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VIBRATION TECHNOLOGY

Note Book For Marine Engineers INTRODUCTION: The development of new engine generations for minimum fuel consumption involving greater stroke/bore ratios, lower running speeds and higher combustion pressure, for lower installation and operating costs as well as for higher reliability and a very large spectrum of different shaft line arrangements largely influences the vibration analysis of a modern ship installation. There are a number of ways in which the mechanical and operating condition of machines are checked. Some of the more common of these include checks of speed, load, pressure flow and temperature. But in more recent years, it has been shown demonstrably, that vibration has become one of the most sensitive and accurate of these indicators of Machinery Conditions. Moreover, in addition to its capability to sense machinery defects earlier than other types of sensors, it can also be used to pinpoint the specific source or machinery component which is defective. A machine may fail before or after the set periodic maintenance and is not predictable, but using vibration analysis in the preventive maintenance. Within the area of machinery preventive maintenance a typical vibration program makes use of vibration analysis in a number of ways which include periodic routine vibration measurements of machines to check their mechanical condition. Another use of vibration analysis is to reduce / control noise because comfort of personnel onboard ship is today common concern. Machinery vibration is intimately related to noise. The close relationship of noise and vibration is further indicated by the fact that many vibration instruments can also be used for noise measurements. In many cases, it is possible to achieve significant noise reduction through correction of vibration problems. The benefit being improved mechanical conditions quieter operation and improved human efficiency. DEFINITION: Vibration: Oscillation of an object about its position of rest is called vibration Excitation sources An excitation source is the disturbing influence, which generates and maintains vibrations. This source may be a free moment guide force moment produced by engine, the influence or engine frame and ships structure arising from the axial vibration of the shaft system, or the influence on the same parts from the torsional vibration of the shaft system. The excitation sources in a diesel engine are cyclic by nature, meaning that they vary periodically during the working cycle of the engine. In order to evaluate the influence of an excitation source, a so called harmonic analysis is performed, by which an excitation source is represented by a sum of excitation acting with different frequencies, which are multiples of the engine’s rotational frequency. Mathematically, this is expressed as follows: F = F1 Cos ( α + α 1 ) + Fn x Cos ( 2x + γ n ) = Crank angle. = Phase angle. F1 Cos ( α + α 1 ) is called first order force, because it acts once per revolution. F2 Cos 2 ( 2x + γ n ) is called second order force as it acts twice per revolution and so on. Natural Frequency & Resonance: A natural frequency is a characteristic frequency at which a solid object will vibrate freely, if subjected to an impact. Any system of solid elements e.g. Solid shaft or ship has several natural frequencies, each corresponding to a certain vibration mode. Resonance occurs when the frequency of the excitation coincides with a natural frequency and when this happens quite high vibration levels can be the result. E.g. Calculations have revealed that a vertical hull vibration has a natural frequency of 3.83 Hz. This corresponds to 3.83 x 60 cycle/min = 230 cycles/min. If the engine runs at 117 r/min at MCR, so obviously there is no risk of resonance with the first order moment, as its maximum excitation frequency is: 117x 1 cycle/min = 117 cycles/min Engineer M. A. Hamid

