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Laguna State Polytechnic University MAIN CAMPUS GRADUATE STUDIES AND APPLIED RESEARCH Santa Cruz Campus Sta Cruz,Laguna Second Semester 2009 : SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY : THE STUDY OF ETHICS : MARIDEL T. FORTE
Defintion of Ethics Ethics is defined as the science of the morality of humans acts. It derived from the Greek word ethos which means “characteristics way of acting” Ethos includes cultural mannerisms,religion,politics,laws and social aspirations of a group of people. Ethics defined as the science of the morality of human’s acts. Morality is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good,bad,or different.
Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. "Ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong." "Ethics has to do with my religious beliefs." "Being ethical is doing what the law requires." "Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society. Ethics and Values Education
Values mean standards or ideas which most people have about the worth of good qualities such as kindness, freedom, mercy, respect, and love. There are moral and social values. Moral Values Every community has rules and regulations which guide the members to behave well. Each member of the community should be able to choose between right and wrong. As children, we are expected to know these rules and regulations so that we can behave well and become useful citizens. It is only when we do this that people can say; we have good morals and respect the values of the society. Some of these morals or values are honesty, justice, loyalty, patriotism, and generosity. Some Specific Values Christianity, We shall consider some specific values in each religion.
Examples of Christian Values
we become happy that we are helping others. 4. when we receive service. we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Everything else is just a variation of that. Without it. and you'll do just fine. Respect for Life The life in us has been given to us by God. 7. 5. When we receive and help travelers and visitors. Hospitality Hospitality is kindness which is shown in various practical ways to people. the dad says something memorable about morals. Even with an ethical standard. and contradicting stories to follow it whole-heartedly. I think al of the teachings of Buddhism are great for a correct philosophy of life. On the other hand. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Importance of Ethics Ethics is a requirement for human life. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors. we must love the good things about Ghana. Service Service to one another is one of the important qualities that individuals must have in the community. we are happy and grateful because somebody has helped us. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken. When we give service freely. our actions would be random and aimless. we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success.1. We should respect our parents. therefore. Friendliness and Love Christianity teaches us about the importance of friendliness and love. we must be patriotic and loyal to our country The Art of correct Living The Golden Rule is a great model. those in official positions. Follow that. There are many ways in which we can do this. corruption. We can give service to our society in many ways. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. He says the only real and horrible sin is theft. It just about sums up everything that's right and wrong. we can describe the service that we give to them as hospitality. In the movie Kite Runner. For example: Murder is theft of life. I try to steer clear of organized religion because there are to many different interpretations. Every human being has an innate sense of what is right. elders. Adultery is theft of someone's spouse or theft of your own spouse's happiness. Loyalty and Patriotism When we show love for our country we are said to be patriotic. . etc. we must value human life greatly and do value life. Personally. 3. 2. speak well of her and defend her at all times. and what isn't. As good citizens and Christians. Respect for Authority The Bible teaches that people in authority must be respected. for example. and the laws of the land.
Generally ethical principles stem from ethical theories. often attributed to Aristotle. and Thomas Aquinas. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices based on faith of revelation. not the underlying theory. Deontology Deontology holds that the most important aspects of our lives are governed by certain unbreakable moral rules. This recently revived theory stems from the character traits discussed by Aristotle. It can be contrasted with man-made. utilitarianism. but they are similar in that both may change over time. ethicists normally appeal to these principles. religion provides both the direction and motivation for the moral life of people. wisdom. posits that man should live life according to an inherent human nature. In other words. Virtue Theory The virtue theory asks what a "good person" would do in specific real-life situations. presenting it as a duty to the Almighty Religion on he other hand. Some of the most commonly cited ethical theories include the following: Natural Law The system of natural law.) It is often advocated as the basis for broad social policies. or judicial. (Simplistically. as an organized church.Ethical Theories Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. despite the frequent claim that natural law is immutable. this theory advocates achieving the greatest good for the greatest number of people. temperance. even if breaking them may improve an outcome. Immanuel Kant is often identified with this theory. contributes to the teaching of ethics and continues to enrich with it its moral insights. Thus. they may do the "right" thing. justice. This theory instructs adherents to work for those outcomes that will give the most advantage to the majority of those affected in the most impartial way possible." The famous philosopher. often tying it to particular religious beliefs. even though the consequences of that action may not be "good. Utilitarianism One of the more functional and commonly used theories. Ethical traditions stretch back to earliest recorded history. Ethics teaches the value of religion. and charity. faith. rather than using the right means. and when defending a particular action. . sometimes called consequentialism or teleology. Deontologists hold that these rules may not be broken. basically promotes good or valued ends. law. Ethics and Religion Ethics is a science and depends upon rational investigation of its truths. Plato. They discuss such timeless and cross-cultural virtues as courage. One example of a list of "unbreakable" rules is the Ten Commandments.
