Double Diaphragm Pumps

Concept and Theory Training

Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................... 1 Module Purpose ..................................................... 1 Primary Audience .................................................. 1 Benefits to You ........................................................1 Objectives ...............................................................1 How Do I Use This Module?...................................1 What Materials Do I Need? ....................................1 Double Diaphragm Pump ........................ 2 Component Identification and Function ..................2 Progress Check ........................................................4 Double Diaphragm Pump Operation ....... 6 Moving Fluid.........................................................6 Progress Check ........................................................8 Air Flow Operation ..............................................10 Air Flow with Mechanical Triggering ...................10 Progress Check ......................................................13 Pilot Operated Triggering ......................15 Whole Pump Operation ......................... 19 Progress Check ......................................................21 Summary..............................................................23 Materials of Construction......................................23 Pump Application ................................. 26 Advantages .......................................... 27 Pump Advantages .................................................27 Air Valve Advantages............................................27 Limitations...........................................................28 Trade Names ........................................................28 Self Check .............................................................29 Additional Resources .............................................32

Husky® is a registered trademark of Graco Inc. Teflon®,Viton®, and Hytrel® are registered trademarks of Du Pont. Kynar® is a registered trademark of Atochem North America, Inc. Santoprene® is a registered trademark of Monsanto. Graco Inc. is registered to I.S. EN ISO 9001.
Graco, Inc. P.O. Box 1441 Minneapolis, MN 55440-1441
©1996 Graco Inc. Form No. 321-048 1/96 Printed in U.S.A.

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Double Diaphragm Pumps

Introduction
Module Purpose
The purpose of this module is to help you understand the design and operational characteristics of Double Diaphragm Pumps.

Primary Audience
The primary audience for this module is for anyone who would like a better understanding of double diaphragm pumps.

Benefits to You
The benefits to you of successfully completing this module include: • • gaining knowledge of double diaphragm pump design and operation. being able to understand and satisfy the customer’s pumping application requirements.

Objectives
After completing this module, you should be able to: • • Explain the theory of operation of Graco Double Diaphragm Pumps. Know the advantages of the Graco Double Diaphragm Pumps.

How Do I Use This Module?
This module is designed for you to use at your own pace and at the time you most need it in your job. You can also use the module as a reference after completing it.

What Materials Do I Need?
In addition to this booklet, you will also need these items to complete this module: • • • Fluid Basics, Form No. 321-026 Moving Fluids, Form No. 321-037 Fluid Controls, Form No. 321-038

Double Diaphragm Pumps

1

Double Diaphragm Pump
Double Diaphragm Pumps use compressed air as the power source. They are frequently used for fluid transfer, low pressure spray, and other lower pressure applications requiring less than 120 psi (8.5 bar).

Component Identification and Function

Outlet Manifold Air Chamber

Check Valve

Diaphragms

Fluid Housing

Air Valve

Exhaust Port Inlet Manifold Muffler not Pictured
05577

Figure 1 Double Diaphragm Pump Component Identification.

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Double Diaphragm Pumps

Outlet Manifold Fluid flows out of the right or left fluid housing past the check valves. Wetted Parts The wetted parts include all parts that come into contact with the pumped fluid. The pump has a Right and Left Air Chamber. Fluid Housings The fluid being pumped will flow through the fluid housings. ball checks and seats. fluid housings. For a thorough explanation of check valve operation refer to the Fluid Controls module. Different mufflers provide different levels of noise reduction. diaphragms. two inlet check valves and two outlet check valves. Muffler The muffler minimizes the noise of the exhaust air. a valve cup. Most double diaphragm pumps use ball type check valves. Air Valve The air valve directs compressed air to either the right or left air chamber. then through the outlet manifold. The air valve directs compressed air through a port to one of the air chambers while the opposite air chamber is directed to the exhaust port. The air valve consists of a triggering mechanism. The diaphragm is a material that will flex with increasing or decreasing air pressure. Diaphragms Diaphragms separate the air chambers and fluid housings in the pump. The check valves control the fluid flow through the fluid housings and manifolds of the pump. and a valve plate. They include the inlet manifold. Each pump has a Right and Left Fluid Housing. Check Valves A double diaphragm pump has four fluid check valves. A common shaft connects the two diaphragms. Inlet Manifold Fluid flows from the fluid container through the inlet manifold either to the right or left fluid housing.Air Chambers Compressed air flows into or out of the air chambers. and outlet manifold. Double Diaphragm Pumps 3 .

hydraulic. Graco Double diaphragm pumps can be driven by air. return to the text and review the appropriate topics. Fill in each space provided with the name of the component. or electric motors.Progress Check Directions: After answering the following questions. 1. False 2. True b. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 05577 4 Double Diaphragm Pumps . a. compare your answers with those provided in the answer key following the progress check. If you respond to any items incorrectly.

