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Theodor Hugues
Kl aus Grei l i ch
Chri sti ne Peter
cOIOD LOID
Authors:
Theodor Hugues, Prof. Dr. - l ng. , architect
Chair of Desi gn, Construction and Bui l di ng
Materi al s, Techni sche Uni versitat Munchen
Kl aus Grei l i ch, Di pl.- l ng. , architect
Chri sti ne Peter, Di pl . -l ng. , architect
Drawi ngs:
Editors for Detai l
l na Phi l i pp, Di pl .-l ng.
Anna Werth, Di pl . -l ng.
Secretariat:
Marga Cervinka
Edi ti ng and proof-readi ng:
Ni col a Kol l mann, Di pl.-l ng.
Andreas Gabri el , Di pl . -l ng., architect
Translators (German/Engl i sh):
Gerd '. Soffker, Phi l i p Thrift, Hannover
2004 l nstitut fUr l nternati onal e Architektur
Dokumentation GmbH Co. KG
A speci al i st publ i cation from Redaktion DETAIL
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renderi ng therei n, i s prohi bited.
Layout and producti on:
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Andrea Li nke, Roswitha Si egl er
Printed by:
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1 st edition, 2004
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ton D.C., USA
Bi bl i ographi c information publ i shed by
Di e Deutsche Bi bl iothek
Die Deutsche Bi bl iothek l i sts this publ i cation
i n the Deutsche Nati onal bi bl i ographi e;
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Thi s work i s subject to copyright. Al l ri ghts are
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material i s concerned, speci fi cal l y the ri ght of
transl ati on, repri nti ng, re-use of i l l ustrati ons,
recitati on, broadcasti ng, reproduction on
mi crofi l ms or i n other ways, and storage i n
databases. For any ki nd of use, permi ssi on of
the copyri ght owner must be obtained.
Al l the detai l drawings are drawn to a scale
of 1 : 1 0. The vari ous components have been
shown i n a number of variations.
They represent typi cal sol uti ons whi ch must
be coordi nated with the respective boundary
condi ti ons and requirements, the relevant
statutory i nstruments, standards and manu
facturers' information val i d i n each speci fi c,
i ndi vi dual case. Nei ther the authors nor the
publ i sher shal l be li able for any cl ai ms for
damages ari si ng from the content of thi s book.
Deci si ons rel ati ng to the constructi on, con
struction law and bui l di ng performance char
acteristics are based on the si tuati on i n
Germany and the DIN standards pl us- i f
al ready introduced-the EN standards val i d
i n Germany.
Practi ce
Bui l di ng with Large Cl ay Bl ocks
Theodor Hugues
Kl aus Grei l ich
Christi ne Peter
Contents
8 I ntroduction
1 1 House A
1 2 External wal l , rendered pl i nth
1 6 External wal l , concrete pl i nth
20 External wal l, wi ndow
22 External wal l , wi ndow and cl ay hol l ow pot floor
24 Doubl e-l eaf party wal l
26 Loadbeari ng and non-l oadbeari ng partitions
28 Cl ay hol l ow pot floor
30 Doubl e-l eaf party wall and cl ay hol l ow pot floor
32 External wal l and unused roof space
38 Doubl e-l eaf party wall and cl ay-ti l e roof
41 House B
42 Non-i nsulated external basement wal l
44 External basement wal l wi th peri pheral i nsul ati on
48 External basement wal l with cavity i nsul ati on
50 Masonry external basement wal l
52 External basement wal l made from l i ghtwei ght
cl ay bl ocks
56 Radiator recess, wi ndow wi th rol l er shutter
62 External wal l and converted roof space
68 Chi mney
70 Parti ti on and fal se wal l conceal i ng services
73 Pri nci pl es
74 Cl ay brick and bl ock formats, di mensi onal
tolerances
76 Masonry bonds
78 Di mensi onal coordi nati on
79 Structure and constr ucti on
83 Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry
91 Suppl ement
96 Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs - Exampl es
1 1 4 Standards, references, associ ati ons
1 1 5 Manufacturers
1 1 7 Subj ect i ndex
1 1 8 I ndex of persons, pi cture credits
Bauen mit groBformatigen Ziegeln, a book of practical
exerci ses and the forerunner of thi s book, ori gi nated
at the suggesti on of the Munich-based Zi egel forum e. V.
The graphic layout and the production of the ori gi nal editi on
was carried out at the offices of Schwei ger Wi nscherman,
al so in Munich.
The authors are grateful to the assi stance gi ven by
Dr. -l ng. Bernhard Behri nger (str uctures) and
Dr. -l ng. Peter Roeke (pl aster/render and masonry
technol ogy) .
Bui l di ng with l ar ge cl ay bl ocks
In or der to i l l ustrate the probl ems and rel ati onshi ps,
two, basical l y si mi l ar, terrace house types, A and
B, wer e devi sed. These do not cl ai m to be speci al
i n any way but rather are i ntended to represent the
"standard case". The differ ences between the two
house types l i e in the degree to which the i nter i or
space is used as wel l as the bui l di ng methods and
bui l di ng mater i al s empl oyed.
A
is a si mpl e house. A has no basement and the roof
space i s not used as l i vi ng accommodati on. The
i ntended hi gh degree of self-bui l d i nvol ved is
hel ped by omi tti ng the central heati ng and hot
water systems, the use of clay hol l ow pot or ti mber
j oi st fl oors, and the use of conventi onal bui l di ng
el ements. The separate el ectr ic or gas-fired heat
ers required are placed in front of the wal l .
8
Cold roof space
No basement
Rai sed ground fl oor
Hi gh degree of sel f-bui l d
Longi tudi nal l oadbearing wal l s
Timber stairs
Mi ni mal chi mney
Fal se wal l s conceal i ng services
B
i s a more el aborate desi gn. B has a basement
and a roof space for use as l i vi ng accommoda
tion. Sol id rei nforced concrete floors and central
hot-water heati ng and hot-water suppl y systems
cal l for a hi gher standard of constructi on, l i kewi se
the wi ndows with rol l er shutters. The use of ex
perienced contractors i s hi ghl y advi sabl e. The
coupl e roof i s supported on abutments monol i thic
with the topmost rei nforced concrete fl oor and pro
vides a roof space free from intermedi ate col umns.
Easy access for handi capped occupants i s guar
anteed by havi ng the ground floor at the same
l evel as the surroundi ng ground.
Converted roof space
Heated and unheated basement
Same-l evel access
|l5 Wll5 CO|CllH
_
5e'v|C5
Radiators and chi mney
Construction by contractors
9
House A
1 2 External wal l , rendered pl i nth
1 6 External wal l , concrete pl i nth
20 External wal l , wi ndow
22 External wal l , wi ndow and cl ay hol low pot floor
24 Doubl e-l eaf party wal l
26 Loadbeari ng and non-l oadbeari ng parti ti ons
28 Cl ay hol l ow pot fl oor
30 Doubl e-l eaf party wal l and cl ay hol low pot fl oor
32 External wal l and unused roof space
38 Doubl e-l eaf party wal l and cl ay-ti l e roof
1 1
External wal l, rendered pl i nth
Vertical section through foundati on and pl i nth

1 2
!2 O|
o
* -
7 -
D
a
Use an excavator to di g the
trenches for foundations i n
stable subsoi l s. The wi dth of
the foundation i s therefore
determi ned by the wi dth of
the excavator bucket and
must al so be checked with
respect to the permi ssi bl e
beari ng pressure . The neces
sary depth to prevent frost
heave ( mi n. 800 mm, in ex
posed locations as much as
1 200 mm) can be achieved
wi th a strip foundation of
adequate depth.
D
b
Bui l d a pl i nth wal l on the
level l i ng bed joint on the pl ai n
concrete ( grade C 1 2/1 5)
foundati on and protect thi s
wal l agai nst saturation on
both si des.
One approach wel l tested
for render makes use of a
waterproofi ng system made
from an elasti c seal i ng coat
i ng. Appl y a sui table fi l ler to
achieve a smooth surface
and then pai nt on the coat
i ng with a brush in several
layers to achieve a mi ni mum
thickness of 2 mm; on the out
si de appl y a coat of pl aster
i ng mix group P I l l suitable
for pl i nths.
I n order to ensure that
water runni ng down the
facade drai ns clear, both
waterproofi ng and render
conti nue to the outsi de edge
of the foundation vi a a
rounded corner fil let.
The surroundi ng strip of
coarse gravel reduces the
amount of water spl ashi ng
up on to the pl i nth.
D
e
Spread a layer of hardcore
over the excavation between
the wal l s to prevent capi l l ary
action and permanent satu
ration from underneath, and
to provi de rel ief for a tempo
rary bui l d-up of water. Thi s
layer shoul d consist of 1 50 mm
of coarse-grai ned, clean
gravel ( DI N 1 81 95}, i deal l y
gradi ng curve 1 6/32, whi ch
i s readi l y compacted but i s
sti l l suffi ci entl y permeable.
In order to prevent concrete
seepage when casti ng the
ground fl oor sl ab, cover the
hardcore with a sheet of
0. 2 mm pol yethylene.
D
d
To protect agai nst moi sture
ri si ng through capi l lary
action, a conti nuous damp
proof membrane ( dpm) i s
requi red. The dpm and the
damp-proof course (dpc) i n
the wal l must be joi ned
together.
I n order to mi ni mise the
differenti al settlement
between wal l and ground
floor sl ab, careful compac
ti on of the subsoi l and the
anti -capi ll ary hardcore i s
necessary. l t i s hel pful to
cast the floor sl ab as late as
possible. The fl oor water
proofi ng, assumi ng non
hydrostatic pressure and a
moderate loadi ng, shoul d
consi st of one layer of bitu
men felt (e. g. G 200 DD with
gl ass cloth i nl ay) or one
layer of bui lt-up bitumen fel t
(e. g. V60 S4 with gl ass
fleece i nl ay) with 1 00 mm
bonded l aps: l ai d loose, ful l y
or parti al l y bonded.
Bond the dpm under the
floor to the dpc in the wal l
with 1 00 mm overl appi ng
joi nts. As these are made at
different ti mes, a robust dpc
usi ng a bitumen felt with a
metal foi l inlay (e. g. Cu 0. 1
D) i s to be recommended.
o
- r . *

. . ~
Verti cal secti on through foundation
D
e
If the subsoi l around the
foundati on trench i s unsta
bl e, formwork i s requi red on
both sides of the strip foun
dati on. Setti ng up the form
work i n turn requi res a work
i ng space of 500 mm. I n
addi ti on, the si des of the
excavation must be sl oped
back ( 60-0) to suit the
angl e of repose of the part i c
ul ar soi l .
D
f
The masonry pl i nth wal l con
structed on the foundati on
must be waterproofed and
the waterproofi ng must be
protected agai nst mechani
cal damage. Thi s can be
achi eved by means of, for
exampl e, corrugated bi tu
men sheeti ng or syntheti c
studded sheeti ng.
Backfi l l the foundati on
trench i n l ayers and com
pact the backfi l l i ng materi al
i nsi de and outsi de si mul tane
ousl y.
O
g
Bui l d the ground floor sl ab
i nto the masonry pl i nth. I n
order to accommodate
stresses due to differenti al
settl ement, the sl ab must be
reinforced, at l east around
the edges.
Coveri ng the anti -capi l lary
hardcore with pol yethyl ene
sheeti ng i s the si mpl est
approach. However, damage
caused by the rei nforcement
or whi l e casti ng the rei n
forced concrete fl oor sl ab i s
a ri sk here (see p. 1 2, b) .
D
h
One key advantage of the
rei nforced concrete ground
floor sl ab i s that the j unction
between the damp- proof
membrane ( dpm) and the
damp-proof course (dpc) is
not vul nerabl e to settl ement.
The conti nuous dpc i n the
wal l at the same level , to
gether with the standard
pl i nth hei ght of approx.
300 mm ( DI N 1 81 95) , deter
mi nes the posi ti on of the
ground floor sl ab above the
surroundi ng ground. Water
proofi ng agai nst i ngress of
moisture from the si de "must
be desi gned to conti nue up
the wal l for max. 300 mm
above ground l evel i n the
standard case in order to
guarantee sufici ent adj ust
ment opti ons i n the ground
l evel . Upon compl eti on,
thi s di mensi on shoul d not
be l ess than 1 50 mm. "
( DI N 1 81 95 part 4)
D
i
The moisture-resistant render
to the pl i nth conti nues to the
top of the pl i nth. l t i s possi
bl e to achi eve no difference
i n texture between pl i nth
render ( P I l l} and l i ghtwei ght
render (P ll) by choosi ng
sui tabl e pl asteri ng systems.
The dpc conti nues to the
outside edge of the structural
masonry. Attach a strip of
expanded metal over thi s
probl emati c interruption i n
the substrate to provi de a
background for the render.
1 3
External wal l , rendered pl i nth
Verti cal section through gl azed door
1 4
D
a
Set up the frame to the
gl azed door on the ground
fl oor sl ab. Al i gn the frame,
wedge i t in pl ace and fix i t to
the floor sl ab wi th steel fi xi ng
cramps. Joi n the floor water
proofi ng to the frame.
After posi ti oni ng the frame,
add a concrete toppi ng with
an approx. 1 0% fal l to the
outsi de. To prevent satura
ti on, the wood of the frame is
wrapped in pol yethyl ene
sheeti ng or crepe paper.
D
b
The strip of i nsul ati ng mate
ri al ( moi sture-resi stant pol y
styrene, mi neral fi bre or per
l ite batts) requi red at the
wal l j uncti on conti nue uni n
terrupted. Add the thermal
i nsul ati on after casti ng the
concrete ground floor sl ab i n
order to avoi d damage to
masonry and i nsul ati on. The
faci ng of cut cl ay bl ocks
creates a uniform substrate
for the render.
D
e
Pl ace the step ( precast con
crete, reconsti tuted stone or
i n si tu concrete) in front of
the door on the compacted
backfi l l i ng but separate from
the house; better sti l l , on
300-400 mm of properl y
compacted gravel to pre
vent frost heave. Al l surfaces
shoul d have a 1 -2% fal l .
D
d
Supporti ng the open gri d
fl oori ng on an angl e bracket
screwed into the step en
abl es the sequence of ope
rati ons to be separated.
D
e
Tuck the sheet metal si l l
over the screed behi nd the
render on both si des, screw
i t to the gal vani sed water
bar and seal it at that poi nt
wi th a fi l l et of seal i ng com
pound.
D
f
Fix the gal vani sed, cl ose
mesh open gri d floori ng by
means of spacers and sel f
tappi ng screws, or by
means of bolts wel ded to the
fl oori ng. The floor water
proofi ng must remai n per
manentl y bonded to the
water bar.
Thi s robust detai l wi th water
bar and si ngl e-rebate frame
is onl y possi bl e in a l obby
that is not permanentl y
heated.
Verti cal section through entrance door

15
Ext ernal wall , concrete pl i nth
Vertical section through foundati on and pl i nth
1 6
|a
Bui l d the foundati on only on
vi rgi n subsoi l (no fi l l ) and
deep enough to prevent
frost heave. Set out the
external wal l exactly on the
strip foundati on, whi ch i s
wi der than the wal l and i s
cast di rectl y agai nst the
si des of the trench. Set up
the formwork for the con
crete pl i nth on thi s.
|b
Cover the anti -capi l lary
hardcore with an approx.
50 mm l ayer of bl i ndi ng con
crete ( grade C 8/1 0) to pre
vent seepage of the cement
sl urry. Thi s al so eases the
posi ti oni ng of the rei nforce
ment requi red for the rei n
forced concrete fl oor sl ab.
|
To prevent damage caused
by spl ashi ng water, con
struct the pl i nth with ade
quate concrete cover to the
rei nforcement and without
any construction j oi nts, and
compact the concrete care
ful l y.
|d
A fl ush fi ni sh with the render
above i s achi eved by creat
i ng a chamfer to the top out
si de edge of the concrete by
means of a tri angul ar fi l l et
( 1 5 x 1 5 mm) . Separati on at
thi s poi nt i s necessary owi ng
to the different deformati ons.
Use a gal vani sed, better sti l l
stai nl ess steel, stop bead at
the bottom of the render and
fi ll the j oi nt between stop
bead and concrete with an
el astic seal i ng compound to
accommodate the diferent
changes in l ength due to
shri nkage and thermal
expansi on.
|e
As bi tumen fel t can spl it
when subj ected to bendi ng,
employ a bi tumen felt wi th a
metal foi l i nl ay for the damp
proof course ( dpc) i n the
wal l .
I nsert approx. 50 mm thi ck
i nsul ation ( mi neral fi bre,
ri gi d expanded pol ystyrene
foam) i nto the mi ddl e of the
wal l to guarantee the neces
sary thermal i nsul ati on.
Reduce the effect of the
thermal bri dge - masonry
backi ng/pl i nth concrete
by extendi ng the i nsulation
downwards.
Verti cal section through gl azed door
D
f
The damp-proof course
(dpc) in the wal l conti nues
across the door openi ng
and must be protected for
the durati on of construction
work. Careful l y bond the
exposed edge to the sub
strate i n order to prevent
moisture seepi ng under
neath.
Bui l d in the door threshol d
on preformed compressi bl e
seal i ng strips gl ued i n pl ace.
O
g
Lay the stiffer thermal i nsu
l ati on on the more el astic
i mpact sound i nsul ation and
cover this with a separati ng
l ayer before pouri ng the
screed.
O
h
Pour the fl oati ng screed
wi thout any material connec
ti on to the adj oi ni ng parts of
the constructi on; onl y in thi s
way can the sound i nsul a
ti on qual i ti es be guaranteed.
The peri pheral stri ps of i nsu
l ati on ( mi neral fi bre,
expanded pol ystyrene foam
8-1 0 mm thi ck) shoul d
extend 20-30 mm above the
fi ni shed fl oor l evel . Cut thi s
off fl ush after l ayi ng the floor
fi ni sh.
1 7
External wal l , concrete pl i nth
Pl an on entrance door
1 8
D
a
The " bri dge-l i ke" arrange
ment of the open gri d fl oor
i ng has advantages: the
space between the floori ng
and the door reveal i s wi de
enough to al l ow easy cl ean
i ng, and the door frame does
not need to be notched to
accommodate the floori ng.
D
b
After posi ti oni ng, al i gni ng
and fi xi ng the door, cast the
gal vani sed water bar i nto
the concrete. Then cl ean the
concrete ground fl oor sl ab
and remove al l l oose debri s.
To i mprove adhesi on,
roughen the surface and wet
it; alternativel y, appl y a
bondi ng coat.
| c
The door frame fi ni shes j ust
above the screed and i s
screwed to the conti nuous
water bar. Protect the end
grai n of the wood and seal
the j oi nt on al l si des wi th a
permanentl y el asti c seal i ng
compound.

