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THE READING ABILITY OF

SCIENCE FIELD STUDENTS (IPA) AND SOCIAL FIELD STUDENTS


(IPS)
OF ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENT OF SMA 1 BAE KUDUS
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010



By:
M AINUR ROFIQ
2006-32-215





ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY
2011





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THE READING ABILITY OF
SCIENCE FIELD STUDENTS (IPA) AND SOCIAL FIELD STUDENTS (IPS)
OF ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENT OF SMA 1 BAE KUDUS
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010


Skripsi
Presented to
University of Muria Kudus
In partial fulfillment of the requirements
For completing the Sarjana Program in the English Education Department
Teacher Training and Education Faculty







By:
M AINUR ROFIQ
2006-32-215


ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY
2011





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ADVISOR APPROVAL

This is to certify that the Skripsi of M Ainur Rofiq has been approved by the advisors
to further approval by the examining committee.

Kudus, 25 January 2010
First Advisor


Diah Kurniati, S.Pd, M.Pd
NIS. 0610701000001190

Kudus, 25 January 2010
Second Advisor


Fitri Budi Suryani, SS. M.Pd
NIS. 06107010000001155






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BOARD OF EXAMINING COMMITTEE

This is to clarify that the skripsi of M Ainur Rofiq has been approved by the
examining committee as a requirement for the Sarjana Degree in the English Education
Department.

Kudus, January 2010
Skripsi Examining Committee:

Diah Kurniati, S.Pd, M.Pd , Chairwoman
NIS. 0610701000001190

Fitri Budi Suryani, SS. M.Pd , Member
NIS. 0610701000001155


Dr. H. Achmad Hilal Madjdi, M.Pd , Member
NIS. 0610713020001020
NIP.
Atik Rokhayani, S.pd, M.Pd , Member
NIS. 0610713020001020

Acknowledged by
Teacher Training and Education Faculty University of Muria Kudus
Dean,


Drs. Susilo Rahardjo, M.Pd
NIP. 19560619-198503-1-002





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MOTTO AND DEDICATION

MOTTO:

By knowing proper behaviour, you understand knowledge
By knowledge, a good deed is rightfull
By a good deed, you obtain wisdom
By wisdom, come successful

The most owful mistake is going forward without willingness to win
The game of life is determained by 99% of bouncing
Self correction is capital of an action
Knowledge can emerge from something wrong






DEDICATION:
To the Only One, My Lovely Parents
Mr. Tasan & Madam Buteni





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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, the researcher says thanks to Allah SWT, The Most Gracious and The
Most Merciful God all the time who has always given mercy and blessing, finally by the
shortage and deficiency of the researcher, he is able to compile this skripsi. Secondly, the
researcher does not forget to always say Sholawat and Salam to the best human in the world
and hereafter Muhammad SAW who has opened the dark covering this world.
Having finished this skripsi, the researcher would like to express the largest gratitude
to;
1. My beloved Parents who always give me the love, pray, and support.
2. My all beloved siblings (B Nanix & familys, B Sikhah & familys, B Lut, Firoh,
Paezol) and my big family of Mbah Badri and Mbah Parno who always support and
motivate me.
3. Mr. Susilo Rahardjo, M. Pd. as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
who has given the smooth way to finish and compile this study.
4. Mrs. Fitri Budi Suryani, SS, M. Pd. as the head of English Education Department, all
at one as the researchers second advisor who has always given untold contributive
criticism and assistance during the completion of this study.
5. Mrs. Diah Kurniati, S. Pd, M. Pd. as the researchers first advisor who has already
approved this research and given a lot of guidance in the completion of this study.
6. My lovely someone who has always given me love, care, support, motivation,
suggestion, advises, spirit and inspiration in all the whole time in the compiling this
skripsi, DLysa.
7. My best friends; Ocem, Supri, Panji, jEjE, Nanoe, Agos, yEyEn, Ichonx, kElEk,
Sodiq, Richma, Eva, Julia, Aan, etc., Best Fucking Friend & Familys, Icip-Icip,





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Student Executive Board for year 2007/2008, 2009/2010, 2010/2011, pm11 Sunan
Muria, and the whole of 46 graduation who give me advises, support and help.
8. All lectures of English Education Department Teacher Training and Education Faculty
who transfered their knowledge during studying in UMK.
9. Drs. H. Suad, M. Pd. as the Headmaster of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus who has given
permission to the researcher to hold and do the research in his school.
10. Mrs. Sri Murtiyani, S. Pd. as the English teacher of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus who kindly
helps giving her time and class as be the sample of this study and The eleventh year
student of science field student (XI IPA 3) and social field student (XI IPS 1) of SMA
N 1 Bae Kudus in the academic year 2009/2010, who wished to be volunteers of
sample in this study.
The researcher conscious that in compiling this skripsi belongs to much insuffiency,
the researcher hopes some criticism and suggestion which means develop to the perfect
research. Finally, in the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful and by the
deeper thanks to our God, the researcher hopes that May our God always bless and guide us to
the best way of our life in the world and hereafter especially to all who have already helped in
compilation of this skripsi.

Kudus, 25 January 2011
M. Ainur Rofiq





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ABSTRACT

Rofiq, M. Ainur. 2011. The Reading Ability of Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field
Students (IPS) of Eleventh Grade Student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in Academic Year
2009/2010. Skripsi : The English Education Department, Teacher Training and
Education Faculty, Muria Kudus University. Advisor : (1) Diah Kurniati, S.Pd, M.Pd.,
(2) Fitri Budi Suryani, SS. M.Pd.

Key Words : reading skill, genre, science field students, social field students

Reading is one of English Skills which connects the communication between the writer
and the reader. For the reader, it is perfectly hard to find the right meaning of the text that
writer compiled because the reader should explore their knowledge and experience to catch
the right information arranged inside the passage. In reading ability, the learners are forced to
understand both reading comprehension and reading skills. Moreover, it is a must for the
learners to have understanding enough in vocabulary, grammar, semantic, etc. Meanwhile,
when the pupils of senor high school get in the eleventh grade, they are divided based on the
certain intelligence. The intelligence that is majority improved is logic mathematic
intelligence which belongs to science field students, inter-personal intelligence which belongs
to social field students and linguistic intelligence which belongs to linguist field students.
However, this research aims to find out whether there is any significant difference in the
reading ability between science field students who belong to logic mathematic intelligence
and social field students who belong to inter-personal intelligence.
Meanwhile, the approach used in this research is the criterion-group approach.
Afterwards, the subject of the research is science field student and social field student of the
eleventh grade students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010. In deciding the
sampling, the researcher used a purposive sampling. XI IPA 3 consists of 44 students for
science field student and XI IPS 1 consists of 42 students for social field students, while both
those classes are taught by the same teacher.
In the result, it is able to be declared that there is significant difference in the reading
ability between Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh
grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010. The reading ability of
science field students is categorized good. Nonetheless, social field student is categorized
sufficient.
Thus, the researcher recommends that the English teachers of senor high school have to
treat science and social field in difference because they have different characteristics based on
the intelligence that majority improved, especially when an English teacher treats both
students of the same grade. In addition, the students in science and social field have to study
more and more about reading. They have to improve their capability in reading skill
especially skimming and making inference.





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ABSTRAKSI

Rofiq, M. Ainur. 2011. Kemampuan Membaca antara Siswa Jurusan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
(IPA) dan Siswa Jurusan Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial (IPS) pada Siswa Kelas Sebelas
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus Tahun Ajaran 2009/2010. Skripsi : Program Studi Pendidikan
Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Muria Kudus.
Advisor : (1) Diah Kurniati, S.Pd, M.Pd., (2) Fitri Budi Suryani, SS. M.Pd.

Kata Kunci : reading skill, genre, siswa jurusan IPA, siswa jurusan IPS

Membaca merupakan salah satu English Skills yang fungsinya menghubungkan sebuah
komunikasi antara penulis dan pembaca. Dalam memahami sebuah isi maksud dari sebuah
teks, pembaca pasti kesulitan, karena mereka harus menguras seluruh pengetahuan dan
pengalamannya untuk dapat dengan mudah menangkap pesan yang disampaikan oleh penulis.
Dalam Reading Ability, para siswa tentunya menguasai reading comprehension dan reading
skill. Selain itu, para siswa harus mempunyai pemahaman cukup tentang kosakata, struktur
kalimat, semantik, dll. Sementara itu, ketika siswa SMA menginjak kelas XI, mereka dibagi
sesuai dengan kecerdasan tertentu. Kecerdasan tersebut yaitu jurusan IPA yang
mengembangkan kecerdasan logika- matematis dan jurusan IPS yang mengembangkan
kecerdasan inter-personal dan jurusan Bahasa yang mengembangkan kecerdasan bahasa.
Selanjutnya, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan apakah ada perbedaan yang
signifikan pada kemampuan membaca antara siswa jurusan IPA dan siswa jurusan IPS.
Sementara itu, pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan
criterion- group. Dari pada itu, penelitian tersebut dibuktikan pada siswa jurusan IPA dan IPS
kelas XI SMA N 1 Bae Kudus tahun ajaran 2009/2010. Dalam menentukan sample, peneliti
menggunakan purposive sampling. XI IPA 3 untuk IPA dan XI IPS 1 untuk IPS, yang
keduanya diajar oleh satu guru.
Akhirnya, bisa dinyatakan bahwa ada perbedaan dalam kemampuan membaca antara
siswa jurusan IPA dan IPS kelas 11 SMA N 1 Bae Kudus tahun ajaran 2009/2010.
Penguasaan siswa jurusan IPA terkategorikan baik dan jurusan IPS terkategorikan cukup.
Dengan begitu, peneliti menganjurkan bahwa guru Bahasa Inggris SMA harus
memberikan pengajaran dan pendidikan kelas jurusan IPA dan IPS dengan berbeda karena
mereka memiliki perbedaan karakter berdasarkan kecerdasan yang mayoritas dikembangkan,
lebih kusus ketika satu guru mengajar dua jurusan yang berbeda. Di samping itu, para siswa
jurusan IPA dan IPS harus lebih menekankan belajarnya lebih dan lebih tentang kemempuan
membaca. Mereka harus mengembangkan kemampuan mereka dalam reaking skill khususnya
skimming dan making inference.





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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE .................................................................................................................. i
APPROVAL OF ADVISORS ............................................................................ ii
APPROVAL OF EXAMINERS COMMITTEE ............................................. iii
MOTTO AND DEDICATION .......................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................. v
ABSTRACT......................................................................................................... vii
ABSTRAKSI ....................................................................................................... viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... ix
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................. xi
LIST OF PICTURES ......................................................................................... xii
LIST OF APPENDIXES .................................................................................... xiii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Research ..................................................................... 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem.......................................................................... 6
1.3. Purpose of the Research............................................................................ 6
1.4. Significance of the Research .................................................................... 6
1.5. Scope of the Research............................................................................... 8
1.6. Definition of the Terms ............................................................................ 8
CHAPTER II REVIEW TO RELATED
2.1. Reading ..................................................................................................... 10
2.1.1. Definition of Reading ............................................................................... 11
2.1.2. Reading Comprehension........................................................................... 12
2.1.3. Reading Skill (Reading Strategies)........................................................... 13
2.2. Genre of Text ............................................................................................ 24
2.2.1. Definition of Genre ................................................................................... 25
2.2.2. Kinds of Genre.......................................................................................... 27
2.3. The Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus........................................ 43
2.4. The Curriculum in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus ................................................. 44
2.4.1. The Purpose of Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus ..................... 45





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2.4.2. The Material of Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus .................... 46
2.4.3. Teaching Reading in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus .............................................. 47
2.5. Multiple Intelligence................................................................................. 48
1.6.1. Science Field Student (IPA) ..................................................................... 50
1.6.2. Social Field Student (IPS) ........................................................................ 52
1.6.3. Science Field Student and Social Field Student in Understanding Linguist
Material (English) .....................................................................................
53
CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH
3.1. Research Design ....................................................................................... 56
3.2. Population and Sampling .......................................................................... 58
3.3. Instrument of the Research ....................................................................... 50
3.4. Procedure of Collecting Data.................................................................... 65
3.5. Technique of Analyzing Data ................................................................... 66
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Data Description ....................................................................................... 74
4.2. Hypothesis Testing ................................................................................... 84
4.3. Discussion ................................................................................................. 85
CHAPER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1. Conclusion ................................................................................................ 91
5.2. Suggestion................................................................................................. 92
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 93
APPENDIXES ..................................................................................................... 96
CURRICULUM VITAE .................................................................................... 136





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LIST OF TABLE

TABLE PAGE
2.2.2 Type of text ........................................................................................... 27
3.1 List of the Number of Science Field Students (IPA), Social Field
Students (IPS) and BAHASA of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus in academic year 2009/201........................................................59
3.2 The criterion of The Students score of the reading proficiency between
Science Field Students (IPS) and Social Field Students (IPS) ............. 62
4.1 Score of reading ability of Science Field Students (IPA) of eleventh
grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 ... 76
4.2 The frequency and percentage of reading ability of Science Field
Students (IPA) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010 ..................................................................... 78

4.3 Score of reading ability of Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 ............. 80
4.4 The frequency and percentage of reading ability of Science Field
Students (IPA) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010 ..................................................................... 82






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LIST OF PICTURES

PICTURE PAGE
4.1 Graphic Polygon of reading ability of Science Field Students (IPA) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010 ............................................................................................. 78
4.2 Graphic Histogram of reading ability of Science field students (IPA) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010 ............................................................................................. 79

4.3 Graphic Polygon of reading ability of Social Field Student (IPS) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010 ............................................................................................. 82
4.4 Graphic Histogram of reading ability of Social field students (IPS) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010 ............................................................................................. 83

.







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LIST OF APPENDIXES

APPENDIXES PAGE
1 List of the Students IPA 3 SMA N 1 Bae Kudus 97
2 List of the Students IPS 1 SMA N 1 Bae Kudus 98
3 Test Item for Measuring the Reading Proficiency of Science Field Students
(IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) 11
t h
Grade Student SMA 1 Bae Kudus
2009/2010 99
4 Answer Sheet 109
5 Answer Key 110
6 Accounting Test Reliability the Try-Out In IPA 4 of Reading Ability of SMA N
1 Bae Kudus 111
7 Accounting Test Reliability Science Field Student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus 113
8 Accounting Test Reliability Social Field Student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus 115
9 The Calculation of Reliability of the Reading Ability the Try-Out In IPA 4 of
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus 117
10 The Calculation of Reliability of the Reading Ability of Science Field Student
(IPA) for Text Test 118
11 The Calculation of Reliability of The Reading Ability of Social Field Student
(IPS) for Text Test 119
12 The Calculation of Mean, Median, Modus and Standard Deviation of the
Reading Ability of Science Field Student (IPA) for Text Test 120
13 The Calculation of Mean, Median, Modus and Standard Deviation of the
Reading Ability of Social Field Student (IPS) For Text Test 123





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14 The Calculation of T-test of the Reading Ability between Science Field Student
and Social Field Student (IPS) 125
15 T-Table 128
16 Skripsi Guide Determining 129
17 A letter of research permission request 130
18 A letter of official statement in taking the data 131
19 A letter of declaration about authenticity of the research 132
20 Skripsi Writing Consultation Sheet 133
21 Attendance List 136
22 Students answer of a test 140
23 Curriculum vitae 147







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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Research
Nowadays, in our country, English as the global language in this world has already put
in one of the main subjects since in elementary school. Governmental policy designedly
arranged it to be curriculum of formal education, so that all students should comprehend about
English and has already put it in one of the national examination to get the graduation. As a
native of countryside language for example java language, to understand English that has four
skills to master such as Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing is perfectly difficult for
students as java mother tongue. Moreover, it is going to pick a useful in the next of
Indonesian life that all media communication which most of them are printed in a word that
organized in a text even to communicate with others and for a job of company use English.
Pursuant to four skills of English that have to be comprehended by students, one of them
is reading which students have to accustomed to reading comprehension that perfectly need
much concentration (finding the meaning of text) as appropriate to the context talk about.
Grabe and Stoller (2002:04) stated that:
Reading comprehension is remarkably complex, involving many processing skills that
are coordinated in very efficient combinations, because we also read for different
purposes, there are many ways to read a text, further complicating any definition.

