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1. ABC: (1) Audit Bureau of Circulations, an industry-owned company which audits (and verifies) print media circulation figures.

The ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations Electronic) audits traffic figures for online publications. 2. Add: Additional copy, to be added to a story already written. 3. Advertorial: An advertisement written in the style of a news item or feature, often provided by the publisher to complement adverts sold on that page. Ethically, advertorials should be clearly identified as such. 4. All caps: A printing instruction to set a word or sentence using all capital letters. 5. Angle: Short for news angle, it is that aspect of a story which a journalist chooses to highlight and develop. It is usually the most newsworthy of its key points. It is also called hook or peg. 6. AP: Associated Press, the worlds largest independent news agency supplying news services for a fee to media around the world. 7. Attribute: To identify who said something, either as a quote or as reported speech. Attribution is important to maintain credibility. 8. Audit: An independent assessment of the accuracy of newspaper sales and circulation figures, especially so advertisers can decide where to place their business. See ABC above. 9. Back bench: American term for senior production journalists on a newspaper. 10.Background: (1) Information which is not part of the news event but which helps to explain more about the situation and the story. (2) Another name, usually US, for off-the-record. A backgrounder is the story written. 11. balance: A basic journalism principle of giving both sides of an argument in a fair way so readers or listeners can make up their own mind. 12. BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation, Britains national broadcaster. 13. beat: A specialist area of journalism that a reporter regularly covers, such as police or health. See also round. 14. blind interview: A published interview where the interviewee is not named, e.g. a senior official, sometimes called non-attributable. See also off-the-record. Also, to conduct an interview not knowing the subject matter. 15. byline: The writers name, printed at the beginning or end of an article. 16. caption: In print, short pieces of text placed below or beside pictures to describe them and identify the photographers and/or owners. Also called a cutline. In television, information superimposed over a picture, usually at the top or bottom of the screen, describing what is being shown. Often used to name and describe the person speaking. 17. chief reporter: The most senior reporter in a newsroom. In larger newsrooms, may be called a news editor. 18. chief of staff: A senior journalist in a newsroom who assigns stories to reporters and organises and monitors how they do their work. Often second-in-command to a news editor. 19. chief sub: Short for chief sub-editor. The person in charge of sub-editors, who assigns work to down-table subs. 20. circulation: Number of copies sold by newspapers and magazines. 21. citizen journalism: Journalism outside the established media, usually by ordinary citizens without professional training or organisational experience. Compare to professional journalists. Citizen journalism is commonly practised through blogs and social networking web sites and not requiring the large resources of media organisations. Also called participatory journalism and networked journalism. 22. classified ads: Small newspaper advertisements usually paid for by individuals or small

businesses and grouped under different classifications, e.g. houses, cars etc. 23. clippings: Also known as clips or cuttings. Saved copies of published articles, traditionally cut or clipped from the newspaper or magazine itself. Often kept in a clippings library or cuttings library. 24. column: (1) In typography, a column is a vertical block of text on a page, separated by margins and/or rules. (2) A regular feature often on a specific topic, written by a person known as a columnist. 25. column centimetre or column inch: A measurement of text based on the length of a single standard column of type in a specific newspaper or magazine. Also called a single column centimetre (SCCM). 26. compositor: In the days before desktop publishing, the person who turned a journalists work into metal type for printing. Often called a compositor. 27. conflict of interest: When a journalist allows something with which he or she has a personal stake to interfere with their duty to be fair and objective in covering a story. For example, having shares in a company could make a finance reporter say uncritically good things to boost that company. Conflicts of interest can be real or perceived. Even perceived conflicts of interest should be declared openly. 28. contempt of court: Disregarding a court's orders or in any way interfering with the way the court does its job. 29. convergence: The bringing together of different media technologies such as radio, print, video and the Internet so they work together to improve communications. For example, playing video reports on Web pages or print journalists recording interviews for broadcast online. 30. copy: Written material for publication. In broadcasting also called a script. 