******* *********** ***


,-******* ***- *,
i
* ~ ~ ~ ~ ****** ********* ~*` ******** * ~ **** ~ ~ ~
- *****- ******-***--***,
.
. .
. .
c


--------------- ------------------~--~~ ~~
llll
\
- ~ - ~ - ~
El evation on and vertical section through entrance door
!9
External wal l , wi ndow
Horizontal secti ons through di fferent reveal s

20
D
a
The masonry shoul der at
doors and wi ndows has a
l ong tradi ti on. Deri ved from
bri ck masonry bonds, the
depth i s 1 1 5 mm ( 1 /2 bri ck)
and the width approx. 60 mm
( 1 /4 bri ck) . In l i ghtwei ght
cl ay bl ock masonry the
shoul der can be created
with speci al s or by sawi ng
whol e bl ocks to sui t.
Thi s somewhat more el ab
orate detai l i s becomi ng
popul ar agai n for practi cal
and other reasons. For
i nstance, it i mproves thermal
i nsul ati on and moi sture con
trol aspects, and the j oi nt
between wi ndow frame and
render i s set back and thus
protected.
I nstal l t he wi ndow frame,
pri med and gi ven a first coat
of pai nt, on a preformed,
compressi bl e and i mpreg
nated seal i ng stri p; thi s
compensates for i rregul ari
ti es as i t tri es to return to its
ori gi nal si ze. Fi l l the j oi nt
between frame and masonry
with a moi sture-resistant
i nsul ati ng materi al ( e. g. non
CFC foam) . Seal i ng the j oi nt
on the i nsi de with a moi s
ture-resi stant seal i ng com
pound prevents saturation
due to condensati on water
and ensures that the seal i ng
compound remai ns ful l y
effective over the l ong term.
Prefabri cated seal i ng gas
kets are avai l abl e to ensure
ai rti ghtness and moi sture
ti ghtness between wal l and
wi ndow; the use of these
hel ps to guarantee a good
detai l .
D
b
The omi ssi on of shoul ders
at the head and reveals si m
pl i fi es the detai l consi dera
bly. However, many prob
l ems have to be overcome
at the resul ti ng "strai ght"
j oi nt:
- accommodati ng di men
si onal and flatness toler
ances ( DI N 1 8202) ;
- fi xi ng the frame (fixi ng
cramps, screws every
approx. 800 mm) ;
- accommodati ng tempera
ture-related changes i n
l ength, deformations and
movement wi thout damage;
- seal i ng agai nst wi nd (from
the outsi de) and water
vapour (from the i nsi de)
because condensation
water can be expected in
the j oi nt due to the tempera
ture difference of 1 5-20 ;
- protection agai nst rai n and
dri vi ng rai n - the most
favourabl e values i n terms of
moi sture control have been
measured i n the mi ddl e of
the reveal , the isotherms are
di stri buted over the enti re
wi dth of the reveal .
D
e
If the wi ndow moves further
outwards, it i s not j ust the
stresses on the components
and thei r j oi nts due to sun,
wind and rain which increase.
We fi nd with hi gh-qual ity
wal l i nsul ati ng materi al s i n
parti cul ar that the tempera
ture in the reveal can drop
below the dew poi nt i n the
wi nter. The result i s conden
sati on water and moul d
growth. I nsulation across the
reveal i s advi sabl e.
Positi oni ng the wi ndow at
least 20 mm back from the
l i ne of the structural wal l
hel ps t o achieve a decent
return for the render.
Vertical secti on through si l l and l i ntel
D
d
D
f
I rrespective of the type of The l i ntel s used here consi st
reveal and the posi ti on of of shal low U-shaped cl ay
the wi ndow withi n the thi ck- channel s in whi ch the con-
ness of the wal l , there i s venti onal or prestressed
never a masonry shoul der at rei nforci ng bars are laid and
the si l l . Fi x the standard type cast i n. In structural engi -
of wi ndow si l l - made from neeri ng terms these bars
2 mm sheet al umi ni um with form the tension ti e of the
a fal l of approx. 1 : 1 0 - to the l i ntel . A "compressi on zone"
wal l wi th brackets i n such a of masonry shoul d therefore
f
way that the rai nwater dri p be bui l t over such shal low
projects approx. 30 mm l i ntel s; use l i ghtwei ght cl ay
beyond the render. Attach bl ocks of compressi ve
L- or C-shaped secti ons to strength cl ass 1 2 .
both ends of the al umi ni um Shal low cl ay l i ntels are
si l l for tucki ng behi nd the avai l abl e i n depths of 71
render on both si des. Do not and 1 1 3 mm, and wi dths of
remove the factory-appl i ed 1 1 5 or 1 75 mm. Without a
pl astic wrappi ng around the structural anal ysi s, shal low
al umi ni um si l l unti l al l the cl ay l i ntel s may be used onl y
renderi ng and pai nti ng works as si ngl e-span beams up to
have been compl eted i n
a span of 3. 00 m. Temporary
order to avoi d, for exampl e, supports duri ng erection are
spl ashes of l i me or cement. necessary for cl ear spans
exceedi ng 1 . 25 m. Prefabri -
D
e
cated conventi onal l y rei n-
If the desi red si l l hei ght i s forced or prestressed shal -
not a multi pl e of the si ze of low cl ay l i ntel s are covered
bl ocks bei ng used, saw by approval s.
bl ocks to form appropri ate Sawn make-up bl ocks are
make-up units.
requi red at the supports for
Rustproof masonry rei nforce- shal l ow cl ay l i ntel s, ei ther
ment l ai d as hi gh as possi bl e
above or bel ow, i n order to
in the spandrel panel hel ps
match up with the bed joi nts
to prevent cracki ng. i n the wal l (every 250 mm) .
e
o
21
External wal l, wi ndow and cl ay hol low pot floor
Verti cal section through l i ntel and floor-wal l j uncti on
o
c o
22
* * *
* * * * * * *
a
|a
Cl ay hol l ow pot floors can
be l ai d qui ckl y wi thout form
work for sel f-bui l d projects.
Merel y the beams requi re
temporary support duri ng
erecti on.
The floor units- the hol low
cl ay "pots" - are l ai d on in
situ concrete ri bs with pre
fabri cated lattice beams
|d
I f shal low cl ay l i ntel s with
different widths ( 1 1 5 and
1 75 mm) are bei ng used,
the thermal i nsul ati on can
be consi derabl y i mproved
by fi tti ng i nsul ati on approx.
80 mm thi ck ( mi neral fi bre
or extruded polystyrene)
between the l i ntel s. Positi on
the wi ndow i n l i ne wi th thi s
acti ng as the rei nforcement i nsul ati on.
(see p. 28) .
|b
To al low hei ght adj ustments,
but al so to avoi d excessi ve
beari ng pressure at the
edge and to prevent the
voi ds of the cl ay bl ocks
bei ng fi l l ed wi th concrete,
provi de a l evel l i ng bed of
mortar 20 mm thi ck.
|
Lay the l atti ce beams of the
ri bs wi th a mi n. 1 00 mm
beari ng on the bed of mortar
and connect them together
by means of an in si tu con
crete ri ng beam. The i nsul a
ti on, about 50 mm thi ck,
between beam and bl ock
work i s best i nserted after
casti ng the beam.
To create a uniform sub
strate for the render, saw a
l arge-format cl ay bl ock to
sui t.
o
D
e
Li ghtwei ght cl ay channel s
matchi ng the thi ckness of
the wal l, 238 mm deep and
240 mm l ong, serve as per
manent formwork and pro
vide a uniform substrate for
the render. Posi ti on the i nsu
lation and the rei nforcement,
then fi l l the channel s wi th
concrete. Thi s type of rei n
forced concrete l i ntel can
span cl ear openi ngs up to
about 2. 75 m.
o
D
f
The use of shal low cl ay l i n
tel s with different depths
and wi dths permits the con
structi on of l i ntels wi th shoul
der and thermal i nsul ati on.
Verti cal section through l i ntel
23
Doubl e-leaf party wal l
Verti cal section through foundati on
24
D
a
The sound reducti on i ndex
(57 dB, DI N 41 09) requi red
for the party wal l can be
achi eved with a doubl e-l eaf
wal l compri si ng two l eaves
of 175 mm l i ghtwei ght clay
blocks, gross density cl ass
0. 8, pl us mi n. 30 mm thi ck
semi -ri gi d mi neral fi bre i nsu
l ati ng batts. The batts are
posi ti oned l oose and hel d i n
pl ace by the masonry
leaves.
The sound reduction i ndex
can be i ncreased to 67 dB
(enhanced requi rements,
DI N 41 09) and the wal l
cl assed as a fi re compart
ment wal l (Bavari an Bui l di ng
Code) by usi ng verti cal l y
perforated cl ay bl ocks wi th
B-type perforati ons and
gross density cl ass > 1 . 2.
D
b
Conti nui ng the damp-proof
course (dpc) across the
separati ng j oi nt has no
adverse effect on the acous
tic properti es of the wal l .
Bui l d the l eaves of the party
wall i n successi on, not
si mul taneousl y, in order to
rule out - as far as possi bl e
- acoustic bri dges for struc
ture-borne sound caused by
debri s and mortar drop
pi ngs. Separati ng j oi nt
boards with an i norgani c
coati ng on one si de, devel
oped for doubl e-l eaf con
crete wal l s, can be used
here to hel p keep the work
cl ean.
D
e
The separati ng j oi nt must
conti nue through the foun
dati on if the enhanced
requi rements are to be met.
To do thi s, cast the stri p
foundation i n two hal ves.
Pl ace the separati ng j oi nt
board agai nst the part cast
first and cast the other half
against the coated si de of
the board.
D
d
I n both vari ati ons, conti nue
the constructi on of the party
wal l as for the external wal l s
and pl i nths shown on pp. 1 2
and 1 6.
D
e
Shear wal l s do not need to
be bui l t i nto the external
wal l s - a butt j oi nt i s ade
quate - when other means
( e. g. flat anchors cast i n) are
provi ded at the j uncti on to
resist the tensi l e and com
pressi ve forces.
O
f
The separati ng joi nt, fi l l ed
wi th el asti c i nsul ati ng mate
ri al , must conti nue through
to the render and be seal ed
there wi th an el asti c mate
ri al . Stop beads, fixed wi th a
background to the wal l , are
frequentl y used. The j oi nt
i tsel f is then covered wi th a
fol ded PVC profi l e.
The sol uti on shown here
makes use of two stai nl ess
steel stop beads al ong the
si des; the render conti nues
ri ght up to these stop beads.
The space between the stop
beads is fi l l ed with a cl osed
cel l foam profi l e and after
sui tabl e treatment the joi nt i s
cl osed off wi th a perma
nentl y el asti c seal i ng com
pound.
Pl an on party wal l -external wal l j unction
0
The i deal pl ace for the rai n
water downpi pe woul d be
di rectly over the j oi nt. How
ever, i t is diffi cul t to fix the
pi pe cl i ps securel y to the
soft j oi nt material - speci al
fi xi ngs woul d be requi red.
25
Loadbeari ng and non-l oadbeari ng parti ti ons
Verti cal secti ons through foundati on
26
D
a
If separate concrete ground
floor sl abs are used i n each
room, thi s saves concrete
and rei nforcement and al so
enabl es the use of different
floor constructi ons. How
ever, thi s does subj ect the
damp-proof membrane
(dpm) to an i ncreased ri sk of
differenti al settl ement and
hence damage.
! 2O|
b
D
b
The constructional advan
tages of the conti nuous rei n
forced concrete ground floor
sl ab become cl ear at the
paritions.
Non-loadbeari ng partitions
can be "carri ed" by a rei n
forced concrete ground fl oor
sl ab if the slab i s provided
with suitabl e rei nforcement
to di stri bute the load.
Verti cal sections through ground floor sl ab
c
|
Secure j oi nts in the dpm are
al so necessary below l oad
beari ng partitions.
The foundation to the par
ti tion, whi ch i s not affected
by frost heave and can
therefore be shal lower, i s
connected to the deeper
foundati on at the external
wal l ei ther vi a a shoul der or,
if the difference i n depth i s
only smal l , by a slopi ng (30 ,
approx. 2 : 1 ) arangement.
27
Cl ay hol low pot floors and non-l oad beari ng partitions
I sometric vi ew of cl ay hol low pot floor
28
Cl ay hol low pot floors con
si st of beams, or rather ri bs,
with non-structural cl ay hol
low "pots" i n between. The
prefabri cated ri bs must be
temporari l y supported dur
i ng erection, but further
formwork i s unnecessary.
The compressi on zones of
the ri bs, rei nforced as l atti ce
beams, are fi ni shed on si te
wi th i n si tu concrete. Spans
of 5-7 m are possi bl e by
usi ng fl oor units of di fferent
depths ( between 1 60 and
250 mm) and by varyi ng the
spaci ng of the ri bs (500 or
625 mm centres) . An i n si tu
structural concrete toppi ng
added on si te i mproves the
load-carryi ng capaci ty and
sound i nsulation.
D
a
In thi s detai l the partiti on
and the rib are on the same
axis.
Verti cal sections through partitions

. . .
. .


D
b
I f the partitions do not coi n
cide wi th the ri bs, a rei n
forced tri mmer formed by a
row of concrete-fi l l ed "nega
tive pots" is requi red.
6 OF

. .