However, to study English, students should master and improve reading ability which
includes reading comprehension and reading skill (skimming, scanning, deducing the
meanings of words from contexts, etc). While some journals of Language teaching and
research found many kinds of problem faced by the student in reading. Kweldju (2001) in her
journal, she found the result that reading became very tedious for students because they was
misleading for getting the meaning of the sentence especially organizing to find the derive





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word (root and affixes) and they did not really know about lexicogrammatical patterns. The ir
vocabulary knowledge was still under developed, or they did not know all kinds of
information needed to understand a word, including how a word combines with other words
to make lexicogrammatical patterns. Hastuti (2004) also found those students are difficult in
perceiving context clues to help them guess the word meanings. FanggidaE (2007) found also
that different kinds of text made the student hard and low mood in reading it because they
think it is uninterested in stead. Then Suparman (2005) clustered three major categories of
reading comprehension problem: (1) Grammatical, morphological and syntactic, (2) Lexical
and semantic and (3) Background knowledge.
Furthermore, students should be careful and understand well of all genre texts that it
absolutely helps the students in understanding text. Nonetheless, when facing the question of
reading comprehension, students should be careful much of the text because there are many
kinds of genre text which have a similar Generic (Schematic) Structure and Significant
Lexicogrammatical Features. Gerot and Wignell (1994:190) explained that different genres
deploy the resources for meaning- making through the grammar in different ways, for
example: recount text; which retell an event, tend to use past tense, material processes and
particular participants, then Pardiyono (2007: 04) said that understanding genre concept could
make the students to establish the purpose of the text created, and make to identify text
elements and rhetorical structure easily.
It could be given an assumption that reading is absolutely complicated and hard in
understanding and comprehend because the students should organize all knowledge of
English in reading comprehension for example: vocabulary, grammar, translating, paragraph,
etc. Not just all about that, they should search their experience in their mind because the texts
that had already been given are about the context of daily life, history, news, recipe, event,
etc. which have many unfamiliar words. Grabe and Stoller (2002:004) argued that the ability





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to read is a remarkable type of expertise that most humans develop; it is not generally well
understood, nor is its development widely recognized for the significant cognitive
achievement that it is. Furthermore, students should be sensitive to all issues that have already
speared all around them.
Based on the difficulties of building knowledge in reading comprehension, they are
mastering genre of the texts that are spoof, narrative, recount, descriptive, report, etc. which
have many different social functions, generic structures, and significant lexicogrammatical
features and also mastering about vocabularies, translating, and so on. Finally, based on the
difficulties of reading ability the researcher organizes it to different field which is put in the
eleventh grade of senior high school, they are social field students and science field students.
The reason why it is taken social field student and science field student s, because
Armstrong (2002) divided in his book that the smarts that is owned by people which are
perfectly important to use to think are seven kinds. They are linguistic smart, logic-
mathematic, spatial, musical, kinesthetic-jasmine, inter-personal, and intra-personal.
However, based on many kinds of smart owned by people, social field students (IPS) in their
study, the materials which are given to master are the materials that related to inter-personal
smart. Inter-personal smart is the smart that is owned by the people who wanted to splash
around with sociality that is able to be in a job, public society, or surrounding. As economic,
PKn (Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan), history are absolutely given to the student in daily to
master.
In addition, science field students (IPA) in their study, the materials which are given to
master when they are graduated are related to logic- mathematic smart which is smart that
splash around with number and logic. It may be the ability in reasoning, finding hypothesis,
and searching the pulling out of concept or numeric pattern. The material which is given to
the science field students in their study that perfectly different with social field students are





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about physic, chemistry, mathematic, biology. Furthermore, pursuant to the difference of the
materials which differs their field in senior high school, the researcher is going to find the
significant result and the problem faced by both social and science field students in mastering
English that based on Armstrong (2002) it related to linguistic smart which the smart in
organizing words.
The final section of this study, SMA N 1 Bae Kudus is to be the place for taking the data
because the doubtlessly reason that SMA N 1 Bae is the school which has already been using
a remarkable curriculum named KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) SMA N 1 Bae
which assumed by the people in that district to be a favorite school that has perfect facility
located in the district by organizing hundreds of students. However, the facility in having
studying is orderly perfect because it has two rooms of Language Laboratory then it has
several kinds of extra-kulikuler which is able to take by the student in organizing their talent
and interest.
Therefore, based on a complicated in reading ability especially in mastering reading
comprehension and reading skill, the researcher wants to compare both of the students who
join in science field students and social field students. Meanwhile, from the background
above, the researcher encouraged to carry out the research entitled The Reading Ability of
Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of Eleventh Grade Student
of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in Academic Year 2009/2010.

1.2. Statement of the Problem
Based on the title that the researcher has decided, the problems of this research are going
to be revealed as follow;





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Is there any significant difference in the reading ability between Science Field Students
(IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010?
1.3. Objective of the Research
On the strength of the title that the researcher has decided, the objectives of this research
are going to be uncovered as follow;
To find out whether there is or not a significant difference in the reading ability between
Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.

1.4. Significance of the Research
This research which has decided by the researcher about reading ability of Science Field
Students (IPS) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 is going to come in useful to:
1. English teacher of SMA N 1 Bae kudus
This research is able to be a reference of English teacher in senior high school
especially in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus, that based on different kinds of smart should they
master, the students who join in science field students and social field student. The
teacher could search or find the right method to teach English materials easily based on
students differences. Nonetheless, a teacher who teaches different field rarely uses the
same method.
2. The lecturer of English Department of UMK
As the background of the lecturer of English Department of UMK that should
give new thing to their students and of course educate them to be a good teacher of one
aim, so the lecturer could take this research as a reference to be a knowledge based on





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the finding of this research. The lecturers could give and share the finding to their
students because the students which are educated in English Education Department may
be going to be the teachers of senior high school. Meanwhile, it might be put in one of
the material of the collage, English Education Department, which is to discuss clearly
about the difference field of senior high school.
3. The Reader
It could be a fresh knowledge for the readers that truly every student has
different characteristic based on what they faced. However, everybody thinks to
something that it is important and leaves something awful, truly something which needs
more attention is something that everybody thinks that is not important usually.
Meanwhile, the learners who have certain characteristic should have more consideration
to the development of their mind, perhaps, especially for the parents and someone
around them.

1.5. Scope of the Research
In the scope of the research, the researcher is going to discuss about reading ability that
has aim to find out the reading ability between the students who join in Science Field Students
(IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) in eleventh grade of Senior High School. Finally,
compare them because they take in different field of their study but still in a same grade,
school, teacher, and curriculum. It is generally known that they are a same but different.

1.6. Definition of the Term
In this section, based on the title, the researcher is going to reveal the definition of the
term which is useful to clarify briefly in order to avoid different perception. They are able to
see as follow:





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1. The reading ability is an ability of the student in constructing meaning from written text
(how far the student understanding the text based on different characteristic of text, topic
of text, and kind of text).
2. Science Field Students (IPA) is a kind of a department which must be chosen by
students when they want to take in the eleventh grade of senior high school that most of
the material that should be master is all about science, like; Physic, Biology,
Mathematic, etc.
3. Social Field Students (IPS) is a kind of a department which must be chosen by students
when they want to take in the eleventh grade of senior high school that most of the
material that should be master is all about social, like; Sociology, History, Economic,
Anthropology, etc.
4. The students who are taken a data for this research are the students who are studying in
the eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 which is
located in Bae Kudus that the public around that district assumed as a favorite school.








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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the researcher is going to describe about review of related literature as
the background to base in analyzing the data. Some kinds of the theory are going to discuss in
this chapter, such as; reading, text, genre of text, teaching English and curriculum in SMA 1
Bae Kudus, and science and social field student.

2.6. Reading
Reading is one of English skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing). Reading
is the skill which should be mastered by the learners in English education. This skill forces the
student to master many kinds of skills which is consisted in it. To be able to interpret the
information effectively from the text which may be printed in a paper or displayed the
monitor, they should master the elements which are served in studying reading. Furthermore,
this ability lead to the learners to comprehend text that has many kinds of characteristics; on
the other hand, it really helps to the learners not only in their classroom in mastering English
but also in their daily live like understanding the information for example; newspaper,
magazine, pamphlet, website, etc. When learning reading, it is not only the reading ability we
get, but also some abilities we get. While we are reading the text which is not read before,
automatically we know the new information that drawn from the text. Then, the text of
course has many unfamiliar words which is able to improve our vocabulary. We know that
English is global language; perhaps much information in this world is typed in English so that
making to readers finding the information transferred easily. As Mikulecky and Jeffries
(1996: 01) stated that:





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Reading is one important way to improve you general language skills in English. How
does reading help you?
1. Reading helps you learn to think in English.
2. Reading can enlarge your English vocabulary.
3. Reading can help you improve your writing.
4. Reading may be a good way to practice your English if you live in a non- English-
speaking country.
5. Reading can help you prepare for study in an English-speaking country.
6. Reading is a good way to find out about new ideas, facts, and experiences.

However, English is a language that need much practice so that the learners are able to
master faster. Learners will master English fast if they put it in their habit. As one of English
skills, learners will get nothing in reading comprehension if they dont put it in a habit. As
many as texts have already read by the students as much as recording information they get so
that they could have much visual displaying in their mind.

2.1.4. Definition of Reading
There are multiple linguists defined about reading that completely spread on the
researches, books, literatures, websites, etc. Based on Grabe and Stoller (2002:09) defined
that Reading is the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and interpret this
information appropriately. But Anderson et al. (1985) stated that: Reading is the process of
constructing meaning from written texts. It is a complex skill requiring the coordination of a
number of interrelated sources of information.
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/def.html. However, Brown (2004: 185) said that:
Reading is arguably the most essential skill for success in all educational contexts, remains a
skill of paramount importance as we create assessments of general language ability. Then,
Wixon et al. (1987) argued that:
reading is the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction
among: (1) the readers existing knowledge; (2) the information suggested by the text
being read; and (3) the context of the reading situation.
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/def.html.





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Based on some definitions that perfectly described in literacy above by linguist, it
could be concluded that the ability of learners when they are studying a language which
related to their cognitive to understand meaning of text and what message of text talk about
that appropriate with the context itself. Furthermore, to understand the meaning of text,
readers may use their all abilities such as; semantics, syntax, vocabulary, grammar, cohesion,
and so on to identify the meaning and guessing the unfamiliar words to find the right
information talk about.

2.1.5. Reading Comprehension
When somebody reads a text, of course he wants to know the information of the
printed word from ink or toner on the paper he holds that may call it as reading
comprehension. Grabe and Stoller (2002:17) stated that Reading comprehension is, the
ability to understand information in a text and interpret it appropriately. But Mayer (2005)
defined that: Reading comprehension is techniques for improving students success in
extracting useful knowledge from text. However, Partnership for Reading (2005) defined
reading comprehension is:
Understanding a text that is read, or the process of constructing meaning from a text,
that comprehension is a construction process because it involves all of the elements of
the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the
text in the readers mind. http:// wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Reading. Comprehension.

Yet, in a site that has an address http://www.readingisgood.com/2008/05/ comprehensi-
on-a-definition/ displayed that reading comprehension is the degree to which we understand
what we read. Nonetheless, when the student step in this term (reading comprehension),
holding the head may be done by some of students because as it has been stated in
background of the study of this research that when constructing the meaning of the text which





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printed in the first language of the reader, automatically they find the information consisting
in the text easily. Yet, the text which is printed in the second language or third language
which the topic discussion in this study is English, it needs many kinds of skills, knowledge,
and experiences.

2.1.6. Reading Skill (Reading Strategies)
Grabe and Stoller (2002:11) said that when we begin to read, we actually have a
number of initial decisions to make, and we usually make these decisions very quickly, almost
unconsciously in most cases. It is the situation when we read the article or newspaper. We
usually just read the front page to find the main information by combining our background
knowledge. We read little information rapidly, but we are able to finish reading newspaper in
a minute. Nonetheless, in reading ability, mastering reading skill or reading strategy
absolutely helps to the learners solving students problems in reading comprehension so that
they are able to find the good mark in reading assessment, because reading skill which is as
the same as reading strategy is the kinds of the ability to analyze the text so that the learners
understand well of the meaning and information which is elaborated by the writer. Grabe and
Stoller (2002:16) listed about reading strategies. They are:
1. Specifying a purpose for reading
2. Planning what to do/what steps to take
3. Previewing the text
4. Predicting the contents of the text or section of text
5. Checking predictions
6. Posing questions about the text
7. Finding answers to posed question
8. Summarizing information
9. Making inferences
10. Connecting one part of the text to another
11. Paying attention to text structure
12. Rereading
13. Guessing the meaning of a new word from context
14. Using discourse markers to see relationships
15. Checking comprehension





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16. Identifying difficulties
17. Taking steps to repair faulty comprehension
18. Judging how well objectives were met
19. Reflecting on what has been learned from the text

However, Brown (2004: 188) arranged in ten strategies. They are:
1. Identify your purpose in reading a text.
2. Apply spelling rules and conventions for bottom- up decoding.
3. Use lexical analysis to determine meaning.
4. Guess at meaning (or word, idioms, etc.) when you arent certain.
5. Skim the text for the gist and for main ideas.
6. Scan the text for specific information (names, dates, key words).
7. Use silent reading techniques for techniques for rapid processing.
8. Use marginal note, outlines, charts, or semantic maps for understanding and
retaining information.
9. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
10. Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships.

There are many elements of reading strategies above, and also how complicated and large
explanation is that, so I am going to organize them in simple elements together with its
explanation and its example which is related to test-taker of text so that it is able to be
understood easily. They are;
1. Scanning
Brown (2004: 209) said that scanning is a strategy used by all readers to find relevant
information in a text. But McWhorter (2005) stated that: scanning is searching for a specific
piece of information; your only purpose is to locate that information. However, Grabe and
Stoller (2002:13) argued that: we typically scan the text for a specific piece of information or
a specific word. Mainly, scanning is reading fast to find a little thing important which is
needed within the text even the book. For example: finding the year from the text when we
are having a reading test, wanted to find the setting of a story, finding someones phone
number or address from the telephone directory and so on.





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Scanning does not need much concentrate of our mind to find one thing asked of the
question. One thing which is needed when scanning is reading fast that put together with think
fast in searching what it is wanted. Even though, there are several learners getting frustrated
when they are doing scanning. It is happened, because they do not know exactly how to scan
in effective and systematic way even many people said that scanning is a commonly used
skill. However, if learners read randomly to search through the text in order to find the
information they are wanted, they will not do scanning efficiently as possible. Meanwhile,
scanning is doing much to find a little thing needed and it often make the learners getting
surrender and force to read the whole text. In scanning the word or phrase which is asked is
not only explicit but also implicit. As Born (2004: 209) explained, there are several parts
which are usually asked to scan in assessment. They are:
1. A date, name, or place in an article,
2. The setting for a narrative or story,
3. The principal divisions of a chapter,
4. The principal research finding in a technical report,
5. A result reported in a specified cell in a table,
6. The cost of an item on a menu, and
7. Specified data needed to fill out an application

2. Skimming
Skimming is the process of rapid coverage of reading matter to determine its gist or
main idea. (Brown, 2004: 213). But McWhorter (2005: 503) argued that skimming means
reading selectively to get a general idea of what an article is about. However, Grabe and
Stoller (2002:13) also said that skimming is a combination of strategies for guessing where
important information might be in the text, and then using basic reading comprehension skills
on those segments of the text until a general idea is formed. From some definitions of
skimming above, learners should know that skimming is the strategy to predict the topic or
purpose of some passages even the whole large text. Furthermore, the question which is given





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in the test-taker may ask about the organization of the text, the perspective or point of view of
the writer.
Skimming is usually implicit or it is not able to find of the word in a text but it needs
paraphrase of the passage. For example; there is long passage which belongs to ten
paragraphs. It is asked to find main idea of the seventh paragraph which is the large one. Of
course, if we do not have the way to skim effectively, we will directly choose the answer
without reading the passage first. If the situation like this McWhorter (2005) said that read
the parts of the passage that are most likely to provide the main ideas and skip those that
contain less important facts and details. Furthermore, in the multiple choices, there are some
parts that are ordered by the question. They are usually as Brown (2004: 213) said that:
Assessment of skimming strategies is usually straightforward: the test-taker skims a
text and answers questions such as the following:
1. What is the main idea of this text?
2. What is the authors purpose in writing the text?
3. What kind of writing is this (passage, text, article, etc)?
4. What type of writing is this (narrative, report, description, etc?
5. How easy or difficult do you think this text will be?
6. What do you think you will learn from the text?
7. How useful will the text be for your (profession, academic needs, or interests)?

3. Deducing meaning of word/expressions/idioms/phrases in context
Deducing meaning from the context is by seeing the words or phrases which is
preceding or following of the words/expressions/idioms/phrases so that it is able to be guessed
the function or word type, finally the meaning of that word could be found correctly (Johan,
1998). In this stage, learners are forced to guess the meaning of the word which perhaps, they
do not know. It is perfectly impossible if we memorize the whole words which is composed
the large big dictionary. Mikulecky and Jeffries (1996: 49) explained that when you try to
guess the meaning of an unknown word, you use the text surrounding the word-the context.
One sentence may be enough to give you the meaning, or you may need to use a longer





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passage. Logically, in deducing the meaning of context, you have to use your feeling to
guess the right meaning. With the background knowledge of what the reader has, by
analyzing the meaning of the context which includes the word wants to find the meaning,
she/he ought to find the right meaning. Lets see the following example (Mikulecky and
Jeffries, 1996: 50):
What misogynist means?
If do not know, it is able to try making a guess.
By reading the following sentences, it is able to guess what misogynist means.
1. She realized that her boss was a misogynist soon after she started working for him.
2. It is difficult for a woman to work for a misogynist. She is never sure of the
reasons for his criticism.
3. She knew that no woman would ever get a top- level job in a company owned by a
misogynist.

After reading the example above, of course, it could guess the right meaning of
misogynist means. From the first sentence 1, it is able to guess that misogynist is a
human because she is a boss. Then, when reading the second sentence 2, based on the
context misogynist is a stingy woman. Finally, after reading the last sentence, it ought to
that it has already found the right meaning of misogynist, because based on the third
sentence, we understand that a misogynist is the human that has a negative feelings about
women.


4. Making Inference (implied detail)
McWhorter (2005:377) said that an inference is a logical connection that you draw
between what you observe or know and what you do not know. Logically, inference is a
reasonable guesses of the whole information within the large text. It is not always correct of
what we infer because inference is just trying to look of what we do not know but we have
key words to find it. Based on the background knowledge of the reader has, making inference





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is like to make a paraphrase of the text which has already read. From the text, of course the
reader gets much information which is stated but it is asked to make a simple phrase/sentence
which includes all of the information drawn in the text. McWhorter (2005:377) explained that
in making inference, you may tend to concentrate on the facts at hand and may overlook
their implications. Be sure to question, challenge, and analyze the facts; look for what further
ideas the facts, when considered together, suggest.

5. Analyzing the Right Reference based on the Context
In this stage, to find the right reference refers to what/who is a perfectly difficult
because they should classify of all the text drawn before of the referring which is elaborated
by the writer. Gerot and Wignel (1994: 175) argued that in analyzing for reference we are
trying to track how participants are distributed throughout a text. In analyzing a reference,
the referring is usually a pronoun. The pronoun ought to refer to the things, or person and
even the important statement which is elaborated by the writer. To get the right referring, the
reader should read one by one of the sentence clearly and know the meaning of detail context
of the passage. If we could catch the meaning of the sentences elaborating by the writer, we
are not going to get the difficulties to find the right reference.
To make it clear about reading skill, the following text together with the question and
example of reading strategies which describe the form of it.
Reading Comprehension Passage, Philips, 2001 (Brown, 2004)
The Hollywood sign in the hills that line the northem border of Los Angeles is a
famous landmark recognized the world over. The white-painted, 50- foot-high, sheet metal
letters can be seen from great distances across the Los Angeles basin.
The sign was not constructed, as one might suppose, by the movie business as a
means of celebrating the importance of Hollywood to this industry; instead, it was first
constructed in 1923 as a means of advertising homes for sale in a 500-acre housing
subdivision in a part of Los Angeles called Hollywoodland. The sign that was
constructed at the time, of course, said Hollywoodland. Over the years, people began





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referring to the area by the shortened version Hollywood, and after the sign and its site
were donated to the city in 1945, the last four letters were removed.
The sign suffered from years of disrepair, and in 1973 it needed to be completely
replaced, at a cost of $27,700 per letter. Various celebrities were instrumental in helping
to raise needed funds. Rock star Alice Cooper, for example, bought an O in memory of
Groucho Marx, and Hugh Hefner of Playboy fame held a benefit party to raise the money
for the Y. the construction of the new sign was finally completed in 1978.

