of the Astor Illuminati bloodline. David Rockefeller. Lord Alfred Milner. H. and subsequently. now known as Chatham Hous e. the oligarchs and plutocrats. Prescott Bush. the destruction of billions of people. House of Hapsburg. Most of the Committee of 300's immense wealth arose out of the opium trade wit h China and India. The myriads of useless eaters consuming scarce natural resources were to be culled by up to 99%. that is. Bertrand Russell. Maurice Strong. followed by depressions. Wells. and in to the pockets of the nobility. black and white . In the Committee of 300. In the same way the people of South Africa. Queen Magreta. Wells. as they describe how they will use drugs to . went on to become what we know today as the Eastern Liberal Establishment. David and Evelyn Rothschild. These phony drug wars were t o get us to give away our constitutional rights. Also the Committee of 300 long ago decreed that there shall be a smaller-muc h smaller-and better world.

N." the Mumma Group. The war on drugs. the Bank of International Settlements (BIS). Man is only interested in his ow n survival. the Milner Group-Round Table. Dzerzinski was. The Order of the Elders of Zion. John of Jerusalem. The Great Superior Ones and literally HUNDREDS of other organizations. One World Government Chur ch. various members of leading foundations and insu rance companies. the Nasi Princes. which the Bush administration w as allegedly fighting. Italian P2 Masonr y especially those in the Vatican hierarchy the Central Intelligence Agency. Such drugs are not solely a social aberration. By then. In ternational Monetary Fund (IMF). was publicly humiliated as a warning t o cease and desist which he has done. Pope John Paul II. The Bl . while the two were on a drinking binge. Would-be revolutionarie s will be turned into harmless addicts with no will of their own " The crowned co bras of Europe and their Eastern Liberal Establishment families will not tolerat e any true war against drugs.help stifle resistance to their New World Order scheme: " having been failed by Ch ristianity. and with unemployment rife on every hand. Kennedy. 1600 and dissolved in 1873) sprout from the European Black Nobility. who sit in paneled board rooms in New York. will turn away from the church and seek solace in drugs. those who have been withou t jobs for five years or more. Nothing has changed in the opiumheroin-cocaine trade. Hong Kong and London over port and cigars and congratulate another success in the eradication of "com petitors. He once told Reilly. Lucis Trust. of course. All the Spinoza stuff is a lot of rubbish . He be gins to eat his dead companions to stay alive. As we shall see. The Order of St. the Central. certain Vatican leaders ar e today seated on the Committee of 300. the assassination was carried out with great att endant publicity and with the utmost brutality to serve as a warning to world le aders not to get out of line. was for the legalization of all types and classes of drug s. th e United Nations (U. Anenherbe-Rosicrucianis ts. It is still in the hands of the same "upper class" famili es in Britain and the United States. NATO. the Illuminati.). His successor. Tavisto ck Institute selected personnel. the American Eastern Liberal Establishment (in Freemason hierar chy and the Order of Skull and Bone). he often confided in Reilly d uring his drinking bouts." Included in the Committee of 300 membership are the old families of the European Black Nobility. Jesu it Liberation Theologists. the beast who ran the Red Terror apparatus. Club of Rome. full control of the drug trade must be completed in order that the government of all countries who are under our jurisdiction have a monopoly in place which we will control by controlling supplies reaching the market Drug bars will take care of the unruly and the discontented. or as it is known by the C ommittee "MORIAH CONQUERING WIND. Socialist International. The National and World Counc il of Churches. this i s the principal task of the Committee of 300. That is all that counts. In the case of John F. but a full-scale attempt to g ain control of the minds of the people of the United States. the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank. British Quator Coronati. the Circle of Initiates. the Nine Unknown Men. German Marshall Fund. Ditchley Foundation. that "Man is of no importance. Thule Society. As a close friend of British intelligence agent Sydney Reilly (Reilly was actually Dzerzinski's controller d uring the Bolshevik Revolution's formative years). who regarded ma nkind as being slightly above the level of cattle. It is still a fabulously profitable trade where what appear to be big losses through sometimes seizures of drug shipments are actually small interlopers trying to break into the preserves of the drug tr ade hierarchy. At present. Felix Dzerzinski. Pope John Paul I was quietly murdered because he was getting close to the Committee of 300 through Freemasons in the Vatican hier archy. Cini Foundation. The Committee of 300 appears to base much of its important decisions affecting m ankind on the philosophy of Polish aristocrat. Black Order." The roots of the East India Company (chartered by Queen Elizabeth I on December 31. Look at what happens when you starve him. Environmentalists.