. . .
r r r
^
`
29
Doubl e-l eaf party wal l and cl ay hol l ow pot floor
Vertical section through floor without concrete toppi ng
30
I f the structure i s not a mul ti
pl e of the si ze of the cl ay
hol low pot floor uni ts, con
struct make-up (end) bays.
D
a
With l arge edge margi ns l ay
flat "negative pots" and fi l l
them with concrete to form
an edge beam (rei nforced
as requi red) . The bri ck-on
end masonry units guaran
tee the functi on of the sepa
rati ng joi nt.
The beari ng for the fl oor
units, a bed of morar approx.
20 mm thi ck, shoul d be at
l east 30 mm deep.
D
b
With smal l edge margi ns
between latti ce beam, or
rather the ri b, and wal l, fi l l
the space between the fl oor
units and the bri ck-on-end
masonry units with concrete
(rei nforced as requi red) to
form a ri ng beam.
D
e
If the ri ng beam has to con
ti nue up to the separati ng
joi nt, then it should be cast
in two pi eces, with the sound
i nsul ati on bei ng posi ti oned
after the first concrete pour
and kept cl ean with a poly
ethyl ene sheet. The poly
ethyl ene sheet underneath
the mortar l evel l i ng bed pre
vents cement slurry seepi ng
i nto the separati ng joi nt.
D
d
A concrete toppi ng consi der
ably i mproves the load-car
ryi ng capacity with regard to
i mposed loads and l i ght
wei ght partitions, but al so
the acousti c performance of
the cl ay hol low pot floor. I n
terrace houses - assumi ng
no hi gh demands on i mpact
and ai rborne sound i nsul a
ti on withi n the same residen
ti al uni t - a carpet with good
sound i nsulation properties
could wel l be adequate.
i
D
J
D

/, bLl
Verti cal secti on through floor with concrete toppi ng

L
31
External wal l and roof space not used as l i vi ng accommodation
Verti cal section through eaves, purl in roof and cl ay hol low pot floor

!2O|
32
D
a
The floor units should bear
max. 30 mm on the external
wal l, or rather mortar level -
l i ng bed. They are joi ned
together and to the ri bs with
an in si tu concrete ri ng
beam.
D
b
l t is easy to construct a ven-
ti l ated, "cold" roof space
and thi s presents no prob-
lems in terms of i nsul ation,
moisture control , etc. The
roof i s si mply an "umbrel l a"
over a heated, heavywei ght
structure. l t is l ittle troubl e to
provi de the topmost floor
with thermal i nsul ation. Thi s
type of floor i s ai rti ght and,
thanks to its mass, stores
heat wel l .
Ventilation i n shal low-
pi tched roofs < 1 0 ) takes
place from eaves to eaves
(mi n. 20 mm net per m) ,
control l ed by wi nd pressure
and wind suction. On steeper
roofs venti l ati on at the ridge
or near it (e. g. i n the second
row of ti l es from the top) i s
necessary.
As it i s not possi bl e to pre-
vent dust and dri vi ng snow
from enteri ng the roof space
through the joi nts i n the roof
coveri ng, thi s l i mi ts the use
of the roof space.
|
Connect the eaves purl in to
the ri ng beam wi th ragbol ts.
Th ragbol ts are i nserted
i nto correspondi ng pockets
which are fi l l ed with con-
crete after al i gni ng the pur-
I i n.
Vertical section through eaves, purl i n roof and cl ay hol low pot floor
D
d
The thermal i nsul ati on l aid
over the cl ay hol low pot floor
is afterwards covered with a
screed, whi ch has joi nts
around the edge and every
25-40 m2. The screed serves
as a weari ng course, pre-
vents damage caused by
any moi sture present i n the
roof space and al so acts as
fire protection.
D
e
When usi ng i nterlocki ng cl ay
roof ti l es, check the l ength of
the rafter to ensure that it i s
sui tabl e for the cover l ength
of the particul ar ti l es chosen.
D
f
"Negati ve pots" act as per-
manent formwork for the
stiffeni ng transverse ri b.
O
g
Gabl e wal l s, if not supported
by masonry pi ers or cross-
wal l s, must be fi xed to the
roof structure ( DI N 1 053) ,
e. g. by means of gal vanised
steel flats or rustproof rag-
bol ts. The joi nt between the
fi nal rafter and the masonry
of the gabl e must be abl e to
transfer the forces i nvol ved.
D
h
After setti ng up the rafters,
fi ni sh off the top of the gabl e
wal l wi th a screed, fl ush wi th
the rafters. Cover thi s with a
fl ashi ng of, for example, ful ly
bonded bi tumen roofi ng felt
V 1 3. The 1 0--1 5 mm deep
counter battens of AW 1 00
plywood prevent water col -
l ecti ng
,
behi nd the ti l i ng bat-
tens. The cover width of the
cl ay verge ti l es must coi n-
cide with the width of the
bui ldi ng.
r r
h
o
o
!2 9|
33
External wal l and roof space not used as l i vi ng accommodation
Verti cal section through eaves, purl in roof and cl ay hol low pot floor
-
::=
=--
!2 Ll
34
Verti cal secti on through eaves, purl in roof and cl ay hol low pot floor
D
a
D
d
The roofi ng felt under the The roofi ng felt bel ow the
ti l es i s a water-repel l ent but ti l es conti nues over the top e
vapour-permeabl e material of the masonry, to which i t i s
which remains stabl e despite bonded. The thi n counter
temperature changes, e. g. batens prevent water col l ect-
mesh-rei nforced polyethyl- ing behi nd the ti l i ng battens.
ene. l t prevents the i ngress
of dust, rai n and dri vi ng
D
e
snow. Stretch it taut, secure Use the two-pi ece bent
it wi th counter battens and sheet metal verge when, for
ensure that water can drai n exampl e, the width of the
away at the eaves - ideal ly bui ldi ng is not a mul ti pl e of
into the gutter (see p. 36,d) . the cover width of the i nter-
locki ng cl ay ti l es. Otherwi se,
D
b speci al or cut ti l es are neces-
As on p. 32,flat-pan ti l es are sary.
used here as wel l . The roof
pi tch of approx. 37" chosen
D
f
for our exampl e is sui tabl e Connect t he masonry gabl e
for vi rtual ly al l types of cl ay to the roof structure by
roof ti l e: bul l nose ti l es as means of cast-i n ragbol ts.
crown or sl i p ti l i ng, panti l es, Braci ng i n the pl ane of the
i nterlocki ng ti l es wi th si ngl e roof i s thereby necessary.
or doubl e troughs, ri ght up
to the ever more accurately
interlocki ng vari eti es.
L
Determi ne the cross-sec-
tional areas of gutters and
downpi pes based on the
si ze of the roof area to be
drai ned. Create the fal l of
the gutter - mi n. ! mm/m -
by bendi ng the gutter o
brackets to sui t.
!29|
3b
External wal l and roof space not used as l i vi ng accommodation
Vertical section through eaves, purl in roof and ti mber joi st floor
36
.'.

. -


1-
- -----------
6O|
!2 O|

,,`'' `

_
_
_
_

_
La
The ti mber j oist floor over
the upper storey represents
an i nexpensi ve and, for sel f
bui ld projects, si mpl e form
of constructi on. Virtual ly any
depth of thermal i nsul ati on
is possi bl e with l oose mate
ri al s, and easi ly l ai d. l t is
possi bl e to i mprove the l ow
heat storage capacity by
usi ng heavy loose materi al s
or by l ayi ng sol id bri cks 50-
70 mm thi ck bel ow the l
o
ose
materi al .
O
b
The stabi l ity of the bui ldi ng
i n al l di rections i s guaran
teed by j oi ni ng al l l oadbear
i ng and shear wal l s to the
floors with proper structural
connecti ons. I f ring beams
are provided, the wal l s can
be regarded as bei ng sup
ported on al l four sides; the
floor j oists only need to be
held i n posi ti on i n that case.
Line the j oi sts pockets in the
masonry wi th a moi sture
resistant thermal i nsul ation,
at least at the end of the
joi st, preferably on al l sides,
to reduce the ri sk of damage
by condensati on water.
L
The ai rti ght connecti on
between the 0. 2 mm poly
ethyl ene sheet and the wal l
i s achi eved with adhesi ve
and by usi ng a cl ampi ng
batten pressed onto a pre
formed compressi bl e seal
i ng strip al ong the wal l . The
most secure connecti on i s
when the polyethyl ene sheet
is wrapped around a batten
and screwed through thi s
into the wal l .
O
d
Glue the roofi ng felt bel ow
the ti l es to the nai l ed sheet
metal . The perforated sheet
metal bent i nto an i nverted
V-shape ensures venti l ati on
bel ow the cl ay roof ti l es.
D
e
Even if the pl asteri ng work i s
carri ed out before l ayi ng the
ti mber joi sts, the uneven
ness of the wal l and the ri ng
beam must be evened out
with an adaptabl e "system"
whi ch cl oses off the j oi nts
ai rti ght.
Thi s can be achi eved wi th
a batten nai l ed through a
preformed compressi bl e
seal i ng stri p. Fi l l t he void
between j oi st and wal l com
pl etely with an uncompacted
mi neral fi bre materi al .
After fi l l i ng the bays
between the j oi sts with a
loose i nsul ati ng material, nai l
on the actual floori ng mate
ri al . The gaps at the edges,
necessary to al low move
ment of the fl oori ng, can be
covered wi th a tri angul ar
fi l l et.
D
f
Connect the gabl e wal l to
the roof constructi on in such
a way that forces can be
transferred.
Vertical secti on through eaves and ti mber j oi st floor
e
Ol
!2 O|
37
Doubl e-l eaf party wal l and cl ay ti l e roof
Vertical section through ri ng beam and ti mber joi st floor
38
D
a
If the floor joi sts are paral l el
with the wal l , the sl ender, tal l
party wal l s must be secured
with ri ng beams if they are
not connected to the braced
roof structure.
D
b
Connect the unsupported
tops of the wal l s to the braced
roof structure such that forces
can be transferred. Conti nue
the separati ng joi nt through
to the roof even in a roof
space not used as l i vi ng
accommodation.
D
e
The roofi ng felt held by the
counter battens - essenti al ly
taut but saggi ng sl i ghtly due
to temperature changes and
extensi on of the materi al - i s
bonded to the mortar level
l i ng bed.
D
d
l t i s advi sabl e to repl ace the
ti l i ng battens by gal vani sed
steel angl es. A cl earance of
1 0-20 mm between the angl e
and the top of the masonry
enabl es the roof structure to
deform without restrai nt. Fi l l
the space between the angl es
with an i ncombusti bl e, vol u
metri cal ly stabl e i nsul ati ng
materi al . If the roof space i s
to be converted i nto l i vi ng
accommodation at a later
date, the separati ng joi nt
must conti nue up to the
roof coveri ng and the ti l i ng
battens must be di vi ded.
Vertical section through ri ng beam and cl ay hol low pot floor
39
House B
42 Non-i nsul ated external basement wal l
44 External basement wal l wi th peri meter i nsul ation
48 External basement wal l with cavi ty i nsul ation
50 Masonry external basement wal l
52 External basement wal l made from l i ghtwei ght cl ay blocks
56 Radi ator recess, wi ndow with rol l er shutter
62 External wal l and converted roof space
68 Chi mney
70 Partition and false wal l conceal i ng servi ces
4!
Non-i nsul ated external basement wal l
Vertical section through concrete pl i nth
C
d
o
* * * *
42
7 . 7 v .

D
a
Cast the upper, and rei n
forced, part of the stri p foun
dati on together wi th the rei n
forced concrete basement
floor sl ab i n one pour, then
stri ke the outside formwork.
The depth of the rei nforced
concrete basement fl oor
slab depends on the l oads
from the basement part itions
but should be mi n. 1 20 mm
i n order to ensure the neces
sary concrete cover to the
rei nforcement.
D
b
A damp-proof membrane
(dpm) beneath the screed
is not requi red when the
bui ldi ng i s founded on a
qui ck-drai ni ng subsoi l and
nei ther a hi gh- qual ity floor
coveri ng nor i mpact sound
i nsul ati on or thermal i nsul a
ti on i s requi red. However, if
a damp-proof membrane i s
not i ncl uded, a l ayer of hard
core to prevent capi l l ary
acti on is necessary. An
approx. 30 mm bonded
cement screed is adequate
as the weari ng course i n
si mpl e basement rooms.
D
e
Basement wal l s constructed
i n normal -wei ght concrete
even if they are rei nforced -
must be waterproofed on the
si de i n contact with the soi l .
The type of waterproofi ng
depends on the l evel of
moi sture to be expected on
the outside. DI N 1 81 95 part
1 tabl e 1 categori ses types
of waterproofi ng accordi ng
to moisture load and soi l
type. Moisture i n the soi l must
always be reckoned with.
Furthermore, in cohesi ve
soi l s and/or on slopi ng si tes
the presence of water i n
dropl et/l i quid form i s to be
expected. Thi s means that
waterproofi ng to protect
agai nst non-hydrostatic
pressure must be backed
up with a drai nage system
whi ch prevents short-term
hydrostatic pressure (see
pp. 48 and 52) .
Speci al measures must be
taken for hydrostatic pres
sure on the outside.
For moderate loads water
proofing to the normal-wei ght
concrete of the external
basement wal l can be
achi eved i n various ways:
e. g. with one layer of bitumen
felt, bi tumen bui l t-up felt, i n
each case with a fabri c i nlay
and 1 00 mm l aps on a pri m
i ng coat; wi th bitumi nous
coati ngs in several layers;
with two layers of a mi neral
seal i ng coati ng with bui ldi ng
authority approval . Whereas
in the case of flexi bl e sheet
i ng good protection is
requi red duri ng backfi l l i ng
and the upper "exposed"
end must be seal ed, the
mi neral coati ngs cannot
bridge over any cracks
owi ng to thei r i nherent
bri ttl eness.
D
d
The ground floor construc
ti on in thi s exampl e i ncl udes
thermal i nsulati on to i nsulate
agai nst the unheated base
ment. Take the presence of
heavy concentrated loads
i nto account when choosi ng
the i nsul ati ng materi al . Pl ace
the i mpact sound i nsulation
beneath the thermal i nsul a
ti on and around the edges -
without i nterruption - i n
order to produce a "floati ng"
floor construction. Conse
quently, the floor fi ni sh must
be ful l y i sol ated as wel l ; con
ti nui ng the edge i nsulati ng
stri p up to fi ni shed floor l evel
i s advantageous.
g
e
Verti cal sect ion t hrough concret e l i ghtwel l
|e
Li ghtwel l s of in situ concrete
"hang" on t he basement wal l
and must be connected to
t hi s - possi bly wit h fol di ng
anchors whi ch are pl aced i n
t he formwork and, after st rik
ing t he formwork, are ex
posed again and fol ded out
i nto posit ion.
|f
The base of t he l i ghtwel l can
be covered with a coarse
gravel , whi ch wi l l have to be
repl aced from time to t i me
assumi ng a qui ck-drai ni ng
subsoi l and backfi l l i ng.
|g
The top edge of t he l i ghtwel l
i n t hi s exampl e i s reduced to
match t he si ze of t he grat i ng
so t hat any pavi ng or grass
can conti nue ri ght up to t he
edge of t he frame. Cast t he
top edges of t he l i ghtwel l s
later to mat ch t he l evel of
ext ernal works and external
doors, al so wit h fal l s if neces
sary.
|h
If t he t hermal i nsul at ion i s
att ached to t he undersi de of
the ground floor sl ab, thi s
results i n a thermal bri dge to
t he ext ernal wal l . Thi s has to
be mi ni mi sed by i ncl udi ng
i nsul at ion wit hi n t he t hi ck
ness of the wal l whi ch ex
tends down at l east to t he
undersi de of the ground
floor sl ab.
43
External basement wal l wi th peri meter i nsul ati on
Verti cal section through prefabri cated pl i nth
d
! 29|
44
D
a
The basement wal l can al so
be waterproofed by usi ng
i mpermeabl e concrete. Thi s
type of concrete i s achi eved
with mi n. grade C 25/30
concrete havi ng a l i mited
water penetration depth
(max. 50 mm) , and by ad
heri ng to the requi red water/
cement ratio and gradi ng
curves. Rei nforcement to
prevent/l i mi t cracki ng i s
essenti al . Careful compac
ti on and subsequent treat
ment i s requi red. The mi ni
mum thi ckness i s not pre
scri bed but shoul d not be
l ess than 250 mm.
External - peri meter -
thermal i nsul ati on to compo
nents i n contact wi th the soi l
i s produced from close-cel l
extruded, polystyrene foams
or cel lul ar gl ass, whi ch
absorb l i ttl e or no moi sture
and are attached to the
waterproofed basement wal l
with dabs of , for exampl e,
bondi ng mortar.
Cover the i nsul ati on with
corrugated bi tumen sheet
i ng or studded fl exi bl e
sheeti ng to protect i t agai nst
mechani cal damage duri ng
backfi l l i ng.
D
b
Foundations to smal l houses
are often si mpl i fi ed and con
structed together wi th the
ground sl ab as a raft founda
tion, whi ch must be properly
desi gned and rei nforced
accordi ngly. Thi ckeni ng of
the sl ab may be necessary
under heavy l oads, e. g. i ndi
vidual columns, i ntermedi ate
l oadbeari ng wal l s with l arger
openi ngs.
I f the raft foundation i s
constructed from i mperme
abl e concrete l i ke the exter
nal wal l , seal the joi nt
between the two concrete
components with a water
stop or water bar.
D
e
A heated basement formi ng
part of the l i vi ng accommo
dati on requi res an acousti c
al ly and thermal l y i nsul ated,
waterproofed floor sl ab with
a floati ng screed. To prevent
saturation of the i mpact
sound i nsul ation by the con
struction moi sture i n the
concrete fl oor sl ab, provide
a separating l ayer of, for
exampl e, polyethyl ene
sheeti ng.
D
d
Protect the transition between
basement wal l and external
wal l - the pl i nth - agai nst
spl ashi ng water and mecha
ni cal damage by means of
precast concrete or natural
stone panel s. Support these
on cast-i n anchors. Fi ni sh
the render at a stop bead
and cl ose off the joi nt to the
pl i nth with a permanently
el asti c seal i ng compound.
The external masonry pro
j ects approx. 90-1 00 mm
beyond the concrete wal l .
The underside of the perfo
rations in the cl ay bl ocks
shoul d be closed off at the
proj ection. On the i nside,
rei nforce t he pl aster with a
texti l e mesh at the transi ti on
between the two materi al s.
!2Ol
b O|
e
Vertical section through rendered pl i nth
D
e
Lay the i nsul ati on below the
rei nforced concrete base
ment sl ab on a fi l ter gravel
or layer of bl i ndi ng and cover
over with a separati ng l ayer.
Cast the basement sl ab on
thi s. A coveri ng of l ean-mi x
concrete i s advi sabl e.
When cal cul ati ng the heat
i ng requi rements al low for
smal l heat l osses vi a the
thermal bridges at the stri p
foundations under the exter
nal wal l s and loadbeari ng
wal l s.
D
f
Conti nue the mi neral seal i ng
coati ng beneath the external
wal l and joi n i t to the fl exi bl e
seal i ng coati ng on the out
side of the external basement
wal l .
O
g
The bui ldi ng trade is di vided
on the best method of con
structi ng a rendered pl i nth
on properl y fi xed peri meter
i nsul ati on batts. At l east two
coats of impermeabl e render
(sui tabl e for pl i nth work) wi l l
be necessary on spl atterdash
and a gal vani sed back
ground, addi tional ly rei n
forced if necessary.
Whether the normal render
thi ckness of 20 mm i s suffi
ci ent for thi s type of detai l i s
questionabl e. The render
that extends i nto the ground
must be protected agai nst
long-term saturation.
O
h
DI N 1 81 95 part 4 cal l s for at
l east one horizontal damp
proof course (dpc) i n the
i nternal and external wal l s.
The number of horizontal
damp-proof courses i s l eft to
the di scretion of the desi gn
team.
The damp-proof course
beneath the masonry of the
wall represents a precau
ti onary measure preventi ng
moisture ri si ng from the con
crete bel ow.
4b
External basement wal l with peri meter i nsul ati on
Hori zontal section through prefabri cated l i ghtwel l
46
D
a
Fi xi ng a l i ghtwel l to a wal l
with peri meter i nsulation i s
not without its probl ems
because the i nsul ation should
not be penetrated or, at
best, only mi ni mal ly. I ndi vi
dual fi xi ngs usi ng heavy-duty
anchors and spacers with
bui ldi ng authority approval
are therefore employed. The
approved edge di stance
between anchor and wi ndow
openi ng must be assured.
O
b
Furthermore, the "surface of
the wal l " presents probl ems.
Although the render to the
pl i nth can conti nue down
i nto the l i ghtwel l together
wi th the background, such
smal l areas of render com
pl i cate the construction. The
area can be rendered before
mounti ng the l i ghtwel l .
D
e
If requested, some manufac
turers wi l l position the rebate
at the top of the l i ghtwel l
external ly. An i nconspi cuous
edge i s thus possi bl e.
O
d
Below ground level seal the
joi nt between the bui ldi ngs
with flexi bl e sheeti ng. The
smal l l oop of excess mate
rial i s necessary to accom
modate movemerit. The joi nt
between the bui ldi ngs must
conti nue through the pl i nth.
Vertical section through prefabri cated l i ghtwel l
l ZL|
b L|
c