After reading the passage above, the following explanation is the detail example of
reading skill that ought to be shown in the text.
1. According to the passage, the Hollywood sign was first built in
a). 1923
b). 1949
c). 1973
d). 1978
2. According to the passage, how did celebrities help with the new sign?
a). They played instruments
b). They raised the sign
c). They helped get the money
d). They took part in work parties to build the sign.

The first and second questions of the text above are kind of scanning. Finding the year
of the Hollywood sign was first built is the specific thing of the whole information elaborated
by the writer. The task-taker does not need to read in detail of the whole text given but he/she
just needs to read fast in the point of what the question ask which is locate in one of the
paragraph in passage above. However, McWhorter (2005) stated that: scanning is searching
for a specific piece of information; your only purpose is to locate that information. Finally,
the right answer of the first question which based on the passage above is the choice a that
is 1923, and for the second question is They helped get the money.
3. What is the topic of this Passage?
a). A famous sign
b). A famous city
c). World landmarks
d). Hollywood versus Hollywoodland
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned about Hollywoodland?
a). It used to be the name of an area of Los Angeles
b). It was formerly the name on the sign in the hills
c). There were houses for sale there





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d). It was the most expensive area of Los Angeles


The third and fourth questions which are asked about the topic of the passage is kind
of skimming, because to find the topic of the passage needs read the whole passage which is
containing of the whole information elaborated by the writer. As McWhorter (2005: 503)
argued that skimming means reading selectively to get a general idea of what an article is
about. So, when doing skimming, the learners need read in detail so that the learners are able
to predict the topic of the passage above. So, Hollywood versus Hollywoodland is the
appropriate topic for the passage above and the fourth is There were houses for sale there
5. The word replaced in the third paragraph line 2 is closest in meaning to which of the
following?
a). Moved to a new location
b). Destroyed
c). Found again
d). Exchanged for a newer one
6. The expression the world over in line 2 could best be replaced by
a). In the northem parts of the world
b). On top of the world
c). In the entire world
d). In the skies

After clarifying question number 5 and 6 above, it is the example of deducing meaning
of word from the context or passage before. To find the right meaning of replace, the
learners should read the sentence before and after of the word replaced if they do not know
the right meaning exactly of the word ordered. As Mikulecky and Jeffries (1996: 49)
explained that when you try to guess the meaning of an unknown word, you use the text
surrounding the word-the context, so reading the paragraph surrounding of the word
replaced is very helpful to find the right meaning in guessing. After reading the text
surrounding of the word replaced, it could be guess that the right meaning of it is Moved
to a new location. The appropriate meaning of the world over of the passage above is In
the entire world.





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7. It can be inferred from the passage that most people think that the Hollywood sign was
first constructed by
a). An advertising company
b). The movie industry
c). A construction company
d). The city of Los Angeles

8. It can be inferred from the passage that the Hollywood sign was how old when it was
necessary to replace it completely?
a). Ten years old
b). Twenty-six years old
c). Fifty years old
d). Fifty- five years old

Making inference is the ability to predict of thing which is related to elaborate by the
reader. As like in the question number 7 and 8 above, to answer the right answer that related
to the passage is by predict or guess because the choice is not able to be found explicitly in the
passage above. McWhorter (2005:377) said that an inference is a logical connection that you
draw between what you observe or know and what you do not know. So, the right answer of
the question number 7 after making guest is The city of Los Angeles and for number 8 is
Fifty- five years old
9. The pronoun it in line 7 refers to
a). The sign
b). The movie business
c). The importance of Hollywood
d). This industry

Referring is just the pronoun to abbreviate of the word or the phrase. The question
number nine is the example of analyzing the reference based on the context as the part of
reading skill. To be able to find the right of what referring refers to, the learners should be
read the sentences before because the reference of referring must be in the previous of the
pronoun used. However, reference is able to be located in the last of the passage. The sign
which is in the point a is the appropriate answer of the question number 9, because as in the
passage above which is elaborated by the writer, the thing that was first constructed in 1923 is
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2.7. Genre of Text
All written texts have to have a clear purposes and specific information so t hat the text
itself arranged in rhetorically structured. However, genre is something crucial in talking about
text because it leads to any kinds of the texts which have different characteristic, purpose,
function, and grammatical. Pardiyono (2007: 03) stated that The written text is truly the
series of idea, message, or information that organized in a unity of meanings realized in
sentences which is not just arranging a sentence. Then Brown (2004: 187) stated that: The
genre of a text enables readers to apply certain schemata that will assist them in extracting
appropriate meaning.
Furthermore, because in all texts have a different kind of purpose and also the
information and the idea of the text is arrange in an certain text by choosing some text
elements in the right grammatical patterns, so in making the text itself should be based on the
right genre that appropriate of what purpose, information, and the topic wanted to roll out.
Bazerman (1997) said that:
Genres are not just forms. Genres are forms of life, ways of being. They are frames for
social action. They are environments for learning. They are locations within which
meaning is constructed. Genres shape the thoughts we form and the communications
by which we interact. Genres are the familiar places we go to create intelligible
communicative action with each other and the guideposts we use to explore the
unfamiliar (Hyland, 2004: 206)

Mainly, genre helps to the either reader or writer. Because of genre, the texts which
are created by the writers are classified by its name related to the characteristic within it.
Meanwhile when the readers read and analyzed the text, they do not need to full confused in
understanding the meaning of the elaboration of the topic drawn in the text and analyze the
characteristic of the text they read related to the genre of the text easily. Hoey (2001) in
Hyland, (2004: 04) in argued that likens readers and writers to dancers following each





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others steps, each assembling sense from a text by anticipating what the other is likely to do
by making connections to prior text. Furthermore, Hyland, (2004: 06) elaborated that:
genre theories have evolved in different circumstances and in response to different
problems, they have attracted growing interest because the idea of genre can help us to
understand the ways individuals use language to engage in particular communicative
situations.

2.2.3. Definition of Genre
Basically, in all contexts of using a written text or spoken text, it should be created
based on the certain genre that appropriate with the purpose and the information that wanted
to serve to the readers. As Pardiyono (2007: 02) defined that: Text type has functioned as the
frame of reference so that the text is able to create effectively in the side of the right purpose,
choosing and arranging text elements, and the right in using lexicogrammatical pattern.
However, Hyland (2004: 04) argued that genre is a term for grouping texts together,
representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situat ion. And Feez
and Joyce (2000: 06) stated that:
Recognizable patterns of structure and language within texts have evolved in this
cultural context. These patterns within texts have evolved to achieve particular
purposes and the same general patterns recur in texts which achieve similar purposes.
These patterns are called genres.

Yet, Hodge and Kress defined that genre as typical forms of texts which link kinds of
producer, consumer, topic, medium, manner and occasion, adding that they control the
behavior of producers of such texts, and the expectations of potential consumers.
http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/documents/intgenre/intgenre2. html So, genre is used to make
readers easily analyzing the right meaning based on the context and situation so that the
purpose of the writer arranged in the text could be understand easily.
When the learners want to arrange the text like explaining their experience, telling the
story to other friends, writing some news, operating some tools, etc. they could choose one of





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the genres related to the purpose and type of the text because genre of text has already been
organized some characteristics and elements that should be drawn so that the text written is
organized well and understood easily. However, Hyland (2004: 04) defined that:
Genre is an intuitively attractive concept that helps to organize the common-sense
labels we use to categorize texts and the situations in which they occur. The concept of
genre is based on the idea that members of a community usually have lit tle difficulty
in recognizing similarities in the texts they use frequently and are able to draw on their
repeated experiences with such texts to read, understand, and perhaps write them
relatively easily.

Therefore, creating the text based on the appropriate genre absolutely helps not only to
the writers because when they wanted to write down the information, they are able to divide
easily what kinds of genre based on the purpose of information they have, but also the readers
that are able to identify the topic easily based on the kinds of the genre created by the writers.
Genre of the text helps both of the writer and the reading in stating and understanding the
experience and the passage.

2.2.4. Kinds of Genre
Based on some of linguist argued their arguments above about genre that mapping the
purpose based on the information built in the meaningful text, Siswanto (2007: 02) divided
type of text or kinds of genre in story genre and factual genre.
Table 2.2.2 Type of text
Story Genre Factual Genre
1. Spoof
2. Recount
3. Narration
4. Anecdote
1. Procedure
2. Explanation
3. Report
4. Exposition





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5. Discussion
6. Description
7. Review
8. News Item

Nonetheless, in this study the researcher will not explain all of the types of text.
Related to the syllabus of KTSP used by SMA N 1 Bae Kudus, it will be explained the genres
that had already been learnt by the students in tenth and eleventh year student. The genres
which have already learnt by them are Recount, Procedure, Narrative, Descriptive, News
item, Report, Analytical Exposition, Hortatory Exposition, and Spoof. For the detail
explanation about them, it can be clarified of the following elaborating:
1. RECOUNTS
a. Overview
This kind of text is used to express or retell to others about the activity in the past.
It may be about a vacation, weekend activity, seminar, and so on. Pardiyono (2007: 63)
defined in a simply definition that recount is the text that aim to inform about the event
or activity in the past. But Feez and Joyce (2000: 89) said that recount is the simplest of
these text-types because, in a recount, events are recounted one after the other in the order
in which they happened. Furthermore, the process of the activity which retell in words
goes on in well organized related to the real activity. We usually find this kind of text in
diary, an individually letter, history, biography of the famous prominent figure, and so on.
b) Social Function
Social function is the main purpose of the text itself. So the text that named
recount has social function To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.
(Gerot and Wignell, 194: 1994)





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c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1) Orientation; provides the stetting and introduces participants
2) Events; tell what happened, in what sequence
3) Re-Orientation; optional closure of events
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1) Focus on specific participants
2) Use of Material Processes
3) Circumstances of time and place
4) Use of past tense
5) Focus on temporal sequence
e) Example;
VACATION
Some friends and I went to Yogyakarta for a vacation last month. It was fun and
we had a wonderful time there.
We had our vacation soon after the school exam was over. We chose to go to
Yogyakarta because we thought that the place was nice and the people were friendly. In
addition, some friends have told me that it has a lot of places of interests.
We left for Yogya early in the morning, and we took Pramex train that departed
from Solo at 08.00. We get off in Yogyakarta Railway Station, and headed to one of the
Food Stalls in Malioboro for some food and drinks. We were surprised to see that
everything in Malioboro has been arranged well now.
After we had a walk around the place for a few minutes, we took a taxi and headed
to one the most famous beaches, Parangteritis Beach. On the beach, we really enjoyed the
beauty of the waves reaching the seashore. We stayed there for several hours, before
finally we decided to be back to Solo.
We were very happy to spend a day playing waters and enjoyed the natural beauty
of the beach. We left Yogyakarta Railway Station at a quarter to four by Pramex train and
got home around 3.50. It was both tiring and fun.
(Pardiyono, 2007: 69)

2. PROCEDURE
a) Overview
When arranging some recipe or to work an electronic or others, of course it need
some list of steps to do it. It is explained about how to make the food or work an





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electronic even others. Feez and Joyce (2000: 87) explained that a procedure consists of a
series of steps which shows how to achieve some goal. However, the procedure text is an
appropriate one when people wanted to write down in the paper about how to make or
work something well organized in a steps. The steps may include constraints which have
to be met in order to carry out the instruction successfully. As Pardiyono (2007: 126) said
that the purpose of procedure text is to show the well organizes how the activity is done.
b) Social Function
To make clear understanding about what the procedure text is, it has social
function to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or
steps. (Gerot and Wignell, 2006: 1994)
c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Goal
2. Materials (not required for all Procedural texts)
3. Steps 1-n (i.e. Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the Goal)
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on generalized human agents
2. Use of simple present tense, often imperative
3. Use mainly of temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence)
4. Use mainly of Material Processes
e) Example;
Banana Milkshake
Here is how to make a delicious banana milkshake you will ever taste.
All you need for it are;
1) A banana
2) Some mike
3) Some honey
4) Some ice





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Firs, cit up the banana into small slices in put them in the blender. Next, add some milk
and honey. Dont miss to put in some ice. Then, mix them altogether for a few seconds.
After everything is well bended, pour the mixture into a glass and have it soon!
It is always very nice to have it with some friends after class.
(Pardiyono, 2007: 130)

3. NARRATIVE
a. Overview
Sometime, the event in the past may be able to be made as a short story so that
could amuse or entertain to the reader, or may be able to be a good lesson. Pardiyono
(2007: 94) argued that:
Narrative is the text that absolutely appropriate to tell or amuse the activity or
happening in the past that deal with problematic experience and resolution which
has the purpose to amuse, and usually aimed in giving moral value to the readers.
The narrative text is usually found in short story, novel, script of film, legend,
fable, and other kind of story that consist of conflict-resolution.

Furthermore, Feez and Joyce (2000: 89) said that narrative highlights a complication in
the sequence of events. In a narrative the action is frozen and suspense is built up as the
storyteller evaluates the complication. The text which belongs to narrative is the comple x
one. Narrative is able to be more complex if the complications drawn in the story are
followed one to others before one problem resolved. However, the way to resolve some
complications owned by narrative is usually taking along within the story which together
with the social message.
b) Social Function
This kind of text that talk about the problematic problems which may pass by
everybody that within is consists of conflict, climax and resolution has social function To
amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways;
Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some
kind, which in turn finds a resolution. (Gerot and Wignell, 204: 1994)





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c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Orientation; sets the scene and introduces the participants
2. Evaluation; a sapping back to evaluate the plight
3. Complication; a crisis arises
4. Resolution; the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse
5. Re-Orientation; optional
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on specific and usually individualized participants
2. Use of Material Processes, (Behavioral and Verbal Processes)
3. Use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes
4. Use of temporal conjunctions, and temporal Circumstances
5. Use of past tense
e) Example;
LAKE TOBA
Once upon time in Batakland lived a fisherman named Bhatara Guru Sahala. He
caught a fish that could talk one day, which could turn into a beautiful woman whose
anger could shake the earth and make the volcano erupt.
As a tough fisherman, he went fishing every morning. One day, he caught an
unusual fish in his old fishing net. It was an unusual fish because it could talk like human.
What made him more surprised was that the fish asked him to set it free back to the river.
He could do nothing except to agree, and soon he set it free back to the river. As
soon as he set the fish free back to the river, it changed into a beautiful woman. She was
with long black hair and big round eyes. She was really beautiful. Sahala thought. He
finally fell in love with her, and asked her to marry him. He promised to be faithful and
would take care of her day and night. The woman agreed to marry him with one very
important promise. She asked him not to let anyone know that she was once a fish. Sahala
agreed and promised to do so, and would always hold up the deal.
They were happily married, and go two beautiful smart daughters. As a fisherman
to live his happy days, Sahala went fishing every morning with his daughters who used to
bring him food and drink. Day bay day, nothing seemed to go wrong. He was very happy
and enjoyed the food and drink very much while fishing. Unfortunately, his two daughters
really made he was very unhappy one day. He was very mad to them. They ate up the
food and drink instead of serving them to his beloved father. As he was so upset and got
very angry, he uncontrolled emotion blew up and came out dirty words from his mouth.
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The two daughters didnt understand what their father had j ust talked about. They
didnt understand why he said like that to them. They soon went home and told everything
to their mother. Their mother was very annoyed and didnt feel to well with the situation.
Sahala came home to explain everything and apologized to his wife. He realized
everything about what he had just said to his daughters and begged to her pardon.
Unfortunately, it seemed his crying didnt work. His wife didnt care too much to his
apology. She could not forgive Sahala.
Suddenly, another unusual thing occurred! She trembled severely, and everything
around her was shaking. The earth began to shake and the volcano began to eupt. The
earth began to crack down to form a large hole. The hole grew larger and larger and filled
in it with much water. The large hole grew up to form a lake and it was then called LAKE
TOBA.
It is very famous as a place of interest for domestic and foreign visitor up to now.
It has lovely view and natural beauty. This legend is still well known for people of this
country and is still held up as one of the famous folk tales of the nation.
(Pardiyono, 2007: 105)

4. DESCRIPTION
1) Overview
It is a quite similar with a report text but the difference of both texts is the
description text tells in a specific topic. (Pardiyono, 2007: 33) argued that when the
students aim to give the description to kind of thing that may be living or non- living
things to the readers, they are able to organize their text in description text. But Feez and
Joyce (2000: 88) stated that descriptive uses mostly being and having verbs in the present
simple tense. It is also about specific things which students can see in the environment, for
example a house or a car. Furthermore, when we write description text, the rhetorical
structure should be paid attention much because it leads to us about the list of the text built
up. The easy thing to remember the characteristics of descriptive text is the content of
thing telling within the text. The content which is told within the text belongs descriptive
text is about the specific category of things such as; Colo Waterfall, Muria Mountain,
Bandengan Beach, etc.
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The procedure text has social function to describe a particular person, place or
thing. (Gerot and Wignell, 208: 1994)
3) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Identification; identifies phenomenon to be described
2. Description; describes parts, qualities, and characteristic
4) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Use of attributive and identifying processes
3. Frequent use of epithets and Classifiers in nominal groups
4. Use of simple present tense
5) Example;
Tawangmangu Waterfall is one of the most interesting places of interest in
Kanganyar.
It is located not far from solo. It is about 30 kilometers east of the city. It is very
easy to get the place by any public transports. Bus is the cheapest, but taxi is the most
convenient.
It has cool weather most of the time, no wonder many people like to visit in their
free time. As it is far from industries of any kinds, the air is always fresh and it is not
polluted.
The water falls more than 30 meters down into a small lake. The falling water looks
very fantastic, and the beauty of the nature around the lake is so astonishing. There is a
small river nearby, to where the water then flows.
Located in the middle of pinewoods, the lake is always wonderful to admire. In
addition, the are many funny and tame monkeys climbing the trees on the left and right
sides of the sidewalk down to the lake.
(Pardiyono, (2007: 39)

