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Introduction 3 Phase Transformer Delta and Wye Connections
3 Phase Transformer Winding Combination 3 Phase Transformer Voltage in Delta and Wye Connections
Special Three Phase Delta Connected Transformers Single Phase Transformers Connected to Form Three Phase Bank 3 Phase Transformer: Delta-Delta 3 Phase Loads and Single Phase Loads
3 Phase Transformer Sizing with 3 Phase Loads 3-Phase Transformer Connections:
These coils or windings are spaced 120 degrees apart. there is a three-legged iron core as shown below. Each leg has a respective primary and secondary winding. or in some systems .3 PHASE ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSFORMER A 3 phase transformer. Most power is distributed in the form of three-phase AC. As they rotate through the magnetic field they generate power which is then sent out on three (3) lines as in three-phase power. Therefore. before proceeding any further you should understand what is meant by 3 phase power. 3 phase transformers must have (3) coils or windings connected in the proper sequence in order to match the incoming power and therefore transform the power company voltage to the level of voltage we need and maintain the proper phasing or polarity. When single-phase electricity is needed. It is available between any two phases of a three-phase system. Basically. between one of the phases and ground. the power company generators produce electricity by rotating (3) coils or windings through a magnetic field within the generator . 3 Phase Power Is More Efficient Than Single Phase Three phase electricity powers large industrial loads more efficiently than single-phase electricity. By the use of three conductors a 3 phase system can provide 173% more power than .
3 phase power can be transmitted over long distances with smaller conductor size. P2. In a three-phase transformer. Each leg has a respective primary and secondary winding. Or check with Isolation Transformer Sales for 3 phase isolation transformers. will be in either ?Delta? or a ?Wye? configuration. P3) will be connected at the factory to provide the proper sequence (or correct polarity) required and will be in a configuration known as Delta. The three secondary windings (S1. For an excellent source for these all transformer types check out TEMCo 3 phase transformers. 3 Phase Transformer Delta and Wye Connections . there is a three-legged iron core as shown below. the secondary windings. However. S2. The three primary windings (P1. S3) will also be connected at the factory to provide the proper sequence (or correct polarity) required. Three-phase power allows heavy duty industrial equipment to operate more smoothly and efficiently. Also read about 3 phase isolation transformers here.the two conductors of a single-phase system. These two companies manufacture some of the most recognized high quality 3 phase transformers available today. depending on our voltage requirements.
In a 3 phase transformer. the high voltage terminals are designated with an “h” and the low voltage with an “X” . Three primary Windings in Delta and Three Secondary Windings in Wye Note: These are the designations which are marked on the leads or terminal boards provided for customer connections and they will be located in the transformer wiring compartment. there is a three-legged iron core as shown below. Each leg has a respective primary and secondary winding. 3 Phase Transformer Winding Combination As can be seen. These 6 windings will be preconnected at the factory in one of two configurations: Configuration 1. In both single and 3 phase transformers. the three-phase transformer actually has 6 windings (or coils) 3 primary and 3 secondary.
this voltage will be . each primary winding will have the same voltage across it. 3 Phase Transformer Voltage in Delta and Wye Connections Different brands of 3 phase transformers handle the windings in different manners. when connected to a three-phase source. Therefore.Configuration 2. For Example: 480V 3 Phase Source If the secondary windings are also connected Delta then they have equal voltages across each winding. Of course. Three Primary Windings in Delta and Three Secondary Windings in Delta Note: These are the designations which are marked on the leads or terminal boards provided for the customer connections and they will be located in the transforming wiring compartment. All Federal Pacific 3 phase transformers have their primary windings pre-connected in a Delta configuration. In both single and three-phase transformers. the high voltage terminals are designated with an “H” and the low voltage with an “X”.
either higher or lower than the primary depending upon the “turns ratio”. The 208Y indicates the voltage between phases of the secondary windings. 480V Primary Source with 240V Secondary Output @ 2/1 Turns Ratio (Delta-Delta) Note: it is important to note that three-phase transformers with Delta-connected primaries when connected to a 30. 4-wire supply system do not utilize the 4th wire or neutral. A typical rating would be 208/120V. All Wye connections provide two voltages due to the common point or neutral connection. Wye: If the secondary is not connected in Delta it will be pre-connected at the factory as a Wye secondary. For Example: .