. .. . . . .
\j
`' , ..
L . . . . . . JlU
47
External basement wal l with cavi ty i nsul ati on
Verti cal section through concrete pl i nth
4B
c
e

|a
The rei nforced concrete
stri p foundation requi res
formwork to both sides.
Cover the anti -capi l l ary
hardcore layer, i ncl uded for
additional security, with a
l ayer of bl i ndi ng concrete,
grade C 8/1 0, and then cast
the rei nforced concrete
ground sl ab on top of that.
This forms a good base for
worki ng in diffi cul t, e. g.
cl ayey, subsoi l s duri ng rai ny
periods.
Drai nage around the
peri meter i s necessary on
slopi ng sites or i n cohesi ve
soi l s.
|b
Lay the pi pes, mi n. 1 00 mm
NB, for the peri meter drai n
age on a gravel bed to a fal l
of 0. 5%, better 1 %, and sur
round them with a fi l ter mat
i n order to keep out the fi n
est soi l parti cl es. I n order to
avoid undermi ni ng the foun
dation, do not lay the drai n
pi pe and the fi l ter bed lower
than the undersi de of the
foundation. A di stance of
mi n. 200 mm between the
top of the structural sl ab and
the undersi de of the drai n
pi pe is mandatory.
|
The concrete drai nage units
protect the waterproofi ng
agai nst mechani cal damage
and ensure that water i s
drai ned away from the
external wal l .
D
d
The detai l with moisture
resistant cavity i nsul ation,
e. g. polystyrene or mi neral
fi bre batts, and an i nner l eaf
ensures adequate thermal
i nsul ati on and a good moi s
ture bal ance i n heated base
ment rooms. l t i s not usual ly
necessary to i ncl ude a vapour
barri er on the i nner si de of
the thermal i nsulation.
D
e
The thermal i nsulation on the
underside of the sl ab over
the basement i s necessary
in this case i n order to reduce
the thermal bridge effect of
the monol ithi c rei nforced
concrete construction.
D
f
If compl i cated j unctions are
to be avoided, seal the pro
jecti ng basement wal l with
a dense, mesh-rei nforced
screed. Such a detail requi res
a location protected from
the weather and preferably
roofed over.
D
g
A conti nuous sl ot in the base
of the l i ghtwel l ensures water
can drai n away into the qui ck
drai ni ng backfi l l i ng materi al .
Verti cal secti on through l i ghtwel l and entrance door
_
49
Masonry external basement wal l
Vertical section through rendered pl i nth
!2 O-

' 6 O-

'
'
'
'
'
o
'
'

'

'
l


50
c
D
a
The wal l s to unheated base
ments are bui l t usi ng verti
cal ly perforated cl ay blocks,
e. g. Hlz 1 2- 1 . 2-6 L|, whi ch
have a greater compressi ve
strength but, mai nly, a hi gher
gross density.
As masonry basement
wal l s can only resi st l ateral
soi l pressure once the verti
cal load of the bui ldi ng is
avai l abl e, backfi l l i ng i s car
ri ed out l ater, e. g. after com
pl eti ng the structural works.
A water-repel lent basement
wal l render of group P I l l
provides the waterproofi ng.
As thi s renderi ng i s rel ati vely
expensive and time-consum
i ng, i s al so ri gid and there
fore vul nerabl e to cracki ng,
fl exi bl e seal i ng coati ngs
whi ch can be rendered over
may al so be used.
Drai nage mats, e. g. corru
gated or studded sheeti ng,
protect agai nst mechani cal
damage duri ng backfi l l i ng.
D
b
Lay a damp-proof course
(dpc) of R 500 bitumen roof
i ng felt, better sti l l Cu 0. 1 D
waterproof sheeti ng ( DI N
1 81 95) , on the strip founda
tion and bond this to the
damp-proof membrane
(dpm) over the rei nforced
concrete ground sl ab. Great
care must be taken with the
joi nt where the stri p founda
tion projects beyond the
basement wal l ; the provi si on
of a rounded fi l l et and a fal l
to the outsi de i s advi sabl e.
The dpc beneath the wal l s
should be joi ned to the
ground sl ab dpm i n order to
produce an ideal , control l ed
hori zontal waterproofi ng sys
tem.
c O
The 25 mm masti c asphalt
floor fi ni sh (surface fi ni shed
with a smoothi ng compound)
l aid on a speci al bi tumen
bui lt-up fel t satisfies basi c
requi rements regardi ng ther
mal i nsul ation and i mpact
sound i nsul ation.
d
o
o
Verti cal secti on through prefabri cated l i ghtwel l
D
d
The pl i nth render up to the
l evel of the damp-proof
course has the same com
position and thi ckness as
that on the external base
ment wal l . l t i s fi ni shed flush
with the render to the masonry
above; sl it the j oi nt between
the two types of renderi ng
wi th a trowel . An angled
undercut is recommended.
D
e
Bui ld up the prefabri cated
l i ghtwel l units on the backfi l l
i ng separate from the house.
Thi s arrangement overcomes
the need to fix compl i cated
anchors i nto the masonry
but does require the backfi l l
i ng to consi st of cl ean, com
pactabl e materi al . l t i s essen
ti al to compact the material
careful ly and properly in
order to reduce settl ement
of the free-standi ng l i ghtwel l
and hence damage to the
masonry.
51
External basement wal l made from l i ghtwei ght cl ay blocks
Vertical section through rendered pl i nth

52
b
D
a
Basement wal l s made from
l arge l i ghtwei ght cl ay blocks
provi de the necessary ther
mal i nsul ation for heated
basement rooms and al l the
conditions for a comfortabl e
i nteri or cl i mate.
A structural anal ysi s must
be carri ed out beforehand to
ensure that the wal l thi ck
ness combi ned wi th the ver
ti cal load are abl e to resist
the lateral soi l pressure over
the depth of the basement.
Waterproof the wal l wi th
an elastic coating, e. g. made
from a bi tumi nous materi al ,
whi ch conti nues as a fl exi bl e
seal i ng coati ng i n the area
of the rendered pl i nth. Drai n
age mats guarantee protec
tion for the waterproofi ng.
D
b
The damp-proof membrane
(dpm) to the ground sl ab,
requi red to protect agai nst
water hel d or flowi ng in the
soi l due to capi l l ari ty (suc
ti on water, retai ned water,
capi l l ary water), should be
securely bonded to the
damp-proof course (dpc)
beneath the masonry wal l
( protection agai nst capi l l ary
moi sture) and al so the ex
ternal waterproofi ng.
D
e
Lay the peri meter drai nage
on a gravel bed and protect
i t on al l si des with a fi l ter mat
agai nst i ngress of fi ne par
ti cl es.
!2 O|

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. :
o

d
4


.
o

e
l

Vertical section through prefabri cated l i ghtwel l


\ 1d 1
* 7 * * * * . ; *
* 7 * * . * ; * .
;

D
d
A number of manufacturers
produce prefabri cated pl as
ti c l i ghtwel l s fitted with a
sui tabl e grati ng. These are
anchored in the masonry.
D
e
If the rei nforced concrete
fl oor sl ab spans over the
wi ndow openi ng, it i s not
necessary to provide a
masonry "compressi on
zone" over the shal low cl ay
l i ntel s (see p. 21 ) .
53
External basement wal l made from l i ghtwei ght cl ay bl ocks
Verti cal secti on through entrance door
54
o
D
a
The wooden threshold to the
door prevents condensation
water and the formati on of
i ce i n wi nter; the rebates
and seal s can conti nue ri ght
around the door. However,
speci al precauti ons for thi s
detai l are necessary, al so
because it is subj ected to
hi gh mechani cal loads: the
choi ce of a sui tabl e speci es
of wood, e. g. oak; the provi
sion of fal l s to the outsi de;
keepi ng out heavy or dri vi ng
rai n by means of the cl ose
mesh open grid floori ng
screwed on cl ear of the
wood; the formation of a
water bar with dri p throat to
repel i ncomi ng water.
Thi s latter task i s only ful
fi l l ed by the bottommost
board of the outer l eaf to a
very l i mited extent. To do
thi s, the entrance door must
be protected from the wind
and weather.
As mechani cal damage is
hardly avoidabl e, this detai l
i s not suitabl e for heavi ly
trafficked areas.
D
b
The bui ldi ng of a "natural l y"
cool and damp basement
for storage purposes requi res
a subsoi l in whi ch drai nage
i s absol utely guaranteed. A
bui ld-up of water must be
rul ed out. An anti-capi l l ary
hardcore layer mi n. 150 mm
deep below the floor of sol id
cl ay bri cks bedded in sand
i s advi sabl e for extra secu
ri ty. The i nside of the base
ment wal l s should be pro
vided with an el astic seal i ng
coati ng pai nted over with a
mi neral whi tewash, l i me
wash or mi neral pai nt.
!2 O-
7 . 7 7 7 . 7
> v v v
Verti cal sections through partitions
D
e
The drawi ng shows the tran
siti on between the storage
room with i ts floor di rectly on
the ground and the thermal ly
and i mpact-sound i nsul ated
floor of the heated basement
area. The damp-proof mem
brane (dpm) under the
heated area must be fixed to
the water bar at the door.
D
d
Partitions in the basement,
just l i ke external wal l s,
requi re protection agai nst
moi sture ri si ng from bel ow.
D
e
A dpm is not requi red below
partitions over basement
areas.
Ol
55
Radi ator recess, wi ndow wi th rol l er shutter
Vertical section through cl ay rol l er shutter box
56
e


z
I
l
l
\
\

.
~.-
D
a
The rol l er shutter box and
the outer l eaf conceal i ng the
floor sl ab form a uniform
substrate for the render.
Such boxes are factory-pre
fabri cated, non-l oadbeari ng
i tems whi ch can carry thei r
own wei ght over openi ngs
up to about 5 m wide thanks
to their integral reinforcement.
They are approx. 300 mm
deep and avai l abl e for wal l
thicknesses of 300 or 365 mm.
D
b
The mai ntenance openi ng
cover, made from 1 2-1 5 mm
BFU plywood and a layer of
thermal i nsul ation, e. g. mi n.
30 mm ri gid polystyrene foam,
i s screwed i nto a rebate
formed by an alumi nium
angl e.
l t i s rare for any attenti on
to be paid to the detai l at the
ends of the mai ntenance
openi ng cover; heat l osses
and draughts are the resul t.
Conti nui ng the angl e frame
around all four si des and
joi ni ng i t to the thermal ly
i nsul ated supports for the
rol l er shutter box would be
necessary.
|
The 1 75 mm masonry leaf
behi nd the radi ator recess
enabl es the radiator to be
mounted i n the usual way on
cast-i n wal l brackets. The
i nterruptions to the thermal
i nsul ation si mply have to be
accepted.
D
d
Fit the thi n wi ndow board,
e. g. 25 mm natural stone,
i nto chases i n the masonry
reveals and support i t on
brackets every approx.
600 mm.
D
e
Cut an openi ng in the
masonry for the shutter
operati ng cord i f a speci al
bri ck wi th a ready-made
openi ng i s not bei ng used.
Horizontal sections through rol l er shutter box, wi ndow, radiator recess
I i

! i



l l
' '

l l
l l
l '
l
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| l


i l
' '
l l
i i
| '
h
i
L....
h
'
'
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l l
f
The brush or l i p seal s to the
openi ng for the shutter oper
ati ng cord cannot com
pl etely rul e out heat losses
at this poi nt.
g
A cl ay rol l er shutter box
requi res a mi n. 80 mm bear
i ng, 1 50 mm on the operat
i ng cord side. Cut off the
render stop bead at the
undersi de of the shutter box
to match the cl ear openi ng
of the wi ndow.
h
Radiator recesses must be
constructed to match the
masonry bond of the wal l .
Runni ng the pi pes i n verti
cal slots in the external wal l
and weakeni ng the sides of
the recess for connecti ng
the radi ator pi pework was
for a long ti me the standard
solution. In order to meet the
enhanced thermal i nsul ation
requi rements of newer l egi s
l ation, i nsulate the sl ots at
l east on the outside, prefer
ably on three sides. Cut the
sl ots for connecti ng the radi
ator pi pework with a masonry
saw.
i
Cutti ng the thermal i nsul a
ti on to fi t exactly in the
recess i s the standard solu
tion. Heat losses through
the non-i nsulated si des are
i gnored; any condensation
water that does occur here
is si mply dri ven off by the
heat from the radiator.
Wood-wool sl abs or sand
wich panel s with a poly
styrene core have suffi
ci ently rough surfaces to
provi de a key for plaster.
57
Radi ator recess, wi ndow wi th rol l er shutter
Verti cal secti on through prefabri cated rol l er shutter box


58
|a
"Half" rol l er shutter boxes
are avai l abl e for wi ndows
with a masonry shoul der at
the wi ndow head.
A l i ntel fl ush wi th the cei l
i ng or a shal l ow cl ay l i ntel
spans over the openi ng in
the masonry. Thi s deter
mi nes the si ze of the rol l ed
up shutter and i n turn the
hei ght of the wi ndow.
From the poi nt of vi ew of
thermal i nsul ati on, operati ng
the shutter wi th a wi ndi ng
mechani sm fitted i n the
reveal or on the wal l i s pref
erabl e to the operati ng cord.
|b
I ncorporati ng a 300 mm cl ay
masonry unit (5 OF) in the
365 mm external wal l (6 OF
or 1 2 OF units) but fl ush on
the outsi de creates a recess
i n the wal l , 1 35 mm hi gh x
65 mm deep, above the re
i nforced concrete floor. With
i nsul ati on at the back of the
recess, thi s can be used for
the radi ator pi pework. Con
nect the pi pes to the radi ator
underneath in the radi ator
recess. Smooth, fi l l and coat
the screed. A structural ana
l ysis i s requi red for this hori
zontal sl ot.
|
Span over the radiator recess
with a shal low cl ay l i ntel . The
wi ndow board can be corre
spondi ngl y thi nner in thi s
case.
Hori zontal secti ons through rol l er shutter box, wi ndow, radi ator recess
r