5. NEWS ITEM
a) Overview
In daily life may happen many interested things and reasonable to inform to others.
Newspaper, magazine, tabloid, radio broadcast, television broadcast, etc are the right
media to create this text named new item. The events are arranged in a simple wr itten text





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that are able to make the reader anxious to read based on the rhetoric structure is in
headline; a reduced sentence which eye-caching (Pardiyono, (2007: 245).
b) Social Function
Based on the purpose of this text is to inform that is usually found in the media of
information has social function to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the
day which are considered newsworthy or important (Gerot and Wignell, 200: 1994).

c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Newsworthy event(s): recounts the event in summary form
2. Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances
3. Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Use of material Processes to retell the event
3. Use of projecting Verbal Processes in Sources stage
4. Focus on Circumstances
e) Example;
Big Change Made After Aceh Tsunami
It might be true that Indonesians tend to react, not anticipate. A warning system
was built just after a big disaster occurred.
It was not until a year ago after a 9,3 magnitude earthquake triggered a devastating
tsunami in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and parts of North Sumatra that the Meteorology
and Geophysics Agency (BMG) was equipped with a system that could immediately
report such a disaster.
After the Aceh quake, the government, supported by Germany, Japan, China and
France, started building a system that by 2008 will connect 160 seismographic stations
nationwide, BMG earthquake division head Suharjono said Tuesday.
When fully installed, the system will be able to report earthquakes and release
tsunami warnings less than five minutes after the seismic event occurs.
As today, we only have 24 hour of the 30 installed stations running well, he added.
(The Jakarta post, July 27
t h
, 2006; Pardiyono, 2007: 255)






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6. REPORTS
a. Overview
This text type may occur in the biology that describe about the information which
explain a phenomenon that natural or non-natural. It does not explain about the process of
occurring or happening but describing term by term, part by part of the information given.
Pardiyono, (2007: 272) stated about report text that: This kind of text is perfectly
appropriate to use to organize the information about natural or non- natural phenomenon or
things in the world. The information has the purpose to give new knowledge to the
readers. But Feez and Joyce (2000: 89) explained that report is used to classify and
describe in general terms the way things are.
In learning process, to read and write a report successfully, the learners have to be
able to understand well how information can be organized according to characteristic
wanted to read or write and also they should be able to work out what those characteristic
might be. Furthermore, this text may be found in living things such as; flora and fauna,
non- living things such as; mount, sea, galaxy, satellite, and any kinds of phenomenon in
the society for example; parliament, politic, economic, trade, technology, education, and
so on.
b) Social Function
Report text based on (Gerot and Wignell, 196: 1994) explanation, this text has
social function to describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-
made and social phenomena in our environment.
c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. General Classification; tell what the phenomenon under discussion is
2. Description; tells what the phenomenon under discussion it like in terms;
a) Parts (and their functions)





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b) Qualities
c) Habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if non- natural
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on generic participants
2. Use of Relational Processes to state what is and that which it is
3. Use of simple present tense
4. No temporal sequence
e) Example;
SEA LION
Sea Lions are sea-mammals and are warm blooded. They breathe air with their
lungs. The scientific name for the family they belong to is Neophoca Cinerea (Nee-o-fo-
ka Sin-er-ee-a).
Australian sea lions are about 250 cms long. Adult males (called bulls) grow to
about 3 meters and are the largest Australian mammal (they no longer breed in Australia).
The female sea lions are always smaller than the bulls in length and weight. Australian sea
lions have a body shaped for slipping smoothly through the water and a thick layer of fat
underneath their skin. They have large nostrils, long, sharp teeth and two pairs of short
legs with the five-toed feet flattened like paddles or fins.
When Australian sea- lion pups are born they feed on their mothers milk. Sea lions
have to come on dry land when they mate and have babies. But sea lions are big and dark
and they mate with lots of females, if a baby pup goes near bull, the bull will kill it. When
the pup is trying to look for its mother, it will starve.
Australian sea lions are found along the South-Western shores of west Australia and
most of the South Australian coastline and off-shores island. Sea lions eat fish and squid.
(Siswanto, 2007: 47)

7. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
a) Overview
In daily life, everyone is able to convoy their argument that may be able to
persuade others people. This argument may be able to give the right information to the
reader so that there is something to change. The learners should pay attention to this text
because it is similar with hortatory exposition text. Furthermore, the difference of both





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exposition texts is the conclusion or the recommendation that ends the text. This text may
be found in pamphlet, advertisement, etc.
b) Social Function
It is a perfectly same with hortatory exposition but analytical is different with
hortatory, because (Gerot and Wignell, 197: 1994) decided about the social function of
this text is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case.
c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Thesis
a) Position; introduces topic and indicates writers position
b) Preview; outlines the main arguments to be presented
2. Arguments
c) Point; restates main argument outlined in preview
d) Elaboration; develops and supports ea
e) Reiteration; restates writers position

d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on generic human and non-human participants
2. Use of simple present tense
3. Use of Relational Processes
4. Use of internal conjunction to stage argument
5. Reasoning through Causal Conjunction or nominalization
e) Example;
Circuses Should not Use Animals
Animals should not be used in circuses. The environment where the animals perform
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Firstly, animal used in the circuses do not perform in their natural environments.
Tigers for example, which naturally live in the wilderness and hunt their preys, must
perform tricks on narrow stages and spend their lifetime in small cages.
Secondly, the living conditions of the animals are poor. They live in such cramped
conditions most of their time. They actually need plenty of space to roam. Also they have
freedom to live with their own kind.
And the last reason is because in the 21
st
century, it seems unnecessary and even
cruel to confine wild animals and train them to do tricks for the publics amusement.
(Siswanto, 2007: 25)

8. HORTATORY EXPOSITION
a) Overview
Sometime, in facing the problem in daily life, everyone is able to convoy their
argument. This argument is able to give the right information to the reader. The learners
should pay attention to this text because it is similar with analytical exposition text.
Furthermore, the difference of both exposition texts is the conclusion or the
recommendation that ends the text. This text may be found in the readers letter in the
newspaper, the citizen complaint of the government, etc.
b) Social Function
Similar with analytical exposition but this text has different social function, that is
to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case,(Gerot
and Wignell, 209: 1994)
c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Thesis; announcement of issue of concern
2. Arguments; reasons for concern, leading to recommendation
3. Recommendation; statement of what ought or ought not to happen
d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on generic human and non-human participants, except for speaker or writer
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2. Use of:
a. Mental Processes; to state what writer thinks or feels about issue. e.g. realize, feel,
appreciate
b. Material Processes; to state what is or should be
e.g. doesnt seem to have been, is
3. Use of simple present tense
e) Example;
Dear editor,
I have been living in this town for more than 15 years and I have not been very
satisfied with the work of the municipality administration, especially in the matters of
garbage, traffics and the street vendors.
The condition along Sudirman Street, for example, represents the general picture of
the problems of the city. Garbage and vendors both create traffic congestions on the street.
Vendors with carts and pick-ups, especially, in front of the hotel, use almost half of the
street.
We understand that much of the problem is caused by the influx of people who
move here from other places. Therefore, i suggest that the next administration put a
professional touch to these problems hiring experts in urban planning to help with chronic
problem. And by that effort we will be able to see a city of beauty and comport as we had
in the past.
Yours sincerely,
Renaldy Tugimin
(Siswanto, 2007: 27)

9. SPOOF
a) Overview
This text may be used by comedians or jokesters that tell about the funny event
based on the phenomenon in the daily life that amusing are the main purpose of this text.
Usually in the end of the text, it shows a humor or joking that may not be anticipated.
These texts are usually found in a funny story, humor comic, comedian, joking, humor
monologue, and so on Siswanto (2007: 10).







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b) Social Function
The text that has the main purpose amusing the reader has social function to retell
an event with a humorous twist. (Gerot and Wignell, 192: 1994).
c) Generic Structure (Rhetorical Structure)
1. Orientation; Sets the scene
2. Event(s); Tell what happened
3. Twist; Provides the punchline

d) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on individual participants
2. Use of Material Processes
3. Circumstances of time and place
4. Use of past tense
e) Example;
Khachoes was not feeling well. So, he wanted to see the doctor. The doctor asked
him a lot of questions and wrote Khachoess answer down.
What do you eat in the morning? The doctor asked him.
Eggs, bread, butter, jam and coffee. Khachoes replied
The doctor asked again And what do you have for lunch?
Meat or fish and bread. Khachoes answered.
And what do you have in the evening? The doctor continued.
Eggs and bread, sir. Replied by Khachoes
Then the doctor said eat some fruits every day, and eat all the skin of fruits. The
skin is very good for you health. Most of the vitamins of the fruit are found in the skin.
Now what fruit do you like best?
Khachoes was not happy and finally answered coconut, sir!
(Siswanto, 2007: 44)









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2.8. The Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
Teaching English is the activity to transfer knowledge that may hold by an instance.
For the non- formal instances, it could be arranged as like as they want especially in the
curriculum and method but for formal instances they should follow all criterions that have
completely arranged by the government. In teaching, the teacher should be careful to their
student capability and process. Brown (2000: 07) stated that showing or helping someone to
learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing
with knowledge, causing to know or understand. However, teaching is not just in the
classroom but also in all processes in the school field even in their daily live. In order to the
transferring knowledge to the learners is going to perfectly run well, all areas of processing
studying should support. Different with other lessons; mathematic, physic, biology, history,
anthropology, etc. English is a language that needs not only the brain to think and understand
the material but also needs practicing to master fast.
As in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus, English program which is obligated to be taught to the
students based on the curriculum arranged by the government policy has completely run well.
English is taught in five hours in a week that consist of forty minutes in one hour so the
number of it is two hundred minutes in a week for tenth and eleventh year student. Yet, for
twelfth year student consist of six hours in a week. Then, there are six teachers that teach all
students in this instance. The teachers of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in teaching their students, they
use the text book and also access the internet to find out the material even an effective method
for setting the class. To support teaching English, there are two rooms of Language
Laboratory in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus so that the teaching could be perfectly effective. Here, the
students are able to consentrate learning the lesson and also practice listening skill and others.







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2.9. The Curriculum in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
Nowadays, the instance especially informal instance should follow the curriculum to
hold teaching which is fixed by the government or the institute is going to be out of date.
KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) is the greatest curriculum which is fixed by
the government that is absolutely used by SMA N 1 Bae Kudus because KTSP is the
curriculum which is developed as related to set of education, the potency of school or
institute, the characteristic of school or area, the social culture of local society, and learners
characteristics (Mulyasa 2009: 08). Related to Nasution (2006: 05) definition that curriculum
is the program that is arranged to smooth the process of teaching- learning under guiding
school and institute responsibility of the education ministry together with its member, KTSP
which is the greatest curriculum fixed by government belongs to SMA N 1 Bae Kudus, the
institute is able to organize all processes of teaching programs accurately. The process of
transferring knowledge to learners especially English is able to go on smoothly because KTSP
is not rigid to the student in teaching even to the institute.

2.4.4. The Purpose of Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
English is one of the lessons which chosen by Indonesian government policy as the
first foreign language that has to master by the students in senior high school. It is a correctly
decision that decided by the government because English is the international language. By
English, people could make relationship to other people in abroad because they understand in
the communication each other. English is language skill that in mastering it need much
practice in spoken even in written. When learners have already mastered English they could
explore their skill in the global word. Meanwhile, the purpose of teaching English stated in
Pedoman Khusus Pengembangan Silabus dan Penilain Kurikulum 2004 SMA (2003:02)
explain that English lesson pressure to the language skill aspect that cover spoken and





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written sills, it could be respective even productive. Beside spoken and written skills which
are mastered by learners, so that they could adapt to the international environment by global
language easily. They are not only could be active in spoken skill that include listening skill
but also perfectly energetic in written skill that include reading skill.
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in holding teaching English guide and facilitate their students to
increase their skill and ability of English especially Listening, Speaking, Reading, and
Writing. Based on the curriculum which is recently used by all instance in Indonesian, to
master four skills of English, the lessons relate to the text that it is not far from genre of text.
So, mastering what is text, what kinds of genre, etc. are an important thing to the students so
that they could follow the lesson given by the teacher easily.

2.4.5. The Material of Teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
The material of English has already arranged so that the student after graduated of
senior high school, they could master some of material that usually used in daily life related to
English as language used to communicate with others. Based on the KTSP used by SMA N 1
Bae Kudus, the material has perfectly arranged in syllabus. Related to syllabus created, text is
completely important to master by the students so that they are able to convey their mind in
teaching process.
Furthermore, the material of teaching English in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus that related
reading is kinds of genre although it discuss about listening, speaking or writing. In eleventh
year student of senior high school in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus has already organized such as;
narrative, recount, news item, report, descriptive, explanation, analytical exposition, and
discussion. So that why the researcher takes this study about reading ability that has a specific
field.






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2.4.6. Teaching Reading in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
Since the students themselves studied about English, they have already studied about
reading which it had learnt since elementary school. Text was already serving firstly to the
students to know the context of the usage about this language itself that told about story,
explanation, conversation, etc. However, many students just capable a few about this ability
that is reading comprehension even they have already been in the eleventh year of senior high
school that it has been divided to some fields. It caused the difficulties of mastering the
material itself or so many skills should be mastered by the students themselves.
As we know, reading ability needs many skills to master it which it is about grammar,
vocabulary, skimming, scanning, and other skills. it is like guessing meaning for the context is
absolutely important skill to the learners when they read a text if they have a few of
vocabularies so they are able to know and understand well about the meaning and the message
given by the writer. If the students could not find the meaning of the text given, it is perfectly
impossible to the learners are able to finish their work.
Based on the context above, some of the students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus have
already followed the lesson given by using their skill. Their reading ability is sufficient
because when they discuss about genre they still got difficulties and confused. Furthermore,
when they were given some test about reading comprehension, some of the students could
finish the works well. Based on the teacher who teaches on eleventh year students in SMA N
1 Bae Kudus, in process of teaching the learners could not so follow the material given so the
teacher should repeat her explanation to make a clear understanding to her students. Hence,
for the science and social field student in eleventh year, they have already had a clear master
to some kinds of genre given by the teacher because in senior high school it is studied clearer
than when in junior high school. So, even they have a low skill in reading ability, they have a
higher skill than the student of junior high school.





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2.10. Multiple Intelligence
Armstrong (2002: 02) stated that intelligence is suspended to the context, order, and
indictment which is given by our life and it is not suspended to the value of IQ, academic
degree, or prestigious reputation. So, the best people who have a good intelligence is not had
by them who could master in counting by any kinds of structure, who have a high mark in IQ
testing, who master the mathematic, or even they who could answer well all the question of
physic. However, nowadays all people have already had a view even it is wrong that the
students who have a good intelligence are the persons who diligence in the class, clever in
memorizing, clever in answering the question, always have a good mark in the class. But the
good student, who is got a eulogy of all teachers in the school, is not always success in their
life. According to Armstrong, it is just a school intelligence which is not showing of a
successful when they have already fall down to the real life. Because dozen of people who
have already success in their life, they have a bad mark when they was still in the bench of
school.
Furthermore, what is intelligence? Armstrong (2002: 02) said that the intelligence is
the ability to catch the new situation and the ability to learn from the past experience of
others. Gunawan (2007: 152) stated that:
Webster dictionary defined that intelligence is:
1. The ability to learn or know from the experience; the ability to get and defend the
knowledge; mental ability
2. The ability to give the respond swiftly and success to the new situation, the ability
to use logical to solve the problem.
Then, Oxford dictionary defined intelligence as the ability to learn, know and logic;
mental ability.
But Encyclopedia Encarta defined that:
The ability to learn the fact and skills, then capable to apply what have already
learned, especially if this ability has been successfully developed.






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However, Garner (1983) in Gunawan (2007: 229) stated that the intelligence is not the thing
which is static. Intelligence will be more settled if it is sketched as a group of ability or skill
which is able to be grown and expanded. Intelligence has the character of latent which is exist
in every human being. Intelligence can be changed to be talent. So, in every human being has
a different intelligence which is could be grown and expanded. We could not judge to the
student especially the teacher who always plays together with usually that the student is
stupid, low intelligence, and so on, and also always gives prize to the student that have a good
mark, could answer the question well, active in the class etc.
Truly, the student who always has a bad mark ought to give some special attention
because their brain is difficult to reach the academic. It is definite that some students who
difficult in some materials in the class have other special talent that is very wonderful. Prof.
Howard Gardner as co-director in Project Zero in Harvard Graduate School of Education
found the theory that is named Multiple Intelligence. In their research, Gardner found eight
kinds of smart which is found in the human. It is eight kinds of smart:
1. Linguistic; the ability to the field of language, organize the words
2. Logic mathematics; the ability to the field of number and logic, usually like to an
accuracy, and then think abstract and structured
3. Visual and spatial; the ability the field using the pictures which instead to mental
pictures, skillful in using map, graphic and diagram, and usually using the move to
help their learning
4. Music; have the sensitivity to the mood and emotion, know and understand about
music, and capable to estimate and create the rhythm and melody.
5. Inter-personal; easy to associating, active to communicate, the ability to know and
cooperate with others or skillful in socialization





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6. Intra-Personal; could motivate their selves, know self feeling, know who they are, or
the ability in the field of personality
7. Kinesthetic; the ability to control physical well, capable in hand controlling, like to
touch and manipulate the object, or the talent to manage the moving of body and
manage the object
8. Naturalist; love the environment or nature, capable to classify the object, recognizing
and interact with the flora and fauna

1.6.4. Science Field Students (IPA)
Science field students are one of the fields that should be taken by the learners when
they have already been in the eleventh year student. It is the choice which should be chosen
by learners that have pleasure and capability to join in science field student. Joining in the
fields, it is not just by pleasure of the students according to some institute. The institute only
holds the IQ and Talent Enthusiasm Test which the final result of the test is going to dribble
them to join in what field based on their test. The final test of talent enthusiasm of one student
said that he/she has enthusiasm in science field, he/she is going to be put in there, and if
he/she has enthusiasm in social field, he/she is going to be put in social field student. But the
others are only classifying to list of their mark based on the final test in tenth year student.
The students who got good mark are going to be put in science field student, and who got a
bad mark are going to be put in social field student.
However, science field students are the field that when the process in learning have a
special main materials that should be mastered by students who are joining there that are not
learned in other fields. The materials are physic, mathematic, and chemistry. In this field, it is
able to conclude that the learners who join in this field should be able to manage the number
well and logic. So, based on the eight kinds of smart that is stated by Gardner, science field





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student belongs to the one of them. The right smart of science field student is logic-
mathematics because the main material which should be mastered is the material that belongs
to number, logic, think abstract, problem solving in scientific.
Armstrong (2002: 85) stated that logic mathematic is the sensitivity and ability to
differ logic system or numeric, and the ability to handle a series of long reasoning. But
Gunawan (2007: 112) stated that:
According to Gardner, this intelligence (logic- mathematics) truly has several aspects;
that are the ability of mathematic calculation, the ability of logic thinking, the ability
of problem solving, thinking deduction and induction, and the ability to recognize the
model and connection.