The 120 volt portion indicates the voltage from each phase to the common point or neutral For Example: This Phase-to-Neutral voltage in a Wye is always equal to the Phase-toPhase voltage divided by For Example: Therefore a 3 phase transformer with its secondary connected in a Wye configuration for 208Y/120 volts will have the available: Common .
Three-Phased Transformer Voltage Combinations Special Three Phase Delta Connected Transformers There are certain situations where only a very small portion of a building loads require 120V single-phase . The mid-point of winding S3 is tapped which gives the XI and X3 to neutral a voltage reading of 120 volts. it has to carry all the 120V lighting and appliance loads plus one-third of all the 3 phase loads. and the total of the nameplate KVA must be derated by 30%). (The 120V loads must not exceed 5% of the nameplate KVA. . and the 240 volt single-phase loads. Winding S1 and S2 cannot carry any 120 volt loads as there is no neutral connection to these windings. Windings S1 and S2 can only carry one-third of the three-phase loads each. This is a disadvantage of a Delta compared to a Wye secondary connection This Delta secondary connection has only one winding (S3) with a neutral conductor. winding S3 is the workhorse. The 240 Volt 30 Delta Connected Secondary With 120 Volt 10 Lighting Tap As you can see there is no point in a Delta at which an equal potential to all three lines and the grounded neutral can be made. A special power transformer is available and you should be familiar with it. In a 3-phase system.
the voltage between Phase B (X2) and the neutral tap will be 208 volts. when 3 phase is required. 3 Phase Transformer: Delta-Delta . Single Phase Transformers Connected to Form Three Phase Bank Normally . no 120 volt single-phase loads can be connected between X2 and the neutral tap.*Caution: A240 volt Delta connected transformer with a 120 volt neutral tap creates a condition called “high leg” As indicated in the above diagram. However three single-phase transformers with the same rating can be connected to form a three-phase bank. Since each single-phase transformer has a primary and a secondary winding. then 3 single-phase transformers will have the required 3 primary and 3 secondary windings and can be connected in the field either DeltaDelta or Delta-Wye to achieve the required 3 phased transformer bank. a single enclosure with three primary and three secondary windings wound on a common core is all that is required. as shown below. therefore.
an attempt to use a transformer with threephase input and only one phase connected at the output to convert the loading on the line to 3 phase is not practical. 3 Phase Transformer Sizing with 3 Phase Loads 1) Determine electrical load . then both the supply and the transformer must be in three-phase. Partial service can be restored using the remaining single-phase transformer open-Delta until a replacement transformer is obtained. However. there is an advantage which is called the open Delta or V-Connection and it functions as follows: A defective single-phase transformer in a Delta-Delta 3 phase bank can be disconnected and removed for repair. If the load is single-phase the supply can either be single or 3 phase but the transformer need only be single-phase with the primary being connected to two lines on the three phase circuit. With two transformers three-phase is still obtained. 57. With single-phase loads. but at reduced power.7% 3 Phase Loads and Single Phase Loads If the load is 3 phase.7 of original power. This makes it a very practical transformer application for temporary emergency conditions Open Delta 57.Utilizing 3 single-phase transformers is normally not done because it is more expensive than utilizing 1 three-phase transformer.