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d
The ends of the rol l er shutter
box bear mi n. 40 mm on the
external wal l . The bond of
the masonry above the
shal l ow cl ay l i ntel must
match the masonry bond of
the l arge cl ay bl ocks of the
external wal l .
D
e
The masonry shoul der en
abl es the gui de track for the
rol l er shutter to be fitted vi r
tual l y fl ush wi th the render.
The bottom end of the track
i s wel ded closed and rests
on the sheet metal wi ndow
si l l . The U- or L-shaped
bent-up ends of the wi ndow
si l l are notched to sui t.
Precauti ons to prevent
gal vani c corrosi on are nec
essary if the metal of the
track and the metal of the
wi ndow si l l are different.
Sl i t the joint between
renderi ng and rol l er shutter
track with a trowel , or fi l l the
joint with seal i ng compound.
D
f
Conti nuous reinforcement i n
the masonry, at l east i n the
uppermost bed joint, is neces
sary to mi ni mi se cracki ng.
59
Radi ator recess, wi ndow wi th rol l er shutter
Verti cal secti on through wi ndow/rol l er shutter el ement
60
D
a
The removabl e external
fasci a board of this speci al
constructi on overcomes the
probl ems of a mai ntenance
cover that does not cl ose
ti ghtl y. The i nsi de face of the
wal l can conti nue uni nter
rupted. Rol l er shutter and
wi ndow are i ncorporated as
a si ngl e el ement from the
outsi de, wi th a neat transi
ti on to the render.
Operati ng the rol l er shutter
by means of an el ectri c
motor i s more compl i cated
but does avoid the weak
poi nts descri bed earl i er.
D
b
Screw the fasci a board to
the shutter box, e. g. water
proof-gl ued grade AW 1 00
plywood, to the frame tucked
behi nd the render. Leave a
smal l gap to hi ghl i ght the
j oi nt and protect the top of
the fasci a board wi th a metal
Z-secti on.
D
e
The radiator pi pework runs
i n a sl ot (paral l el wi th the
external wal l ) i n the rei n
forced concrete fl oor sl ab.
Thermal i nsul ati on i s not
necessary because the
exi sti ng thermal perform
ance i s unaffected and any
heat l ost from the pi pes sti l l
benefits the same resi denti al
unit, i n thi s case a terrace
house.
Hori zontal secti ons through rol l er shutter box, wi ndow, radiator recess
|d
A steel fl at bracket fixed to
the frame supports the shaft
of the rol l er shutter.
|e
Thi s detai l permi ts the wi n
dow el ement to be fitted
fl ush with the render. How
ever, it i s advi sabl e to i nset
the wi ndow by mi n. 1 0 mm,
preferably 20-30 mm, i n
order to al low for tolerances
and to provi de some protec
tion from the weather.
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61
External wal l and converted roof space
Verti cal secti on through eaves of coupl e roof
!2Ll
62
D
a
The rei nforced concrete
floor sl ab can be used as
the tie for the rafters and
therefore el i mi nates the
need for any col umns i n the
roof space. Fi x the eaves
purl i n with ragbolts every
approx. 1 . 5-2. 0 m cast i nto
pockets in the rei nforced
concrete abutment mono
lithi c with the sl ab. Notch
the conti nuati on of the raft
ers to sui t or provi de counter
battens.
D
b
The areas outsi de the con
verted roof space are col d.
Conti nue the thermal i nsul a
tion to the roof together with
the ai rti ght membrane or
vapour barri er down the out
side of the ti mber stud wal l .
Provi de thermal i nsul ati on on
top of the reinforced con
crete sl ab.
D
e
Bond the roofi ng felt bel ow
the roof ti l es to the eaves
fl ashi ng. The bottom course
of cl ay roof ti l es rests on a
stri p of bent-up perforated
sheet metal fixed to the eaves
flashi ng with cl i ps. The per
forated sheet metal guaran
tees venti l ati on and al l ows
any moi sture to drai n away.
D
d
If the roof surface is in the
form of a "stiff pl ate" , the
connecti ons to adjoi ni ng
components around the
edges of the roof pl ate must
be capabl e of transferri ng
the forces whi ch occur.
The gabl e wal l i s attached
to the roof structure. Rag
bolts fi tted careful l y i nto the
masonry every approx. 1 . 5-
2. 0 m are sui tabl e. I n order
to prevent corrosi on caused
by condensation water, it i s
advi sabl e to sel ect stai nl ess
steel fasteners. I nsert plywood
spacers as necessary.
The j uncti on with the gabl e
wal l may al so i ncl ude a rei n
forced concrete cappi ng
beam al ong the top, unsup
ported edge of the masonry.
As the rei nforced concrete
beam i s cast in "steps" ,
whi ch are determi ned by the
masonry bond and the si ze
of the masonry units, speci al
care shoul d be taken to en
sure that no thermal bri dges
through the concrete ensue.
D
e
Bond the roofi ng felt under
the roof ti l es to the screed
with a smal l l oop. Any rai n
water reachi ng thi s poi nt can
drain away safely thanks to
the stri ps of waterproof-gl ued
grade AW 1 00 pl ywood
screwed to the top of the
wal l .
D
f
Conti nui ng the render ri ght
up to the undersi de of the
cl ay bul l nose ti l es i s a si m
pl e and el egant detai l . The
tiles shoul d project mi n.
30 mm, preferably 50 mm,
beyond the render. Rei n
force the render wi th a tex
ti l e background. In order to
reduce the amount of rai n
water drai ni ng off the verge,
the roof ti l es al ong the edge
are rai sed sl i ghtl y.
D
g
Cl amp the ai rti ght
membrane/vapour barri er
ti ghtl y agai nst the pl astered
i nsi de face of wall wi th a
conti nuous board.
Section through verge, roof ti l es-render juncti on

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63
External wal l and converted roof space
Vertical secti on through eaves of coupl e roof
64
D
a
The gutter adjoi ns the roof
covering di rectly and i s joined
to the downpi pe via a coni
cal header. The venti l ati on
layers bel ow the roofi ng fel t
and above the thermal i nsu
l ati on end at the perforated
pl ate through whi ch fresh ai r
can enter. Thi s pl ate i s fixed
to the ti l ti ng board wi th con
ceal ed nai l s, held in pl ace
by a conti nuous cl i p, and
the bottom edge i s fi ni shed
as a rai nwater dri p.
O
b
The "venti l ated" roof, al so
known as a "col d deck", re
qui res a conti nuous air i nl et
al ong the eaves (2 %o of the
associated sl opi ng roof area,
mi n. 200 cm2/m unobstructed
openi ng) and wi th thi s roof
pi tch an ai r outl et at the
ri dge too (0. 05 %o of total
sl opi ng roof area) .
In thi s case a vapour bar
rier i s not requi red, whi ch is
diffi cul t to i nstal l properly on
site anyway. I nstead, a
"vapour check" is i ncl uded
whi ch onl y al l ows as much
vapour through as can be
carried away by the move
ment of ai r in the venti l ati on
l ayer.
Ai rti ghtness i s absol utely
i mperative. Use, for exam
pl e, i mpregnated paper,
crepe paper or pol yethyl ene
sheet for the airti ght mem
brane and vapour check.
Care shoul d be taken to
ensure that al l joi nts are
adequately overl apped or
bonded and, above al l , con
ti nuous and ti ghtl y seal ed
juncti ons wi th other compo
nents. Provi ded the material
chosen has a sui tabl e
vapour diffusi on resi stance,
the ai rti ght membrane can
al so act as a vapour check.
D
e
The gabl e wall is constructed
as a parapet projecti ng wel l
above the roof surface and
thus accentuati ng the edge
of the roof. Cl ad the i nner
face of the parapet with sheet
metal .
The parapet al so has a
sheet metal cappi ng. Lay
thi s on a separati ng layer -
bi tumen roofi ng fel t, PVC
sheet, oi l ed paper depend
i ng on the metal - and on
approx. 25 mm grade AW
!00 pl ywood battens fi xed
with cl i ps.
The cappi ng overhangs
the render by about 30 mm
and the bottom edge finishes
wi th a rai nwater dri p. Bend
i ng up the cappi ng al ong
the outsi de edge and/or pro
vi di ng a gentl e fal l towards
the roof surface avoi ds satu
ration of the gabl e wal l .
O
d
Use sheet metal soakers at
the j uncti on between the
overl appi ng pl ai n bul l nose
ti l es and the masonry para
pet. Fi x the sheet metal para
pet cl addi ng wi th cl i ps and
provi de a generous overl ap
to the soakers.
D
e
After fi xi ng the ai rti ght
membrane/vapour check,
seal the pl asterboard cei l i ng
agai nst t he gabl e wal l with a
permanentl y el asti c materi al .

Section through verge wi th parapet


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65
External wal l and converted roof space
Verti cal secti on through eaves of coupl e roof
!2 O-

D
a
A patented rafter abutment
made from gal vani sed sheet
steel and screwed to a cast
i n propri etary channel el i mi
nates the need for a concrete
abutment. Si de pl ates hol d
the rafter i n pl ace.
D
b
Provi di ng ful l -depth i nsul a
tion between the rafters i n
the form of a l oose materi al
(e. g. cel l ul ose fi bres or per
lite) requi res the construc
ti on of a box. Attach an ai r
tight membrane/vapour
check to the undersi de of
the rafters and cover thi s
with 19 mm tongue-and
groove or pl ai n-edge fl oor
boards. Thi s ensures ther
mal i nsul ati on ri ght down to
the eaves. Dwarf wal l s can
be provi ded as requi red to
cl ose off areas of the roof
space. Addi ti onal counter
battens onl y at the rafters
reduce the number of per
forations i n the vapour check,
compensate for bui l di ng
tolerances and provi de
space for el ectri c cabl es.
D
e
Accordi ng to the manufac
turer, the 22 mm bi tumen
i mpregnated wood fi bre
i nsul ati ng board attached to
the top of the rafters can
functi on as a water run-off
layer below the roof cover
i ng. The vapour permeabi l ity
of thi s materi al shoul d be
such that it i s sui tabl e for use
with the ai rti ght membrane/
vapour check. Rul e of thumb:
the vapour permeabi l ity
shoul d i ncrease towards
the outsi de.
Fi re protection requi re
ments with respect to the
roof structure, e. g. F 308,
must be taken i nto account
and may requi re di fferent
sizes of l oadbeari ng ti mber
members or a fire-retardant
l i ni ng or cl addi ng.
D
d
I n roof structures with verti
cal frami ng the purl i ns,
kneebraces and posts or
common rafters are respon
si bl e for transferri ng the
wi nd l oads.
The gabl e wal l i s "sus
pended" from the roof struc
ture. The j uncti on detai l here
i s no different to that for a
roof pl ate (see p. 63) . Cast
the rei nforced concrete cap
pi ng beam on the stepped
gabl e wal l . Thermal i nsul a
ti on to the top of the beam i s
requi red because owi ng to
the stepped arrangement
the concrete extends i nto
the heated area bel ow and
woul d otherwise resul t i n a
thermal bri dge. The anti ci
pated deformation of the
rei nforced concrete beam
(as a resul t of the unavoi d
abl e shri nkage, aggravated
by temperature fl uctuati ons)
must be taken i nto account
when desi gni ng thi s detai l .
The use of a gabl e wal l wi th
out a reinforced concrete
cappi ng beam overcomes
thi s probl em (see p. 33) .
Whatever the situati on, care
ful l y fi l l the gap between the
wal l and the final rafter ful l y
wi th i nsul ati ng materi al and
connect the vapour check at
l east airti ght.
D
e
Cut the outer l eaf at the top
of the wal l to suit and fi ni sh it
off wi th a cement screed.
The "serrated" bargeboard,
cut to match the l i ne of the
bul l nose ti l es, i s screwed to
a batten and that in turn to
the overhangi ng ti l i ng bat
tens.
Section through verge wi th profi l ed bargeboard
l Z O|
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/
Chi mney with fl ue l i ni ng
Vertical section through rendered chi mney stack

68
`

^
`

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c
D
a
The advantageous posi ti on
near the ri dge means that
the chi mney only needs to
conti nue 400 or 500 mm
above the ri dge cappi ng,
dependi ng on the appl i c
abl e German bui l di ng code.
Cast the i n si tu concrete
fl aunchi ng on a l evel l i ng bed
of mortar. The cast-in expan
sion sl eeve al lows for the
changes in l ength of the flue
l i ni ng, whi ch i s i nsul ated and
encl osed i n masonry.
D
b
A rendered chi mney stack
requi res a suffi ci entl y wel l
i nsul ated fl ue.
The chi mney stack shoul d
be as smooth as possi bl e i n
order to i mprove flow char
acteristi cs. On the other
hand, to protect the render
and accommodate move
ment, a sheet metal cappi ng
wi th a l arge overhang i s
desi rabl e.
I f there i s no ri sk of corro
si on, thi s confl i ct can be
overcome by provi di ng a
sheet metal cappi ng of, for
exampl e, stai nl ess steel .
Connect the cappi ng to the
expansi on sl eeve wi th a
welted joi nt. The rai nwater
dri p around the edge of the
cappi ng stands wel l cl ear of
the render.
D
e
If joi nts fi l l ed wi th perma
nentl y el astic material are
deemed undesi rabl e, the
only option i s to accept the
ri sks and fit a cappi ng strip
flashi ng behi nd the render.
Separate the render and the
sheet metal with a
2-3 mm wi de sl i t.
Sheet metal fl ashi ngs i n
faci ng masonry are fitted
into raked-out joi nts, fixed
wi th cl i ps and seal ed.
e
Prefabri cated chi mney
Verti cal secti on through chi mney stack with faci ng bri ckwork
D
d
The chi mney here consi st of
l i ghtwei ght concrete fl ue
bl ocks around a thermal l y
i nsulated fl ue l i ni ng of refrac
tory cl ay.
The mi n. 1 1 5 mm faci ng
masonry of frost-resi stant
cl ay bri cks - VMz or VHLz -
is seated on a bui lt-i n pre
cast concrete element and
must be bui lt and pointed
particularly careful l y. Per
pends l eft open act as i nlets
and outlets to the venti l ati on
cavi ty.
D
e
Pl ace the prefabri cated
fl aunchi ng on a bed of mor
tar, rake out the j oi nt mi n.
20 mm deep and fi l l i t wi th a
permanentl y el astic material
to secure the j oi nt agai nst
dri vi ng rai n. I f the fl aunchi ng
oversai l s the masonry, thi s
protects the j oi nt to some
extent.
69
Partition with servi ces conceal ed behi nd false wal l
Verti cal section through sanitary fitti ngs
. . .