Furthermore, science field student is the field which is hold to improve the student talent that
generally belongs to logic- mathematics smart. Even though, other kinds of smart that stated
by Gardner is improved when doing the learning process but logic- mathematics is the
intelligence majority which is improved there.

1.6.5. Social Field Students (IPS)
After it is explained about science field students which belong to logic- mathematic,
the next turn is social field student. Same with science field students, social field students are
also taken when the student when they are going to join in the eleventh year student (XI) and
go on to the twelfth year student (XII). This field is same with other fields that could be
chosen by senior high student but in this field has difference with others especially in the
material that should be mastered. Social field students are the field that has difference material
which should be mastered that is not belonged to the other fields. The different materials
which are belonged to social field student are economic, PKn (Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan),
and History. In other words, this field is the field that is hold to improve the ability in
socialization.





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However, based on the eight kinds of smart which is stated by Gardner, social field
student belongs to inter-personal intelligence. Mainly in this field, the intelligence majority
which is improved is inter-personal intelligence than other intelligences. So, in the learning
process, the other intelligence is improved but inter-personal intelligence is the intelligence
majority that should be mastered by learners who join in social field student. This field
improves about having relationship with other in sociality and associate with the citizenship.
Based on Armstrong (2002) this intelligence demands to the ability of apprehend and
perceptive the mood, conduct, intention and ambition of others. Even he stated that Social
Director of the Cruiser should have this kind of intelligence that is same with the Big
Enterprise Manager. However, Gunawan (2007: 237) stated that:
Inter-personal intelligence is the ability of perceiving and understanding meaning
sense, motivation, and people feeling. This intelligence is also involving sensitivity of
face expression, voice, body moving and able to give a respond effectively in
communication.



1.6.6. Science Field Student and Social Field Student in Understanding Linguist
Material (English)
Before it is explained about the relationship between science and social field student
with linguist, better it is explained about linguist intelligence first. Linguist intelligence is the
intelligence which is belonged and improved by all people. it is not exempting to science and
social field students, because linguist intelligence is used to develop the words so that they
could communicate with others. Gunawan (2007: 231) argued that linguist intelligence is the
ability to use the words effectively that either in spoken or written which is including
mastering syntaxes, phonology, and semantic. So, linguist is the main intelligence that
should be improved than other intelligences. However, linguist intelligence is the universal
intelligence that belongs to every child. If he/she gets auditory excitement, the child is going





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to communicate with the community around them. In the Broco area of the brain is
responsible to the ability of communication which is produce the sentence with the good
structure. Then Wernick area that exactly in lobus temporal handles the interpretation of
verbal information which is heard. Furthermore, to be able to success in learning a language,
it needs the good environment which is full of supports and perfectly gratifies that within it,
mistake and error is enabled (Gunawan, 2007).
The clarification about science field student which is related to logic- mathematic
intelligence and social field student is related to inter-personal intelligence are already
elaborated above and also the clear explanation about linguist intelligence is already rolled
out, so is logic- mathematic and inter-personal influencing in improving linguistic
intelligence? Based on the theory, the first time it will be clarify about science which belongs
to logic-mathematic. Dr. Mark Tramko, neurologist from Harvard Medical School proved that
theres an overlapping in the brain cell which is processing music, linguist, logic- mathematics
and abstract-reasoning (Gunawan, 2007: 236). Then it is supported by Gunawan (2007: 236)
elaboration, he stated that:
Music has a big influencing to the growth of mathematic ability and science of the
children. Because a learner in the vocal school which is the majority of curriculum is
about art and voice, truly has a high ability in the field of mathematic.

Finally, it could be conclude that when the music is able to influence the blooming of
logic- mathematic intelligence in every child. So between logic-mathematic and music
intelligence are also able to influence the linguist intelligence when the children are intends in
improving their logic- mathematic intelligence because as Tramko said that three of the
intelligences are overlapping in the brain.
Furthermore, for social field student that belongs to inter-personal intelligence is could
be clarify based on Gunawan (2007: 237) elaboration, he stated that when personal
intelligences; inter-personal and intra-personal intelligence are used, so in its operating these





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personal intelligences tend to activate and used the other intelligences. In the time of this
student is improving their personal intelligence, concurrently all of the intelligences that
stated by Gardner are also being activated. It is especially linguist intelligence because it is as
a general intelligence of human. Then Gunawan (2007: 237) also stated that:
The learners with the perfectly expanding of inter-personal intelligence are going to
enjoy group activity and collaborative learning. They also like to the activity that force
them to interview with the older person, doing observation human interaction, decide
the class rules, determine and divide the duty and responsibility and follow the game
which is involving to solve the conflict.

From the Gunawan elaboration, this student with the inter-personal intelligence should
be active in communication. They should be cheerful with others related to the intelligence
which is improved. For example, interview with the older person. For children, this is an
activity that needs the capability to develop a good sentence. The active communication is
should be built when in the processing of the activity.







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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

This chapter is going to be described by the researcher about the methodology of the
research which is to find out the reading proficiency between Science Field Students (IPS)
and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010. Syamsuddin and Damaianti (2006:14) said that:
Methodology of the research is the way to solve the problem in the research which is
brought out systematically and accurate that the aim to obtain the fact and conclusion
so that could well understand, explain, predict, manage the condition and situation.

Furthermore, part of this chapter explain the method of the research that includes research
design, population an sampling, instrument of the research, procedure of collecting data,
technique of analyzing data.

3.1. Research Design
When doing a research, the researcher has to identify the research design that is used
to collect and analyze data in research based on what part of the research takes place.
Research design is decided to be guidance by the researcher to arrange all problems because
Kerlinger (1964:483) said that Research design is the plan and structure of the research
which is perfectly arranged so that finally the researcher is able to find out the answer of some
question of his research.
This research that measuring the reading ability of science field students and social
field students are a quantitative research. Blaxter, at al (2001: 58) argued that quantitative
research is empirical research where the data are in the form of numbers. Then Hamidi (2004:
14) explained that





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Quantitative research is more use ethical approach in the sense that the researcher
collects the data by determining the first set as a concept related to variables that
derived from existing theories which is selected by the researcher. Then the variables
are sought and established its indicators- indicators. Only from the indicator that
already been set is made questionnaire, a score-choice answers and its score.

Nonetheless, this research is kind of ex post facto research. Cohen, at al (2007:264)
defined that after the fact or retrospectively and refers to those studies which investigate
possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing and existing condition or state of affairs
and searching back in time for plausible causal factors. Meanwhile, Kerlingger (1970) cited in
Cohen, at al (2007:264) defined that ex post facto research as that in which the independent
variable or variables have already occurred and in which the researcher starts with the
observation of a dependent variable or variables. Nonetheless, this research is belongs to the
criterion- group approach. Cohen, at al (2007:266) stated that in the criterion-group (or causal-
comparative) approach, the investigator sets out to discover possible causes for a phenomenon
being studied, by comparing the subjects in which the variable is present with similar subjects
in whom it is absent. The criterion- group approach is able to be represented by the basic
design which is taken from Cohen, at al (2007:266). It aims to make clear of understanding.
The basic design follows;



For the explanation that, based on this research is going to be found, O
1
is the students
who join in science field students and O
2
is the students who join in social field student.
Meanwhile, the researcher examines both of criterion group O
1
and O
2
by X which is reading
ability.
From the explanation above, it has been clear that the criterion- group approach used
when we want to know the difference of one thing to another by comparing of the proficiency
O
1

X
O
2






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to the capability that had already been mastered by the sampling of the research. Cohen, at al
(2007:264) said that the investigator may examine two groups that are different in some way
or ways and then try to account for the difference or differences by investigating possible
antecedents.
However, the researcher is going to measure the number of the last capability of the
sampling about reading ability by comparing between two different groups that have the same
characteristics.

3.2. Population and Sampling
In quantitative research, it needs population for taking a data in analyzing what
problem wants to be discovered by deciding a sampling. Arikunto (2002: 90) explained that
a research subject is something which the position very central because on the subject of
study itself, the data about the variables are investigated and observed by the researchers.
Moreover, population is the whole subject of the research because Ali (1984: 54)
stated that Population is the subject of research. Finally, based on the title of this research,
the population is all the eleventh year students who are studying in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus that
got in second semester at that time.
The total of all the eleventh year students who are studying in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
are 369 students for nine (9) classes. They are four classes for science field student s (IPA) that
have a total 176 students; XI IPA 1 has 44 students, XI IPA 2 has 44 students, XI IPA 3 has
44 students and XI IPA 4 has 44 students, four classes for social field students (IPS) that have
a total 171 students; XI IPS 1 has 42 students, XI IPS 2 has 43 students, XI IPS 3 has 43
students, XI IPS 4 has 43 students, and the last is language field students (BAHASA) that just
belong to one class consist of 22 students. Based on the title of this research, the population is
just the students who take in science field student (IPA) and social field student (IPS).





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Table 3.1 List of the Number of Science Field Students (IPA), Social Field Students
(IPS) and BAHASA of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010.
No. Class The Number of Student
1 IX IPA 1 44 students
2 IX IPA 2 44 students
3 IX IPA 3 44 students
4 IX IPA 4 44 students
5 IX IPS 1 42 students
6 IX IPS 2 43 students





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Continued

No. Class The Number of Student
7 IX IPS 3 43 students
8 IX IPS 4 43 students
9 IX BAHASA 22 students

The next step in doing the research is deciding the sampling because it had already got
the population. Arikunto (2002: 91) defined that Sampling is the selection of number
research subjects as a representative of the population so that the resulting sample is
representative of the population. However, the researcher needs a simple sampling from
whole population that still large those are 176 students for IPA and 171 for IPS. According to
Arikunto explanation on the book that has a title Manajemen Penelitian that when we has a
hundreds of the population who is going to be decided for sampling, we could take the
sampling from the population for about 25 30 % from the whole population to make easy
and simple for collecting the accurate data.
Because this research is kind of comparing one thing to another, the researcher should
take a representative sampling that is finally found a significant finding. Hence, the
researcher uses a purposive sampling technique that is used by researcher if researcher has the
certain consideration in taking the sampling (Arikunto, 2002: 97). The researcher consider for
sampling of the population in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus based on the teacher who gives the lesson
of both the science field students (IPA) and social field students (IPS).
Based on the consideration above, the researcher decides XI IPA 3 consists of 44
students for science field student and XI IPS 1 consists of 42 students for social field students.
Both those classes are taught by the same teacher. The consideration is when the class is
taught by the same teacher; of course she used the similar method, technique, etc. for giving





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and explaining the lesson. Finally, by the consideration, find the significant and accurate data
in doing a research.

3.3. Instrument of the Research
When we discuss about instrument of the research, it needs the method to collect data
of the research itself. Furthermore, both instrument and the method to collect the data are built
together. Arikunto (2002:100) explain that:
The method to collect data is all ways that can be used by researchers to collect data.
While the instruments to collect data are tools that are selected and used by
researchers in its activities so that these activities be collected systematically and made
easier by it.

It could be clarified that when we decide the method want to use, it has the instrument
based on what the method we use for collecting the data. For this research that measure of
reading ability to the students who join in science field students and social field students uses
test.

3.3.1. Test
The first research instruments of reading ability of science field students and social
field student is test. It is used to measure science field students and social field students in
mastering reading ability that they have already learnt in senior high school since they joined
in tenth year student. Brown (2004: 03) defined that test is a method of measuring a persons
ability; knowledge, or performance in a given domain. And Arikunto, (2002:171) stated that:
Test is a specially prepared instrument for measuring something important and definite in
character. It could be said, because the tests used to determine something about the position or
predicate of someone.





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However, the researcher is compiling the test which is arranged in multiple-choice.
Brown (2003: 194) stated that By far the most popular method of testing a reading
knowledge of vocabulary and grammar is the multiple-choice format, mainly for reasons of
practicality: it is easy to administer and can be scored quickly. In the test of multiple-choice
to measure the sample, there are five choices that are able to be chosen by the sample which
belong to one of correct answer. To facilitate in giving a mark of the result, the researcher
organized the total of question in 40 numbers. 40 numbers of questions are not too little in
measuring the reading ability of science field students and social field students. Related to the
hour of lesson which has 45 minutes in one lesson of hour, it is perfect when the test is hold in
90 minutes that is two times hours of lesson in the senior high school. Based on the time, one
question of 40 numbers has 2.25 minutes. Because the test is kind of reading which belongs to
the text, it needs more time in doing them.
Then, the materials of questions which are going to measure the reading ability of
science field students and social field students are the whole material of genre text which have
already been given since the learners joined in that school. The types of text are Recount,
Procedure, Narrative, Descriptive, News item, Report, Analytical Exposition, Hortatory
Exposition, and Spoof. Based on the text types, the models of question in analyzing the text
are scanning, skimming, deducing meaning in context, making inference, and analyzing the
right reference.
However, the highest score of the test will be given is 100 by counting all of the score
that the item test which is consisting of 40 numbers of multiple choice. As well as according
to Arikunto (2006:251), stated that the criterions of the students score are Excellent, Good,
Sufficient, Low, Poor and Bad. Finally, the researcher could arrange the criterions to find out
the description of the reading proficiency between Science Field Students (IPS) and Social





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Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010 as follow;
Table 3.2 The criterion of The Students score of the reading proficiency between
Science Field Students (IPS) and Social Field Students (IPS)

No. Scores in Partial Criterion
1. 86 100 Excellent
2. 71 85 Good
3. 56 70 Sufficient
4. 41 55 Low
5. 26 40 Poor
< 25 Bad

Furthermore, the researcher does not forget in measuring the ability both science field
students and social field students by test. In order to the instrument of the research measuring
by test fulfill the condition, the test has already though by the researcher in validity and
reliability itself so that the data taken by the test itself is significant and accurate. It is fixed
that before the test items are given to the sample, the test items are firstly tried to other
learners to know the validity and reliability of the test. Because Arikunto, (2002:169) argued
that Validity and reliability are the two essential requirements that must be pursued by
investigators for the instruments. Test or not test always inquired how its validity and
reliability. Finally, the following terms are going to explain about both validity and
reliability the test itself used to measure reading ability of science field students and social
field students.







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3.3.1.1.Validity
Before we talk too far about validity, it is better to know about the definition about
validity itself. Arikunto, (2002:170) defined that: Validity test is a test capable of measuring
the level of something to what was to be measured or validity is a condition that describes
the level of the relevant instrument able to measure what will be measured.
Hence, validity itself is the important thing to the researchers when doing a research,
because it is as an instrument measuring when collecting the accurate data. Meanwhile,
Anggoro (2008: 5.29) stated that an instrument of measuring data is called valid or
interpretation of high value if the instruments are able to measure what we measure. Then,
Brown (2004: 26) explained that:
Faced validity refers to the degree to which a test looks right, and appears to measure
the knowledge or abilities it claims to measure, based on the subjective judgment of
the examinees who take it, the administrative personnel who decide on its use, and
other psychometrically unsophisticated observers (Mousavi, 2002: 244)

The test that used to measure reading ability of science field students and social field
students have already been categorized valid because the researcher in arranging the test is
appropriate to the syllabus used by the school itself. The materials of the test are the materials
that have already learnt by all students for they studied in senior high school. Because the
samples are social field students and science field students who have already been studying at
11
th
year student so the materials are taken from the material in 10
t h
until 11
t h
year student that
it includes the genres of the text that they have already mastered which it related to the
syllabus used by the teacher herself. Therefore, the validity of the instrument is per fectly
important because it influences to an accuracy of the research. Anggoro (2008: 5.29) argued
that validity reflects the size of the validity of research instrument to measure the pertinence
and reveal hidden facts.






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3.3.1.2.Reliability
After the instrument of the research is categorized in validity, it should be reliability.
Brown (2004: 20) said that a reliable test is consistent and dependable. If you give the same
test to the same student or matched students on two different occasions, the test should yield
similar results. Then, Anggoro (2008: 5.31) stated that reliability is the consistency of a
measuring instrument. If the instruments used to perform measurements over and over again,
the instruments will still provide the same results.
Furthermore, it could be clarified that the test that used to measure reading ability of
science field student (44 students) and social field student (42 students) have already been
categorized reliable because the number of the test is 40 items in multiple choice that given to
finished it in 60 minutes to the students. Hence, the students have 2.25 minutes to finish 1
question together with reading the texts. The samples of the research are two classes in
different field but in the same teacher and curriculum, the test that given to measure their
ability is perfectly same.
In order to the test is reliable, the researcher use single test single trial.
With the technique single test single trial, the researcher only has a set instrument
only, and only test once. Then the result is analyzed, that is with dividing all
instrument become two in equal sizes. The dividing of the instrument is same many to
item of existing question or problem and yield the first cleft and second cleft
(Arikunto, 2002:169).

The researcher is putting the odd item by x as the first cleft and even item by y as
the second cleft. Finally, the result of the correlation is counted by using product moment
(Pearson formula) that (Arikunto, 2002:171) explain as follows:
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }




=
2
2
2
2
y y N x x N
y x xy N
r
xy

Note; r
xy
: The correlation coefficient
x : The scores of the odd number items





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y : The scores of the even number items
N : The number of population
Then, the result of the computation is going to be applied into the Spearman Brown
formula to estimate the reliability of the whole test. The formula is:

xy
xy
r
r
r
+

=
1
2
11

Note;
r
11
: Coefficient of the reliability of the whole test
r
xy
: Coefficient of the correlation between odd and even numbers
Then to determine the reliability of the test, the interpretation as follows:
0.00 0.20 : The correlation test is not reliable
0.21 0.40 : The correlation test is low reliable
0.41 0.60 : The correlation test is medium reliable
0.61 0.80 : The correlation test is high reliable
0.81 1.00 : The correlation test is perfect reliable
Before the item test of Reading Ability of Science Field Students (IPA) and Social
Field Students (IPS) of Eleventh Grade Student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in Academic Year
2009/2010 is going to be given to the samples of this research, the item test which is
consisting of 40 numbers of multiple choice had been tried to IPS 4 of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
in Academic Year 2009/2010. Furthermore, the result of reliability of the item test was found
which r
11
is 0.80 (0.802131368), so the correlation of the reliability of the test based on
calculation reliability interprets high reliable. It means that the item test is reliable; therefore,
it is able to be used to collect the data.