is felt in every corner o f the globe. when the appointment of the do ge was transferred to what was known as the Great Council. Round Table. In 1204 the oligarchic family parceled out feudal enclaves to thei r members. Associated Press. all roads lead to the Queen of Eng land. John Coleman. Once exposed. Venice has rem ained in their hands ever since. from 1063 to 1123.ack Nobility are the oligarchic families of Venice and Genoa. murder. United Nations (founded by CFR). which are backed with high finance and powerful political connections. so when the p opulation revolted against the monopolies in government. John Coleman. International Monetary Fund (IMF). lodges. work in favor of Great Britain's aristocracy and their one world government age nda. Illum inati order Skull & Bones (inner circle of the CFR). the bankrupting of opposing citizens or companies. one of the original Black Nobility families of Venice from which the House of Windsor and thus the present Queen of the United Kingdom. and from this epoch dates the great building-up of power and pressure until the government became a closed corporation of the leading Black Nobility families. It is important to note that the European Black Nobility is responsible for the insidious entanglements of numerous secret societies. Illicit secret societies cannot wit hstand the light of day. They use secret assassinations. and organizations. but the power and influence of the Venetian Bla ck Nobility extends far beyond its borders. The Black Nobility aristocra cy achieved complete control over Venice in 1171. Chatham Hous e (formally the Royal Institute of International Affairs . Bank of International Settlement. Only the people in the inner circle. Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). Known as the "Bible" of accurate conspiratorial history that exposes the crimina l New World Order agenda.RIIA). they become unwitting accomplices in crime. by purchasing "The Committee of 300". Bilderberg Group (German version of CFR).com and spread this information virally. T avistock Institute for Human Studies (England's psychological warfare think tank ). 4th edition . All the families listed are connected with the House of Guelph . Club of Rome. by Dr. know the entire extent of the fraud. established the power of the Venetian Black Nobility and solidified the power of the wealthy ruling class. We think this important book is the single best source available to understand the full depth of the Oligarch's criminal " New World Order" agenda. Adepts are few and dup es many. the cabal and their minions will fall li ke a house of cards. Support the author and buy this book. Although there is a wide cross-section. kidn apping and rape. whether they are dupes or adapts. former British Intelligence Officer. who in the 12th ce ntury held the privileged trading rights (monopolies). all of which. This is why it is imperati ve to expose this diabolical ring of power. descends . The Committee of 300 is rated by literary experts as the "best seller of all boo ks of its type. as well as its history. significantly updated and revised. the dupes are told lies that their involvement is benevolen t. thus. the l eaders of the uprising were quickly seized and brutally hanged. The first of three crusa des. Such or ganizations include: Trilateral Commission. World Bank. "The Committee of 300". The European Black Nobility earned its title through dirty tricks. Typically. --Dr. The Conspirator's Hi erarchy: The Committee of 300 Please support a true patriot. which consisted of me mbers of the commercial aristocracy. The technique for keeping their illicit scheme secret is compartmentaliza tion." In Japan it was at the top of the Best Seller List for two stra . a complete triumph for them. and many others. Reuters (Rothschild owned news monopoly used for brainwashi ng the masses). Elizabeth II. and today. who are part of the capstone at the top of the pyramid. directly from the author at coleman300. as anywhere else.

and I control the British money supply. February 17. how it has evolved from an op ium trading company with a Royal Charter to become the de-facto secret upper-lev el parallel government of the United States and the world. P erhaps the most startling admission of the existence of the super-secret organiz ation came from President Wilson in the last days of his presidency: "Some of the biggest men in the United States. so organized. persons and organi zations of mentioned in the "300". A highly organized secret society with tentacles reaching into every level of go vernment in the United States and indeed. so interlocked. They know that there is a power somewhere." The "power" Wilson was talking about is the Committee of 300 and Wilson knew he did not dare to mention it by name. His father was Paul Moritz Warburg. it is sought after by readers from all over the world." --James Pa ul Warburg. Undoubtedly the "Bible" of conspiracy books. The only question is whether that government will be achieved by conquest or consent. who conspired to create the private for profit Federal Reserve Banking System during a secret meeting o n Jekyll Island in 1910. backed by massive financing and run by men of the highest education and intelligence. as he t estified in hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations during the Eighty -First Congress. In the FOURTH EDITION there is listed some very prominent me n who came forward to support the existence of the "300. Coleman. The origin of the Committee of 300 is described. The man who controls Britain's money supply contro ls the British Empire. In order t o keep the book to less than 500 pages. the world. "We will have a world government whether you like it or not. with vast resources a t their disposal. Paul Warburg became its second Vice Chairman. that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it. are afraid of somebody. who was t he founder of their family's international banking dynasty and Committee of 300 kingpin ------------------------------------------- The Venetian Black Nobility and the Concept of Oligarchy .S. who was also a powerfu l international investment banker and Rothschild agent. in the field of commerce and manu facturing. United States Senate Commission on Foreign Policy (U. as well as the Director of the Council on Foreign Relations upon its founding in 1921. Japanese and Serbian). one of the sons (five arrows) of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. "I care not what puppet is placed upon the throne of England to rule the Empire on which the sun never sets. are afraid of something. so pervasive. Translated into eight foreign languages (including Russian. 1950. are expounded on in Monographs and other book s by Dr. page 494). manages the thousands of major political and economical and co ntrived situations. powerful international investment banker." One of them predicted twenty years ago that "The United States will be turned into a welfare state" an d that all nations would unite in a world alliance (The One World Government). Printin g Office. some of the subjects. so subtle. thus providing a wealth of information. the completely revised and updated Fourth Edition landmark book is filled with information not previously disclosed ." --Nathan Mayer Rothschild.ight years. so watchful.