law that we perform the required action regardless of our feelings towards such action. The law is concerned with the externality of the act. Law do not judge man’s thoughts and desires. Fore .Ethics and Law Ethics studies human motivation. It inquires that man desires that which is good and act in accordance with that desire. it explores thoughts and feeling. On the contrary. Ethical norms cover thought and feelings. it goes deeper than the study of external actions. Prepared by: Ms Maridel T.
Killing a human being has been. therefore. These qualities help to . Murder is. Meaning of Values Values mean standards or ideas which most people have about the worth of good qualities such as kindness. considered unlawful and immoral. and Traditional religions do emphasize values in their teachings. and love. Some Specific Values Christianity. There are moral and social values. and generosity. God was displeased. Some of these morals or values are honesty. Jesus further explained this commandment to mean that we should not even be angry with other people (Matthew 5:21-24). and cursed him (Genesis 4:8-12). from the earliest times. It is only when we do this that people can say. therefore. justice. Respect for Life The life in us has been given to us by God. loyalty. As children. patriotism. respect. i. Examples of Christian Values 1. not allowed in any society. We shall consider some specific values in each religion. The Bible teaches us how to value life. we are expected to know these rules and regulations so that we can behave well and become useful citizens. Islam.A. That is why one of the Ten Commandments given to the Israelites stated: Do not commit murder (Exodus 20:13). C. He considered it to be a terrible sin. For example. Moral Values Every community has rules and regulations which guide the members to behave well. Each member of the community should be able to choose between right and wrong. mercy. Friendliness and Love Christianity teaches us about the importance of friendliness and love. Advertising B. we must value human life greatly and do everything to keep it and not destroy it. when Cain killed his brother Abel. we have good morals and respect the values of the society. freedom. 2.
we are happy and grateful because somebody has helped us. 5. or rich neighbors. For example. Fasting in the month of . 67. There are many ways in which we can do this. friends. It is good for us to look for opportunities to serve others. When we give service freely. we can describe the service that we give to them as hospitality. The five pillars of Islam teach many important Islamic values. we must love the good things about Ghana. those in official positions. Service to people is also a form of kindness. Loyalty and Patriotism When we show love for our country we are said to be patriotic. 1 Peter 2:13-17). When we receive and help travelers and visitors. 35). whilst Zakaat teaches generosity. These values help them to be good Muslims and to please Allah. when inviting people to a feast or a party. the community. The Bible teaches us that we should love our neighbors as ourselves (Matthew 22:39). we must not only invite relatives. Salat teaches chastity (purity of character).bring together the members of the family. for example. We can also join others in communal labor. Service Service to one another is one of the important qualities that individuals must have in the community. ii. we can do simple jobs to serve or help the poor and needy people. Jesus also commanded his followers to love one another (John 13:34. and the nation. Respect for Authority The Bible teaches that people in authority must be respected. when we receive service. Jesus taught a lesson of humble service to His disciples by washing their feet (John 13:17). On the other hand. 4. Examples of Islamic Values There are many Islamic values which Muslims are expected to know. He also advised his disciples to serve their people rather than to be served. It is only when authority is respected that there will be peace and progress in our communities and in the nation (Deuteronomy 5:16. For example. we must be patriotic and loyal to our country. He also used this story to show us that hospitality should be shown to people without thinking of a reward. It is further stressed in the Bible that love is the greatest human value (1 Corinthians 13:1-7. and the laws of the land. It is love which makes a person ready to share what he has with others. Christians are advised to serve one another. elders. Hospitality Hospitality is kindness which is shown in various practical ways to people. In the story He advised that. 3. speak well of her and defend her at all times. We should respect our parents. we become happy that we are helping others. We should rather invite persons such as the poor and sick (Luke 14:12-14).13). We can give service to our society in many ways. Jesus told a story to show how hospitality should be given. As good citizens and Christians.