False 2.) Double Diaphragm Pumps 5 . (See Figure 1.Answers to Progress Check 1.

The pump shaft moves right creating a vacuum in the left fluid housing. This expansion creates a high pressure in the right fluid housing equal to the air pressure applied to the pump. Then we will describe the air valve triggering mechanisms used in Graco Double Diaphragm pumps. Part 1. The inlet check valve (4) of the right fluid housing closes. causing the right diaphragm to flex. the left outlet valve (1) closes. The left inlet check valve (3) opens. We will refer to the pump operation as the “right” or “left”. See Figure 2 for an illustration of the cycle. 6 Double Diaphragm Pumps . and the fluid is pumped through the outlet manifold.Double Diaphragm Pump Operation To help clarify the operation of the Double Diaphragm Pump we will divide the operation as follows. This is to aid in description only and bears no significance in a real application. Moving Fluid Compressed air flows into the right air chamber. Fluid Outlet Fluid Inlet 05578 Figure 2 Pumping Fluid: movement to the right. and the fluid flows into the left fluid housing. First we will describe the fluid flow. Then we will describe the air flow. the outlet valve (2) opens.

The inlet check valve (3) of the left fluid housing closes. See Figure 3. Double Diaphragm Pumps 7 .At the end of the pump stroke the air valve switches and compressed air will flow into the left air chamber. Fluid Outlet Fluid Inlet 05579 Figure 3 Pumping Fluids: movement to the left. the outlet valve (1) opens. The right outlet valve (2) closes. the right inlet check valve (4) opens. and the fluid flows into the right fluid housing. causing the left diaphragm to flex. and the fluid is pumped through the outlet manifold. The pump shaft moves left creating a vacuum in the right fluid housing.

a. Check valves. b. c. The flow of fluid is controlled by a. 1. The muffler.Progress Check Directions: After answering the following questions. return to the text and review the appropriate topics. Compressed air pressurizes the pump fluid to a pressure _________________ the applied pressure. 2. compare your answers with those provided in the answer key following the progress check. Valve cup. b. If you respond to any items incorrectly. c. equal to much higher than much lower than 8 Double Diaphragm Pumps .

a. a.Answers to Progress Check 1. 2. Double Diaphragm Pumps 9 .

compressed air will flow directly into the right air chamber. The diaphragm shaft moves to the right.Part 2. Air Flow Operation To understand how the pump functions. Compressed Air Inlet Air Valve Cup Air Exhaust 05573 Figure 4 Air Valve In The Left Position. 10 Double Diaphragm Pumps . Air Flow With Mechanical Triggering With the air valve in the left position. There are two types of air valve triggering mechanisms used in Graco pumps: mechanically actuated and pilot operated. you must understand how it is controlled or triggered. the left air chamber is connected to the exhaust port.

The actuator link contacts a compression spring which contacts the detent link. Actuator Link Compression Spring Dentent Link Valve Cup Dentent Ball (Hidden) 00575 00576 Figure 5 Mechanical Air Valve Triggering. the air pressure moves the diaphragm shaft to the right and through mechanical contact pushes the actuator link. it will overcome the force of the detent and the detent link will snap over to the right side. Now the valve cup is connecting the right air chamber port and exhaust port. Double Diaphragm Pumps 11 . When the spring force between the actuator and detent links is great enough.In the illustration in Figure 5. The detent link carries the valve cup and is held in position by a ball and spring creating a mechanical detent.

Compressed Air Inlet Air Cup Air Exhaust 05574 Figure 6 Air Valve In The Right Position. As the diaphragm shaft moves to the left. it contacts the actuator link. Then the detent link snaps over to the left and the cycle repeats itself. 12 Double Diaphragm Pumps . inlet air will flow directly into the left air chamber. force increases until the actuator overcomes the detent spring force. connecting the right side air chamber with the air exhaust.With the air valve in the right position. As the shaft moves.

Progress Check Directions: After answering the following questions. When the valve cup connects the right air chamber with the exhaust port. The valve cup is attached to the actuator link on a mechanical triggering mechanism. a. what is happening to the left air chamber? _________________________________________________________________. return to the text and review the appropriate topics. The air flow is directed by the _________________. False Double Diaphragm Pumps 13 . 2. True b. 3. If you respond to any items incorrectly. 1. compare your answers with those provided in the answer key following the progress check.

It is presurized by compressed air flowing into it through the left inlet port. 3. Valve Cup 2. True 14 Double Diaphragm Pumps .Answers to Self Test 1.