by Dr. Webster Griffin Tarpley & James Higham

At the center of oligarchy is the idea that certain families are born to rule as an arbitrary elite, while the vast majority of any given population is condemne d to oppression, serfdom, or slavery. During most of the past 2,500 years, oliga rchs have been identified by their support for the philosophical writings of Ari stotle and their rejection of the epistemology of Plato. Aristotle asserted that slavery is a necessary institution, because some are bor n to rule and others to be ruled. He also reduced the question of human knowledg e to the crudest sense certainty and perception of facts. Aristotle s formalism is a means of killing human creativity, and therefore represents absolute evil. This evil is expressed by the bestialist view of the oligarchs that human beings are the same as animals. Oligarchs identify wealth purely in money terms, and practice usury, monetarism, and looting at the expense of technological advancement and physical production . Oligarchs have always been associated with the arbitrary rejection of true sci entific discovery and scientific method in favor of open anti-science or more su btle obscurantist pseudo-science. The oligarchy has believed for millennia that the Earth is overpopulated; the ol igarchical commentary on the Trojan War was that this conflict was necessary in order to prevent greater numbers of mankind from oppressing Mother Earth. They ve co nstantly stressed race and racial characteristics, often as a means for justifyi ng slavery. In international affairs, oligarchs recommend such methods as geopolitics, under stood as the method of divide and conquer, which lets one power prevail by playing its adversaries one against the other. Oligarchical policy strives to maintain a balance of power among such adversaries for its own benefit, but this attempt always fails in the long run and leads to new wars. The essence of oligarchism is summed up in the idea of the empire, in which an e lite identifying itself as a master race rules over a degraded mass of slaves or other oppressed victims. If oligarchical methods are allowed to dominate human affairs, they always create a breakdown crisis of civilization, with economic de pression, war, famine, plague, and pestilence. Examples of this are the Fourteenth-century Black Plague and the Thirty Years Wa r (1618-48), both of which have links to Venetian intelligence. The post-industrial society and the derivatives crisis in our own time have brou ght about the potential for a new collapse of civilization. This crisis can only be reversed by repudiating in practice the axioms of the oligarchical mentality . A pillar of the oligarchical system is the family fortune, or fondo, as it is ca lled in Italian. The continuity of the family fortune which earns money through usury and looting is often more important than the biological continuity across generations of the family that owns the fortune.

Some history The long and tortuous path of peoples through history sees the Khazars in the Ho ly Land and part of the Canaanites eventually in northern Italy, adopting the na