.
70

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Fal se wal l s for conceal i ng
servi ces are desi rabl e owi ng
to the rati onal i nstal l ati on.
There i s no need to modify
the masonry in anyway.
In those cases in whi ch
the sound i nsul ati on to the
wal l , parti cul arl y a party wal l ,
i s adversely affected by pipe
work, a false wal l i nstallati on
i s i ndi spensabl e.
The system shown here
makes use of prefabricated
i nstal l ati on el ements made
from pol ymer concrete for
the respective sanitary fit
ti ngs.
c b
The fal se wal l can termi nate
at a typi cal shel f hei ght, and
be fi ni shed off wi th cerami c
ti l es, or i t can conti nue up to
the cei l i ng.
The verti cal soi l pi pe i s
vented above roof level .
c C
The j uncti on between the
fl exi bl e fl oati ng screed and
the ri gi d fal se wal l must
al l ow for movement. I ncl ude
a seal i ng stri p wi th a l oop,
conti nue thi s up the wal l and
bond i t to the wal l . Seal the
j oi nt between fl oor and wal l
wi th a permanentl y el asti c
materi al .
As nei ther a shower nor a
floor outl et are i ntended, thi s
bathroom i s cl assed as a
wet area ( but not a fl ooded
area) and does not requi re
waterproofi ng beneath the
floor coveri ng and screed. l t
i s usual l y suffi ci ent to lay the
cerami c fl oor ti l es i n a water
proof ti l e adhesi ve with nar
row joi nts.
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Pl an on false wal l conceal i ng services
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71
The fol lowing section deal s with the most i mportant pri nci ples
for bui l di ng with l arge cl ay bl ocks:
- Cl ay bl ock formats and di mensi onal tol erances
- Cl ay bl ock types and mortar
- Masonry bonds
- Di mensi onal coordi nati on
The essay "Masonry of l arge cl ay bl ocks - structure and
constructi on" by Dr. -l ng. Bernhard Behri nger cl earl y i l l us
trates the i nteracti on of the components to form a complete
structure.
The report "Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry" by Dr. - l ng.
Peter Roeke expl ai ns t he basi c rul es for appl yi ng pl aster/
render to cl ay masonry by way of the behavi our of the wal l
and its "cl addi ng" .
Just how bui l di ng with l arge cl ay bl ocks i s affected by the
Energieeinsparverrdnung (EnEV - Energy Economy Act) -
whi ch has repl aced the 1 995 Warmeschutverordnung
(WSchVO - Thermal I nsulation Act) - is not consi dered i n
this publ i cati on. The new Act i s a comprehensi ve document
whi ch has repercussi ons for bui l di ng desi gn and bui l di ng
servi ces: the heat gai ns and/or l osses associated wi th ori
entati on and fenestrati on, ai rti ghtness, thermal bri dges and
al so the heati ng systems.
73
Cl ay bri ck and bl ock formats, di mensi onal tol erances
The various si zes of cl ay
bri cks and bl ocks are de
ri ved from a basi c modul e,
the thi n format desi gnated
by the format code OF. Thi s
al l ows different bri ck/bl ock
formats to be combi ned i n a
masonry constructi on.
Larger formats made up of
thi s format are easi l y i mag
i ned, whereby the units - as
i n the masonry constructi on
- are assembl ed with joi nts.
Clay bri cks/bl ocks wi thout
conventi onal perpend mor
tar are gi ven the nearest for
mat code ( DI N 1 05) .
When desi gnati ng l arge ver
ti cal l y perforated cl ay bl ocks
it i s necessary to specify the
thi ckness of the masonry i n
order to di sti ngui sh the
bl ocks exactl y. For exampl e:
cl ay bl ocks with the code
6 OF are avai l abl e for vari
ous wal l thi cknesses and
course hei ghts; cl ay bl ocks
with the code 1 2 OF can be
manufactured for 240 mm
and 365 mm wal l s. In these
cases the webs and fi ns
separati ng the perforati ons
or speci al perpend arrange
ments are desi gned for a
parti cul ar wal l thi ckness.
74
The di mensi ons gi ven for the
cl ay masonry units are refer
ence si zes. DI N 1 05 permi ts
di mensi onal devi ati ons from
the reference si zes: mi ni mum
si zes and maxi mum si zes.
So the actual di mensi ons of
a cl ay masonry uni t 240 mm
l ong may vary between 230
and 245 mm; for a 300 mm
unit a l ength of 290-308 mm
i s permi ssi bl e; for a 365 mm
unit, 355-373 mm.
However, on the bui l di ng
site i t i s i mportant that the
del i veri es for a certai n struc
ture al l l i e withi n a certai n
tol erance: the di mensi onal
devi ati on i s 1 0 mm for
240 mm units, and 1 2 mm
for 300 and 365 mm units.
The devi ati ons for the hei ght
of a unit are stricter:
233-243 mm for a reference
hei ght of 238 mm, and a
di mensi onal devi aton
of 6 mm.
Lightwei ght verti cal l y perfo
rated clay masonry units are
clay bri cks and bl ocks per
forated perpendi cul ar to the
bed j oi nt ( DI N 1 05 part 2) .
The difference between
these and verti cal l y perfor
ated cl ay masonry units type
Hlz i s their l ow gross den
sity, whi ch may not exceed
1 000 kg/m3. They are avai l a
bl e as type HLzA with type A
perforati ons ( 1 5-50% of bed
face area, each si ngl e open
i ng 5 2. 5 cm2) , as type HLzB
with type B perforati ons (as
type A but wi th si ze of open
i ngs speci fi ed) , or as type
HLzC wi th type C perfora
tions (cl osed on five si des,
total cross-section of perfo
rati ons max. 50%, each si n
gl e openi ng 5 1 6 cm2, si ze
of openi ng speci fi ed) . Li ght
wei ght verti cal l y perforated
clay masonry units type W
(HLzW) of hei ght 238 mm
have type B perforati ons
and must al so compl y wi th
requi rements regardi ng
gross density and the number
of rows of perforati ons i n the
di recti on of the wal l thi ck
ness. New devel opments
outsi de the DI N standard
are covered by bui l di ng
authority approval s.
Cl ay bl ock formats, di mensi onal tol erances
Li ghtwei ght verti cal l y perfor
ated cl ay masonry units are
avai l abl e with different per
forati ons and perpends.
Here are a number of
exampl es of cl ay bl ocks of
format code 1 2 L| for 365 mm
external wal l s:
D
a
Bl ock with gri p (thumb)
openi ngs for masonry with
mortar to the perpends.
D
b
Bl ock wi th mortar sl ot for two
methods of l ayi ng: l ai d i ndi
vi dual l y with mortar to the
perpends but the sl ot l eft
empty, or l ai d in rows bri ck
to bri ck and the sl ot fi l l ed
with mortar.
D
e
Bl ock with gri p (thumb)
openi ngs for i nterl ocki ng
perpends without mortar.
D
d
Toothed bl ock for mul ti pl e
i nterl ocki ng perpends (no
mortar) or as a gauged
bl ock for thi n-bed mortar
joi nts.
The method of l ayi ng the
bl ocks wi thout mortar to the
perpends reduces the work
load duri ng l ayi ng and the
amount of mortar requi red,
and al so i mproves the ther
mal i nsul ati on value of a
pl ai n external wal l . However,
devi ati ons i n the si zes of the
i ndi vi dual units cannot be
compensated for i n the mor
tar joints l i ke wi th conven
ti onal masonry. At corners
and j uncti ons wi th other
wal l s the perpends sti l l have
to be fi l l ed wi th mortar; and
at door and wi ndow reveals
mortar j oi nts or make-up
units are necessary.
Mortar for masonry work i s a
mi xture of sand and bi nder
( l i me or cement) pl us admi x
tures and additives whi ch
alter the properties of the
mortar by physi cal or chemi
cal means ( DI N 1 053) .
Normal -wei ght mortar i s
ei ther mi xed on si te or sup
pl i ed ready mi xed ( DI N 4226
part 1 ). We di sti ngui sh
between mortar groups
MG I , lla, llb and I l l , and
each group has to compl y
wi th certain condi ti ons
( DI N 1 053) .
Li ghtwei ght mortar is sup
pl i ed ready mi xed or as pre
mi xed dry mortar. Due to its
lower oven-dry bul k density
and the use of a l i ghtwei ght
mi neral aggregate, thi s type
of mortar i mproves the ther
mal i nsul ati on properties of
si ngl e-l eaf external wal l s.
We di sti ngui sh between
groups LM 21 and LM 36
( DI N 4226) .
Thi n-bed mortar is a fi ne
grai n premi xed dry mortar
( DI N 4226) . lt must be used
with a bed joi nt thi ckness of
1 -3 mm. l t i s cl assed as a
mortar group MG I l l .
75
Masonry bonds
76
Wal l s are bui lt
the fol l owi n b
accordi ng to
pi es - the b
g asl c pri nci
( OI N 1 053) :
ondl ng rul es
- Units in on
be of equal h
e course shal l
J Oi nts shal l b
ei ght, the bed
- The
e conti nuous
.
perpend
.
JOi nts of succe
s and wal l
must be offset
ssl ve courses
the bondi n
. Thi s offset
must be 0
di mensi on
but not l e
. x uni t hei ght
ss tha
!
( e. g. 95 m
n 45 mm
238
m for a uni t
mm hi gh) L
bl ocks are
. arge cl ay
hal f the l en
u
:
al l y offset by
Crosswal l s
g . of the bl ock.
wal l s - do n
-
t
cl udi ng shear
have to be b
o necessari l y
b
onded
utt J Oi nt
.
In - a
1s ade
other m
quate when
eans are
.
resist tens
provi ded to
I On and
Sl on, e g fl
compres-
i n.
. . at anchors bui lt
Si mpl e masonr b
used for l a
y onds are
.
rge cl ay bl
whi ch usually m
ocks,
ness of th
atch the thi ck
e wal l F
-
pi e, stretch
. or exam-
tions 1 1 5 1
bond for parti
thi ck hea
'
d
5 and 240 mm
, er bond f
nal wal l s 365
or exter-
mm thi ck.
For esti mati n
appro
.
g purposes th
Xl mate w k
'
, e
are as follows:
or lng times
per square
partiti on:
metre of 1 1 5 mm
2
OF 1 . 5 hours
6
OF 0. 9 hours
OF 0. 3 hours
per square m
P
art
'
t
'
etre of 240
1 1 on:
mm
OF 2
2
. 1 hours
OF 1
1 2 OF
. 5 hours
1 2 hours
per square
external wa

etre of 365 mm
OF 3
2
.3 hours
OF 2
1 2 OF
. 1 hours
1 . 4 hours
Masonry bonds
D
a Stretchers are masonry units
1 1 5 mm wal l l ai d with thei r l ongitudi nal ,
stretcher bond with DF units i . e. stretcher, faces paral l el
with the l i ne of the masonry.
D
b Headers, however, are l ai d
1 1 5 mm wal l perpendi cul ar to the l i ne of
stretcher bond with 6 DF units the masonry. The outward
appearance of both bonds
c c is therefore si mi l ar, i . e. suc-
240 mm wal l cessi ve courses offset. But
header bond with DF units the appearance of thi s
bl ockwork masonry i s di ffer-
L d ent from the fami l i ar bri ck-
240 mm wal l work bonds - i n t hi s case
stretcher bond with 1 2 DF Engl i sh bond - character-
units i sed by thei r regul ar alterna-
tion between stretchers and
D
e
headers.
365 mm wal l
Engl i sh bond with DF units
D
f
365 mm wal l
header bond with 1 2 DF
units
//
Di mensi onal coordi nati on
Masonry di mensi ons are
based on the "octametri c"
system: the 1 1 5 mm unit
pl us 1 0 mm j oi nt form the
basi c modul e of 1 25 mm. By
addi ng or subtracti ng joi nts
we arrive at the three basi c
di mensi ons:
External di mensi on
A = n x 1 25 - 1 0 mm
Openi ng di mensi on
" n x 1 25 1 0 mm
Projection di mensi on
V = V = n x 1 25 mm
78
Di mensi onal coordi nati on
al so appl i es to cl ay masonry
units l ai d wi thout mortar to
the perpends. I n this case
the perpends are taken to
be 3 mm wide and the units
247 mm l ong. Smal l er uni ts,
ends and j uncti ons are cut
to sui t. Even though these
days cutti ng and sawi ng on
si te can be carri ed out accu
rately and effi ci entl y, wast
age due to cutti ng shoul d be
avoi ded when structures are
desi gned accordi ng to the
masonry di mensi ons of the
"octametri c" system. lt shoul d
be remembered that stand
ard wi ndows and doors are
al so desi gned to fit the
"octametri c" system.
.
Three-di mensi onal construction
Bui l di ngs, wi th thei r l oad-carryi ng and braci ng el ements,
are l oadbeari ng structures whose stabi l ity must be guaran
teed. That concerns both the i ndi vi dual l oadbeari ng el e
ments and the overal l three-di mensi onal constructi on of the
l oadbeari ng structure.
The primary load beari ng el ements (apart from roof struc
ture and foundations) are the wal l s and the fl oors. In the
construction an i ndi vi dual wal l acts together with other wal l s
with whi ch i t i s di rectly connected or coupl ed vi a floor
pl ates or cappi ng/ri ng beam systems.
1 . 1
Wal l s
Masonry wal l s formi ng part of the l oad-carryi ng construc
tion ( " l oadbeari ng wal l s") usual l y assume two di fferent
structural functi ons:
Load-carryi ng:
- vertical dead and i mposed l oads from fl oors, other wal l s,
roof
- horizontal l oads perpendi cul ar to the wal l due to wi nd or
soi l pressure
Braci ng:
- horizontal l oads paral l el to the wal l due to fl oors, cappi ng/
ri ng beams, crosswal l s
Wal l s wi thout such functi ons are desi gnated "non-l oad
beari ng".
1 . 2
Fl oors, cappi ng/ri ng beam systems
The pri mary structural functi on of the floor i s al ways to the
transfer the load per unit area to the l oadbeari ng el ements
(wal l s/beams/col umns) . I n additi on, floors al so act as hori
zontal restraints for the wal l s; when desi gned as shear
resi stant pl ates they form, together wi th the shear wal l s, a
construction braced in al l di recti ons.
Masonry of l arge cl ay bl ocks - structure and construction
Dr. - l ng. Bernhard Behri nger
I f a fl oor el ement i s not desi gned to act as a pl ate ( e. g.
ti mber joi st fl oor, cl ay hol low pot floor without concrete top