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VIBRATION TECHNOLOGY
Note Book For Marine Engineers The second order moment has an excitation frequency of up to: 117x 2 cycle/min = 234 cycles/min This means that resonance with the 2nd order moment may occur at 230/ 2 = 115r/min. Corresponding to (115/117)3 x 100 = 95% load. Therefore it is relevant to consider out balancing the 2nd order moment in case of the engine to be in stalled. Cycle of Vibration: If the object is set in motion, it will move back and forth between some upper and lower limits. The movement of the mass through all its positions and back to the point when it is ready to repeat the motion is defined as one “cycle of vibration.” Period of vibration: The time taken to complete one cycle of vibration is called “Period of Vibration.” Frequency of vibration: The number of cycles in a given length of time (e.g. 1 minute) is the “frequency of vibration.” Frequency is usually stated in “cycles per minute” (cpm) or “Cycle per second” (cps). These are called “Hertz”. E.g. A machine may vibrate at ______cpm which is same as 60 Hz. [Frequency is one of the basic characteristic is used to measure and disable vibration others include – displacement, velocity and acceleration] Displacement: The maximum distance the object moves, calculated a “peak to peak” displacement and measured in microns = 0.001 mm [How much the object is vibrating] Velocity: It indicated how fast the object is vibrating. Velocity is measured in “mm per second”. Acceleration: It is related to the forces, which are causing the vibration. [Acceleration is max. at its max limits of displacement] Acceleration s measured cm per sec2. Phase or Phase Angle: The angular difference at any given instances between two parts with respect to a complete vibration cycle and is usually expressed in degrees. [used to compare the motion of a vibrating part with a fixed reference or comparing two parts of a machine structure vibrating at the same frequency][Measured using a Strobe Light] Vibrations - two types 1) Free Vibration: In an elastic system Consisting of a wt. connected to a sprint. If the spring is compressed and released the weight will oscillated this free vibration will occur at the natural frequency for the system. The natural force depends on physical properties of the spring and weight. 2) Forced Vibration: When an oscillatory external force is applied so that the system vibrates at the frequency of this existing force the system is said to have a forced vibration. Vibration Nodes: A node is formed where the deflection is zero and the amplitude changes signs. More the nodes higher the corresponding natural frequency. Damping: The deflections in a system will only reach a certain value, as there is some kind of energy absorbing friction in all systems. This friction is damping. Inertial: It is that property of matter, by virtue of which a body cannot move of itself nor change the motion impacted to it. Moment: It is the turning effect produced by a force on the body on which it acts. Torsion: When a machine member is subjected to the action of two equal and opposite couples acting in parallel plans, then the machine member is said to be subjected to motion. Stress: The internal force per unit area at any section of the body is known as stress. This is a response to an external force. Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers Strain: The deformation per unit length, due to the deformation by an external force is known as strain. Critical speed: Due to the periodic disturbing force the firing force at regular intervals, torsional vibrations about the mean displacement of the shaft takes place. When the frequency of periodic firing pulses becomes equal to the natural free vibration of the shafting system resonance occurs and at this relevant speed that amplitude of vibration of the shaft reach of maximum value. Speeds close to this critical speed on the higher as well as lower sides are said to be in the critical range and the engine should not be allowed to continue in this range as there is every danger of shafting system failure, if the amplitudes reach a dangerous lever. (Beyond their elastic limits.) GENERAL PRINCIPLES Ships and their machinery installation can be regarded as flexible structure, which are susceptible to vibration. These structures also called vibration systems can be modeled as sets of mass or inertia elements connected by stiffness and damping elements. Vibrations occur when the Vibration System. Is submitted to periodic excitation forces or moments. In marine installation the propeller and the diesel engine are the two principal sources of periodic excitations. Installation with two and four stroke diesel engines or both treated in similar ways. Lets consider simple mass elastic system, containing Mass ‘M’, Stiffness ‘C’, Damping ‘B’, Periodic excitation force ‘T’, Response of the system to excitation force T –’X’, Refer Fig. 1If the mass M is removed from its equilibrium position (where x =0) then it will freely. Oscillate around its original position with a constant, specific frequency ‘fn’ called natural frequency only depends on the geometric characteristics of the system namely mass, stiffness and damping. Vibration Control There are two ways to deal with the resonance problem a) It may be possible to modify the system geometry in such a way that either resonance does not occur in the installation’s normal operating speed range. In single mass system modification of the system geometry means changing the mass, the stiffness or both, these modifications influence the natural frequency of system, which leads to a reduction of amplitude at the operating speed. This method is very common for avoiding unaccepted levels of vibration in a given speed range. Another possibility for reducing amplitude close to the resonance frequency fn consists of increasing the sampling. This method is mainly used to reduce the torsional vibration is a given speed range by adding a vision damper at the free end of the crankshaft. If this countermeasure is not enough, it means that the amplitude is still too large. Another method must be used, by adding an extra mass – elastic system. In this case resonance frequency ‘fn’ is split into f in and f 2n these frequencies depend on the added mass ‘M’ and stiffness C′ , to limit the amplitude at these frequencies a damping B′ is also added. This additional vibration system allows reduction of amplitude over a wide speed range. This method is mainly implemented by adding a spring damper at the free and of the crankshaft. b) The second way of dealing with the resonance problem is to compensate, either wholly or only in part, for the excitation force, or moment close to the resonance frequency by the addition of a compensating element, which acts in counter phase. This method is largely used to reduce the influence of the external second order vertical moment in two stroke diesel engines by adding a second balancer (Lanchester or electric type).