31. copy editor: A person on a newspaper or magazine who corrects or edits copy written by a reporter, writes headlines and places the story on a page. The copy editor ensures the text flows, makes sense, is fair and accurate, and poses no legal problems. Also called a sub-editor. 32. copyreader: A person who checks typeset proofs and/or computer printouts to detect errors such as spelling mistakes and bad punctuation before the final printing of a publication. Also called a proof reader. 33. copy taster: A senior sub-editor who looks at incoming copy and decides what will be used. 34. copywriting: Writing the text for advertisements. 35. correspondent: A journalist who writes from a position of expertise, either in a subject matter or geographical area, e.g. arts correspondent or European correspondent. 36. cover line (or coverline): A caption on a magazine cover. 37. cover story: The most important story featured on the front cover of a magazine, often by an illustration. 38. credit line: Text next to or following a story or picture acknowledging its source. 39. crop: To cut unwanted portions from a photograph for publication. 40. crosshead: A word or phrase in larger type used to break up long columns of text. Crossheads often use a fragment of a strong quote from later in the article. 41. cub: Old-fashioned term for a trainee journalist. Also known as a rookie. 42. curtain raiser: Story written before a predicted event, setting the scene for when it happens. Often used at the start of an election campaign, sporting competition or season etc. 43. cuttings job: An article written using mainly material from other articles, with little or no original input by the writer. A shoddy or lazy form of journalism. 44. cyber-journalist: A journalist working on the Internet.

45. dead air: An extended unwanted silence on radio, often caused by technical or operating errors. 46. deadline: The time the editor or producer sets by which the reporter must submit a finished story. 47. death-knock: An assignment in which a reporter calls at the home of a bereaved relative or friend when gathering information about a death. Also known as door-stepping. 48. deck: (1) The number of rows in a headline. (2) A sub head(line) below the main headline, describing a key part of the story. See also sub head. 49. defamation: To say something bad about a person which does them harm. Also called libel and slander. 50. diary: (1) A large book or application on a newsroom computer system into which journalists put information about forthcoming events which might make a story. 51. display type: A size of newspaper type larger than that used for the main body of a story, usually in headlines, advertisements etc. 52. door-stepping: To turn up at a persons home or place of work without warning or prior arrangement to get an interview. Door-stepping implies the person may be reluctant to speak and may be confronting. Some broadcasters also use the term for an unheralded phone interview. Also called death-knock. 53. double-spread: Two facing pages of a newspaper or magazine across which stories, pictures, adverts and other components are spread as if they were one page. 54. draft: The first version of an article before submission to an editor. 55. double-page spread (DPS): Two facing pages in a newspaper or magazine that are designed as one unit of interrelated articles. 56. edit: To prepare raw material - such as text or recorded vision - for publication or broadcast, checking aspects such as accuracy, spelling, grammar, style, clarity etc. 57. edition: A newspaper or magazine printed in a single run of the presses. It may be changed for different purposes, e.g. country edition, city edition, final edition etc. 58. editor: (1) The person - usually a journalist - in charge of the editorial content and direction of a newspaper, magazine or other news outlet. (2) A person in charge of a special section of news output, e.g. sports editor, political editor etc. (3) Someone who prepares material for print or broadcast. See also news editor. 59. editorial: (1) An article written by, or on behalf of, an editor, giving the news organisations opinion on an issue. (2) An adjective describing issues relating to news content as opposed to advertising or other non-news aspects of a newspaper or magazine. 60. editorial cartoon: A cartoon which appears on the editorial page, commenting on a current controversy. 61. editorial conference: A meeting of senior editorial managers and staff to plan the day's coverage. 62. editorialise: A derogatory description for writing in an opinionated manner. 63. editorial page: A page where the newspaper or magazine's editorial (1) is printed, often with letters to the editor. Also called an opinion page. 64. embargo: Limitation on the earliest time when a news item given to a journalist can be published or broadcast, usually a date. 65. endnote: A paragraph in a different type after the end of an article giving additional information about the writer or the case of a review the publication or performance details. 66. exclusive: Popularly called a 'scoop'. An important or significant story which no other news