The push pin is attached to a cup that is similar to the valve cup previously covered. Since the right side is open to exhaust the air pressure in the left chamber forces the actuator piston to move to the right. The exposed left pilot port allows the compressed air to flow through the channel to the left side of the actuator piston. Double Diaphragm Pumps 15 . When the pilot block is in the right position it connects the right pilot port to the pilot exhaust port.Pilot Operated Triggering In Figure 7 the diaphragm plates move to the right and the left side contacts the push pin and pushes it to the right. This cup is called the pilot block. Valve Cup Actuator Piston Diaphragm Plates Push Pin Pilot Block 05582 Figure 7 Pilot Valve Triggering Mechanism: Pilot Block Moves to the Right.

the right air chamber is exposed to the exhaust port through the air valve cup.As the actuator piston moves to the right. 16 Double Diaphragm Pumps . See Figure 8. Now the compressed air will flow through the left air chamber port and pressurize the left air chamber. 05583 Figure 8 Pilot Valve Triggering Mechanism: Actuator Piston and Valve Cup Move to the Right. The diaphragm assembly will move to the left.

See Figure 9. Double Diaphragm Pumps 17 . The exposed right pilot port allows the pressurized air to flow through the channel to the right side of the actuator piston. When the pilot block is in the left position it connects the left pilot port and the exhaust port.In the next cycle the diaphragm plates move to the left and as the right plate approaches the end of its stroke pushes the push pin and pilot block along with it. 05580 Figure 9 Pilot Valve Triggering Mechanism: Pilot Block Moves to the Left.

Since the left side is open to exhaust the air pressure in the right chamber forces the actuator piston to the left. 18 Double Diaphragm Pumps . 05581 Figure 10 Pilot Valve Triggering Mechanism: Actuator Piston and Valve Cup Move to the Left. causing the diaphragm to move to the right. Now the compressed air will flow through the right air chamber port and pressurize the right air chamber. In this type of triggering the large area of the diaphragm has only a small pilot block to move making it easy to direct the air valve to move. The air valve cup connects the left air chamber port to the exhaust port. The link between the diaphragm movement and the air valve movement occurs pneumatically (air pressure). See Figure 10.

When the shaft pulls back it creates a vacuum in the left fluid housing. connected by a shaft. The diaphragms. Pilot Triggered. Air flows through the air inlet of the pump to the right air chamber port and into the right air chamber. The outlet check valve closes and the inlet check opens allowing fluid to flow in through the inlet manifold and into the left fluid housing. 05710 Figure 11 Whole Pump Operation (right). but these operations work together. The following section discusses the two operations together. As in Figure 11. The following figures are of the pilot triggered mechanism.the left air chamber exhausts. The movement of the diaphragm to the right triggers the air valve so the valve cup moves to connect the right air chamber port with the exhaust port. flex together. Double Diaphragm Pumps 19 . the inlet check valve of the right side manifold closes and the outlet check opens. when the right air chamber is pressurized. The diaphragm flexes pressurizing the fluid in the right fluid housing.Whole Pump Operation We have up until now treated the fluid movement and the air operation separately.

Pilot Triggered. The compressed air flows into the left air chamber and flexes the diaphragm. The air causes the left diaphragm to flex pressurizing the left fluid housing. 20 Double Diaphragm Pumps .Air now exhausts from the right air chamber. 05711 Figure 12 Whole Pump Operation (left). As in Figure 12. the inlet check in the left fluid housing closes and the outlet check opens causing fluid to flow through the outlet manifold of the pump.

compare your answers with those provided in the answer key following the progress check. return to the text and review the appropriate topics. there is a direct mechanical linkage between the diaphragm movement and the valve cup. a. the diaphragm pump changes direction. False 3. ______________________________ and ____________________________. True b. True b. When the valve cup changes direction. 2. Name two types of triggering mechanisms. If you respond to any items incorrectly. a.Progress Check Directions: After answering the following questions. False Double Diaphragm Pumps 21 . 1. In a pilot operated triggering mechanism.

Mechanical and air pilot 2. True 3. False 22 Double Diaphragm Pumps .Answers to Progress Check 1.

(Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Groundable Acetal — material used for wetted parts. Water borne compatible. Compressed air. Withstands extreme fatigue. enters either the right or left air chamber and exhausts from the opposite chamber. Not for use with HHCs. Acetal — material used for balls and seats. Not all materials are available for all models. Heat resistant. Materials Of Construction The following is a list of materials used in Graco Double Diaphragm Pumps. This causes the diaphragms to reciprocate back and forth causing fluid to be loaded and dispensed. Double Diaphragm Pumps 23 . Refer to product literature for availability. Medium corrosion resistance. The list tells you which components may be made of these materials and advantages and disadvantages of each. High abrasion resistance. Aluminum — material used for air motor (air valve) and wetted parts. Hardened Stainless Steel — Material used for seats. (Grounded acetal is used for housings. General purpose. Resists abrasion. Good levels of abrasion resistance. • • • • • • • Strong — withstands impact. Fluid housings are anodized. • • Good solvent and coating resistance. Groundable for use with flammables. Epoxy coated when used as an air motor housing. Low moisture absorption. directed by the air valve.) • • • • • Wide range of solvent resistance. • • Moderate chemical resistance. Low friction.Summary Compressed air drives double diaphragm pumps.

Virgin Polypropylene — material used for wetted parts and seats.glass filled polypropylene.Kynar — material used for wetted parts and seats. seats. 24 Double Diaphragm Pumps . Buna-N — material used for balls and diaphragms. • • • Resists petroleum based fluids Not for strong solvents or chemicals. and diaphragms. Best at room temperature. Wide chemical compatibility General purpose. (316 grade) Best for abrasion resistance. balls. Rugged. Handles general mild fluids.) • • • Moderate abrasion resistance. Lowest price. Not for high temperature. Excellent compression strength. (Air motor . • • • • High level of corrosion resistance. Stainless Steel — material used for wetted parts. Hytrel — material used for seats. and balls. • • • • Strong chemical resistance — close to Teflon. Often substituted for Buna-N. Passivated for use with water base coatings. • • • • • Good with abrasion. Good abrasion resistance. Acceptable with higher temperatures.

Teflon — material used for seats. Highest price. Can use for high temperature. and diaphragms. balls. Poor abrasion resistance. and diaphragms. Excellent when used with solvents. Viton — material used for seats. Can substitute for EPDM or EPR. balls. • • • • • • Chemically inert to most fluids. Ceramic — material used for balls. • • • Good abrasion resistance.Santoprene — material used for seats. Not for use with solvents. balls. Double Diaphragm Pumps 25 . and diaphragms. High density for high viscosity fluids. Higher temperature than Hytrel. Wide chemical resistance. Resists unleaded fuels. • • • • • High abrasion resistance. Fast ball close for smoother flow. • • High level of corrosion resistance with acids. Widest compatibility with fluids.

3 bar) depending on pump model. All double diaphragm pumps have a fluid to air ratio of 1:1. sludge evacuation. The large fluid delivery capability of this pump makes it ideal for transfer applications. 26 Double Diaphragm Pumps . 275 gpm 05570 Figure 13 Graco Double Diaphragm Pump Line. This means the fluid pressure of the pump will be approximately equal to the air inlet pressure. Fluid delivery can exceed 275 gpm (1040 lpm) with larger pump models. Maximum air inlet pressure can be 50 to 120 psi (3. The low pressure operating feature makes this pump ideal for low pressure supply including spraying applications. spraying or dispensing adhesives.4 to 8. Common applications of this pump include bulk tank supply. conventional airspray supply pump for paints and coatings. and for transferring acids and caustics.Pump Application Graco sells a variety of double diaphragm pump models with different fluid delivery capability. waste fluid evacuation. See product information.

The low operating pressure is useful when spraying materials at very low flow rates. This large fluid delivery capability makes double diaphragm pumps ideal for transfer applications. Allows for easy on line maintenance of the pump. Creates a more gentle pumping action during high flow rates. Many diaphragm options for fluid versatility with extended pump life. Air power offers convenience for many installations. such as applying stains for shading or specking on wood furniture. Extremely portable. and stall against pressure efficiency. mess. eliminating the need for lubricated air. Easy to install on a cover. abrasive. This allows the pump to cycle at low flow rates. Some applications require a more gentle pump action such as more shear sensitive fluids like flexographic ink and water base adhesives. no electrical hazard. or containing oil. Uses fewer seals compared to other designs. pail. wall or submerged. less than 120 psi (8. Operates on very little air pressure. Seal-less. Air Valve Advantages: • • • • • • The air valve is the principal feature that differentiates this pump from the competition. leak proof design prevents fluid waste. Decreased repair time and cost. Can run dry without damage. dry. Reduces the mechanical friction within the valve. and hazard. • • Double Diaphragm Pumps 27 . Not dependent on the air being clean. which can froth or foam if agitated or sheared too aggressively. Works well when there is fluid inlet head pressure.Advantages Pump Advantages: • • • • • • • • High fluid delivery rates at low fluid application pressure. and corrosive qualities.5 bar). Handles a wide variety of fluid viscosities. 15 psi (1 bar) or less.