Excitation: Periodic forces causing excitation can arise from: 1. Vibration and noise due to propeller 2. The propeller can induce ship vibration in two ways: 3. Unsteady forces transmitted through the shaft bearing and 4. Pressure forces, which act on the hull plating and appendages in the vicinity of the propeller. Selecting right number of blades is essential to avoid exciting hull vibration superstructure & machinery resonance at normal operating speeds. The propeller press forces are dependent on the clearances between the hull & the propeller, the blade thickness & the blade load distribution. Blade cavitations can greatly enhance the propeller pressure especially if the unsteadiness in the cavitations coincides with the blade frequency which of common in usual cause. Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers Blade rage and skew can be used to minimize vibration. Blade elbow, i.e. differential displacement of the blade chords along the helical reference lines, permits a more gradual entry of the blade into a wake region. The idea is to match the wake with the blade shaft. Highly skewed blades can reduce the bearing forces to one-fourth the value for unscrewed and the pressure forces can be reduced by one half. On high-speed ships main source of propeller vibration is the unsteady pressure force caused by a cavitating propeller. Some times in senior cases of vibration fins are welded on to the hull to alleviate the noise and vibration problems. Another propeller noise is singing. This noise is generally associated with vertices shedding from the blade tailing edges in such a way that the whole tailing edge is at resonant frequency. Sometimes it may be due to damaged blade, excitation from shaft or cavitations. Normally it is due to vertices shedding. This is controlled by blade trailing edge sharpening is the induced angle between the blade face and back is 25° or less Wave forces: A ship in waves is subject to varying pressures around its hull. Because the ships hull is elastic in nature some of the wave energy is transferred to the hull causing main hull and local vibrations. They are usually classified as springing or whipping vibrations.  Springing - is fairly continuous and steady vibration. In the fundamental hull mode due to the general pressure field acting on the hull.  Whipping - is a transient vibration caused by slamming or shipping green seas. Generally vertical Vibrations are most up because the vertical. Components of wave forces are dominant. However horizontal & torsional vibration. Can be important in ships with large opening or of relatively light shuttling e.g. container ships or light carriers. The additional bending stresses due to vibration may be significant in fatigue because of the frequently & the stresses caused by whipping can be of the some order of magnitude as the wave bending stresses. Machinery: Rotating Machinery such as turbines and electric motors generally produce forces which are of low magnitude & relatively high frequency. Reciprocating machinery on the other hand produces larger magnitude forces of low frequency. Large diesels are likely to pose the most serious problems particularly where, probably for economic reasons, 4 or 5 cycle. Engines are chosen with their large imbalance forces at frequency equal to the product of the remaining speed and number of cylinders. Auxiliary diesels are a source of local vibration forces transmitted to the ships structure can be much reduced by flexible mounting systems. In more critical cases vibration neutralizers can be fitted in the form of spring & damped weights, which absorbs energy, or active system can be used which generate forces equal but anti-phase to the disturbing forces. Responses: As with any vibration phenomenon, the response of the ship or put of the ship to on exciting force depends upon the frequency of the excitation compared with the natural frequency of the system and the damping preset as indicated. The most serious vibration occur when the natural frequency of the structure is close to that of the applied force (i.e. at resonance) Q = magnification factor = Dynamic response amplitude Static response amplitude.
W

/Wo = The rate of the frequency of applied disturbance to the natural frequency of the structure.