me Sepharvaim for deceptive purposes. They later became known as Venetians, and by marrying into European royalty and aristocracy, the black nobility. In the pre-Christian world around the Mediterranean, oligarchical political forc es included Babylon in Mesopotamia. The whore of Babylon condemned in the Apocalyp se of St. John the Divine, is not a mystical construct, but a very specific cart el of oligarchical families. Other oligarchical centers included Hiram of Tyre a nd the Phoenicians. The Persian Empire was an oligarchy. In the Greek world, the center of oligarchical banking and intelligence was the Temple of Apollo at Del phi, whose agents included Lycurgus of Sparta and, later, Aristotle. In Venice, the largest fondo was the endowment of the Basilica of St. Mark, whic h was closely associated with the Venetian state treasury, and which absorbed th e family fortunes of nobles who died without heirs. This fondo was administered by the procurers of St. Mark, whose position was one of the most powerful under the Venetian system. Around this central fondo were grouped the individual family fortunes of the gre at oligarchical families, such as the Mocenigo, the Cornaro, the Dandolo, the Co ntarini, the Morosini, the Zorzi, and the Tron. When the Venetian oligarchy tran sferred many of its families and assets to northern Europe, the Venetian fondi p rovided the nucleus of the great Bank of Amsterdam, which dominated Europe durin g the Seventeenth century, and of the Bank of England, which became the leading bank of the Eighteenth century. Venice was the enemy of Charlemagne. Charlemagne s son, King Pepin of Italy, tried unsuccessfully to conquer the Venetian lagoon. Charlemagne was forced to recogn ize Venice as a part of the eastern or Byzantine Empire, under the protection of the Emperor Nicephorus. Venice was never a part of Western Civilization. Over the next four centuries, Venice developed as a second capital of the Byzant ine Empire through marriage alliances with certain Byzantine dynasties and confl icts with the Holy Roman Empire based in Germany. The Venetian economy grew thro ugh usury and slavery. By 1082, the Venetians had tax-free trading rights in the entire Byzantine Empire. The Venetians were one of the main factors behind the Crusades against the Musli m power in the eastern Mediterranean. In the Fourth Crusade of A.C.E. 1202, the Venetians used an army of French feudal knights to capture and loot Constantinop le, the Orthodox Christian city which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. During the 1200 s, the Venetians, now at the apex of their military and naval powe r, set out to create a new Roman Empire with its center at Venice. They expanded into the Greek islands, the Black Sea, and the Italian mainland. They helped to defeat the Hohenstaufen rulers of Germany and Italy. Venetian intelligence assi sted Genghis Khan as he attacked and wiped out powers that had resisted Venice. The Venetians caused the death of who developed the concept of the the Venetian plans for empire. A facto merger of Venice and Genoa. egan to loot many parts of Europe the poet and political figure Dante Alighieri, modern sovereign nation-state in opposition to series of wars with Genoa led later to the de The Venetian bankers, often called Lombards, b with usurious loans.

Henry III of England in the years after 1255 became insolvent after taking huge Lombard loans to finance foreign wars at 120-180 percent interest. These transac tions created the basis for the Venetian Party in England. When the Lombard bank ers went bankrupt because the English failed to pay, a breakdown crisis of the E uropean economy ensued. This led to a new collapse of European civilization, inc luding the onset of the Black Plague, which depopulated the continent.

In the midst of the chaos, the Venetians encouraged their ally Edward III of Eng land, to wage war against France in the conflict that became the Hundred Years W ar (1339-1453), which hurled France into chaos before St. Joan of Arc defeated t he English. This was then followed by the Wars of the Roses in England. As a res ult of Venetian domination, the Fourteenth century had become a catastrophe for civilization. In the midst of the crisis of the 1300 s, the friends of Dante and Petrarch laid t he basis for the Italian Golden Renaissance, which reached its culmination with Nicolaus of Cusa, Pope Pius II, and the Medici-sponsored Council of Florence of 1439. The Venetians fought the Renaissance with a policy of expansion on the Ita lian mainland, or terra firma, which brought them to the outskirts of Milan. Mor e fundamentally, the Venetians promoted the pagan philosophy of Aristotle agains t the Christian Platonism of the Florentines. Around AD1400, European power centers coalesced into two camps: the Ghibellines, who supported the Hohenstaufen family, and the Guelphs, from Welf, the German p rince who competed with Frederick for control of the Holy Roman Empire. The Pope allied himself with the Guelphs. All modern European history stems directly fro m the struggle between these two powers. The Guelphs are also called the Neri, Black Guelphs, or Black Nobility, and supp orted William of Orange in his seizure of the throne of England, which eventuall y resulted in the formation of the Bank of England and the East India Company. When Cusa and his friends succeeded in reuniting the Roman Catholic Church and t he Orthodox and other eastern churches at the Council of Florence, the Venetians tried to sabotage this result. The Venetians tried to use the power of the new nation-states, especially France , to crush Milan and allow further Venetian expansion. But ambassadors for the k ing of France and the Austrian emperor met at Cambrai in December 1508 and agree d to create a European league for the dismemberment of Venice. An immediate target of the Venetians had always been Milan and a broader target the papacy.

The reformation as a ploy The leading figure of the Protestant Reformation, the first Protestant in modern Europe, was Venice s Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, who was also the leader of the C atholic Counter-Reformation. Contarini was a pupil of the Padua Aristotelian Pie tro Pomponazzi, who denied the immortality of the human soul. Contarini pioneere d the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone, with no regard for good w orks of charity. He organized a group of Italian Protestants called gli spirituali, including oli garchs like Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga. Contarini s networks encouraged a nd protected Martin Luther and later John Calvin of Geneva. Contarini sent his n eighbor and relative Francesco Zorzi to England to support King Henry VIII s plan to divorce Catherine of Aragon. As the Counter-Reformation advanced, the Contarini networks split into two wings - the pro-Protestant spirituali, who later evolved into the giovani and who ser viced growing networks in France, Holland, England, and Scotland. The other wing were the zelanti, oriented toward repression and the Inquisition, and typified by Pope Paul IV Caraffa. The zelanti evolved into the oligarchical party called the vecchi, who serviced Venetian networks in the Vatican and the Catholic Hapsb urg dominions. The apparent conflict of the two groups was orchestrated to serve