The frequency of the line supply and electrical load must be the same. Verify load is designed to operate on three phase. Select a 3 phase transformer with a standard KVA capacity equal to or greater than that needed to operate the load. B. B. C. Voltage of supply (source). A 3 phase transformer is selected which is designed to operate at this frequency having a primary (input) equal to the supply voltage and a secondary (output) equal to the voltage required by the load. C. When load ratings are given only in amperes. Frequency in Hz (cycles per second). Primary taps are available on most models to compensate for line voltage variations. Frequency in Hz (cycles per second). Amperes or KVA required by load. 3) If the load nameplate expresses a rating in KVA. the following formulas below may be used to determine proper KVA size for the required transformer. 2) Determine supply voltage A.A. Voltage required by load. (Refer to question #2 in the Transformer Question and Answer Section of Acme's marketplace. D. B. Choose from the group of transformers with primary and secondary voltages matching that which you have just determined. All the above information is standard data normally obtained from equipment nameplates or instruction manuals. a transformer can be directly selected from the charts in the catalog. . A.
4 KVA A three phase transformer must be selected so that any one phase is not overloaded. Each phase should have the additional 4 KVA rating required by the heater even though the heater will operate on one phase only. 28. NOTE: Any two wires of the 240 volts.2 KVA.2 KVA =240 volts x 68 amps x 1.73 /1000 (2) To determine Amperes when KVA and volts are known: Amps = 3 Phase KVA x 1000 /Volts x 1. the transformer should have a minimum KVA rating of 28.73 Three Phase Example Question: Select a transformer to fulfill the following conditions. Any 2 .2 . 60 Hz and a heater load of 4 kilowatts @ 240 volts single phase. To not overload the transformer. three phase. 3 phase developed by the secondary of the transformer may be used to supply the heater. a 45 KVA transformer should be selected.4 + 4 + 4 or 40. A 480 delta primary . The fourth wire (neutral) is not Connected to the transformer.(1) To determine three phase KVA when volts and amps are known: Three Phase KVA =Volts x Amps x 1. 480Y/277 volt supply. Answer: Compute the KVA required. Load is a three phase induction motor.240 delta secondary transformer may be used on a 4 wire.73 /1000 Heater . So. 4 wire. The supply voltage is 480Y/277. 25 horsepower @ 240 volts.
use : most common.wires of a 3 phase system is single phase. a nonconductor of electricity. The dielectric oil performs several functions. 3-Phase Transformer Connections: There are only 4 possible transformer combinations: Delta to Delta . Since it is a dielectric. which can deteriorate the winding insulation. Since three phase power is the most common way in which power is produced. an used. These transformers are put into an enclosure which is then filled with dielectric oil. an understanding of how three phase transformer connections are made is essential. commercial and industrial . Three Phase Transformers Overview Three phase transformers are used throughout industry to change values of three phase voltage and current. it provides electrical insulation between the windings and the case. 3 Phase Transformer Construction: A three phase transformer is constructed by winding three single phase transformers on a single core. It is also used to help provide cooling and to prevent the formation of moisture. In this section it will discuss different types of three phase transformers connections.use: industrial applications Delta to Wye . and present examples of how values of voltage and current for these connections are computed. transmitted.
It is used for neighborhood and small commercial loads close to the supplying substation. A wire from each point of the triangle would represent a three-phase. the voltage between any two power conductors will always be 1. X2. three-wire delta system. The delta system can be illustrated by a simple triangle. X3) and the neutral (X0) will be less than the power conductors. Only one voltage is available between any two wires in a delta system. However.732 (which is the square root of 3) times .Wye to Delta .use : rare. This is due to the square root of three phase power. don't use causes harmonics and balancing problems. if the voltage between the power conductors of any two phases of a three wire system is 208v. Wye Connections: In a wye system the voltage between any two wires will always give the same amount of voltage on a three phase system. the voltage between any one of the phase conductors (X1. 3 phase transformers are connected in delta or wye configurations. In a wye system. A wye-delta transformer has its primary winding connected in a wye and its secondary winding connected in a delta (see figure 1-1). For example.use : high voltage transmissions Wye to Wye . Delta Connections: A delta system is a good short-distance distribution system. The voltage would be the same between any two wires (see figure 1-3). A delta-wye transformer has its primary winding connected in delta and its secondary winding connected in a wye (see figure 1-2). then the voltage from any phase conductor to ground will be 120v.