More surge than other pumps. meaning if 100 psi of compressed air is applied to pump.Limitations • Not for high pressure applications. The fluid to air ration relationship of all Double Diaphragm Pumps is 1:1. Cannot pump stringy. An accumulator (surge suppresser) will reduce surging in applications where surging is not acceptable. theoretically we will only achieve 100 psi of fluid output. Air consumption in a continuous duty operation may result in higher energy consumption than other pump styles. Graco does not recommend operating the pump at air pressures higher than the pump rating. • • • Trade Names Graco sells the Double Diaphragm Pump under the trade name Husky. 28 Double Diaphragm Pumps . viscous fluids.

Grease b. A double diaphragm pump will load both chambers at the same time? a. False 3. False Double Diaphragm Pumps 29 . a. If you get less than 80% correct. Dura-Flo c. True b. Cover the answers while completing the self check.The answers to this self check are at the end. Identify the major market application(s) for a double diaphragm pump. Double diaphragm pumps are low volume and high pressure pumps.Self Check Instructions: Answer each of the following questions. a. Check Mate b. True b. 1. Foods 4. False 2. What is Graco’s trade name for double diaphragm pumps? a. you may want to review the module for reinforcement. The fluid chambers of double diaphragm pumps are driven by differential air motors. True b. Husky d. Transfer d. High-Flo 5. Sealants and adhesive c. a.

True b. The shaft retractig the diaphragm creates a ___________ in the corresponding fluid housing. True b. a. True b. The air valve in the Graco double diaphragm pump is a key feature that distinguishes the pump from the competition.6. d. A double diaphragm pump with 50 psi supplied will have an output pressure closest to: a. the pilot block directs air into and out of the air chambers. 100 psi. False 11. 9. 25 psi. Air flow is directed by the _______________. 12. 10. Check valves will prevent pump fluid from flowing back into source container. A double diaphragm pump exhausts compressed air on the side of the pup that is loading material. False 7. b. 50 psi. False 8. False 30 Double Diaphragm Pumps . Need more information to answer. a. a. a. True b. c. In a pilot operated triggering mechanism.

False 3. c. 12. True 7. Air Valve 10. False (The pilot block changes the direction of the actuator piston) 8. False 2. 4. b. True 11. False 6. 5. c. True Double Diaphragm Pumps 31 . Vacuum 9.Answers to Self Test 1.

you may want to obtain copies of the following resources to gain a better understanding of this topic: • • Videotape titled Husky 715 Double Diaphragm Pump Training (Tape number G06-V88) Videotape titled Husky 307 Double Diaphragm Pump Training (Tape number G18-V92) 32 Double Diaphragm Pumps .Additional Resources In addition to this module.

Notes Double Diaphragm Pumps 33 .

Notes 34 Double Diaphragm Pumps .

Module Evaluation The purpose of this Module Evaluation is to help the Graco Technical Communications department determine the usefulness and effectiveness of the module.O. 1. MN 55440-1441. tear it on the perforation. this module: Significantly exceeded my expectations Exceeded my expectations Met my expectations Was below my expectations Was significantly below my expectations 2. Instructions: Please complete the evaluation. Double Diaphragm Pumps Signature _________________________________________________ Date _______________________ Double Diaphragm Pumps 35 . Why did you select the above rating? 3. P. 321-048. Minneapolis. and return to: Graco Technical Communications Department. How do you think the module could be improved? I verify that I have successfully completed Module No. Box 1441. Based on the objectives. USA. How do you plan to use the module information in your job? 4.

Minneapolis.O.S. MN 55440-1441 U.A.Graco Technical Communications Dept. P Box 1441 . (fold here) (fold here) .

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A.Minneapolis.S. 321-048 1/96 Printed in U. P Box 1441 . Form No. .This module was developed by the Graco Technical Communications Department with assistance from the following individuals: Brian Johnson Shelia McKee Doug Jaeger Al Brus The Graco Concept and Theory Training program consists of the following topics: Fluid Basics Atomization Electrostatic Spray Finishing Safety Airspray Technology Fluid Types: Paints and Other Coatings Fluid Types: Lubricants Fluid Types: Sealants and Adhesives Airless Atomization Spraying Techniques Transfer Efficiency Fluid Movement Fluid Controls Pumps Motors and Power Sources Plural Component Paint Handling Plural Component Sealant and Adhesive Handling Paint Circulating Systems Automatic Finishing Lube Reels and Dispense Valves Lube Metering Systems Electronic Fluid Management Systems Graco.O. MN 55440-1441 . Inc. ©1996 Graco Inc.

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