3.4. Procedure of Collecting Data





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When we are doing something, of course those have some steps to finish them so
finally get the satisfying result. For collecting data, the researcher takes some following steps:
1. Asking permission to the Dean of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of
University of Muria Kudus be the.
2. After getting the letter for taking the data, finally asked permission to the headmaster
and the English teacher of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus to take the data.
3. Preparing the test to the eleventh year students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus.
4. Taking the try out first to the same grade of sample in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus to know
the reliability of the test which are going to use to measure the sample that the total of
test is 40 numbers of questions in multiple choices.
5. Administering the test for 90 minutes (2 times hour of lesson, 45 minutes).
6. Giving the test to the samples which are the science field students and the social field
students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus.
7. Analyzing the result to be the data list on a paper.
8. Finally it is got the result of doing this research which reading ability of science and
social field student and reading problem faced by them.

3.5. Technique of Analyzing Data
To know the accurate result of reading proficiency in mastering or difficulties of
science field students and social field students, the researcher is going to calculate by mean,
median, modus, and standard deviation. To know the central tendency, the researcher is going
to already list of both groups distribution. The steps for making the frequency distribution are
follows:







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1. Making the Sum of Interval
N log (3.3) 1 interval of Sum + =
Note:
N : The number of students
2. Making the Interval Wide (i)
interval of Sum
data) lowest The - data highest (The
(i) wide Interval =

3. Mean, Median, Modus, and Standard Deviation
After making the distribution frequencies in group, the researcher is going to
already arrange the central tendency by using the formula of mean, median, modus,
and standard deviation. They are following:
a. Computing Mean;
N
fx
x

=
Note:
f : Frequency
x : Middle grade
N : The data number of students

b. Computing Median;
| |
| |
i
fm
F
N
l Md

+ =
2

Note:
Md : Median





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l : The exact lower limit of the score group upon
which the median lies
N : The number of students
F : Sum of scores below
fm : Interval median frequency
i : Interval width

c. Computing Mode;
| |
| |
i
d d
d
l Mo
+
+ =
2 1
1


Note;
Mo : Mode
l : The exact lower limit of the score group upon
which the median lies
d
1
: Interval modus frequency minus frequency before
d
2
: Interval modus frequency minus the next
frequency
i : Interval width

d. Computing Standard Deviation;
( ) ( )
N
fx
N
fx
i S
2 2
'

+ =

Note;
S : Standard deviation





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i : Interval wide
f : Frequency
x : Score of middle grade
N : The number of students

4. T-test
A t-test allows us to compare the average scores of two groups and determine
how likely the difference between the two means occurred by chance. However, this
kind of this research is to measure the difference of the ability science field student
and social field student is categorized independent t-test which compares the averages
of two samples that are selected independently of each other. The formula is:
2
2 1
1 X X
s
t
X X

=

Note:
t : t-calculation
1 x : Mean of the first samples
2 x : Mean of the second samples
2 1 X X
s

: The standard error of the difference between two means


However, to calculate the standard error of the difference between two means use this
formula;
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=

2 1 2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1 n n n n
SS SS
s
X X

Note:
SS
1
: sum-square of the first sample





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SS
2
: sum-square of the second sample
n
1
: the number of the fist sample

n
2
: the number of the second sample
Furthermore, to calculate sum-square use this formula;
( )


=
n
x
x SS
2
1 2
1 1

( )


=
n
x
x SS
2
2 2
2 2

Note:
SS
1
: sum-square of the first sample
SS
2
: sum-square of the second sample
x
1
: the score of the first sample
x
2
: the score of the second sample
x
1
2
: the quadrate score of the first sample
x
2
2
: the quadrate score of the second sample
n

: the number of sample

The formula of the statistics hypothesizes are:
H
o
: IPA = IPS
H
a
: IPA IPS
Based on the formula of the statistics hypothesizes above, it can be made the final
criterion as follows:
Reject H
o
and accept H
a
if t
o
> t
t

Accept H
o
and reject H
a
if t
o
< t
t

Note;





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H
o
: There is no significant difference in the reading ability between Science
Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
H
a
: There is significant difference in the reading ability between Science
Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
IPA : The reading ability of Science Field Students (IPA) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
IPS : The reading ability of Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
t
o
: T-observation or t-calculation of the difference between Science Field
Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student
of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010
t
t
: t-table





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CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the researcher is going to describe and discuss the data obtained from
collecting data. The main purpose of doing this research is to find out the reading ability of
Science field students (IPA) and Social field students (IPS) and the problems in reading
ability faced by Science field students (IPA) and Social field students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.

4.1. Data Description
In this study, to find the significant data of finding the result of the difference in
reading ability between science field students and social field students, the researcher uses
test. The test which is used to measure their ability is kind of reading question which is
include of reading skill. The number of the question given is forty questions which are the text
question belong to the whole question. Furthermore, the scope of this study is about reading
ability, so contain of the test is all about reading` skill which belongs to scanning, skimming,
deducing meaning from context and so on. The materials are given in the test is about genre
which is taken the material which have already been got for they was in SMA N 1 Bae.
Because the materials are from tenth and eleventh year student which have already been got
by the students, the researcher does not need to teach anymore that this study is related to
analysis research.
Exactly in the month of May 2010, the activity of doing the test to measure the ability
of science and social field students in reading is hold by the researcher. As mentioned in the
previous chapter that the sample of this study is the eleventh year student of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus, to find the result the researcher decided one class in every field science and social





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because the number of the whole students of SMA N 1 Bae who are in eleventh year students
are 369 students that are 176 students joining in science field students, 171 students joining in
social field students, and 22 students joining in language field student. Because this study is
just measuring the ability of science and social, it is just taken two classes. For social field
students, the researcher took XI IPS 1 which was the first turn in measuring their ability was
hold on Wednesday, May 12
t h
2010, and for science field students, the researcher took XI IPA
3 which was the second turn for measuring the reading ability was hold on Saturday, May 15
t h

2010.
However, in the process of measuring reading ability, forty four students of XI IPA 3
were not able to join all because there were two of them who were absent because of getting
sick, so the number of XI IPA 3 were forty two. Yet, the whole of XI IPS 1 that is consisting
of forty two were able to join all in the activity in measuring reading ability. When the
researcher was holding the test to find the data of both fields, the process of answering forty
questions is able to run well without any problems and obstacles. The whole students of both
science field students and social field students are able to follow the rule to finish the test
which was given by the researcher.
4.1.1. The Data of reading ability of Science field students (IPA) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010
After holding the test to measure the reading ability of science field students, the
researcher found that the highest score of science field students is 95 and the lowest score of
science field students is 52.5. The whole result score in measuring of the reading ability of
science field students is able to seen in the table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Score of reading ability of Science field students (IPA) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.





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NO. Student No. Right Answer Score
1 10177
34 85
2 10179
23 57.5
3 10184
27 67.5
4 10190 24 60
5 10208 24 60
6 10226 26 65
7 10228 31 77.5
8 10229 24 60
9 10232
27 67.5
10 10250
38 95
11 10252
36 90
12 10267 33 82.5
13 10283 26 65
14 10286 25 62.5
15 10295 28 70
16 10316 27 67.5
17 10321
30 75
18 10330
30 75
19 10333
28 70
20 10369 31 77.5





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Continued,

NO. Student No. Right Answer Score
21 10375
33 82.5
22 10389
33 82.5
23 10404
25 62.5
24 10405 22 55
25 10410 22 55
26 10416 0 0
27 10418 30 75
28 10425 27 67.5
29 10426 27 67.5
30 10434 34 85
31 10437 30 75
32 10438
33 82.5
33 10445
30 75
34 10452
27 67.5
35 10468
0 0
36 10487
35 87.5
37 10490
24 60
38 10503
25 62.5
39 10511 24 60
40 10515 27 67.5
41 10532 30 75
42 10536 24 60
43 10537 21 52.5
44 10540 28 70

From the data above, the result of measuring reading ability of science field students
of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 is able to be
made the frequency and the percentage table which the highest frequency is in the interval
66.7 - 73.7. However, based on the result of science field students in answering the reading
test, it could be proved as follows;
Table 4.2 The frequency and percentage of reading ability of Science field students (IPA)
of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.





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No. Interval f %
1 88 - 95
2 4.76
2 80.9 - 87.9
7 16.67
3 73.8 - 80.8
8 19.05
4 66.7 - 73.7
12 28.57
5 59.6 - 66.6
10 23.81
6 52.5 - 59.5
3 7.14
42 100

Therefore, based on list in the table of the data above, it can be made the Graphic
Polygon as follows:

Picture 4.1 Graphic Polygon of reading ability of Science field students (IPA) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010.
However, if the result of the table above draws a Bar Diagram as follows:





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Picture 4.2 Bar Diagram of reading ability of Science field students (IPA) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010
After the researcher puts the data into the formula, the reading ability of science field
students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 has the average score (Mean):
72.23, Median: 78.65, Mode: 69.32 and Standard Deviation: 10.68. Based on those findings,
the researcher concludes that the reading ability of science field students of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 can be categorized as good. The complete calculation of
mean, median, mode and standard deviation of the result of measuring reading ability of
science field students is presented in appendix 12
4.1.2. The Data of reading ability of Social field students (IPS) of eleventh grade
student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010

Different with the result belongs to science field students with categorized good, the
reading ability of social field students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus
in academic year 2009/2010 is able to be categorized sufficient. We could see the result of





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their scores in table 4.3 which have 97.5 for the highest test score and the lowest score is 30.
However, the highest score in this sample of research is got in social field student and for the
lowest score in this sample of research is also got in social field student.

Table 4.3 Score of reading ability of Social field students (IPS) of eleventh grade student
of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
NO. Student No. Right Answer Score
1 10189 23 57.5
2 10191 24 60
3 10192 24 60
4 10193 33 82.5
5 10199 24 60
6 10213 28 70
7 10219 22 55
8 10221 28 70
9 10246 19 47.5
10 10268 19 47.5
11 10280 30 75
12 10302 39 97.5
13 10319 21 52.5
14 10320 16 40





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Continued,

15 10338 21 52.5
16 10340 24 60
17 10345 28 70
18 10352 32 80
19 10353 28 70
20 10360 32 80
21 10365 14 35
22 10378 22 55
23 10380 34 85
24 10384 23 57.5
25 10387 21 52.5
26 10407 30 75
27 10411 21 52.5
28 10419 36 90
29 10420 21 52.5
30 10433 27 67.5
31 10441 19 47.5
32 10462 21 52.5
33 10463 30 75
34 10475 19 47.5
35 10489 31 77.5
36 10505 21 52.5
37 10509 34 85
38 10522 24 60
39 10529 31 77.5
40 10530 35 87.5
41 10531 21 52.5
42 10534 21 52.5

From the data above (the result of measuring reading ability of social field students), it
is able to be made the frequency and the percentage table which the highest frequency is in
the interval 42.1 53.1. However, based on the result of social field students in answering the
reading test, it could be proved as follows;
Table 4.4 The frequency and percentage of reading ability of Science field students (IPS)
of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.





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No. Interval f %
1 86.5 - 97.5 3
7.14
2 75.4 - 86.4 7
16.67
3 64.3 - 75.3 8
19.05
4 53.2 - 64.2 9
21.43
5 42.1 53.1 13
30.95
6 30 - 42 2
4.76
42 100

Therefore, based on list in the table of the data above, it can be made the Graphic
Polygon as follows:


Picture 4.3 Graphic Polygon of reading ability of Social field students (IPS) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010.
However, if the result of the table above draws a Bar Diagram as follows:





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Picture 4.4 Bar Diagram of reading ability of Social field students (IPS) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year
2009/2010
After the researcher puts the data into the formula, science field students who are
categorized good are different with social field students. When the result of social field
students are put to the formula, the result are categorized sufficient. The researcher got the
average score (Mean) of social field students: 62.4, Median: 59.59, Mode: 50.85 and Standard
Deviation: 21.20. The whole descriptions of calculation of measuring the ability of social field
students are enclosed in appendix 13.
4.2. Hypothesis Testing
In this level of sub chapter is to prove that science field students are different with
social field student. The hypothesis of this research states that there is a significant difference
in the reading ability between Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010. To test the
hypothesis, the researcher analyzed the data of the final score of science field students and
social field students by using the formula of independent t-test on the level of significance





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0.05 and the degree of freedom (df) 82 which is gained from; (N
1
+N
2
) 2 so (IPA; 42 + IPS;
42) 2 = 82. The value of t-observation (t
0
) based on the result of the calculation is 3.520.
Furthermore, on the level significance 0.05, the value of t-table (t
t
) is 1.990. On the other
word, t-observation is higher than t-table (t
0
= 3.520 > t
t
= 1.990). However, if the data of the
final score of science field students and social field students by using t-test on the level of
significance 0.01 which the degree of freedom (df) is 82 has 2.632 of the value of t-table (t
t
).
In other word, even though the result is analyzed using the level of significance 0.01, the
result of t-observation is also higher than t-table (t
0
= 3.520 > t
t
= 2.632). So, the Null
Hypothesis (H
0
) states that there is no significant difference in the reading ability between
Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 is rejected. However, the Alternative
Hypothesis (H
a
) states that there is significant difference in the reading ability between
Science Field Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of
SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 is accepted. Therefore, the researcher
concludes that there is a significant difference in the reading ability between Science Field
Students (IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus in academic year 2009/2010. The complete calculation is presented in appendix 14.

4.3. Discussion
After analyzing the result of score which is taken from the test of both students who
join in science field students which belongs to logic- mathematic intelligence and social field
students which belongs to inter-personal intelligence of eleventh year student of SMA N 1
Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 in reading ability, it is able to be found the significant
differences of reading ability which belongs to their capability. Meanwhile, with the number





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of the test is 40 questions, the researcher could calculate easily because the student will get
score 100 if they could answer the whole question correctly.
Based on the result of the science field students and social field students in reading
ability for answering the questions which are included the genre which have already been
learned since they were studying in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus is going to be elaborated as follows:
Firstly, it is going to elaborate the reading ability of science field students which
belongs to logic- mathematic intelligence based on the final result of the test which includes
the genre texts that have already been learnt since they were in tenth year student in SMA N 1
Bae Kudus. With 40 questions of multiple choice, science field students have the highest
score 95 which means excellent and 52.5 for the lowest score which means low. After the
final result score of science field students is calculated, the average score (Mean) belongs to
science field students are 72.23 which mean good. However, the Median has 78.65, Mode has
69.32, and Standard Deviation has 10.68.
Secondly, after science field students were already elaborated above, it is the turn to
know the final result of social field students which belongs to inter-personal intelligence. The
question which was given to measure reading ability in social field students is the same as
which was given to measure reading ability in science field students. With the same question
of reading text and the same number of question of the test also, social field students has the
highest score 97.5 which means excellent and 35 for the lowest score which means poor.
When it is calculated, the average score (Mean) of the result belongs to social field students is
62.4 which mean sufficient. Furthermore, the Median has 59.59, Mode has 50.85, and
Standard Deviation has 21.20.
Finally, after it holds the test which has number 40 questions to measure reading
ability of both science field students and social field students, it is found the significant result.
The result is that science field students which belongs to logic- mathematic intelligence is





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more capable in reading ability than social field students which belongs to inter-personal
intelligence. The result is able to be proved from the final calculation of average score of both
science and social field students. Science field students belongs to good but social field
students belongs to sufficient and the lowest score in doing the test which has number 40
questions, science field students belongs to low but social field students belongs to poor. Even
though the highest score of both science and social field students is excellent, for the highest
score is achieved by social field students with 97.5.
Furthermore, the result of doing the research to find out is there any significant
difference in reading ability between science field students and social field students of
eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010 shows that the
hypothesis of the research is accepted. Based on the calculation of t-test, with the level of
significance 0.05, the degree of freedom (df) 82, and t-table (t
t
) 1.990, the t-observation (t
0
)
obtained is 3.520. In other words, t-observation is higher than t-table (t
0
> t
t
). Nonetheless,
even though the result of science field students and social field students in reading abil ity is
analyzed using the level of significance 0.01, the result of t-observation is also higher than t-
table (t
0
= 3.520 > t
t
= 2.632). Therefore, Reject H
o
and accept H
a
because t
o
> t
t
. On the other
hand, Science Field Students (IPA) is different with Social Field Students (IPS) in the reading
ability of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in academic year 2009/2010.
Based on the result of reading ability of science field students which has good and
social field students which has sufficient on the average of score calculation, the researcher
assumes that the intelligence that is improved majority in their field is significantly influence
in mastering reading ability. In the fact that the result scoring of test which in include reading
skill, both of science and social is significantly different. For science field students that
belong to logic- mathematic intelligence, they are used to face with the materials which need
their brain to improve logic, number. However Gunawan (2007: 234) stated that the learners





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with the improved well of logic- mathematic, they are going to like to search the way to solve
the problem, and have the high interest in analogy and syllogism. So, the students which are
improved the intelligence in logic- mathematic, they will be genius in something that needs to
think much.
For example, in mastering linguistic the learners who belong to logic mathematic will
more understand and feel easier than the learners who have the low of logic-mathematic. On
the other hand, the students with logic- mathematic is able to understand and apply reading
ability, because in reading ability, for example skimming, it needs to activate the brain to
analog and conclude implicit information from the text. However, the learners with the logic-
mathematic also ought to be able to understand and apply in writing ability because in
writing, to be able to write the good statement, the writer should be organize the word what
the writer has, but it need to hold the research to prove about the learners belong to logic-
mathematic can understand well in writing.
Furthermore, based on the result scoring of the test which content reading ability,
science field students which belongs to logic-mathematic has good result, for social field
students which belong to inter-personal intelligence has sufficient result. As elaborated above
that the intelligence which majority improved is significantly influences to master reading
ability. Gunawan (2007: 237) argued that inter-personal intelligence is the ability to observe
and understand others which involved give the effective respond in communication. So, the
social field students in improving the inter-personal intelligence are not used to face with the
materials which need their brain to improve logic, number as like in science field students.
The result if social field students are faced about the material or question which needs to
activate the brain to analog, they will get difficulties. Because in learning process, social field
students are used to with the materials that do not need to analog, like history, PKn,
Economic.