Magnified factor: The response by the ship may be as a whole or in a local area or piece of structure. In the forever cases the ship responds to the exciting forces by vibrating as a free – free beam. In this type of vibration certain points along the length suffer no displacement and thus points are called nodes. The term anti-nodes are used for the period of maximum displacement between nodes. The hull can vibrate in different ways, or nodes involving 1, 2, 3, 4 or more nodes, although the single node mode applies only to torsional vibration. The natural frequency of the vibration increases the number of node increases. There is nothing a designer can do to prevent this free vibration & there is little he can do to alter the frequencies at which resonance occurs. He can only recognize that they exist, calculate the critical frequency and try to avoid any exciting forces at these values. There are two tests carried out: Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers a) The vertical vibration is intended to be used for evaluating hull & superstructure vibration indicating where adverse comment is to be expected. Applicable to turbine & diesel engine driven merchant ships 100m long & longer it is not to establish vibration criteria for acceptance or testing of machinery or equipment. The peak values & frequency of main region of ship are used to evaluate responses of equipment & detect resonance, which the designing will endeavor to design out. Resonance is considered significant when Q exceeds 3. b) The endurance tests are then conducted at the fixed frequency and any frequency, determined by the vibration. Response test, giving rise to significant resonance, which the designer was unable to eliminate. Considering all the possible vibrating system in local structure, it is impossible to avoid some resonance with the existing forces. Equally it is impossibly to calculate all the frequencies likely to be present. All the designers can do is selecting for calculations these areas when vibration would be particularly obnoxious, for the rest, troubles will be shown up on trial and can be cured by stiffening although this is a conveniently late stage. External Unbalanced Moments External unbalanced moments are classified as 1 st order moments (acting in both the horizontal and vertical directions) and 2nd order moments (acting in the vertical direction only). During the working cycle of an engine there are in critical forces as well as gas forces acting on the drive train. The inertia forces are divided into inertia forces acting on rotating masses and on reciprocating masses. The inertia forces acting on reciprocating masses however depend on the actual position of the piston; even through the engine speed is constant. The same applies to the gas forces they are not constant during the working cycle. These forces are counter acted by reaction forces in the crankshaft, thus making the resultant force equal to zero, but the external unbalanced moments will still exist. The external moments are known as the 1st order moments (acting in both the vertical and horizontal directions) and 2nd order moments acting in the vertical direction only, because they originate solely in the inertia forces on the reciprocating masses. Moments of higher order exist but are normally ignored, as they are very small. 1st order moment: - The 1st order moments act with a frequency corresponding to the engine speed x 1. The 1st order moments normally cause no vibration problems, but in 4 cylinder engines it is recommended to evaluate the risk because in rare cases the cylinder configuration may cause vibration. Resonance with a 1st order moment may occur for hull vibration with 2 and / or 3 nodes. This resonance can be calculated and then it can be decided whether or not a compensator is necessary. Compensators are counter weight, which may be adjustable. These counter weights can reduce the vertical moment to an insignificant value. (Although they simultaneously increase the horizontal moment) so this resonance is easily dealt with. 2nd order moment The 2nd order moment acts with a frequency corresponding to twice the engine speed. The 2nd order moment acts in the vertical direction only. Owing to the magnitude of the 2nd order moment, it is only relevant to compensate this moment on 4 & 5 cylinder engines for which reason it is necessary to analyze the situation only on such engines. Resonance with 4 &5 nodes vertical hull girder vibrator nodes can occur in the normal speed range. In order to control the resulting vibrating responses a 2nd order compensator can be installed. The compensator comprises two counter rotating masses running at the same speed as the main engine crankshaft. The calculations have a high degree of uncertainty and any changes if required have to be done in the project stage, because later remedies can be very costly. The most cost efficient solutions to cape with 2 nd order vertical moment are: No Compensators: If considered unnecessary on the basis of the natural frequency. A compensator mounted on the aft end of the engine driven by the main chain derives. A compensator mounded on the front end, driver from the crank shaft through a separate chain drive. Compensators on both the aft & force ends of the engine, completely eliminating the external 2nd order moments. An electrically driver compensator synchronized to the correct phase relative to the free moment. Lateral Shaft vibration and Shaft whirling Lateral vibration only concern long intermediate shaft lines or when propulsion is housed in long hull bossing. In such cases, the lateral vibration may excite vibration in the ships hull and superstructure and is thus to be avoided, particularly in passenger ships. Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers The calculations are carried out by shipyard. The problem consists of determining the number and location of the Plumber blocks (shaft bug.) to avoid any resonance. if resonance is expected the only realistic countermeasure is to shift the lateral natural frequencies by moving one or more Plumber blocks to better locations or by adding more blocks. GUIDE FORCE MOMENT The so-called guide force moments are caused by the gas force on the piston and by inertia forces. When the piston is not exactly in its top or bottom position the gas force transferred through the connecting rod will have component acting on the crankshaft perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Its resultant is acting on the guide shoe and together is acting on the guide force moment Two kinds of guide force moment exists called H and X –moments The H-type guide force moment, which is dominating on engines with less than seven cylinders, tends to rock the engine top in the transverse direction. The main order of the H-moment is equal to the cylinder number, i.e. for a 5cylinder engine the frequency of the excitation is 5 times the number of revolution. The X-type guide force moment is the dominating, for engine with more than six cylinders. The X-moment tends to twist the engine in an X-like shape and the main order is equal to half the number. For engines with odd number of cylinder, in order to counter act recommended to install a set of top bracing s between the upper gallery of the main engine and the hull structure (casing side). The top bracing can be either mechanical with frictional connection or hydraulically adjustable. These act as detuners of the system double bottom and main engine, which means that the natural frequency of the vibration system will be in creased to such an extant that resonance occurs above the running range of engine speed and the guide force moments