pi ng) , the functi on of the three-di mensi onal coupl i ng of the
wal l s i s achi eved wi th cappi ng and ring beam systems.
Cappi ng beams are components subjected to bendi ng
whi ch provi de restrai nt transverse to the pl ane of the wal l ,
i . e. resi st forces due t o wi nd or soi l pressure. Ri ng beams
accommodate axi al forces (tensi on or compressi on) , i . e.
"anchor" together, for exampl e, the wal l s - normal l y pro
vi ded with cappi ng beams - transverse to the beam.
Cappi ng and ri ng beams - normal l y of rei nforced concrete
- can be omitted in certai n ci rcumstances (max. 2 proper
storeys, l ength < 1 8. 00 m, wi ndow/door openi ngs < 60% of
wal l l ength, or i f wi dth of openi ng > 2/3 x storey hei ght, then
< 40% of wal l l ength) . I n these cases the floor beams (every
2. 00 m) must be sui tabl y anchored.
1 . 3
Si mpl i fi ed structural anal ysi s
DI N 1 053 prescri bes condi ti ons whi ch, i f compl i ed wi th,
enabl e a wal l to be desi gned usi ng a si mpl ifi ed structural
anal ysi s with si mpl er stress veri fi cati on. In additi on, for si m
pl e types of bui l di ng, l i ke the terrace houses consi dered i n
thi s book, the stabi l ity i s al so guaranteed for:
- max. 2 storeys with storey hei ght up to 2. 75 m
- l oadbeari ng wal l s: d = 365 or 240 mm for i nternal and
external wal l s
- non-l oadbeari ng wal l s: d = 1 1 5 mm
- upper floors of concrete, ti mber joi sts or cl ay hol low pots,
max. span 4. 20 m
- normal i mposed l oads for resi denti al use (max. 5. 0 kN/m
2
)
- proportion of wi ndows < 60%, for wi ndows > 1 . 80 m wi de
< 40%
I n these cases the onl y structural anal ysi s requi red for al l
l oad beari ng masonry wal l s i s to show that the actual com
pressi ve stress O = N/A i s l ess than the permi ssi bl e com
pressive stress.
N i s the vertical compressive force due to the sel f-wei ght of
the wal l pl us the floor and roof l oads carri ed by the wal l .
A i s the cross-secti onal area of the wal l on whi ch thi s com
pressive force acts. The permi ssi bl e stress i s the "basi c
permi ssi bl e stress" O_, whi ch i s merel y dependent on the
type of cl ay masonry unit bei ng used (masonry unit
strength) and the mortar (mortar group) .
79
Structure and constructi on contd.
1 . 4
Detai l ed structural anal ysi s
Exceptions or speci al cases i n whi ch the geometri c
framework condi ti ons gi ven i n 1 . 3 above are not compl i ed
wi th are deal t wi th i n secti on 2 bel ow. I n these cases the
components covered by the si mpl ifi ed stress veri fi cati on
accordi ng to DI N 1 053 part 1 must be checked for vari ous
other effects.
One pri mary parameter for assessi ng the stresses i n a
wal l i s its "sl enderness", i . e. the ratio of buckl i ng l ength hk to
wal l thi ckness d. The buckl i ng l ength of a wal l i s the cl ear
storey hei ght multi pl i ed by a factor 3whi ch takes into
account the lateral restrai nt and the type of connection to
the floors. The factor 3l i es between 1 . 0 (wal l hel d on two
si des, no restraint due to rei nforced concrete fl oors) and
0. 35 (wal l hel d on four si des, spaci ng of lateral restraints
max. 2. 00 m) . The value h/d may not exceed 25.
The basi c permi ssi bl e stress O_must be reduced by a
factor k, whi ch in turn depends on the coeffi ci ents k, and k
2
or k
3
. The reducti on factors take i nto account the l ength of
the wal l (k
1
= 1 . 0-0. 8) , the sl enderness ( k
2
* 1 . 0-0) and the
effects of fl oor defl ecti on (angl e of rotation at supports) for
floor spans between 4. 20 and 6. 00 m ( k
3
* 1 . 0-0. 7) . The
background to these coeffi ci ents wi l l not be expl ai ned i n
detai l here; the reader i s referred to Dl N 1 053 part 1 (7 . 2) .
2
Speci al situations ( "di srupti ons" , speci al cases)
A detai l ed structural anal ysi s for the si mpl e houses con
si dered here i ncl udes the roof structure, fl oors, concrete
components and foundati ons (structure/subsoi l i nteracti on) .
The masonry wal l s can general l y be assessed accordi ng to
1 . 3 above. Speci al si tuati ons may make it necessary to per
form cal cul ati ons accordi ng to 1 . 4, or the construction may
requi re speci al consi derati on.
2. 1
"Di srupti ons" to the overal l construction
The overal l l oadbeari ng structure, the wal l s and fl oors, i s
weakened i f the connecti ons between the el ements are
"di srupted". We di sti ngui sh between two main cases:
80
a
The l ack of a connecti on between wal l and floor, e. g. at
l arge fl oor openi ngs in areas with gal l eri es or stai rs, where
rooms (and hence wal l s) are two storeys hi gh.
b
The floors do not act as pl ates ( e. g. ti mber joist fl oors, cl ay
hol low pot floors wi thout concrete toppi ng) .
2. 2
" Di srupti ons" to the masonry wal l
The stabi l ity of a l oadbeari ng wal l el ement can be i mpai red
i f l ocal " di srupti ons" i mpai r the restrai nt wi thi n the overal l
constructi on or reduce the thi ckness of wal l :
a
Openi ngs in the wal l (wi ndows, doors) i nterrupt the wal l
pl ate effect l ocal l y and t he secti ons of wal l between the wi n
dows represent "unsupported edges" without lateral
restrai nt. The sl enderness of the wall i ncreases, the load
carryi ng capacity decreases.
b
Hori zontal chases in the wal l reduce the structural l y effec
ti ve cross-secti on; verti cal chases or recesses can, beyond
a certain depth, weaken the wal l so severely that the sl en
derness i ncreases because at these poi nts an " unsup
ported edge" must be al lowed for. However, chases up to a
certai n depth ( dependi ng on l ength) are permi tted whi ch do
not have to be consi dered in the structural anal ysi s. We di s
ti ngui sh here between the way in whi ch the chases are pro
duced ( mi l l ed or chi sel l ed) . DI N 1 053 tabl e 1 0 contai ns
more detai l ed informati on.
2. 3
Speci al case "col umn"
Masonry col umns are usual l y constructed usi ng smal l
masonry units ( i . e. bri cks) . They represent a speci al si tua
ti on i n two respects:
a
The lateral restrai nt to thi s "short wal l " is mi ssi ng on both
si des, so col umns are always hel d onl y on two si des ( i . e.
the ends) . Col umn cross-sections < 0. 1 0 m
2
may carry onl y
80% of thei r permi ssi bl e desi gn l oad, those < 0. 04 m
2
are
not permi ssi bl e as l oadbeari ng el ements.
b
Col umns are general l y posi ti oned at poi nts where l oads
from fl oors or wal l s above concentrate. The l oad-carryi ng
capaci ty with respect to these i ncreased l oads must be
proved.
2. 4
Speci al case "basement wal l " ( i n contact with t he soi l )
Masonry external basement wal l s have to resi st the soi l
pressure of the backfi l l ed excavati on. Thi s hori zontal l oad i s
much greater than the hori zontal l oad due to wi nd. The soi l
pressure causes the wal l to bend, whi ch i n turn sets up ten
si l e and compressi ve stresses. As it i s not permi ssi bl e to
desi gn masonry for tensi l e stresses, it i s necessary to can
cel out the tensi on by means of appropriate compressi ve
stresses ( mi ni mum verti cal l oad! ) . On the other hand, the
verti cal load shoul d not be so hi gh that the compressi ve
stresses due to bendi ng can no l onger be resi sted (maxi
mum verti cal load! ) . An accurate structural anal ysi s i s not
requi red when i t can be guaranteed that the verti cal l oad
l i es between these mi ni mum and maxi mum fi gures (see
3.4 below) .
3
Measures to al low for "di srupti ons" and speci al cases
The "di srupti ons" descri bed i n 2. 1 above general l y cal l for
addi ti onal constructi onal measures to be taken. I n some ci r
cumstances, however, an accurate structural anal ysi s may
show that the stabi l ity i s sti l l guaranteed and addi ti onal
measures are superfl uous.
3. 1
"Di srupti ons" to the overal l constructi on, the wal l s and floors
a
The l ack of horizontal restrai nt to the wal l provi ded by the
floor ( e. g. at l arge fl oor openi ngs, gal l eri es, stai rs) i s sol ved
i n constructi onal terms by provi di ng a cappi ng beam at the
level of the fl oor and paral l el to the openi ng. However, thi s
is not necessary when the two-storey wal l at thi s poi nt can
be shown to be structural l y adequate. Thi s i s possi bl e when
appropri ate l ateral restraint from crosswal l s ("wal l hel d on
three si des") i s avai l abl e.
b
Floors that are not desi gned as pl ates ( e. g. ti mber joi st
floors, cl ay hol l ow pot fl oors wi thout concrete toppi ng) can
provi de hori zontal restrai nt for wal l s i f sui tabl y anchored
(see 1 . 2 above) . However, i n terms of the constructi on it i s
better to i ncl ude cappi ng/ri ng beam systems, i . e. restrai n
i ng and coupl i ng the wal l s at fl oor l evel by way of concrete
components. In certai n cases cappi ng/ri ng beam systems
can be provi ded in the form of rei nforced masonry.
Structure and construction contd.
Cappi ng and ri ng beams:
The wi dth i s governed by the thi ckness of the wal l mi nus
any i nsul ati on necessary. The depth i s equal to a course of
masonry. Cappi ng and ri ng beams must be rei nforced.
Rei nforced masonry:
Rei nforci ng bars in the bed joi nts must be protected
agai nst corrosi on (gal vani sed, coated) or of stai nless steel .
Ri ng beams i n the form of rei nforced masonry are onl y per
mi ssi bl e wi th correspondi ng perforati ons in the units ( pro
portion of perforati ons < 35%, webs and fi ns not offset with
respect to each other) . This requi rement i s not met by l arge
aerated cl ay bri cks. Rei nforced masonry i s therefore to be
regarded as a speci al sol uti on hardl y used i n practi ce and
not advi sabl e for the si mpl e bui l di ngs consi dered here.
3. 2
" Di srupti ons" t o the masonry wal l
a
Openi ngs in the wal l (wi ndows, doors) are to be spanned
over wi th cl ay or concrete l i ntel s, or by the rei nforced con
crete fl oor sl ab (beam withi n depth of sl ab) . Cri ti cal poi nts
here coul d be the supports (end of wal l or col umn) because
the concentration of l oad here resul ts i n hi gher stresses and
the wal l i s restrai ned on onl y two or three si des, whi ch cal l s
for a buckl i ng anal ysi s (see 1 . 4 above) .
Cl ay l i ntel s:
Cl ay l i ntel s are prefabri cated tensi on chords for a l oad
beari ng el ement consi sti ng of l i ntel plus masonry or con
crete compressi on zone. The l oad-carryi ng capacity of clay
l i ntel s i s general l y defi ned i n tabl es speci fyi ng width, depth
and span. The maxi mum permi ssi bl e span of cl ay l i ntel s is
3. 00 m.
Concrete l i ntel s:
Li ntel s not monol ithi c wi th the reinforced concrete floor
slab shoul d have di mensi ons l i ke those of cappi ng and ri ng
beams. With h * 240 mm, spans of approx. 3. 00-4. 00 m are
possi bl e, dependi ng on verti cal l oad. I n the case of a mon
ol i thi c l i ntel/floor sl ab, the depth of the l i ntel shoul d be cho
sen sensi bl y: e. g. slab depth 1 60 mm masonry course
250 mm = 41 0 mm. Spans of 5. 00-6.00 m are therefore
possi bl e, dependi ng on verti cal l oad.
81
Structure and construction contd.
Rei nforced concrete fl oor sl ab:
Sui tabl y rei nforced, a beam can be produced withi n the
depth of a rei nforced concrete fl oor sl ab, whi ch can then
span over an openi ng without the need for a l i ntel . The
spans possi bl e depend on the depth of the fl oor sl ab, the
di rection i n whi ch the sl ab spans, and the vertical l oad.
Deflection is cri ti cal for beams withi n the depth of the sl ab
carryi ng vertical wal l l oads because cracks ensue i n the
masonry above. Without vertical wal l l oads, spans of 3. 00-
4. 00 m are possi bl e.
b
Horizontal chases wi th di mensi ons exceedi ng those gi ven
i n DI N 1 053 tabl e 1 0 must be checked structural l y. The
anal ysi s shoul d take account of the eccentri city e. Addi
ti onal bendi ng stresses occur due to the moment M * n x e.
The method of anal ysi s i s deal t with i n 3. 4 bel ow.
O O
Speci al case "col umn"
Speci al constructi onal sol uti ons may be necessary for
very sl ender col umns or those carryi ng heavy l oads. If the
permi ssi bl e stress i s exceeded for a gi ven col umn si ze, it
may prove prudent to use masonry units with a hi gher
strength and/or a hi gher grade of mortar. The use of rei n
forced concrete col umns or even steel stanchi ons i s some
ti mes unavoi dabl e.
3. 4
Speci al case " basement wal l " ( i n contact with the soi l )
l t i s not necessary to check a masonry external basement
wal l i n contact wi th the soi l for compressi on (verti cal l oad)
and bendi ng (soi l pressure) i f vari ous condi ti ons (verti cal
load/geometry) are compl i ed wi th.
Geometric conditi ons:
- max. 2. 60 m cl ear basement storey hei ght
- max. 2. 50 m depth of ground surcharge
The surcharge due to i mposed l oads may not exceed
5.0 kN/m
2