and C. The primary leads of each transformer are labeled H1 and H2 and the secondary leads are labeled X1 and X2. and the H1 lead of each winding has been connected to the incoming primary power line. The three transformer windings in figure 1-5 are labeled H1 and the other end is labeled H2.the voltage between the neutral and any one of the power phase conductors. When three single phase transformers are used to make a three phase transformer bank. The primary winding will be tied into a wye connection first.732 (see figure 1-4). their primary and secondary windings are connected in a wye or delta connection. three single phase transformers can be connected to form a three phase bank. The phase-to-ground voltage can be found by dividing the phase-to-phase voltage by 1. The schematic in figure 1-5 shows. Notice in figure 1-7 that the H2 leads of the primary windings are connected together. Figure 1-5 shows that the X1 lead of the transformer A is connected to the X2 lead of transformer c. that the H2 leads of the three primary windings are connected together. The schematic diagram of figure 1-5 will be used to connect the three single phase transformers into a three phase wye-delta connection as shown in figure 1-7. and the H1 lead of each winding is open for connection to the incoming power line. One end of each secondary lead is labeled X1 and the other end is labeled X2. Figure 1-6 shows three single phase transformers labeled A. Connecting Single-Phase Transformers into a 3 phase Bank: If three phase transformation is need and a three phase transformer of the proper size and turns ratio is not available. B. Notice that this same connection has been made in figure 1-7. The X1 lead of transformer B is connected to .
It should be noted that the output power of an open delta connection is only 87% of the rated power of the two transformers. For example. .87 = 43. The load is connected to the points of the delta connection.58% = 43. This connection is often used when the amount of three phase power needed is not excessive. the total output would be 75 kVA (3 x 25 = 75 kVA). The output capacity of the open delta bank is 43. If one of these transformers were removed and the transformer bank operated as an open delta connection. Open Delta Connection: The open delta transformer connection can be made with only two transformers instead of three (figure 1-8). such as a small business. The total output power of this connection is 43. lead of transformer A.5 kVA).X1. The voltage and current rules for a delta connection must be used when determining line and phase values of voltage current.5 kVA (75 kVA x . each having a capacity of 25 kVA. If three 25 kVA transformers were connected to form a closed delta connection.5 kVA). the output power would be reduced to 58% of its original capacity of 75 kVA. are connected in an open delta connection. This percentage assumes a closed delta bank containing 3 transformers. assume two transformers.5 kVA (50 kVA x 0. Another figure given for this calculation is 58%. and the X1 lead of transformer C is connected to X2 lead of transformer B. The voltage and current values of an open delta connection are computed in the same manner as a standard delta-delta connection when three transformers are employed. and the X1 lead of transformer B is connected to X2 lead of transformer A.
It is not unusual for a voltmeter to indicate some amount of voltage before the delta is closed. nominal or less. If power is applied to the transformer bank before the delta connection is closed. the voltmeter will generally indicate close to the normal output voltage if the connection is correct and double the output voltage if the connection is incorrect. Proper phasing can be checked with a voltmeter at delta opening. Where the primary current is less than 9 amps. If one phase winding has been reversed. . It should be noted that a voltmeter is a high impedance device. Where the primary current is less than 2 amps. an overcurrent device rated or set at not more than 300% shall be permitted. If the phase winding of one transformer is reversed. Overcurrent Protection for the Primary: Electrical Code Article 450-3(b) states that each transformer 600 volts. an overcurrent device rated or set at not more than 167% of the primary current shall be permitted. connections should be checked for proper polarity before making the final connection and applying power. shall be protected by an individual overcurrent device on the primary side. however. Where the primary current of a transformer is 9 amps or more and 125% of this current does not correspond to a standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker. the voltmeter should indicate 0 volts. rated or set at not more than 125% of the rated primary current of the transformer. When this is the case. the voltmeter will indicate double the amount of voltage.Closing a Delta: When closing a delta system. especially if the primary has been connected as a wye and the secondary as a delta. an extremely high current will flow when power is applied. the next higher standard rating shall be permitted.
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