will, therefore be harmless. It is seen that with adequately fitted bracing, resonance occurs above the normal running range. AXIAL VIBRATION Axial or longitudinal vibration involves the crankshaft with the thrust bearing & propeller shafting. It is excited by the radial components of the gas and mass forces from the engine cylinders, together with the axial forces from the propeller. An additional axial excitation source comes from the torsional vibration twisting the crankshaft induces an axial deflection. These excitations are not relevant for four-stroke engine because the crankshafts of these engines are axially very stiff with natural frequency of axial vibration far above the nominal engine speed. Axial vibration induces additional stresses in the crankshaft. Moreover the axial forces acting on the thrust bearing also act on the engine and therefore may be a source of additional ship super structure vibration. For these reasons axial vibrations must remain below admissible limits. The axial amplitude at the free end of the crankshaft can easily be measured; therefore the admissible limit for every engine is given in terms of maximum admissible axial amplitude at this location. Each Sulzer RTA carries engine of the recent generations is equipped with an integrated axial detuner fitted close to the free end of the crankshaft. The axial detuner has the property of largely shifting the natural frequency of the first mode of axial vibration to above the nominal speed. A small damping effect is achieved by chaining the throttle valve position, which limits the transfer of oil between the two oil chambers of the detuner. The axial amplitude measured at the free end of the crankshaft increases from a minimum value when the throttle valve is closed to a maximum value when the throttle valve is open. The calculation results of an installation show a large shift in axial critical speed 1/5 of a marine installation with a Sulzer RTA. At nominal speed (95 rev/min), the axial amplitude is reduced by a factor of 10. The corresponding axial forces on the thrust bearing are also largely reduced. In this case the axial stresses in the crankshaft remain very small and the axial forces at the thrust bearing are too small to induce unacceptable engine & ship vibration With axial detuners correctly adjusted dynamic problems with excessive axial vibration never occur more than 170 engines are equipped with these detuners and have no axial vibration Problems Wärtsilä NSD has developed an axial detuner monitoring system. This new equipment is installed on each RTA engine. It continuously measures the oil pressure in both oil chambers of the detuner and compares them with an admissible minimum value. As soon as the measured oil press in one chamber lies below this min. value an alarm is given in the control room. The engine data needed for an axial vibration calculation is given in the dynamic characteristic booklet for each Sulzer diesel engine type. Calculations are done using computer programs provided by the manufactures. A 5L50 MC engine installed in a LPG tanker recorded excessive axial vibration of the crankshaft during the trial trip. A closer analysis of this case revealed that the crankshaft was not in resonance, and the situation was caused by Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers a coupled vibration phenomenon the crankshaft vibration was coupled to an engine frame and double bottom which in turn transferred vibration energy back to the crankshaft. As a result both the whole engine and the super structure suffered from heavy longitudinal vibration. The problem was tackled from two sides: An axial vibration damper was retrofitted to the crankshaft, and top bracing in the longitudinal direction was fitted on the aft end of the engine. These two countermeasures, both influences the vibration behavior of the shaft, the engine frame and the superstructure .The axial vibration damper alone actually eliminated the problem, and the longitudinal top bracing alone reduced the vibration level in the deck house to below the ISO recommendations. With both counter measures in action the longitudinal bracing had only insignificant influences. TORSIONAL VIBRATION Torsional Vibration involves the whole shaft system of the ship propulsion machinery and is caused by the torsional excitations from the engine and propeller. Limitation of torsional vibration is vitally important to avoid damage, or even fracture of the crankshaft or other propulsion system components. The classification societies prescribe two limits (T1 & T2) for the additional torsional stresses in shafting arising from torsional excitation in the speed range up to 80 percent of maximum continuous rating (MCR), which depends on the shaft material strength (Ultimate tensile strength = UTS). If lower admissible limit T1 is exceeded, it is necessary to consider a ‘barred speed range’ in which continuous operation is prohibited. The upper limit T2 must never be exceeded in any case. The standard criteria for alternating torque and stresses are the shaft line, elastic and damping torque as well as the thermal load in the damper and elastic coupling. The torsional vibration depends on the engine and propeller excitation as well as on the fixing sequence. Nature and effects: Torsional vibration arises from periodically varying torque super in posed upon the steady torque being transmitted to the load. The sources of Torque variation in propulsion system are: The power stroke of the engine, which generate torque pulsation once per crank throw per cycle, and at higher orders of this frequency with a high magnitude at first order. This applied mostly to direct connected low speed engines. A lower order torque variation of significant magnitude can be caused if one or more units are unbalanced or not firing. The number of blades on the propeller, which imposes a torque variation at a frequency equal to the number of blades times the propeller RPM. Gear tooth irregularities, with the frequency of the torque disturbance dependent on the particular irregularity. Using latest manufacturing techniques only damage is likely to cause the gearing to generate a torque variation of significant magnitude. When a source of excitation has a first or higher order frequency close to the natural frequency for torsional vibration in such a state the torque variation in such a state the torque variation of the source will force the rotating system into resonance, causing it to oscillate torsionally at higher angular amplitude with corresponding high stresses that could result in shaft line component fatigue failure. The torsional oscillations can produce transverse components or can excite axial vibration of the shafting, either of which can in turn be transmitted to adjacent structures. The natural frequencies for the rotating system are estimated at least for three most likely modes of torsional vibration. A method called Holzer tabulation is used, but more sophisticated techniques are available. The natural frequencies can be divided by the order of torque variation of each source in order to determine values of RPM at which resonance will occur. These are critical speeds. E.g. A Direct driven propulsion system has 5 cylinder, two-stroke engine. Where first mode natural frequency is 40.1% rad/sec speed at 76.6 RPM (383 divided by 5) and a second order critical speed at 38.3 RPM. If the stress levels are in excess at any point on the shaft system, considering energy absorbed in friction and by damping [due to water around propeller], then continuous operation during this speed is barred. Barred speed ranges are acceptable if they are well below normal operating RPM.

Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers Avoiding torsional vibration: If the imposition of a barred speed range is not acceptable because it is too close to operating speed, the following solutions are available at design stage. The intermediate shaft dia. can be increased this lowers the operating stresses on the shaft. The natural frequency of the system is raised, thus the critical speed is moved beyond the operating speed/ RPM. This cannot be done for long shaft installations. With a long shaft line and a heavy flywheel [at the aft end of the crankshaft] the natural frequency is reduced thus critical speed is lowered below operating RPM. A torsional vibration damper or de tuner can be fitted at the forward end of the crankshaft to alter the natural frequency of the system and reduce the amplitude of the torque vibration. The dampers may be spring loaded or viscous fluid type and are mostly fitted on medium speed engine. Torsional flexible coupling are always fitted to geared installations to isolate the gearing, and therefore rest of the system aft of the gearing from engine excitation. The most commonly fitted couplings are of spring loaded or rubber elements type. These couplings are in addition to the quick shaft, which is an effective torsionally flexible coupling. Vibration Measuring Equipment: Some of the equipment used for measuring vibration includes the pickup devices and the electronics devices, which display and analyse the pickup signals. These electronic “black boxes” range from simple hand held vibration meter, which display the displacement and velocity of vibration to complicated systems, which provide an analysis in real time of the complete. Spectrum of vibration frequencies and the amplitudes in each of the frequency bands. Devices of primary interest to the shipboard marine engineer include the basic vibration meter the vibration analyser and the permanently installed vibration monitor.  Vibration Meters: -Portable vibration meter and self-generating velocity pick up is a basic vibration measuring device. Frequency range – 600 ~ 600,000 CPM Displacement – 0 to 100 mils peak to peak Velocity – 0 to 100 m/sec peak Little training is required to use such an instrument in vibration monitoring program.  Vibration Analyser: - it permits the trained shipboard officers to measure frequency of vibration In addition to the velocity and displacement. It is the frequency and phase, which normally revel the source of a vibration problem A tunable fitter allows the user to measure the frequency Frequency range – 50 ~500, 000 CPM Has a stroboscopic light, which permit visual identification of the vibration part for which displacement, velocity, frequency measurement is been made. A plotter may be connected to the analyzer to record vibration amplitude v/s frequency this plot is called vibration signature Monitoring Equipment: Main propulsion units have permanently installed vibration Monitoring equipment. Acceleration transducers and non-connected transducers, mounted on the main bearing / thrust bearing housing sense vibration and axial shaft position. The monitor receives the signals from the transducers and compares the vibration levels and shaft position to quantity specified by the machinery manufactures. If vibration level or axial position exceeds predetermined quantities the monitor sounds a warning alarm providing the engineer an opportunity to correct the problem before machinery damage. The monitor also provides for display of the vibration level and the axial position of the shaft. In the same installed the monitor provides a signal, which shuts down the machinery if vibration or axial position varies excessively from acceptable limits Characteristics of specific Machinery Defects: Mechanical unbalance: - This is the most common cause of vibration Mech. unbalance can be recognized by the fact that the vibration occurs at rotational frequency and the amplitude in the radial direction is more than twice the axial amplitude. It can be separated from elect. Defects by cutting the power and noting whether the amplitude drops off gradually or abruptly .the strobe phase measurement shows the single steady ref. Mark Misalignment (shafts, coupling, bearing)