outlet has. 67. fairness: In journalism, fairness requires not favouring one viewpoint over another in collecting and presenting news and opinion. Different viewpoints are presented accurately, even those with which the journalist personally disagrees. 68. feature: A longer article or radio story, usually in greater depth and complexity than a simple news item. Features may grow from a current news event or simply be examining a timeless issue. Features which are not strongly connected to hard news events are often called soft features. In radio, features usually have a mixture of elements, including the reporters voice, interviews and other sounds. Longer features may be called documentaries. 69. feed: The transfer of information from a source to a recipient, whether raw information from reporter to studio or finished reports fed to a transmitter or another station for broadcast. 70. feedback: An unwanted noise created when the output of an audio speaker feeds back into a microphone in the same system and is amplified as this happens in an increasing loop, resulting in a high-pitched squeal. Also called howl-round. 71. file: To send a report from a reporter on location to the newsroom or studio. 72. filler: (1) A short news item or advertisements, usually timeless, used to fill small spaces in a newspaper or bulletin. (2) Also called fill-in, a short piece of mujsic to fill a gap between program elements. 73. follow-up: A story which is written to report new or more detailed information on a story which has already been published or broadcast. 74. freelance journalist (freelancer): Usually a reporter or editor not formally employed by any media organisation, instead working on projects under contract or paid individual amounts for work accepted for publication or broadcast. See also lineage. 75. freesheet: A usually cheaper publication that is circulated free readers, making its revenue from advertising or from grants of gifts. 76. hard news: Immediate and factual accounts of important events or developments. 77. headline or head: A word or short phrase in large type at the top of an article designed to either summarise the news or grab the readers attention and make them want to read it. In broadcasting, headlines are short summaries of a few important stories that will follow in full in the bulletin. Closing headlines come at the end of a bulletin. 78. human interest story: A news story or feature which focuses on individual people and the effects of issues or events on them. Human interest stories are often used to make ideas more real and concrete in the minds of the viewer, reader or listener. Human interest stories can also cover unusual and interesting aspects of other people's lives which are not particularly significant to society as a whole. 79. imprint: Information printed in a newspaper or magazine showing the publisher details. 80. index: In newspapers, a table of content, usually on the front page or page 2. 81. insert: (1) Additional text inserted into a story after it has been written, usually to give additional details. (2) Another term for audio used to illustrate a radio report. 82. interview: A formal, usually structured conversation between a journalist and a source to get information for a story. 83. intro: The first paragraph containing the most newsworthy part of a news story. In features and documentaries the intro may just lead the reader or listener into the story. Known as a lead. 84. inverted pyramid: The most common structure for writing a news story, with the main news at the start and the rest of the detail following in decreasing order of importance. 85. investigative journalism: Finding, reporting and presenting news which other people try to

hide. It usually takes longer and requires more research that ordinary news reporting. 86. journalism: The communication of current issues and events to an audience in a structured way, usually in relation to a set of generally agreed social principles such as accuracy. 87. journalist: Someone who finds and presents information as news to the audiences of newspapers, magazines, radio or television stations or the Internet. Journalists traditionally work within a set of generally agreed societal principles or within professional codes. Professional journalists are usually trained and receive payment for their work. 88. jump line: A line of type at the bottom of an incomplete newspaper or magazine article which directs the reader to another page where the story is continued. Also the line at the top of the continued article stating the page from which it was continued, also called a from line. See also spill. 89. justification: Where each line in a column of text aligns to the same left and right margins. This is achieved by stretching or shrinking the width of letters or spaces between words. Sometimes called fully justified or set full. Compare with unjustified. 90. kerning: A way of setting printed type so that adjacent characters appear to overlap, reducing the amount of horizontal space they require. 91. key points: Important facts or pieces of information which must be included in a news story. Some will go in the intro, others into the body of the story 92. kicker: (1) The first sentence or first few words of a storys intro, set in a larger font size than the body text. (2) A small headline in different type above and slightly to the left of the main headline. (3) A few words at the beginning of a caption to grab the reader's attention. (4) An ending that finishes a story or bulletin with a climax, surprise, or punch line (see also tailpiece). 