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Based on the result of scoring test to measure reading ability, social field students
which belong to inter-personal intelligence get difficulty when they are faced with the reading
skill especially to skim. Because in the result of scoring, the question of the test that needs to
activate the ability to skim and to infer from the information which is drawn in the text based
on the number of sample social field students 42, the false answer is higher than the true
answer.
However, the researcher calculate the result of science field students and social field
students, although science field students with the logic- mathematic have good result and
social field students with the inter-personal have sufficient result, the average of the result in
mastering reading skill, they has low capability when they are faced the questions that need to
skim, to infer which the questions are implicit based on the text that elaborated. Because
reading skill is like skimming and making inference is the ability of mastering reading that
needs to read the whole text and understands clearly about the information arranged perfectly
by the writer. After the researcher get the result of the ability which belongs by the science
field students and social field students, the researcher has a notion that the science field
students with logic- mathematic intelligence which is majority improved in their field, in
mastering linguistic based on four skills of language (listening, speaking, reading, and
writing), they are more capable in reading and writing than social field student. Furthermore,
for social field student with inter-personal intelligence which is majority improved in their
field, social field student in mastering four skills of language, if they inspect frequently, will
be more capable in listening and speaking than science field students.







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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1. CONCLUSION
Finally, after the researcher calculates the result of the test measuring reading ability
of science field student and social field student of eleventh year student of SMA N 1 Bae
Kudus in the academic year 2009/2010, it is able to conclude that:
There is significant difference in the reading ability between Science Field Students
(IPA) and Social Field Students (IPS) of eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in
academic year 2009/2010. Hence, on the level significance 0.05 the result is t
0
= 3.520 > t
t
=
1.990 and on the level of significance 0.01 is t
0
= 3.520 > t
t
= 2.632. Moreover, Science field
student has good result because average score (Mean) of the result is 72.23 and Social field
student has sufficient result because the average score (Mean) of the result is 62.4.

5.2. SUGGESTION
In this sub chapter, as the end of the discussion, based on the result of holding the
research that has the title The Reading Ability of Science Field Students (IPS) and Social
Field Students (IPS) of Eleventh Grade Student of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in Academic Year
2009/2010 the researcher has some suggestion as follows:
1. The English teachers of Senior High School especially in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus could not
treat to both science field students and social field students in a same because they have
different characteristics and especially when one teacher hold both science and social
because they are different in improving the intelligence. Usually if an English teacher
holds the science and social class, he/she will teach the method by the same. The English
teachers of Senior High School especially in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus have to find the right





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method of teaching English to differ both science and social field students, particularly for
social field students that have lower capability than science field students. Furthermore, in
reading skill, the teachers have to teach in deeper understanding to the learners in
skimming and making inference, because both students are very low in mastering it.
2. The students in science and social field especially in SMA N 1 Bae Kudus have to study
more and more about reading to improve their capability in reading skill especially
skimming and making inference. Particularly for social field students because they have
low capability in this scope.







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, 2010. From.
http://www.readingisgood.com/2008/05/comprehension-a-definition/.

Samuel, Jay S. and Farstrup Alan E. 1996. What Research Has to Say about Reading
Instruction. New York: International Reading Association. Inc.

Siswanto, Agus and AF, Rohmadi. 2007. English Revolution. Jepara: Mawas Press.





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Suparman, Ujang. 2005. A Comparative Study of Characteristics between High and Low
Students Reading Proficiency. In National Journal of English Edu; Journal of
Language Teaching and Research. pp. 140-156.

Susilo, Joko, Muhammad. 2007. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Pelajar.

Syamsuddin, AR and Damaianti, Vismaia S. 2006. Metode Penelitian Bahasa. Bandung: PT
Remaja Rosdakarya.

Tim Widya Gamma. 2004. Pemantapan Menghadapi SPMB IPA 2005. Bandung: CV. Yrama
Widya.

Wegmann, Brenda. 1996. A Reading Skill Book. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc.








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APPENDICES





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Appendix 1

LIST OF THE STUDENTS IPA 3
SMA N 1 BAE KUDUS

No.
No.
Induk
Nama No.
No.
Induk
Nama
1 10177 Aji Satriyanto 36 10487 Novi Tiara
2 10179 Andy Kristiyan 37 10490 Pipit Arianto
3 10184 Barir Ismaya Shofa 38 10503 Yulius Anggara Pandu K.
4 10190 Eren Gilang Permana 39 10511 Dyah Ayu Sulistyaningrum
5 10208 Okky Agustha Putra 40 10515 Faiqatun Nikmah
6 10226 Arini Septiyan Irawati 41 10532 Puwo Kuncoro Noor Adhi P.
7 10228 Awalia Prikawati 42 10536 Sri Utami Ningsih
8 10229 Bunga Angalian Sari 43 10537 Tantiyo Nuryadi
9 10232 Febby Dwi Andriani 44 10540 Tri Handayani
10 10250 Reny Anggraeini
11 10252 Riska Ayu Fardani
12 10267 Azza Aunillah
13 10283 Latifa Nurul Safitri
14 10286 Min Zahrotul Umami
15 10295 Riska Arini
16 10316 Elin Kaeriyah
17 10321 Haneysa Fitria Bellona
18 10330 Nujumullaily
19 10333 Rahma Noor Alifah
20 10369 Meana Wulandari
21 10375 Riza Maulida
22 10389 Andi Dwi Nugroho
23 10404 Faka Maghtamika
24 10405 Fita Dwi Istiqomah
25 10410 Lejar Budi Utomo
26 10416 Mohamad Zaenuri
27 10418 Muh. Fajrifitian Fahrizal
28 10425 Yunfia Nabella
29 10426 Abdul Rozaq
30 10434 Defika Ina Ferdiani
31 10437 Dini Tiyan Kurniasari
32 10438 Diyanata Amaliya
33 10445 Juli Noor Farida
34 10452 Nisa Kharisma Hidayati
35 10468 Arif Putra Risky



Appendix 2






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LIST OF THE STUDENTS IPS 1
SMA N 1 BAE KUDUS

No.
No.
Induk
Nama No.
No.
Induk
Nama
1 10189 Dinda Tahta Alfina 36 10505 Abimanyu Theophano
2 10191 Etamina Rosalia Juwita 37 10509 Devi Kristin Wibawanti
3 10192 Fikri Faila Sufah 38 10522 Iwung Yanzon Karissa
4 10193 Findi Ina Kurnia 39 10529 Nurus Saadah
5 10199 Istiqomah 40 10530 Ockta Delvia
6 10213 Suharni 41 10531 Priskila Dian Febriana
7 10219 Agus Riswanto 42 10534 Robert William Ruhulessin
8 10221 Ajeng Fauqiyyatul Alfani
9 10246 Nuryanti
10 10268 Bayu Nugroho
11 10280 Faza Fatihunnuha
12 10302 Qainal Furqon Ibnu M.
13 10319 Fatimatul Hidayah
14 10320 Handani Aji Angkasa
15 10338 Fois Setiawan
16 10340 Ulya Khana Oktiviani
17 10345 Adzicky Samaawa
18 10352 Dini Arina Hapsari
19 10353 Erwan Beni Saputro
20 10360 Heny Aningtiasih
21 10365 M. Aditya Wardhana
22 10378 Shofiatul Hanani
23 10380 Voni Meiyana Sari
24 10384 Yuni Anwardani
25 10387 Adhitya Bahrizal Ilmy
26 10407 Imroatul Munandhifah
27 10411 Lilian Anggriani
28 10419 Muizatun Naila
29 10420 Nailil Hidayah
30 10433 David Saputra Ramadhan
31 10441 Fardah Hanifah
32 10462 Sri Ratih Sekar Pawestri
33 10463 Susanti
34 10475 Dwi Prasetyo Utomo
35 10489 Oktiavia Riskha A.







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Appendix 3

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
UNIVERSITY OF MURIA KUDUS
2010

TEST ITEM FOR MEASURING
THE READING PROFICIENCY OF
SCIENCE FIELD STUDENTS (IPA) AND SOCIAL FIELD STUDENTS (IPS)
11
th
GRADE STUDENT
SMA 1 BAE KUDUS 2009/2010


Read the following text carefully then choose the correct answer by giving a cross sign
(X) on a, b, c, d or e on the answer sheet has been given.

Text 1 (For the questions number 1 until 4)
Sea world in Ancol Dreamland is a place where many kinds of fish are kept in
captivity. It is designed similar to the real underwater life. There are big and small fish, and
beautiful corals. People can come and see them there. The fish swim to and from in aquarium
as big as volleyball court. Some people enjoy seeing the fish and they think that it is important
to keep some kind of fish in captivity so that we can study and find out about them. They can
see underwater life without diving into the sea.
Sea World Indonesia is divided into two worlds, fresh water and salt water. In the
fresh section, you can find out about ecosystem, South American fish, African fish, baby
crocodiles and giant robber crabs. Salt water consists of a special appearance thank (dugong),
jelly fish, coral reef, miniature corals, many kinds of fish, dangerous sea creatures, the
underwater world and much more.

1. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?
a. The location of Sea World
b. The activities under water
c. The fresh water and salt water ecosystem in Sea World
d. The size of the aquarium in Sea World
e. The real underwater life of Ancol Dreamland
2. What is the form of the text?
a. News item
b. Report
c. Anecdote
d. Narrative
e. Descriptive



3. The following statements are correct according to text, EXCEPT .
a. We can see underwater life without diving into the sea
b. The ecosystem in salt water is different from the one in fresh water
c. In fresh water ecosystem we can find jelly fish





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d. Crocodiles are only found in fresh water ecosystem
e. Sea World is designed as real as underwater life
4. baby crocodiles and giant robber crabs.
The word giant means .
a. High
b. Long
c. Wide
d. Large
e. Small

Text 2 (For questions number 5 until 9)
Eating vegetables and fruits is a sure way to better health. Some may wish to take
them in the form of juice or tables. Whatever it is, natures goodness prevails. Vegetables like
bitter guard contain a compound known as charantin, which helps to lower the blood sugar
levels of diabetics. It has insulin- like compounds and also appears to have anti-cancer
properties. Cucumber has a hard skin that is an excellent source of important minerals. It
helps improve the skins condition as it is rich in potassium. Potassium is known as the
youth mineral. It gives elasticity to skin tissue and promotes muscle flexibility. It also
promotes hair growth due to its high silica content, and is believed to help in dissolving
kidney stones.
Celery is high in organic sodium, which helps insomnia. Those who have problems
falling asleep should therefore eat more celery. Sodium works together with potassium to
calm and balance the nervous system. Spinach is believed to have remarkable qualities such
as restoring energy, increasing vitality and improving the quality of the blood. It contains
twice as much iron as other green vegetables.
Fruits like apple contain good amounts of vitamin A, B, B2, B6, Biotin and Folic Acid as
well as minerals like chlorine, copper, iron, magnesium and manganese. All these benefit the
skin, hair and nails. Citrus fruits like grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange and pomelo, are rich in
vitamin C. this vitamin supports the bodys immune system. Guavas are richer in vitamin C
than oranges. However, the Chinese believe over-consumption of guavas can cause
constipations.

5. Fruits and vegetables can be consumed in the form of .
a. Juice or tablets
b. Raw materials
c. Dried or roosted
d. Ripe or unripe
e. None of the above



6. If people want to lower their blood sugar levels of diabetics, they need .
a. Potassium
b. Charantin
c. Celery
d. Cucumber
e. Sodium
7. The silica found in cucumber promotes healthy .
a. Eyes





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b. Bones
c. Organs
d. Hair
e. All of the above
8. It contains twice as much iron as . (Paragraph 2
nd
)
The word it refers to .
a. Celery
b. Sodium
c. Spinach
d. Potassium
e. Cucumber
9. Celery is high in organic sodium, which helps insomnia. The word insomnia has the
same meaning with .
a. Blindness
b. Bleeding- nose
c. Sleeplessness
d. Impossible
e. Sleepness

Text 3 (For question number 10 until 15)
The noble prizes, awarded annually for distinguish work in chemistry, physics,
physiology or medicine, literature and International peace, were made available by a fund
bequeathed. For that purpose by Swedish Philanthropist, Alfred Bernhard Nobel, The prizes,
awarded since 1901, are administered by The Nobel Foundation in Stockholm in 1969; a prize
for economics endowed by the central Bank of Sweden was added.
Candidates for the prizes must be-nominated in writing by a qualified authority in the
field of competition. Candidates are judged by Swedish and Norwegian academies and
institutes on the basis of their contribution to mankind. The awards are usually presented in
Stockholm on December 10, with the King of Sweden officiating, an appropriate tribute to
Alfred Nobel on the anniversary of his death. Each prize includes a gold medal, a diploma,
and a cash award of about one million dollars.
10. What does this passage mainly discuss?
a. Alfred Bernhard Nobel
b. The Nobel prizes
c. Great contribution to mankind
d. Swedish Philanthropy
e. Nobel Foundation
11. How often are the Nobel prizes awarded?
a. Five times a year
b. One a year
c. Twice a year
d. Once every two years
e. Once every five years
12. A Nobel prize would not be given to
a. An author who wrote a novel
b. A doctor who discovered a vaccine
c. A composer who wrote a symphony
d. A diplomat who negotiated a peace settlement
e. An economist who negotiate the trade





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13. When are usually the awards presented?
a. 10
th
December
b. 1
st
December
c. 11
th
December
d. 21
st
December
e. 31
st
December
14. Why were the prizes named for Alfred Bernhard Nobel?
a. He left money in his will to establish a fund for the prizes
b. He won the first Nobel prize for his work in philanthropy
c. He is living in Sweden now
d. He serves a chairman of the committee to choose the recipients of the prizes
e. He wanted to dedicate his life on humanity
15. Which individual or organization serves as administrator for the trust?
a. The King of Sweden
b. The Nobel Foundation
c. The Central Bank of Sweden
d. Swedish Foundation
e. Norwegian Foundation

Text 4 (For questions number 16 until 20)

Once upon a time, there was a nettle growing in a meadow. The nettle was really sad
because nobody liked him. It is because he stung others although he didnt mean it.
Once day, a beautiful butterfly settled on one of the nettles leaves. Why are you so
quiet? she asked the nettle.
Because I sting everyone, said the nettle sadly, I cant help giving up that habit
You dont sting me, said the butterfly. She paused for a moment.
I was wondering, said the butterfly again. Would you keep my eggs safe during the
winter?
Nobody had ever asked the nettle a favor before. He was thrilled. Id be honored, he
said.
And so, all through the snow and storms, the nettle kept the eggs safe and dry under its
leaves. No animals would dare to eat them. in the spring, the eggs hatched out into
caterpillars. Latter, each caterpillar turned into chrysalis. And in the middle of summer, it
changed into a beautiful butterfly.
Thank you, said the butterfly, for looking after me all winter. I think your leaves
are the strongest and safest leaves in the world.
And from that day on, every winter, the nettle has looked after the eggs of the
beautiful butterflies.

16. The main character of the text above is .
a. Storms
b. The sad nettle
c. A beautiful butterfly
d. Caterpillar
e. Chrysalis
17. And in the middle of summer, it changes into a beautiful butterfly.
The word it at the sentence above refers to .
a. The nettle





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b. A butterfly
c. Caterpillar
d. Chrysalis
e. The egg
18. Find the word at the text which has the same meaning as protect.
a. Help
b. Dare
c. Hatch
d. Sting
e. Keep safe
19. The purpose of the text above is to .
a. Tell past events
b. Entertain the readers
c. Explain about the sad nettle
d. Describe what is a nettle
e. Retell an event with humorous twist
20. The sentence which is in the past tense form is .
a. I sting everyone
b. Id be honored
c. Would you keep my eggs safe during the winter?
d. He stung others
e. I cant help giving up the habit

Text 5 (For questions number 21 until 25)
Whales are the largest animals on earth. Bigger than elephants, they may grow 95 feet
long, and weigh 150 tons. A baby blue whale, just born, can be 23 long and weigh 3 ton.
Although whales live in the oceans and swim like fish, they are not fish. They are
mammals, like cows and elephants. Unlike fish they bear young live, not as eggs. Their babies
live on their mothers milk. They breathe through their lungs and hold their breath when they
go under water. If they cannot come to the surface to breathe fresh air, they will draw. They
are warm-brooded. Fish, however, lay eggs, breathe oxygen in the water, and are cold-
blooded.
Whales live in all the oceans. In the winter some of them go to warm waters to breed
and in the summer most of them go to cold waters to feed. There are two kinds of whales,
whales with teeth (too-thed whales) and whales without teeth (baleen whales). The toothed
whales eat fish and squid, which they can catch with their teeth, although they swallow their
feed without chewing it. The baleen whales eat plankton (small sea animals and plants). When
they find plankton, they open their mouths and swing into the plankton. When they close their
mouths they squeeze out the water and swallow the plankton.
Whales have few enemies. Only human beings and the killer whales attack whales.
And whales do not seem to fight among themselves. They usually live from 20 to 30 years.