Justice Justice is one of the important moral values on which other moral behaviors depend. necessary for us to avoid lying and form the habit of telling the truth. 5. Such a person is always obedient to Allah and steadfast in his Salat (prayers). however different they may be from ours. 3. The trader should not tamper with either his weighing . Honesty Uprightness and honesty. when we have provoked by others. especially in money matters. Islam expects Muslims to practice justice daily in every aspect of their lives. In Islam the word of Allah is the source of truth. If we are calm and tolerant we will succeed in life. therefore. He should strive hard to do the right thing at all times. This will help us think wisely and solve our problems. When we commit an offense and we tell the truth. 1. The Quran teaches that Muslims should not acquire property by unlawful means. It is. The Quran teaches that those who have faith in Allah and remain steadfast. Truthfulness makes us practice virtue and helps us to avoid evil. we are at peace with Allah and our fellow human beings. He fulfils his promise and does not tell lies. The following are examples of some Islamic values. great emphasis is placed on piety and righteousness. We have to tolerate other people’s views. we must try to be patient. form an important part of the fundamental teachings of Islam. For example. Tolerance Tolerance means patience. 2. It pays to tell the truth always even when one is at fault or commits an offense.Ramadan teaches discipline and obedience. 6. the punishment may be reduced or we may be forgiven. Allah has assured all truthful persons of His protection whenever they are in difficulties. The Quran and the Traditions of the Holy Prophet teach that a true Muslim is the one who is honest and upright in his business or trade. The Quran guides the Muslim to know the truth and enlightens him. 4. Piety (Godliness) Piety is the fear of God. and a Muslim who fears God is said to be pious. Both in the Quran and the Traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammed. we must try to be fair and just to others. will be rewarded with everlasting life in paradise (Quran 41:31). Truthfulness Truthfulness in word and in deed is one of the main qualities of a true believer. That is why Islam teaches that the best among Muslims is the pious person. Steadfastness Islam teaches that a Muslim should try to follow closely the teachings of the Quran whatever the difficulty. He is also the one who remembers his God in all things he does. When we are truthful. We must have patience when we are in difficulty. For instance.
it is believed that He has the final say in all matters concerning man. illness. The civil servant too should be honest and hardworking to justify the salary he or she receives monthly. They should always treat all men equally before the law. for example. expects good behavior from man and also expects that all His laws will be obeyed. judges should administer justice without fear or favor. standards of behavior. Both the gods and the ancestors are believed to have power to punish or reward the living. and ‘God judges the case of the poor’. and Judge. when believers are sick and they consult their gods. The traditional man believes it is the souls of those who do good that go back to God. for instance. If they have. and Morality The gods and ancestors are also believed to help to control the behavior of people in our communities. When he is punished with death. therefore. They regard God as Lord. It is believed that. D. they are asked to pacify them in order to get well again. God and Morality Every community has rules and regulations. ii. Since God is regarded as the final Judge. Those they punish are those who break the laws of the community. He is the final guardian of the moral law. Most people believe that God will make a final judgment after death. When we break any of these rules. we have expressions such as: ‘Give everything to God’. He. and so on. he is reminded that nothing can be hidden from God. Since He is the Judge. Our local languages are full of expressions which show that God knows the secret deeds of all and punishes those who do evil things. we disturb the order and peace in the community. taboos. Thus. therefore. Ancestors. or sometimes death. They therefore make sure that nothing evil happens to their living relatives and the community. Traditional believers believe that God is concerned with the good moral life of man. The Gods. He is also believed to be just. it is their duty to see to it that God’s laws are obeyed. Sometimes. Also a man who fails to make good us of the property he inherits from a dead relative or fails to look after the children he left behind is usually punished with a misfortune. These help the people to behave well. The ancestors. laws. Traditional Values i. King. And most important of all. punish those who break the custom or fail to fulfill their obligations towards their kinsmen. customs. But those who do evil must be reborn and do good before they can be accepted by God. the priest or priestess tries to find out if they have offended the ancestors. Our ancestors. Others too believe that God punishes evil-doers here on earth.scale or goods or sell his commodities above fixed prices. People also believe that God is everywhere and sees everything. The people believe that every evil is punished by God. When a person commits a crime and thinks people do not know about it. . are believed to be more concerned with the customs and traditions of the living. the people usually say that the ancestors have called him to the spirit world to go and explain the reasons for his bad deeds.