93. kill: To cancel or delete all or part of a story. Also known as spike. 94. kill fee: A reduced fee paid to a freelance journalist for a story that is not used. 95. layout: (1) A plan of how stories, pictures and other elements are to appear on the finished page of a newspaper or magazine. Sometimes called a dummy. (2) A set of stories, pictures and illustrations about a single subject. 96. layout sub: A sub-editor who specialises in planning the layout of pages. 97. lead: (Pronounced leed) (1) The first story in a news bulletin or on the front page of a newspaper. Also called a 'splash'. (2) In the US, the first paragraph in a story. 98. leading: (Pronounced ledding) Adding space between two lines, from the days when type was set in the metal lead. 99. letters to the editor: Letters from readers published by a newspaper or magazine, expressing their views on previous content or current issues. Letters to the editor are read out on radio or shown on screen while being read out on television. 100. libel: An older term for defamation. Traditionally, libel was the written form of defamation. Compare with slander. 101. lift: To take a news story, feature or quote from another newspaper or broadcaster and use it in your own report. 102. liftout: A special supplement - often attached to advertising or a promotion - which is inserted into a newspaper or magazine and can be lifted out by a reader. 103. magazine: (1) A publication produced on a regular basis, containing a variety of articles, often with illustrations. Also called a periodical. (2) A radio or television program covering a number of different topics. 104. managing editor: The senior editor involved in the day-to-day production of a newspaper or magazine, usually with overall responsibility for the gathering, writing and sub-editing of news.

105. markup: A sub-editors written instructions on a piece of copy on how to handle the text. 106. masthead: The name of a newspaper in a banner in special, distinctive type at the top of the front page. 107. media kit: (1) A set of materials provided to journalists by an organisation to promote their products or services. It may contain written documents, photographs, charts, schedules and other information the organisation wants journalists to focus on. (2) Information on advertising and other service costs made available by media companies to potential advertisers. 108. media officer: Also called press officer, a person employed by a company or other organisation to get positive publicity in the media and deal with enquiries from journalists. 109. media release: Also called a press release, information sent to the media to give an organisations views on an issue or promote a product or service. 110. networked journalism: A form of citizen journalism which relies heavily on information shared through the Internet to create stories, often without original research by the writer or producer. 111. neutral question: A question asked in such a way that it does not imply personal opinion or bias. Compare with loaded questions above. 112. news: Information which is new, unusually and interesting or significant to the recipient. It is usually about people or related in some way to their lives. News is produced in a structured way by journalists. 113. news agency: A company that sells stories to media organisations. News agencies may produce news stories or features themselves or collect and redistribute them to media outlets. 114. news desk: The main desk in a newsroom, usually where the news editor and/or other senior journalists sit. 115. news editor: The person in charge of which news events are covered and how news stories are gathered and written by reporters in a newsroom. 116. night editor: In a morning newspaper, the most senior journalist left in charge of a newsroom overnight when the editor has left. 117. nut graf or nut graph: A paragraph telling the essential elements of a story briefly, i.e. in a nutshell. 118. obit or obituary: An article summarising the life and achievements of a person recently dead. 119. objective journalism: A basic type of journalism practiced in democracies in which the journalists do not allow their personal biases to affect their work, they take a neutral stance even on difficult matters and give a fair representation of events and issues. Compare with advocacy journalism. 120. online journalism: Reporting and writing news specifically for use on the Internet. 121. on spec: Article that is written in case it is needed (i.e. speculative), though it may not be used. 122. on the record: Information given by a source who has agreed to be identified in the story. Compare with off the record and non-attributable above. 123. op-ed: Chiefly US, an opinionated story written by a prominent journalist. 124. op-ed page: The page in a newspaper opposite the editorial page, containing opinion columns, sometimes readers letters and other items expressing opinions. 125. open question: Also called an open-ended question, a question which cannot be answered with a simple Yes or No, but requires the interviewee to give more information. What happened? is an open question. Compare with closed question above.