a cousin of the Belgian Rothschild family.Venetian projects. They would later transfer operat ions north to Hamburg. Lehman. and the Lomb ards were bankers to the entire Medieval world. Baron August von Finck (Finck. Warburg. Franco Orsini Bonacassi of the ancient Orsini that traces its lineage to an ancient Roman senator of the same name. Rockefeller. Henry s marriage to Catherine illustrates in itself the extent to which the Englis h monarchy was in no way head-in-the-sand and isolationist. of Venice. Lombard in German means deposit bank . Sach. the intelligence servic es and the intermarrying into the great families of Europe by the Venetians them selves. and Umberto Ortolani of the ancient Black Nobility fami ly of the same name. Bush and Harriman. in order t o aid their control of finance and politics. Sir Jocelyn Hambro of Hambros (Merchant) Bank. the Alba family whose lineage dates back to the great Duke of Alba. whose lineage dates back six centuries to the most anci ent Luzzatos. together with John Stuart Mi . Loeb. of Rome and Venice who trace their line age to the Emperor Justianian. Has anyone ever stopped to think what the Holy Roman Empire actually meant? Back to the story The power of the Guelphs would extend through the Italian financial centers to t he north of France in Lombardy. Schif f. Pi erpaolo Luzzatti Fequiz. Schroeder. would perpetuate gnostic cults whic h eventually developed into the Rosicrucians. The Guelphs would start the slave trade to the colonies. then to Amsterdam and finally to London. the financiers of the Spanish Hapsburgs. The East India company. all pursuing their own dreams of expansion and conquest. for centuries. Exactly who were and who are these intermarried families connected to the Veneti ans? The old-line ruling families who believe that they have the right to rule the wo rld because they are descended from the emperors of the ancient Roman and so-cal led holy Roman Empires consist of 13-15 blue blood families. This is so but three factors have to be born in mind the Lombards who were finan cing all European powers at the time against one another. Seaf. the Papacy which meant [until Henry VIII] that dictums were coming constantly from Italy and the churc h had had. Kuhn. Lazard. Other names are: the Giustiniani family. which include: Rothschi ld. Look at how the Refo rmation came to England. Pause for breath The obvious criticism here is that this seems to be giving inordinate credit for influence to the Venetians when there were homegrown oligarchs and tyrants in a ll the nation states. Unitarians. the second richest man in G ermany now deceased). Other old Venetian Black Nobility and board members of ASG and RAS are the Doria family. and Baron Pierre Lambert. a most powerful grip on the hearts and minds of men an d women all over Europe and then there was the intrigue. Morgan. Elie de Rothschild of the Fren ch Rothschild family. Fabian Society and the World Council of Churches. Goldman. The Guelphs.

partic ularly in London. Hence the reference in a previous post to the Queen sailing near Venice on occas ions in the Britannia. historian George G rote. it i s the closest to the middle-east and 2. The treaty was placed in the Cong ressional Record on April 25. France. Etienne D Avignon. The Club of Rome s Peccei headed the Atlantic Institute s Economic Council for three decades while he was the Chief Executive Officer for Giovanni Agnellis Fiat Moto r Company. Banca Privata. the flight capital center for the Venetian Black Nobi lity. One of their members. it is a gateway for drugs entering Europ e from Iran and Lebanon. . Banco de Ibero-America. T heir methods included destroying free speech. and is a kind of twilight zone f or shady flight capital operations.A. Privately these families refuse to recognize any right to rule except their own. The fact that this trea ty was made long ago does not mean it is void. destroying and suppressing the pre ss. Today Italy and in particular. Venice. Prussia and Russia) the J esuits agreed to smash the US Constitution and suppress the freedom of the US. They are known collectively as the Black Nobility. Banco del Colombia. the fall of various regimes and the Aldo Moro case. Most of these famil ies are very wealthy and may be more powerful today than when they sat upon thro nes. according to the 90s article I got it from. th e Red Brigades. sustaining the cooperation of the Pope and clergy to u se religion to help keep nations in passive obedience and financing wars against countries with representative governments. A friend of Mill. are the only real way to create welfare recipient s of the future and a series of nanny states. is very important strategically because 1. a member of an ancient Italian family. Banco Ambrosiano. The monarchs who signed this treaty were ultimately deposed. was assigned the task of collapsing the s teel industry in the US and as the Treaty of Verona showed. That s the long term function. and vice versa hence the congressional re cord entry. playing a leading rol e in development projects in the Soviet Union. Their key role.S. Lugano is not in Italy or in Switzerland. After the Club of Rome was established in 1968. Agnelli. Venice and Genoa.ll. w hich began the worldwide mental health movement. 1916 by Senator Owen. a founder of London University donated £6000 for the study of mental health . would finance the University of London. who owns a large block of stock in BSI. which invest igators found had old families somehow interested in the issue for not entirely clear reasons. the Netherlands Bank. meanw hile cleaning up in the financial markets as they go along. Banca Commerciale d Italia. followed by depressions. The Club of Rome is an umbrella o rganization for Anglo-American financiers and the old families of Europe. the European familie s have quite an interest in the U. Social convulsions on a global scale. is to create and man age economic recessions and eventual depressions. a body which is from this black nobility. all sorts of things began in a socialist manner the Paris uprising. Of special interest is Banca del la Svizzeria Italiana (BSI) since it handles flight capital investm ents to and from the United States primarily in dollars and US bonds located and isolated in neutral Lugano. universal censorship. In the 1822 Treaty of Verona (between Austria. George Ball. is a prominent insider and the bank s US representative. Barclays Bank.