21. The difference between whales and fish is that whales .
a. Do not have to come to the surface to get fresh air
b. Deliver their young like elephants do
c. Will die if they cannot get oxygen in the water
d. Are mammals that are cold blooded
e. Can easily breathe when they are under water
22. A suitable title for the text is





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a. Large animals on earth
b. Difference between whales and elephants
c. Whales, the biggest animals on earth
d. Similarity between fish and whales
e. The life of whales in the oceans
23. Which of the following is TRUE about whales?
a. Like fish, whales can live in all kinds of waters
b. Whales are generally 95 feet long and weigh 150 tons
c. Big animals living in the ocean tend to be their enemies
d. Their life-span is usually longer than human being
e. A new-born baby whale may with one- fiftieth of its mother
24. Whales occasionally live in warm water .
a. To get more food
b. For reproduction
c. To avoid winter
d. For fresh air
e. To feed their babies
25. From the text we may conclude that
a. A whales can eat both squid and plankton
b. Toothed whales chew their food before swallowing it
c. The two type of whales live in different waters
d. Baleen whales swallow the water containing plankton
e. Each type of whales eat a specific kind of food

Text 6 (For questions number 26 until 31)

The Negative Impact of Rock Music
Rock music is a kind of music fascinating many people. Underground and heavy
metal, for example, offer different package of style and performance. Nevertheless rock music
has many negative impacts on young generation.
Many controversies have sprung around this kind of music. Those who cannot tolerate
with rock music consider it a negative influence on young people and others do not approve
of the way rockers dress and behave.
Some people regard rock as Satanism because some rock singer s have crazy
performance on the stage. They often bit the head off small animals and drink their blood
before or while singing in front of their fanatic fans.
We also hear that there are occasions where teens commit suicide or vandalism after
going to such a concert or listening to the music. Some of them even try to use drugs to
imitate their idol star.
I feel that we must concern with our young generation. I am appealing the music and
entertainment promoters not to invite rockers or hold rock concerts because they usually
present wild impacts on young generation.

26. What does the text tell us about?
a. The prospective future of rock music
b. The development of rock music industry
c. The vandalism committed by rock fans
d. The efforts taken to stop rock concert in the country
e. The bad influence of rock music on young generation





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27. Which one of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the text above?
a. Rock differs from other kinds of music
b. Rock singers often show wild performance on stage
c. Drugs and alcohol drinks are common in rock concert
d. All People approve of the way rockers dress and behave
e. Some rock fans do vandalism after going to rock concert
28. Rock music is a kind of music fascinating many people.(1
st
paragraph)
The underlined word is best replaced by .
a. Gathering
b. Shocking
c. Charming
d. Amazing
e. Boring
29. They often bit the head off small animals and (Paragraph 3)
The word they refers to .
a. Some people
b. Rock fans
c. Music promoters
d. Rock singers
e. Young generation

30. What is the purpose of the text?
a. To persuade the readers that something is the case
b. To persuade the readers that something should be the case
c. To describe a particular person or thing
d. To present two pints of view about an issue
e. To describe how something is accomplished through steps.
31. According to generic structure, the last paragraph is a/an .
a. Reiteration
b. Description
c. Recommendation
d. Re-orientation
e. Evaluative summation

Text 7 (For questions number 32 until 35)

The Magic Box
Once upon a time, there was a poor farmer who dug up a big box in his field. He took
it home and showed it to his wife. His wife cleaned it and kept it in their house. One day, she
dropped an apple into it. Immediately the box began to fill up with apples. No matter how
many were taken out, others took their place. So the farmer and his wife sold the apples and
were able to live quite comfortable.
Then the farmer dropped a coin into the box. At once, the apples disappeared and the
box began to fill itself with coins. Everyday the farmer and his wife collected hundreds and
hundreds of coins from the box. Soon they became very rich.
Now the farmers grandfather lived with the couple. He was not very strong and he
could not go out to work. So the farmer asked the old man to help him take the money out of
the box. When his grandfather became tired and wanted to rest, the farmer shouted at him,
Why are you so lazy? Why cant you work harder?





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The old man did not say anything but he continued working until he fell inside the box
and died. At once the money disappeared and the box began to fill up with dead grandfathers.
The farmer had to pull them out and bury them. To do this, he had to spend all the
money he had collected. When he had used up all the money, the box broke and the farmer
was just as poor as he was before.

32. The main idea of paragraph 2 is that .
a. The farmer and his wife had a magic box
b. The apples disappeared accidentally because of the farmers fool
c. The farmer and his wife competed to collect the money from the box.
d. The farmer dropped a coin into the box to have a lot of money
e. The farmer become rich because of the coin
33. How was the farmer according to the writer?
a. Rich
b. Patient
c. Greedy
d. Friendly
e. Generous





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34. Which statement is TRUE according to the text?
a. The poor farmer found a big box when he dug his field
b. His wife cleaned the box and kept it for herself
c. The farmer become richer after his grandfathers death
d. The box was full of precious this when it was found
e. The grandfather died because he was killed
35. What do we learn from the text?
a. All the glitters are not fold
b. Its good to be tricky
c. Flattery will get you nowhere
d. Its not good to be greedy
e. Being honest is very important in life

Text 8 (For questions number 36 until 40)
It was very hot in the small courtroom and everybody was feeling sleep. After a tiring
morning, the clerks were anxious to get off lunch and even the judge must have felt relieved
when the last can come up before ticourt. A short, middle-eged man with grey hair and small
blue was no standing before him. The man had a foolish expression on his face and the kept
looking around stupidly as if he stealing a cheap watch. The witness who was called did not
give a very clear account of what happened. He claimed to have seen a man outside the house
one night, but on being questioned further, he confessed that he was not sure whether this was
the man. The judge considered the matter for a short time and then declared that as there was
no real proof, the man could not be found guilty of any crime. He said that the case was
dismissed and then rose to go. Meanwhile, the accused looked very puzzled. It was clear hat
he had not understood a thing. Noticing this, the judge paused for a moment and then the man
said suddenly. Excuse me sir but do I have to give the watch back or not?

36. Why was the judge glad when the last case came up?
a. He was excused
b. He was hungry
c. He found the old man foolish
d. The courtroom was too crowded
e. He felt relieved
37. The foolish expression on the face the man showed that he
a. Acted as if he was not guilty
b. Tried very had to look stupid
c. Had not done what he was accused of
d. Seemed not to know why was in court
e. Had never been in court before
38. Who is meant by the witness?
a. The owner of the watch
b. The man who was called for trial
c. The man who had broken into the house
d. The man who conducted the trial
e. The person who saw the happening


39. Why did the judge decide to release the accused?
a. The man was not guilty





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b. The judge wanted to leave quickly
c. The judge was not sure of the mans guilt
d. Somebody else had done the crime
e. The man had stolen only a cheap watch
40. According to the passage which of these statements is TRUE?
a. The witness did not tell the truth
b. The accused unintentionally admitted the crime
c. The man was a professional thief
d. The judge asked the accused to return the watch
e. The trial took considerable time






---- Good Luck ----





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Appendix 4

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
UNIVERSITY OF MURIA KUDUS
2010

TEST ITEM FOR MEASURING
THE READING PROFICIENCY OF
SCIENCE FIELD STUDENTS (IPA) AND SOCIAL FIELD STUDENTS (IPS)
11
th
GRADE STUDENT
SMA 1 BAE KUDUS 2009/2010


Name :.....................................................................
No. :.....................................................................
Class / Field :.....................................................................
Date :.....................................................................
Time :.....................................................................
Signature :.....................................................................

ANSWER SHEET

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A
B
C
D
E

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
A
B
C
D
E


Appendix 5






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ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
UNIVERSITY OF MURIA KUDUS
2010

TEST ITEM FOR MEASURING
THE READING PROFICIENCY OF
SCIENCE FIELD STUDENTS (IPA) AND SOCIAL FIELD STUDENTS (IPS)
11
th
GRADE STUDENT
SMA 1 BAE KUDUS 2009/2010

ANSWER KEY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A
B
C
D
E

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
A
B
C
D
E






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Appendix 9

The Calculation of Reliability of the Reading Ability the try-out in IPA 4 of SMA N 1 BAE
KUDUS

r
xy
=
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }




2
2
2
2
y y N x x N
y x xy N

=
( )( )
( ) ( ) { }( ) ( ) { }
2 2
599 8449 43 569 7693 43
599 569 8014 43



=
( )( ) 358801 363307 323761 330799
340831 344602



=
4506 7038
3771


=
31713228
3771

=
449902 . 5631
3771

= 0.6696632167
= 0.67

r
11
=
xy
xy
r
r
+

1
2

=
( ) 6696632167 . 0 1
6696632167 . 0 2
+


=
7 1.66963216
339264334 . 1

= 0.802131368
= 0.80





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Appendix 10

The Calculation of Reliability of the Reading Ability of Science Field Student (IPA) for text
test.

r
xy
=
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }




2
2
2
2
y y N x x N
y x xy N

=
( )( )
( ) ( ) { }( ) ( ) { }
2 2
593 8585 42 590 8528 42
593 590 8459 42



=
( )( ) 351649 360570 348100 358176
349870 355278



=
8921 10076
5408


=
89887996
5408

=
928014 . 9480
5408

= 0.570408297
= 0.57

r
11
=
xy
xy
r
r
+

1
2

=
( ) 57 . 0 1
57 . 0 2
+


=
1.57
140816593 . 1

= 0.726445852
= 0.73








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Appendix 11

The Calculation of Reliability of the Reading Ability of Social Field Student (IPS) for text
test.

r
xy
=
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }




2
2
2
2
y y N x x N
y x xy N

=
( )( )
( ) ( ) { }( ) ( ) { }
2 2
534 7242 42 537 7221 42
534 537 7142 42



=
( )( ) 256156 304164 288369 303282
286758 300006



=
19008 14913
13248


=
283466304
13248

=
45758 . 16836
13248

= 0.78686389
= 0.79

r
11
=
xy
xy
r
r
+

1
2

=
( ) 0.78686389 1
0.78686389 2
+


=
1.78686389
1.57372772

= 0.880720549
= 0.88








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-( 124 )-
Appendix 12

The Calculation of Mean, Median, Modus and Standard Deviation of the Reading Ability of
Science Field Student (IPA) for text test.


K = 1 + (3.3) Log N
= 1 + (3.3) Log 42
= 1 + (3.3) 1.62324929
= 1 + 5.35672266
= 6.35672266
= 6

i =
K
score lowest The - score highest The

=
6
5 . 52 95

=
6
5 . 42

= 7.083333333
= 8 (round up)

No. Interval f x fx x fx x
2
fx
2
1 88 - 95
2
91.5 183 3 6 9 18
2 80.9 - 87.9
7
84.4 590.8 2 14 4 28
3 73.8 - 80.8
8
77.3 618.4 1 8 1 8
4 66.7 - 73.7
12
70.2 842.4 0 0 0 0
5 59.6 - 66.6
10
63.1 631 -1 -10 1 10
6 52.5 - 59.5
3
56 168 -2 -6 4 12
42 - 3033.6 3 12 19 76






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-( 125 )-
x =
N
fx


=
42
6 . 3033

= 72.22857143
= 72.23

Me = i
fm
F
N
l
(
(


+
2

= 8
12
10
2
42
65 . 66
(
(


+
= 8
12
10 21
65 . 66
(


+
= 8
12
11
65 . 66
(

+
= 8 0.9166667 65 . 66 +
= 66.65 + 7.3333336
= 73.983334
= 73.98

Mo = i
d d
d
l
+
+
2 1
1

= 8
4 2
2
65 . 66
+
+
=
6
16
65 . 66 +
= 66.65 + 2.666666667
= 69.31666667
= 69.32

Standard Deviation
N = 42





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-( 126 )-
fx = 12
c =
N
fx

'

=
42
12

= 0.285714286
= 0.28
c
2
= 0.081632653
= 0.082
ci = 8 28 . 0
= 2.285714286
= 2.28

SD =
2
2
'
c
N
fx
i


= 082 . 0
42
76
8
= 082 . 0 80952381 . 1 8
= ( ) 082 . 0 345185418 . 1 8
= 10.76148334 0.082
= 10.67985069
= 10.68





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-( 127 )-
Appendix 13

The Calculation of Mean, Median, Modus and Standard Deviation of the Reading Ability of
Social Field Student (IPS) for text test.

K = 1 + (3.3) Log N
= 1 + (3.3) Log 42
= 1 + (3.3) 1.62324929
= 1 + 5.35672266
= 6.35672266
= 6

i =
K
score lowest The - score highest The

=
6
30 5 . 97

=
6
5 . 67

= 11.25
= 12 (round up)

No. Interval f x fx x fx x
2
fx
2
1 86.5 - 97.5 3 91 276 4 12 16 48
2 75.4 - 86.4 7 80.9 566.3 3 21 9 63
3 64.3 - 75.3 8 69.8 558.4 2 16 4 32
4 53.2 - 64.2 9 58.7 528.3 1 9 1 9
5 42.1 53.1 13 47.6 618.8 0 0 0 0
6 30 - 42 2 36.5 73 -1 -2 1 2
42 - 2620.8 9 56 31 154






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-( 128 )-
x =
N
fx


=
42
2620.8

= 62.4

Me = i
fm
F
N
l
(
(


+
2

= 12
13
2
2
42
05 . 42
(
(


+
= 12
13
2 21
05 . 42
(


+
= 12
13
19
05 . 42
(

+
=
13
228
05 . 42 +
= 18.5 + 17.53846154
= 59.58846154
= 59.59

Mo = i
d d
d
l
+
+
2 1
1

= 12
4 11
11
05 . 42
+
+
= 12
15
11
05 . 42 +
=
15
132
05 . 42 +
= 42.05 + 8.8
= 50.85

Standard Deviation





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-( 129 )-
N = 42
fx = 56
c =
N
fx

'

=
42
56

= 1.33333333
= 1.33
c
2
= 1.777777778
= 1.78
ci = 12 33 . 1
= 16

SD =
2
2
'
c
N
fx
i


= 78 . 1
42
154
12
= 78 . 1 666666667 . 3 12
= ( ) 78 . 1 9148542161 . 1 12
= 22.97825059 1.78
= 21.20047281
= 21.20






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-( 130 )-
Appendix 14
The Calculation of T-test of the Reading Ability between Science Field Student (IPA) and
Social Field Student (IPS)
Score Group of IPA Score Group of IPS
NO No. Induk x
1
x
1
2
No. Induk x
1
x
1
2

1 10177 85 7225 10189 57.5 3306.25
2 10179 57.5 3306.25 10191 60 3600
3 10184 67.5 4556.25 10192 60 3600
4 10190 60 3600 10193 82.5 6806.25
5 10208 60 3600 10199 60 3600
6 10226 65 4225 10213 70 4900
7 10228 77.5 6006.25 10219 55 3025
8 10229 60 3600 10221 70 4900
9 10232 67.5 4556.25 10246 47.5 2256.25
10 10250 95 9025 10268 47.5 2256.25
11 10252 90 8100 10280 75 5625
12 10267 82.5 6806.25 10302 97.5 9506.25
13 10283 65 4225 10319 52.5 2756.25
14 10286 62.5 3906.25 10320 40 1600
15 10295 70 4900 10338 52.5 2756.25
16 10316 67.5 4556.25 10340 60 3600
17 10321 75 5625 10345 70 4900
18 10330 75 5625 10352 80 6400
19 10333 70 4900 10353 70 4900
20 10369 77.5 6006.25 10360 80 6400
21 10375 82.5 6806.25 10365 35 1225
22 10389 82.5 6806.25 10378 55 3025
23 10404 62.5 3906.25 10380 85 7225
24 10405 55 3025 10384 57.5 3306.25
25 10410 55 3025 10387 52.5 2756.25
26 10416 0 0 10407 75 5625
27 10418 75 5625 10411 52.5 2756.25
28 10425 67.5 4556.25 10419 90 8100
29 10426 67.5 4556.25 10420 52.5 2756.25
30 10434 85 7225 10433 67.5 4556.25
31 10437 75 5625 10441 47.5 2256.25
32 10438 82.5 6806.25 10462 52.5 2756.25
33 10445 75 5625 10463 75 5625
34 10452 67.5 4556.25 10475 47.5 2256.25
35 10468 0 0 10489 77.5 6006.25
36 10487 87.5 7656.25 10505 52.5 2756.25
37 10490 60 3600 10509 85 7225
38 10503 62.5 3906.25 10522 60 3600
39 10511 60 3600 10529 77.5 6006.25
40 10515 67.5 4556.25 10530 87.5 7656.25
41 10532 75 5625 10531 52.5 2756.25
42 10536 60 3600 10534 52.5 2756.25
43 10537 52.5 2756.25
44 10540 70 4900
2957.5 212693.75

2677.5 179681.25
t
o
=
2 1
2 1
x x
s
x x







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-( 131 )-
Where,
2 1
x x
s

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
2 1 2 1
2 1
1 1
1 n n n n
SS SS

Meanwhile,
1
SS =
( )

n
x
x
2
1 2
1

2
SS =
( )

n
x
x
2
2 2
2

So, it is able to be calculated as follow;
1
SS =
( )

n
x
x
2
1 2
1

=
42
5 . 2957
75 . 212693
2

=
42
25 . 8746806
75 . 212693
= 2917 . 208257 75 . 212693
= 4436.45833
= 4436.46

2
SS =
( )

n
x
x
2
2 2
2

=
42
5 . 2677
25 . 17961
2

=
42
25 . 7169006
25 . 17961
= 625 . 170690 25 . 17961
= 8990.625





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-( 132 )-
= 8990.6

2 1
x x
s

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
42
1
42
1
1 42 42
8990.625 4436.45833

= ( ) 023809524 . 0 023809524 . 0
82
08333 . 13427
+
= 047619048 . 0 7449187 . 163
= 1 7.79737708
= 2.792378391
= 2.79

t
o
=
2 1
2 1
x x
s
x x


=
1 2.79237839
4 . 62 22857143 . 72

=
1 2.79237839
82857143 . 9

= 3.5197849948
= 3.520







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-( 133 )-
CURRICULUM VITAE

M Ainur Rofiq was born on July 5
t h
, 1987 in Jepara. He is the forth
son of Mr. Tasan and Mrs. Buteni. He has three older sisters. The first is
Nanik, the second is Haniatun Nasihah, and the third is Lutfiyah. Meanwhile,
he has two little sisters. The first is Musfirohtunnimah and the second is M
Fathur Rizal. He lives with his parents and his siblings at KH. ABD Manan Street RT 01 RW
05 Klumasari Banjaragung Bangsri 59453 Jepara.
He began his formal education in TK Tarbiyatul Athfal Banjaragung in 1992. Then he
continued to formal school of Elementary School in MI Matholiul Ulum Banjaragung in
1993. After six years, she decided to the Junior High Schools in MTs Matholiul Ulum
Banjaragung in 2002 and graduated in 2002. In 2005, he graduated from Senior High School
in MA Matholiul Ulum Banjaragung Bangsri.
After finishing his Senior High School education, he decided to out of the village to
find a few of experiment. He lived around six months in Kediri JATIM for having an informal
education. Furthermore, he continued his formal study at University of Muria Kudus, majored
in English Education Department Teacher Training and Education Faculty in 2006.