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Engineer M. A. Hamid

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Note Book For Marine Engineers This is the sec. largest cause of vibration even when self-alignment longs & flexible couplings are used. Vibration occurs at shaft rotational freq. & can occur at two or three times the rotational frequency amplitance in the axial Dtuner is 50% or more of the radial D-tuner. Phase shows a single reference mark Bent shaft: The vibration characteristics are same as of misalignment but the face however, measured axially around the shaft will vary through approx. 180o, particularly when bend is close to the bearing. A further indication of a bent shaft is an approx. 180o phase difference between axial vibrations at opposite ends of the machine. Mechanical Looseness (sleeve Bearings, Pedestal bearings, foundation etc.): Vibration occurs at twice the shaft rotational frequency phase shows balance and alignment generally affects this vibration. Resonance: Here let the machine coast down from operating speed. Watch the analyzer amplitude & freq meter .if amplitude drops off at first, then rises and then drops off again the freq at which the rise occurs if the m/c is operated at speeds equal to the natural freq phase by 180 o. VIBRATION IDENTIFICATION FREQUENCY PHASE REMARKS Single 1xRPM reference Most common cause of vibration mark 1xRPM usual Misalignment coupling or bearings & bent shaft Large in axial distance 50% or more of redial vibration Single Double 2&3xRPM Sometimes Triple Best found by appearance of large axial vibration Use dial indicators or other methods for Positive diagnosis. If sleeve bearing m/c & no coupling misaligned Balance the rotor. If a gear largest vibration in line with gear centres. If on motor or generator vibration disappears when Power is turned off. If on p/p or blower attempt to balance.