continues through the Phnariot families of the Byzantine Emp ire. The mater ialistic Venetian and Genoese armies. financed by the Swiss Oltramai re family. the name of the Hohenstaufen estate). Venice-launched force of the so-called Enlightenment . has been dominated by the cultural conflict between the radiated influence of the R enaissance and the opposing. Finally This is the power up against which we. Another interesting snippet. those who supported the Emperor's Hohenstaufen family. European power centers coalesced into two camps: the Ghi bellines. who ran one of the assassination centres from Confederation Helvetica . the legendary "City of God". and the Guelphs. During the Middle Ages. This is not all about money. with Moscow as "the third Rome". The victors came away with one billion dollars of the Romanov fortune. All European history since the Fifteenth century within Europe and globally. By the 14th c entury. The plan to destroy the Orthodox Church and its Romanov (new Rome) leader was the hi dden goal of the First World War. and later into England and Scotland. It s also about culture and science and this conflict plays a huge role in the major societal movements in modern history. The Paleologues devout ly believed in the Christian faith. our power base only the legitimacy of the peop le themselves. The Pope then allied himself with the Guelphs against the Ghibelli nes resulting in their victory. The British East India Company The Drug Company of the Venetian Black Nobility by Eustace Mullins It has taken centuries of patient effort for the World Order to attain the power it exercises today. the German prince who competed with Frederick for control of the Holy Roman Empire. after achieving the defeat of their hated enemy. f rom Welf. the Genose controlled the Scottish landlords. (an Italian ada ptation of Weinblingen. lo oted and conquered Constantinople. the Or thodox Church. the Paleologues (meaning 'the Word' ) were attacked by the Gnostic faction. was Richard Gardner marrying into the old families in Italy and providing yet more connections between Italy and the State s. the lowly Davids of the Albion Alliance w orld are trying to pit ourselves. The Imperial Family of the Byzantine Empire. to me.More difficult to establish is Jacques Soustelle. then the Venetian and Genoese traders and bankers of the Middle Ages. Its origins as an international force go back to the Phoeni cian slave-traders. The Byzantine su rvivors recreated their culture in Russia. whose materialistic Aristotelian philoso phy was the forerunner of Hegelian dialectic and Marxism. All of modern history stems directly from the st . with the aid of the Turkish "infidels". as expressed by the Orthodox Rite. who m oved into Spain and Portugal.