126. opinion: A persons thoughts about something it is not possible to prove is true by objective methods or the person does not wish to prove is true. Compare with fact above. 127. orphan: A single first line of a paragraph left incomplete at the bottom of a column of text, the rest of the paragraph appearing at the top of the next column of text. Normally avoided in typesetting. 128. Photoshop: A popular computer program used to edit and organise photographs. 129. pitch: A reporters idea for a story as presented in outline to an editor. 130. plagiarism: To use the work of another person as if it was ones own, without attribution. It is unethical. 131. press room: The large room or building housing the printing machines (presses) for a newspaper or magazine. Also called a 'print room'. 132. press run: The printing of an edition of a newspaper or magazine. Also the number of copies printed. Also called a print run. 133. Press Trust of India (PTI): The largest news agency in India, run as a not-for-profit cooperative providing and exchanging news in English and Hindi among more than 450 newspapers. It also provides a satellite news service. 134. production editor: A senior journalist responsible for making sure content in a newspaper or magazine is printed properly. Usually works in a press room or print room during the press run where he or she is able to make last-minute changes. 135. proof reader: A person who checks typeset proofs and/or computer printouts to detect errors before the final printing of a publication. Also called a copy reader. 136. publish: To make something available to an audience, usually in a printed or pictorial form, although material on the Internet is said to be published. 137. puff box: A newspaper's own advertisements at the top of the front page promoting articles inside or in future issues. 138. puff piece: A news story or feature written to make the subject seem good. 139. put to bed: When journalists have finished their work on preparing a newspaper and it is sent to the presses for printing. 140. Q & A: (1) A conversation or interview printed verbatim in question and answer form. (2) In broadcasting, questions and answers between a studio presenter and someone in another location, either an interviewee or a reporter in the field. 141. quote: (1) The use in a printed story or on television of the exact words spoken by a person, distinguished by quotation marks at the start and finish. (2) Short for quotation marks. Compare with reported speech. 142. rate card: A published list of a media organisations standard rates for advertising, including deadlines and specifications. 143. recto: The right-hand page of a newspaper or magazine. 144. redletter: An important breaking news story. From the newspaper practice of highlighting an exclusive, breaking news story in red type. 145. re-jig: To rewrite a story or reorganise a page, usually by moving elements around. 146. reported speech: A way of reporting what someone has said without using their exact words in a quote. Well-written reported speech allows a journalist to compress and explain a persons words for greater efficiency and clarity. In grammar, sometimes called indirect speech. Compare with quote. 147. reporter: A journalist who gathers information - including researching and interviewing people - and writes news stories.

148. Reuters: One of the world's oldest international news agencies started in London in 1851. Now part of the Thomson Reuters company. 149. review: A description of an event with a critical assessment of how well it was done. Reviews are typically written of plays and other theatre performances, concerts and recitals, new recordings, movies, radio and television programs, books, restaurants, exhibitions and other forms of entertainment. 150. round: A reporter's specialist area of coverage, such as 'a police round'. Reporters develop personal contacts in these areas who can give them information. Often called a 'beat' in the US or a 'patch' in the UK. 151. round-up: A collection of short stories or summary of information about an event or a day. 152. royalties: Money paid to someone for using their work. 153. rundown: A list of stories for a news bulletin. (1) A television line-up with additional technical information for studio and control room staff. (2) An amended line-up filed after the bulletin including any last-minute changes. 154. sans serif: A design of print type such as Ariel without small extensions at the ends or corners of letters. 155. scoop: An important or significant news published or broadcast before other competing media know of it. 156. serif: A design of print type such as Times Roman with small extensions (serifs) at the ends or corners of letters. 157. slander: An older term for the spoken form of defamation. 158. slug: A key word or phrase that identifies a news story while it is being prepared. 159. soft copy: Words or pictures which exist in computerised form as data. Compare with hard copy, where they are printed on paper 160. source: Where information comes from, usually a person who gives a journalist information. spin: Putting a positive slant on something bad or emphasising only the positive aspects while ignoring the negatives. 