CAUSE UNBALANCE

AMPLITUDE Proportional to unbalance Largest in radial direction

Eccentric journals Usually not large

1xRPM

Single mark

Bad gear or gear noise Reciprocating forces Mechanical looseness

Low velocity measure if possible

Very high gear teeth times RPM 1,2& higher order x RPM 2 x RPM

Erratic Inherent in reciprocating m/cs can only be reduced by design changes or isolation Two reference Usually accomplished by unbalance or marks slightly Misalignment. erratic.

SHIPBOARD APPLICATION OF VIBRATION ANALYSIS General propulsion system: - Vibration displacement and frequency are also an important measure of the stiffness of the main thrust bearing the thrust foundation and the supporting structure of the ships inner bottom. Shaft and Propellers: - In this case vibration measurements may be used to analysis structural rigidity and the effect of adding struts or other shaft support members. In the same manner, propellers, main shafting and other rotating parts of the propulsion train can be checked for balance, indication of misalignment and excessive clearances in bearing, all of which may contribute to unsatisfactory operations. Gears and Gear drives: - vibration analysis revels the condition of gear tooth contacts, tooth geometry, tooth spacing, gear concentricity and rotor balance. Bent shaft and gearbox misalignments are also revealed through Engineer M. A. Hamid

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VIBRATION TECHNOLOGY
Note Book For Marine Engineers vibration analysis. This can be accomplished with out the experience disassembling and physical measurements, which are normally required to detect these conditions in gears. SHIP BOARD APPROACH TO VIBRATION ANALYSIS During the life of machining, the engineer officers can use portable instruments and analyzers for monitoring conditions and solving problems, which manifest themselves as vibrations. The vibration’s freq. Permits identification of the source of excitation, once the source is discovered ship bond personnel can take corrective action. INSPECTION OF NEW M/Cry AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Vibration Analysis of new m/cry installed aboard ship provides evidence that manufacture has met the specifications and the normal STDs for smooth running machinery. Planned vibration analysis programmer is a key to preventive maintenance. Regular evolution of intensities and freq. of vibration reveals the determination of anti friction bearing and facilitates replacement prior to failure. INVESTIGATION OF SUSPECTED PROBLEMS: Evaluation of machinery repair: Repair done in yard or dry dock may be checked to prevent coming over of an unsatisfactory piece of m/cry to sea Base line vibration signature: Vibration signatures (which are measure of amplitude of vibration over a range of frequency) are recorded and act as reference to monitor the machinery in the future. Economic benefits of vibration Analysis: Vibration Analysis results in reduced machinery down time thus preventing expensive delays and disruption in sailing schedules. Avoid costly machinery repairs caused by unexpected major break down. Early correction of faults means lower repair bills and longer m/cry life. CONCLUSION Sophisticated tools such as computer software measuring equipment and analytical devices have been developed and are applied to provide more detailed & accurate analysis of complex vibration problem. Although Vibration. Behaviors is now well understood, there will thus always be potential for further advance in the state of the art. Further developments of analytical techniques are in progress and experience is continually being accumulated. If proper consideration is given to vibration aspects at an early stage, the counter measures available provide a good safety margin against potential vibration problems. References  Basic Ship Theory – Volume I by KJ Rawson & EC Tupper  Paper Published by – J.Jenzer on “Some Vibration aspect of modern Ship Installations”  Notes on “Balancing of Inline Engine” by A.K Ramanujan. Courtesy of Mr Anvekar  MER (1) – October 2002 – “An introduction to Vibration aspect of two stroke diesel engine in ships”.  Modern Marine Engineers Manual – Volume II  www.met-online.com  www.dnvsea.com  www.cadea.hr  www.vibrations.dk

Engineer M. A. Hamid

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