which became great financial centers. and finally to London. merchant guilds which held monopolies over certain avenues of c ommerce. in an attempt to retain his throne. the Genoese who backed Robe rt Bruce in his conquest of Scotland. was later known as the Lon don Mercers Co. revolution and war has centered in the battle of the Guelphs to hold and enhance their power. and a pew was reserved for him. which began with the Bank of England. the power to make war.the Lombards were bankers to the entire Medieval world. Modern history begins with the transfer of their operations nort h to Hamburg. a slave market was set up on Wall Street near the church. whose leading v estryman later was J. . The company operated northern overland trade routes from the Baltic to India and China. and the Plymouth Company. He was arrested the next year. was granted a charter in 160 0 in the closing days of Queen Elizabeth's reign. and international espionage. and Black Nobility. were referred to as "Lombards" -. All Italian bankers. chartered in 1606 to establish The Virg inian Plantation on a communistic basis.ruggle between these two powers.. William Kidd provided the material to build it in 1697. originated as the London Staplers. under James I. which began with the East India Co. Charles II granted the East India Co. Morgan. The power of the Guelphs grew through their control of banking and international trade. gained control of all India. and Milanese. financial district of London). raised the seed money for Anglo-Muscovy in Italy and London. and had him beheaded.. also called the Neri. whose descendants are prominent in American banking and intelli gence. It was also allied w ith the Levant Co. The Order invariably enlists "the law" against its enemies. The Guelphs. The Rockefeller Empire is the most prominen t scion of this dynasty. and hanged in chains at Newgat e. it bec ame a joint stock company. which have ruled the world sin ce the 17th century. Othe r related firms were the London Company. descend directly from East I ndia and Bank of England operations. and the Anglo-Muscovy Co. saw that the machinations of the international mo ney dealers were bringing ruin to many Englishmen. and tried to stop it. The great American fortunes originated with the Guelph slave trade to the coloni es. and who supported William of Orange in his seizure of the throne of England. which was headquartered in Bruges. the East India Co. In 1622. Sir Walter Raleigh. the Venetians. in Lombardy. Two of the most powerful influences in the world today are the international dru g trade. Sebastian Cabot. Trinity Church. In 1661. a patriot.P. was originally known as "the church of the pirat es". The "City" banks. Amsterdam. were th e Normans who conquered England in the 11th century. or Black Guelphs. The East India Co. It was extended through the Italian centers to the north of Florence. It was a direct offshoot of the commercial banking establishments of no rthern Italy. and the Han se of the Low Countries. In 1711. They in turn conspired against him.Lomb ard. William's victory resulted in the formation o f the Bank of England and the East India Company. and wrested the historic monopoly of opi um from the Great Moguls. The East India Co. Every subsequent coup d'état. which is now the World Order. whose descend ants control the New England business world. Venice and Genoa. Capt. Many of the slave traders doubled in piracy. and functi oned there for many years. Related firms were the German Hansa. including the Genoese. in German. means "deposit bank" -. which dominate American finance and politics (code name for ba nks for the " City". From 1700 to 1830.

member of the KGB counter intelligence apparatu s during an intimate dinner told me of a very powerful and secretive organizatio n known as the Bilderbergers. operating through a network of government agencies. too difficult to control becaus e of the number of persons required to control them. therefore. by creating another New World Order th ink-tank to be known as The Bilderberg Group . founder of th e European Movement leading to the founding of the European Union (EU).N. "Synarchism" is used to define a new con cept of political alliances by an international brotherhood of financiers and in dustrialists through a unity of the socialists and the anarchists on fascist pri nciples. Joseph Hi eronim Retinger plotted to forge alliances with the European Council of Princes (Dragon Court). Acting on behalf of The Committee of 300 (Queen of England). According to a top secret 18 page French military intelligence report d ated July 1941. Prince Bernhard presided over its first meeting at the Bilderberg Hotel (wh ich it was named after) in Oosterbeek. the CIA. Knight of Malta Dr. Retinger. Their final objective is a post-industrial society. or at least for their [nuclear blackmail] policy. Therefore. Dr. their real name is Synarchists. who agreed to become its co-found er. a friend. Ac tually. approach ed Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in 1952. econo mics. specifically the Vatican and the Priory of Sion (French Monarchy). 1954. and Britain s MI6. The NATO alliance was their cruc ial base of operation and subversion because it afforded them the backdrop for t heir plans of [perpetual war]. it is not too dif ficult to understand that the intention behind each and all of the Bilderberg me etings is about how to create a Synarchist Aristocracy of purpose between Europe a nd the United States.). private institutions and . British and Dutch East India Companies. Behind this secret society is a contemporary netwo rk of powerful private merchant-banking interests of medieval Venetian financier oligarchical model known as fondi. Interestingly. just as the last vestiges of the Soviet Empire were cr umbling into oblivion. Dr. the forerunners of the Council of the 300 and the Bilderbergers are examples of thes e private merchant banks. and remained its Chair until scandal forced him to resign in 1974. " --Daniel Estulin (source) "It is essentially a private criminal enterprise which stretches across the glob e. Its purpose is the same as the CFR to re move independence from all countries and permit the aristocracies tyrannical rul e from behind the military might of the United Nations (U. Retinger s middle name is literally translated as member of the occult .The Bilderberg Group An Offshoot of the Venetian Black Nobility by Daniel Estulin The Bilderberg Group is Europe s version of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) . where t hey exist the parliamentary regimes which are considered insufficiently devoted to the interests of these groups and. Holland. and how to come to agreement on questions of policy. summarising a 100-page dossier on the French Synarchist groups: T he Synarchist movement s aim is essentially to overthrow in every country. once or twice each year since its formation. and strategy in jointly ruling the world. The Bilderberg Group has been meeting secretly behind closed doors at irregular intervals. from May 29 to May 31. "In the very early 1990s.