161. splash: An exciting front page story given prominence so people will take notice of it. 162. stet: Latin for let it stand, a mark - the word stet in a circle - used by sub-editors and proof readers telling the typesetter to disregard a change that had been previously marked. The relevant words are identified by underlining them with a dotted line. 163. stop press: In newspapers, the latest available news just in. From a time when printing presses were stopped to put in urgent breaking news before continuing the print run. Papers often had Stop Press boxes in a corner of the front or back page where brief urgent stories could be inserted. 164. strapline: (1) In print and online, a kind of subhead or standfirst immediately following a larger headline. (2) In advertising, a slogan attached to a product brand name, e.g. Heineken: Refreshes the parts other beers cannot reach. 165. stringer: A regular contributor to a newspaper or broadcaster who is not a member of staff. Stringers are often paid by the length of stories they provide. 166. sub: (1) Short for 'sub-editor'. (2) The process of sub-editing copy for inclusion in a newspaper, magazine or news bulletin. 167. sub-editor: Journalists who checks and edit a reporters work, format stories for the page, add headlines or plan the page layout. 168. subhead: (1) A small headline below the main headline. (2) A small headline inserted in the body of a story to visually break up a long column of type.

169. sub judice: A legal term meaning under judgment to describe matters actively being dealt with by the legal system. In many countries there are restrictions on what the media can report during sub judice periods. 170. syndicate: (Verb) To simultaneously sell or otherwise provide a journalist or photographer's work to other newspapers, magazines or broadcasters who subscribe to that service. 171. tabloid: A small, compact format newspaper, usually less than 43 cm (17 inches) long. Also used to describe a newspaper style that uses short, simply-written stories and headlines with lots of pictures to illustrate more sensational content. Compare with broadsheet. 172. tagline: (1) Contact information for an articles author, published to enable readers to provide feedback. (2) Also called a signature line, information about the author appended to the bottom of an email or blog. (3) In advertising, a word or phrase invented by marketers to help identify a specific brand, e.g. the tagline for the movie Jaws was Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water. 173. tailpiece: A surprising or humorous observation at the end of a story or bulletin, associated with the story or bulletin but standing apart from it because of its subject matter or tone. Also called a kicker. In printing, an illustration at the end of a chapter. 174. tear sheet: A page cut or torn from a newspaper to show someone - such as an advertiser that a story of picture was used. 175. Teeline: A simplified system of shorthand used by journalists in Britain and associated countries. It is regarded as easier to learn than Pitman or Gregg, but harder to achieve high notemaking speeds with. 176. thumbnail: A half-column picture in newspapers or a reduced size picture on a web page which, when clicked on, brings up the full sized picture or illustration. 177. tie in: (1) To explaining how a current story can be seen in the context of past events. Also known as a tie back. 178. tip: Information given to a reporter about a possible story. 179. TK: Short for to come, a sub-editors mark in text that additional material will be inserted there later, before production and printing. Occasionally written as TKTK so it will not be missed. 180. top head: (1) Headline at the top of a column of text. (2) A banner headline on a web site. 181. typeface: In printing, a set of letters, numbers and punctuation marks designed in one particular style. The typeface of this glossary is Ariel. The typeface of this sentence is Courier New. 182. typesetter: In the days before desktop publishing, the person who turned a journalists work into metal type for printing. Often called a compositor. 183. typo: An error in typing a story. 184. UPI: United Press International news agency, launched in the USA in 1907. 185. user-generated content: Web sites where most of the content is sent in by its users in the form of articles, comments, video, photographs etc. 186. verbatim: The actual words used by a speaker. 187. verso: The left-hand page of a newspaper or magazine. 188. wrap-up questions: The final questions in an interview, in which the interviewer clarifies any outstanding issues and checks they have not missed anything, e.g. Is there anything else you can tell me about the crash? 189. write-off story: A short, front-page version of a story which is repeated in full with more

details inside the newspaper. 190. yellow journalism: An old-fashioned US term for sensational journalism.