They are also ridiculed in folk songs. We have learnt that God. and the ancestors reward people who do good an punish those who do evil. It just about sums up everything that's right and wrong. They believe that if their relationship with other people is good. Sometimes too. . In the movie Kite Runner. They do not forgive man easily for his wrong doings. This reward shows their appreciation for his good deeds and encourages others to do the same. It is believed that. etc. He says the only real and horrible sin is theft. those without children may be blessed with children. may sing special songs to ridicule the offenders. especially women and children. Follow that. believers try to live good and exemplary lives to escape the anger of the gods. Every human being has an innate sense of what is right. For example: Murder is theft of life. Parents often do not want their children to marry from families in which there are criminals. the anger of the gods is very serious. Such offenders bring disgrace to themselves and their families. Adultery is theft of someone's spouse or theft of your own spouse's happiness. the gods. The businesses of such people may prosper. and so on.As already explained. farmers may be blessed with good harvests. Personally. In the communities. Everything else is just a variation of that. This is one of the reasons why most parents conduct investigations into the family record of a wouldbe in-law. and contradicting stories to follow it wholeheartedly. I think al of the teachings of Buddhism are great for a correct philosophy of life. iii. How the Community reacts to Wrong Doing. What is the art of correct living? (Ethics)? Answers (3) • Answerer 1 The Golden Rule is a great model. The reward for doing good takes the form of praise and honor. On the other hand. and their ancestors. then they are sure of a good relationship with God. They want to have good relations with other people in their community. This may force them to leave the community and settle elsewhere. As a result. and what isn't. the chief and his elders may honor him by making him a sub-chief or a leader of a group like an ‘Asafo’ Company. the gods. the people too have a way of rewarding and punishing those who deserve them. The people. I try to steer clear of organized religion because there are to many different interpretations. and you'll do just fine. women will sing his praises in their folk songs. For example. corruption. offenders are punished. those who obey the laws and the customs are helped and blessed by the ancestors. the dad says something memorable about morals. Sometimes a stool or skin is created for his family.
Linda Kidwell.” Journal of Business Ethics. January 2001). 1988) concluded that one of the main goals of ethics education should be to encourage students to recognize social responsibilities within their profession. . Lehman (“Accounting Ethics: Surviving. February 2000) surveyed college sophomores and found no significant differences between accounting and other business majors in their willingness to “manipulate earnings.” Advances in Public Interest Accounting. Loeb (“Teaching Students Accounting Ethics: Some Crucial Issues. A profession’s ability to self-regulate may be ineffective unless individual professionals understand and apply their profession’s ethical standards in actual practice. The Goals of Ethics Education Ethics education.” Issues in Accounting Education. Survival of the Fittest. but rather a process whereby individuals become more consciously involved in making ethical decisions (Harold. suggesting that accounting education does promote fundamental ethical awareness of professional responsibility. Cheryl R. and Solutions.” Issues in Accounting Education. is more than studying the code of professional conduct. Q. Ineffective professional self-regulation inevitably leads to government intervention. The goals of ethics education are creating an awareness of ethical dilemmas and providing methods of resolution. Langenderfer and Joanne W. as defined by Langenderfer and Rockness.” Issues in Accounting Education.” A resurvey of these same students as seniors indicated that accounting majors were less willing to manipulate earnings than were other business majors. Clikeman and Steven L. Problems. “Integrating Ethics into the Accounting Curriculum: Issues. • Answerer 3 Having the will to do good and living your life in a way that that will is projected into the future Is Teaching Ethics Effective? Many studies have concluded that ethics education does have a positive effect upon students. many accounting programs continue to avoid teaching ethics. Paul M. Spring 1989). Despite evidence that ethics education can be effective.• Answerer 2 Do unto others as they do unto you. educators can no longer continue this inertia. Henning (“The Socialization of Undergraduate Accounting Students. at Niagara University. thus demonstrating that ethical behavior is an integral part of the workplace (“Student Honor Codes as a Tool for Teaching Professional Ethics. Stephen E. Considering the current climate. Fall 1988) listed the development of abilities needed to deal with ethical conflicts and uncertainties as key objectives in educating accountants. has students develop an academic code for their classroom. Rockness.
Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors. At a more fundamental level. our actions would be random and aimless. It is our means of deciding a course of action. but to our well-being and happiness. Even with an ethical standard. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken. or on the very nature of man himself. and within the Jewish. striving to answer the fundamental practical ethical questions: What ought I do? How ought I live? Generally ethical principles stem from ethical theories. An Introduction to Biomedical Ethics Ethical Theories Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. and that sacrifice is not only not necessary. rather than egoistic.Ethics What is Ethics? Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. and the happiness which makes them livable. They attempt to be coherent and systematic. It answers the question. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. but the day to day choices we make constantly. ethicists normally appeal to these principles. or neither? Why is Ethics important? Ethics is a requirement for human life. "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. It is arrived at by an examination of man's nature. It must recognize that our lives are an end in themselves. This is our ultimate standard of value. Islamic. It must include our relations to others. often not encompassing a true theory but rather a general system. A system of ethics must further consist of not only emergency situations. All of these theories represent altruistic. we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. and when defending a particular action. Christian. attitudes towards mankind. not the underlying theory. and recognize their importance not only to our physical survival. were developed in India and China. Do we pursue our own happiness. and Buddhist and Hindu religions. Separate bodies of ethics. Some of the most commonly cited ethical theories include the following: Natural Law . the goal in which an ethical man must always aim. Without it. Ethical traditions stretch back to earliest recorded history. we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. This standard is our own lives. What are the key elements of a proper Ethics? A proper foundation of ethics requires a standard of value to which all goals and actions can be compared to. or do we sacrifice ourselves to a greater cause? Is that foundation of ethics based on the Bible. but destructive. and recognizing his peculiar needs.
the values of dealing honestly with patients.The system of natural law. temperance. In other words. Deontologists hold that these rules may not be broken. or judicial. fully informing patients before procedures. Ethical values stem from ethical principles. They discuss such timeless and cross-cultural virtues as courage. there are certain values that have become generally accepted by the medical community. from observing behavior and through secular (including professional) and religious education. Although each person is entitled (and perhaps even required) to have a personal system of values. For example. clinicians often treat subjects having multiple and differing value systems." The famous philosopher. therapy. often attributed to Aristotle. even if breaking them may improve an outcome. We usually learn these values at an early age. Deontology Deontology holds that the most important aspects of our lives are governed by certain unbreakable moral rules. • . basically promotes good or valued ends. despite the frequent claim that natural law is immutable. often tying it to particular religious beliefs. wisdom. faith. justice. law. legislatures.) It is often advocated as the basis for broad social policies. in other words. Societal institutions incorporate and promulgate values often attempting to make old values rigid. Utilitarianism One of the more functional and commonly used theories. they may do the "right" thing. even though the consequences of that action may not be "good. promoting those things thought of as good and minimizing or avoiding those things thought of as bad. moral rules. this theory advocates achieving the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Values And Principles Where Learned? Values are the standards by which we judge human behavior. Immanuel Kant is often identified with this theory. this dissension has not affected their application to medical care. (Simplistically. A respect for patients (often described as patient autonomy) has been considered so fundamental that it is often given overriding importance. and Thomas Aquinas. It can be contrasted with man-made. Each of these principles consists of various moral rules. and respecting the patient’s personal values are all subsumed under the principle of autonomy or respect for persons. Plato. courts. and society at large. and charity. utilitarianism. This theory instructs adherents to work for those outcomes that will give the most advantage to the majority of those affected in the most impartial way possible. Although some groups disagree about each of the generally accepted values. sometimes called consequentialism or teleology. or being involved in research. posits that man should live life according to an inherent human nature. Virtue Theory The virtue theory asks what a "good person" would do in specific real-life situations. This recently revived theory stems from the character traits discussed by Aristotle. They are. In a pluralistic society. which are our learned values. rather than using the right means. even in a changing society. and they must be sensitive to others’ beliefs and traditions. Ethical principles are action guides derived from ethical theories. One example of a list of "unbreakable" rules is the Ten Commandments. but they are similar in that both may change over time.
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