but also German roots because the Guelphs are intertwined with the German aristocracy through the Hou . These people have unimaginable wealth. I found those references after spending more than two and a half years in the national library of Florence . which is again the whole thing about zero growth and the wholesale destruction of national. And even more powe rful than Rothschild is the Lazard bank. They are the bottom of the totem pol e. one such family is the Guelphs [from which Elizabeth II] the Queen of England comes.going through five-hundred-year-old documents. rights given to the people they had never had before. One of the reasons that the Bilderberge rs have never been able to discredit me is that historically I can show you that what today is called the Bilderberg Club can be traced back in time to the Vene tian Black Nobility. you talk about the House of Orange and the House of Hapsburg. you have the yobbos who l ive in the world. because again what they have is just pocket change for t hese people. Rudolph and Azoll. she comes fr om the house of Este-Guelph. the idea behind these people hasn t c hanged since the beginning: it s the wholesale destruction of anything related and affiliated with the idea of a nation-state. The idea behind the nation-state was the social welfare consti tution. which is exactly what these people want you to think about: work. procreate . international economies. they re not even lac keys. and there s a 112 trillion dollars on that account. For example. The name Este comes from the name Marquis of Este o f Venice. For the first time we literally had something which we could call our own. which is called the fondi. pre cious minerals and metals. but these people are merely your ty pical lackeys when you actually look at it. They are nothing. You measure it not in billions but in trillions of dol lars. these family fathers set up fondis that are pooled together for maximum effect and deployed through a number of financial institutions. crea ted a need in other states in Europe to follow suit otherwise they were left beh ind. they have no idea what any of this stuff m eans because again their daily needs just are your basic primary. that s all part of what you re witnessing right now. That s the kind of money that the Bill Gates of this world well. eat and sleep. At the heart of the fondi system.literally living the re . It is concentrated in your tangible things: land. If you re looking at the powerful people. Before that we wor ked as slaves. Now this line is con nected to the Welfs and can easily be traced back to the Cunigundas. which is also known as the House of Albert Azoll. With nation-stat es. just one account on one day. I have a document from the Krupp family of Germany. you have the powerful merchant private banks such as the Rothschild banks. Henry. you can talk about the House of Braga nza. stretches all the way back to t he Middle Ages. 500 years ago. Queen Victoria. the great unwashed. Of course. I found reference to this family by cross referencing with names like Eth ico.both publically owned and private corporations and financial institutions. And by controlling the financial trade of these items . which hide their origi ns from the unsuspecting public. The first nation-states were created in France under Louis XI and then in Englan d with Henry VII. It gave us the idea of the constitution. anything which was created. Now t his extended network. any technological advance which took place. So basically the Queen of England has Venetian roots. One of the reasons that the Bilderbergers have never been able to discredit me i s that historically I can show you that today what is called the Bilderberg grou p goes back in time to the Venetian Black nobility to the royal houses and linea ges of the European oligarchical families. That s called progress and that s what the Venetians and the Bilderbergers of t oday have been so virulently against. raw materials. which is again one of the thi ngs that these people have been so virulently fighting against. oil. Prince of W elf. talking about your Queen . animal-like ne eds." --Daniel Estulin (source) "Again another thing about the Bilderbergers is that I can trace who these peopl e are today back to the Venetian Black Nobility. One banking statement. Again the fondi is the combined wealth of these oligarchical fam ilies. We often hear about the influen ces of the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers. However.

and Diana visited Venic e on numerous occasions. it s the wholesale destruction of anything related and affiliate d with the idea of a nation state. historically I can show y ou that what today is called the Bilderberg Group. So anyway.org by Eustace Mul lins and other extraordinary researchers. which have been [governed] by the Guelph family since the 12th century . 500 years ago was called the Venetian Black Nobility. I was told by someone very familiar with the British royal family that the Queen told Diana point blank to never ever ever discuss these trips in publi c and. May 1954 More on Oligarchy & Venetian Black Nobility at investigate911. the Queen s son. ------------------------------------------------------------ . not on any official business. the Hanoverian English King George I.] Prince Charles." --Daniel Estulin (source) Official attendee list of the first Bilderberg meeting at Prince Bernhard s Bilder berg Hotel in Oosterbeek. of course. again. but rather in a private c apacity. but the idea behind what [all these people put together ] hasn't changed. Diana never did because I think she knew that the Queen meant it and she d kill her if she ever did. he came from the Duchy of L uneburg . Somewhat interesting [ .se of Hanover. Holland.

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