The mi ni mum and maxi mum verti cal l oads are as fol l ows:
Wal l thi ckness
240 mm
300 mm
365 mm
Mi n. verti cal l oad
7. 50 kN/m
5. 00 kN/m
4. 00 kN/m
The maxi mum vertical l oad is such that the resul ti ng com
pressive stress does not exceed 45% of the permi ssi bl e
compressi ve strength of the masonry.
82
Thanks to the sel f-wei ght of the fl oor sl ab over the base
ment and the wal l to the ground floor above, the necessary
mi ni mum vertical load i s normal l y reached in the house
types consi dered here with 365 mm external wal l s. At worst,
the onl y probl ems occur at openi ngs in the floor sl ab at
ground fl oor l evel ( e. g. stairs) or in areas without an external
wall at ground floor l evel . Anal yses may be requi red i n such
cases, maybe al so constructi onal measures ( e. g. cappi ng
beam or rei nforced masonry) i n certai n ci rcumstances. The
maxi mum verti cal load i s normal l y never reached in these
house types, even wi th l ow-strength masonry i n the base
ment wal l .
I f t he above conditi ons are not compl i ed with, i t i s neces
sary to carry out a more accurate anal ysi s of the stresses
for the superi mposi ti on of the compressi ve stress due to the
verti cal l oad O_ * N/A on the bendi ng stresses (tensi l e and
compressive) O_ = +1-M/. The tensi l e stresses due to bend
i ng must be cancel l ed out by the compressi ve stresses due
to verti cal l oadi ng. The same method of anal ysi s shoul d be
used for an eccentric compressi ve l oad, as mentioned in
3. 2 b above.
1 .
Preambl e
Pl aster and render are used to protect the bui l di ng fabri c
and al so for decorative purposes.
That the latter i s parti cul arl y si gni fi cant can be seen from
the many di fferent surface textures and col ours that are
possi bl e. However, this aspect i s also documented in prac
tice by the many compl ai nts concerni ng the appearance of
pl astered or rendered surfaces.
That shows just how much si gni fi cance i s attri buted to the
vi sual appearance of pl aster and render.
I n terms of appearance, the mai n compl ai nts are:
- cracks
- spal l i ng
- col our vari ati ons (streaks or bl emi shes)
- di fferent textures i n the fi ni sh coat
- uneven surfaces, offsets
- uneven edges at bui l di ng corners and wal l openi ngs
- i naccurate j uncti ons with other components
Careful sel ecti on and handl i ng of the mi x, observi ng al l the
recommendati ons associ ated with thi s technol ogy and tak
ing care with detai l s can hel p to avoid such defects. These
pages are i ntended to provi de gui dance.
2.
Standards
Plasteri ng and renderi ng i s these days covered by
DI N 1 8550 parts 1 to 4.
DI N 1 8550 part 1
- Plaster; termi nol ogy and requi rements
DI N 1 8550 part 2
- Plaster; pl asters made of mortars contai ni ng mi neral
bi nders; appl i cation
DI N 1 8550 part 3
- Renderi ng; renderi ng systems for thermal i nsul ati on pur
poses made of mortars consi sti ng of mi neral bi nders and
expanded pol ystyrene ( EPS) as aggregate
DI N 1 8550 part 4
- Pl asters and renderi ng; l i ghtwei ght pl asters and render
i ng; executi on
DI N 1 8558
- Synthetic resi n pl asters; termi nol ogy, requi rements,
appl i cati on
3.
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry
Dr. - l ng. Peter Roeke
Types of pl aster/render
The standard defi nes pl aster and render as wal l/soffit fi n
i shes produced from mi xes and coati ng materi al s.
Plaster and render are appl i ed i n a certai n thi ckness i n
one or more coats. The pl aster/render achi eves its fi nal
properti es after sol i di fyi ng on the bui l di ng and i n conj unc
ti on wi th thi s.
We di sti ngui sh between the fol l owi ng types of pl aster/
render accordi ng to thei r consti tuents:
3. 1
Pl aster/Render with mi neral bi nders
The mi xes from whi ch this type of pl aster/render i s pro
duced are a mi xture of bi nder, aggregate and water. And
recentl y i n parti cul ar, additives and admi xtures have been
added to i nfl uence the properti es of the pl aster/render and
the workabi l ity of the mi x.
The standard di sti ngui shes between addi ti ves and admi x
tures:
Additives
These affect the properti es of the pl aster/render by way of
chemi cal and/or physi cal acti ons.
(Ai r entrai ners, waterproofers, retarders, accel erators, stabi
l i sers for i ncreasi ng the water-retenti on capacity and addi
ti ves to i mprove the adhesi on between mi x and substrate. )
Admixtures
Admixtures in the meani ng of the standard are fi nel y di stri b
uted substances whi ch al so affect the properties of the
mortar but whose vol ume, i n contrast to addi ti ves, general l y
has to be taken i nto account.
( Fi l l ers, e. g. stone dust, to i mprove workabi l ity; pi gments to
provi de col our. )
The standard di sti ngui shes between the fol l owi ng types of
pl aster/render in terms of the tasks to be ful fi l l ed:
- pl aster/render that sati sfies general requirements
- pl aster/render that sati sfies addi ti onal requi rements
water-retardant pl aster/render
water-repel l ent pl aster/render
render wi th enhanced strength
pl aster with enhanced abrasi on resistance
pl aster for wal l s and cei l i ngs in wet areas
- pl aster/render for speci al purposes
thermal i nsul ati on pl aster/render
pl aster/render provi di ng fi re protection
pl aster/render wi th enhanced radiation absorption
83
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
O. 2
Pl asters/Renders with organi c bi nders
These are pl asters/renders contai ni ng synthetic resi ns
and produce a coati ng wi th an appearance resembl i ng that
of pl aster/render.
I f these types are appl i ed to a mi neral undercoat, thi s
must be gi ven a coat of pri mer fi rst. (For further detai l s of
synthetic resi n pl aster/render see DI N 1 8558. )
The bi nders i n synthetic resi n pl aster/render are syntheti c
resi ns. The other constituents, l i ke sand and fi l l ers, are the
same as those for mi neral pl aster/render.
These types of pl aster/render are pri mari l y used for:
- the fi ni sh coat on mi neral undercoats or other mi neral
substrates
- the fi nal coat over thermal i nsul ati on composi te systems
O. O
Si l i cate pl asters/renders
These types are rel ated to synthetic resi n pl aster/render.
However, the bi nder i s di fferent - i n thi s case consi sti ng of
potassi um water gl ass with a di spersi on additive for stabi l i
sation.
The water vapour permeabi l ity of si l icate pl aster/render i s
hi gher than that of synthetic resi n pl aster/render.
Thi s characteristic makes thi s type of pl aster/render suita
ble for hi stori cal bui l di ngs, for i nstance, and, if i ncombusti
bi l ity has been verifi ed, as the final coat over thermal i nsul a
tion composi te systems.
Thi s type of pl aster/render cannot be used on substrates
of wood, wood-based products or pl asti cs.
84
4.
Pl aster/Render
The standard di sti ngui shes between mi xes and coati ng
materi al s.
4. 1
Mi xes
The standard cl assi fi es mi xes in five groups P I to P V.
Mix groups
Mi x group
1
1 Type of bi nder
P I non-hydraul i c l i mes
2
1 ,
semi -hydraul i c l i mes,
hydraul i c l i mes
P I I hi ghl y hydraul i c l i mes,
pl aster bi nder and masonry
cement, l i me-cement mi xes
P i l l cements
P I V cal ci ned gypsum with and
wi thout bui l di ng l i me
PV anhydrite bi nder wi th and
wi thout bui l di ng l i me
1 For further subdi vi si on of mi x groups, see DI N 1 8550
part 2, 1 985 editi on, tabl e 3.
2 A l i mi ted amount of cement may be added.
Mi xes consi st of one or more bi nders, aggregates and
water, possi bl y al so wi th addi tives and/or admi xtures.
The grai n si ze of the majority of the aggregate l i es
between 0. 25 and 4 mm. In fi ni sh coats the proportion of
grai ns > 4 mm can domi nate.
The grai n si ze has a great i nfl uence on the shri nkage
behavi our of the pl aster/render. The smal l er the si ze of
aggregate, the greater is the tendency to shri nk. Mi xes
made from cal ci ned gypsum and anhydrite bi nder mostly
contain no aggregates.
Mi xes are al so di sti ngui shed accordi ng to thei r state and
pl ace of producti on.
State:
green (sti l l workabl e)
hardened (sol i difi ed)
Pl ace of producti on:
i n situ (constituents mi xed together on the bui l di ng site)
ready mixed (constituents mi xed together i n a factory)
5.
Coati ng materi al s
These consi sts of organi c bi nders and aggregates or
fi l lers and are used for produci ng synthetic resi n pl aster/
render.
The grai n si ze of the majority of the aggregate i s
> 0. 25 mm.
These materi al s are produced i n a factory.
6.
Di sti ngui shi ng pl aster/render accordi ng to its appl i cati on
6. 1
Pl aster/render for general requi rements (normal -wei ght
pl aster/render)
Thi s type of pl aster/render i s covered by DI N 1 8550
parts 1 and 2.
6. 2
Li ghtwei ght pl aster/render
Thi s type of pl aster/render i s l i ke a normal -wei ght type
with a mi neral bi nder. However, in contrast to these they
have a l i mi ted bul k densi ty.
The l ower bul k density i s achi eved by means of mi neral
and/or organi c aggregates with a porous mi crostructure.
DI N 1 8550 part 4 i ncl udes sui tabl e provi si ons for appl y
ing l i ghtwei ght pl aster/render.
Li ghtwei ght pl aster/render and the associ ated fi ni sh
coats must be manufactured i n the form of premi xed dry
materi al s.
Compressi ve strength of l i ghtwei ght pl aster/render ( mi x
group P I l l ) :
between 2. 5 and 5. 0 N/mm
2
Bul k density of l i ghtwei ght pl aster/render:
between 600 and 1 300 kg/m
3
If a l i ghtwei ght pl aster/render compl i es with the requi re
ments of mi x group P ll the compressi ve strength of the fi n
i sh coat shoul d be i n accordance wi th the requi rements for
group P c or P ll
Owi ng to its deformation behavi our, l i ghtwei ght pl aster/
render is parti cul arly suitabl e for masonry compri si ng ther
mally i nsul ati ng, porous, l i ghtwei ght verti cal l y perforated
clay masonry units.
Li ghtwei ght pl aster/render i s not a thermal i nsul ati ng mate
ri al i n i tsel f.
An organi c fi ni sh coat, e. g. syntheti c resi n render, shoul d
not be appl i ed to a l i ghtwei ght render.
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
6. 3
Thermal i nsul ati on pl aster/render
Thi s type of pl aster/render was speci al l y devel oped to
provi de good thermal i nsulation and exhi bi ts a bul k density
consi derabl y lower than that of l i ghtwei ght pl aster/render.
Characteristic values for thermal conductivity = 0. 07 W/mK
are possi bl e with thermal i nsul ati on pl aster/render.
These types are manufactured as premi xed dry materi al s.
Thermal i nsul ati on pl aster/render wi th a mi neral bi nder and
expanded pol ystyrene (EPS) as the aggregate are currently
covered by DI N 1 8550 part 3.
The compressi ve strength of the hardened mi x must l i e
between 0. 8 N/mm
2
and 3. 0 N/mm
2
. Besi des pol ystyrene as
an aggregate, covered in the aforementi oned standard,
mi neral aggregates ( e. g. perl i te and cel l ul ar gl ass pel l ets)
are bei ng i ncreasi ngl y employed. However, these do not
general l y achi eve the aforementi oned characteristic val ues
for thermal conducti vi ty.
6. 4
Renovati on pl aster/render
Thi s type of pl aster/render exhi bits a hi gh porosity and
water vapour permeabi l ity. The capi l larity i s consi derabl y
l ower.
Renovation pl aster/render i s used on damp masonry and/
or masonry contai ni ng salts. The hi gh vol ume of entrai ned
ai r al l ows the salts to crystal l i se withi n the pl aster/render. I n
t hi s way the sal ts are retai ned withi n the material and do not
reach the surface.
The hi gh water vapour permeabi l ity i s useful for al lowing
the masonry to dry out.
7.
Pl asteri ng/Renderi ng systems
These systems are defi ned by the standard as all the
coats of a pl astered/rendered wal l/soffit fi ni sh in conjuncti on
with the substrate.
Even si ngl e-coat pl asteri ng/renderi ng can be cl assed as
a system.
The system, i n its enti rety, must compl y with the parti cul ar
requi rements of the speci fi cati on.
Compati bi l ity between the properties of the vari ous coats
i n a system is essenti al . The same is true for the compati b
i l ity between pl aster/render and substrate. The substrate
must be prepared if necessary.
Apart from l egi ti mate excepti ons, e. g. render to basement
wal l s and pl i nths, the strength of the fi ni sh coat for pl aster/
render with a mi neral bi nder shoul d be l ess than or equal to
that of the undercoat.
This pri nci pl e al so appl i es to the compati bi l ity between
undercoat and substrate.
85
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
8.
Appl i cati ons
8. 1
Render
8. 1 . 1
General
Basi cal l y, for render we di sti ngui sh between the fol l owi ng:
wal l render above the pl i nth
basement wal l render ( i n contact with the soi l )
pl i nth render
soffit render ( undersi de of sl abs i n contact wi th the out
side ai r)
8. 1 . 2
Wal l render above the pl i nth
The render must be resistant to the effects of the weather,
moisture, temperature changes, wi nd, etc.
In terms of protection from the rai n, LIN 41 08 part 3
speci fi es the exposure groups and the resulti ng requi re
ments.
8. 1 . 3
Basement wal l render ( i n contact wi th the soi l )
I n areas i n contact with the soi l thi s render forms a sub
strate for the waterproofi ng.
Mi xes with hydraul i c bi nders must be used for thi s type of
render, whi ch must al so exhi bit a compressi ve strength of
at least 1 0 N/mm2. If mi x group P I l l is empl oyed, i t is not
necessary to verify the compressi ve strength.
I f masonry units of compressi ve strength 6 N/mm2 or l ess
are used for the basement wal l , the compressi ve strength of
the mi x shoul d not be si gni fi cantl y hi gher than 1 0 N/mm2,
but may be l ess 5 N/mm2) .
8. 1 . 4
Pl i nth render
Thi s type of render must be suffi ci ently hard. i t may
absorb only small amounts of water and must be resistant
to the effects of moi sture and frost.
Render made from mi xes with mi neral bi nders must
exhi bi t a compressi ve strength of at least 1 0 N/mm2.
i t i s not necessary to verify the compressi ve strength when
usi ng render accordi ng to the fol l owi ng tabl e. I f masonry
units of compressive strength 6 N/mm2 or l ess are used for
the wal l , the compressi ve strength may be lower ( but at
least 5 N/mm2) . However, the requi rements for water
repel l ent render systems must be compl i ed with.
86
Pl i nth render
Mi x group or coati ng materi al type for
undercoat fi ni sh coat1l addi ti ve
.
P i l l
P i l l P i l l none
P i l l P Org 1
.
P Org 1 2
l
l l
Fi ni sh coats can be fi ni shed wi th or without some form
of surface decorati on ( e. g. on surfaces to be coated) .
2
l
Onl y on a concrete substrate with a cl osed mi cro-
structure.
8. 2
Plaster
Pl aster must compl y with the normal requi rements, e. g.
suitabl e as a substrate for pai nt and wal l paper.
The compressi ve strength must be at l east 1 . 0 N/mm2.
i t i s not necessary to veri fy the compressi ve strength
when usi ng the pl asteri ng systems cl assed accordi ng to
the requi rements or appl i cati ons of DI N 1 8550 part 1 .
9.
Thi ckness of pl aster/render
A mi ni mum thi ckness must be mai ntai ned i n order to fulfi l
physi cal and other requi rements. However, there is al so an
upper l i mit to the thi ckness.
The standard prescri bes the fol l owi ng average thi ck
nesses for general requi rements:
Render:
20 mm ( permi ssi bl e mi n. thi ckness 1 5 mm)
Plaster:
1 5 mm (permi ssi bl e mi n. thi ckness 1 0 mm)
si ngl e-coat pl aster made from premi xed dry materi al s:
1 0 mm (permi ssi bl e mi n. thi ckness 5 mm)
The permi ssi bl e mi ni mum thi ckness must be confi ned to
i sol ated patches.
I n the case of addi ti onal requi rements, the thi ckness
shoul d be chosen to meet those requi rements.
Si ngl e-coat water-repel l ent render made from premi xed
dry materi al s: average thi ckness 1 5 mm ( mi n. thi ckness
1 0 mm) .
As a rul e, the average thi ckness of l i ghtwei ght render
when used as an undercoat shoul d be 1 5 mm. Here agai n,
the mi ni mum thi ckness must be confi ned to i sol ated
patches.
The mi ni mum thi ckness of thermal i nsul ati on pl aster/
render is gi ven as 20 mm. However, in order to achieve a
better thermal i nsulation effect, it is usual l y thi cker.
Pl aster/Render shoul d be appl i ed to achi eve a consi stent
thi ckness.
1 0.
Substrate
A suitabl e substrate i s a vital condi ti on for durabl e pl aster/
render free from defects.
The properties of the substrate have a consi derabl e i nfl u
ence on the adhesi on of the pl aster/render.
A detai l ed exami nati on of the substrate i s therefore espe
ci al l y i mportant and must be carri ed out by the pl asteri ng/
renderi ng contractor. Any objecti ons must be recorded i n
writi ng.
Any work necessary t o rectify defects i n t he substrate are
the responsi bi l ity of the cl i ent ( DI N 1 961 : Contract proce
dures for bui l di ng works, part B: general conditi ons of con
tract for the execution of bui l di ng works - cl . 4 para. 3) .
Conditions for a suitable substrate:
- The substrate must be dry, free from dust, cl ean, firm and
capabl e of supporti ng the pl aster/render.
- Vi si bl e deposits that coul d damage the pl aster/render
shoul d be rectifi ed; l i me bl oom and mi ni mal effl orescence
do not represent any probl ems.
- The di mensi ons of the substrate must be such that the
pl aster/render can be appl i ed wi th a consi stent thi ckness.
- When used as a substrate for pl aster/render, masonry
must compl y with the sti pul ati ons in DI N 1 053:
al l joi nts must be fi l l ed wi th mortar,
if perpends without mortar are used, these must be
fi l l ed on the faces wi th a suitabl e mortar on both si des
of the wal l i f they are wi der than 5 mm,
the prescri bed bondi ng di mensi on must be mai ntai ned,
defects, unfi l l ed sl ots and the exposed header faces of
dog-tooth courses must be fi l l ed with mortar.
The necessary mortar work shoul d be carri ed out as the
masonry i s bui lt. I f the mortar i s appl i ed subsequentl y, a
waiti ng ti me of at least four weeks is requi red before appl y
i ng the pl aster/render.
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
1 1 .
I nterdependence of pl aster/render and substrate
The pl asteri ng/renderi ng system chosen must be suitabl e
for the type of substrate avai l abl e. The first move i n sel ect
i ng a pl aster/render is to make sure that it i s sui tabl e for the
substrate.
The choi ce of pl asteri ng/renderi ng system depends on:
- the sucti on rate of the substrate,
- the l oads to be expected duri ng usage,
- the properti es of the masonry,
and other factors.
1 2.
Prepari ng the substrate
Preparation of the substrate i ncl udes al l those measures
that are necessary i n order to guarantee a permanent bond
between pl aster/render and substrate.
After exami ni ng the substrate, the ensui ng preparatory work
shoul d be carri ed out:
- Hi ghl y absorbent substrates may need to be pre-wetted
(observe i nstructi ons of mi x suppl i er) . Other measures
may al so be necessary ( hi gh sucti on pri mer, pri mi ng, ful l
coverage spatterdash) . I n every case, fol l ow the i nstruc
tions of the mix manufacturer.
- Mi xes suitabl e for hi ghl y absorbent masonry are avai l abl e.
I n these the water-retention capacity of the undercoat i s
matched to the sucti on rate.
- On a low-absorption substrate, bl obs of spatterdash (not
ful l coverage) are preferred in order to i mprove the adhe
si on of the pl aster/render. Adequate adhesi on can al so be
achi eved by other measures such as bondi ng coats or
pri mers.
- I f the substrate consi sts of di fferent materi al s wi th di fferent
sucti on rates, a ful l-coverage spatterdash i s necessary i n
order to achieve a uniform sucti on rate.
- I f the substrate i ncl udes components made from materi al s
that are unsuitabl e for use as a pl asteri ng/renderi ng sub
strate, some form of background must be provi ded.
- I f stresses i n the pl aster/render are to be expected due to
the type of constructi on or detai l s, the pl aster/render
shoul d be rei nforced.
- Wood-wool sl abs shoul d be covered with spatterdash.
Rei nforce the pl aster/render i n such areas.
- Always fol l ow the i nstructions of the mi x manufacturer and
the rel evant techni cal i nformation with respect to the sub
strate.
87
Plaster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
1 3.
Exami ni ng the substrate
- Vi sual i nspecti on for:
cracks
moi sture
dust and loose fragments on the surface
coati ngs or forei gn matter on the surface
efflorescence
damage
protrudi ng mortar
excessive unevenness
perpends and bed joi nts not ful l y fi l l ed ( pri mari l y sub-
strates for render)
excessi vel y wi de perpends wi thout mortar
correctness of bondi ng di mensi on
strength (scratch test)
- Wetti ng test with water for:
suction rate of substrate
different sucti on rates on varyi ng substrates, if neces
sary al so for di fferent cl ay masonry units
excessive moisture (no di scol oration)
release agents etc. on, for exampl e, concrete compo
nents, wood-wool sl abs
- Measurement for:
unevenness of wal l surface (strai ghtedge, pl umb l i ne,
etc. )
surface temperature and ai r temperature
1 4.
Appl yi ng the pl aster/render
- The deformati ons speci fi c to the material of the substrate
shoul d be compl eted before starti ng to appl y the pl aster/
render.
- When usi ng spatterdash, thi s must be suffi ci entl y fi rm.
- The substrate must be free from frost ( not bel ow +5C) .
- Owi ng to the constituents ( e. g. addi ti ves) in premi xed dry
materi al s, the properties of the pl aster/render are not
usual l y i dentifi abl e for the user. Good contact with the
customer servi ce department of the manufacturer of the
premi xed pl aster/render i s therefore hi ghl y advi sabl e.
- The undercoat for render, especi al l y when spatterdash i s
not bei ng used, shoul d be appl i ed i n two operati ons. The
fi rst ( dubbi ng-out) coat shoul d even out any i rregul ari ti es
(approx. 7- 1 0 mm) . Onl y after thi s coat i s stiff (after wait
ing at least three hours or l onger, dependi ng on the suc
ti on rate of the substrate) shoul d the second undercoat be
appl i ed. The fi ni sh coat can be appl i ed after the standard
wai ti ng ti me (1 day/mm thi ckness) . The l eadi ng mi x manu
facturers poi nt out i n thei r techni cal i nformation that the
mi x requi res suffi ci ent water i n order to cure properl y.
Wi th a thi n coat or excessi vel y fast dryi ng, the fi ni shed
surface of the pl aster/render shoul d be wetted at l east
once.
- I f the fi ni sh coat i s to be pai nted, then thi s shoul d not be
carri ed out on the "green" pl aster/render. The pai nt must
88
exhi bi t an adequate water vapour permeabi l ity. The sub
strate ( i . e. fi ni sh coat) must be sui tabl e for pai nti ng and
the pai nt must be compati bl e with the pl aster/render.
1 5.
Recommendati ons for obtai ni ng pl aster/render free from
defects
1 5. 1
Shri nkage
The setti ng process of the pl aster/render i s accompani ed
by shri nkage.
Every type of pl aster/render - al so those types wi th a
smal l grai n si ze to achi eve good machi ne workabi l ity
produced from the ready-mi xed vari eti es avai l abl e today i s
subjected to shri nkage processes to some degree - l arge
or smal l - after appl i cati on.
These shri nkage processes cause stresses i n the pl aster/
render and, consequentl y, deformati ons. If the shri nkage
stresses can be transferred to the substrate, the pl aster/
render general l y remai ns free from cracks.
Essenti al for thi s i s a good bond between pl aster/render
and substrate. I f thi s bond i s not achi eved, the stresses
cannot be rel i eved and the pl aster/render cracks i n areas
where an adequate bond i s l acki ng. The tensi l e stresses
resul ti ng from the shri nkage are greater than the tensi l e
strength of the pl aster/render.
Conti nuous support for the pl aster/render i s therefore
necessary over the enti re surface of the substrate.
If, for exampl e, there are voi ds i n the pl aster/render over
j oi nts, there i s no adhesi on and the pl aster/render cracks at
those posi ti ons; the crack wi l l fol l ow the l i ne of the j oi nt. The
cause of the cracki ng is therefore not the cl ay masonry itsel f
but rather the pl aster/render i n conjuncti on with i nadequate
adhesi on at the joi nt. So the j oi nt determi nes the course of
the crack. For thi s reason it is absol utel y essenti al to fi l l
compl etel y al l the joi nts i n the masonry.
However, cracks over the joi nts can have other causes.
I f the mortar i n the joi nts of the masonry has a lower suc
ti on rate than that of the cl ay masonry uni ts, the pl aster/
render over the surface of the cl ay masonry units wi l l set
earl i er and the tensi l e stresses due to shri nkage cause
cracks at the joi nts because there the pl aster/render i s sti l l
wetter and hence softer. Thi s probl em can be remedi ed by
wetti ng the surface of the cl ay masonry uni ts, fol l owi ng the
i nstructi ons of the mi x manufacturer.
The magnitude of the different effects al so depends on
the thi ckness of the pl aster/render, and the spaci ng of the
joi nts al so pl ays its part. I f the pl aster/render i s too thi n, the
i nfl uence of the joi nts i s more noticeabl e.
The thi ckness of the pl aster/render al so affects its
strength.
I f the pl aster/render does not adhere wel l to the surface of
the cl ay masonry units, e. g. because the properti es of
pl aster/render and cl ay masonry are not i deal l y compati bl e,
i t becomes detached due t o t he stresses; a network of
cracks is the resul t.
I nadequate adhesi on between fi ni sh coat and undercoat
due to, for exampl e, poor workmanshi p, can also cause the
two coats to separate. If, for exampl e, the surface of the
undercoat i s not roughened or, duri ng hot weather, the sur
face i s not wetted, an i nadequate bond can be the out
come. Thi s al so happens when the fi ni sh coat i s stronger
than the undercoat.
The contractor woul d be wel l advi sed to keep to the tri ed
and-tested rul e of decreasi ng the strength from i nsi de to
outsi de and to i gnore what has been sai d recentl y about the
opposite bei ng better!
However, the pl aster/render shoul d not be too thi ck
because otherwise excessi ve stresses occur i n the surface
of the pl aster/render, whi ch in turn l ead to cracks. The
shrinkage stresses at the surface can no l onger be ade
quatel y rel i eved because the di stance of the surface from
the substrate i s too l arge and the stresses cannot be prop
erly transferred to the substrate.
Shri nkage is affected or i ncreased by: :
a hi gh proportion of bi nder
a too rapi d water l oss
too much water i n the pl aster/render
the gradi ng curve of the aggregate
Pl aster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
1 5. 2
Loads on the pl aster/render
I n most cases of damage, moi sture i n one form or another
i s at l east partly to bl ame.
The constituents of the mi x al so pl ay an i mportant role
with respect to the take-up and rel ease of water through
capi l lary acti on.
The greater the effects of moi sture, the greater i s the
stress on the pl aster/render.
Cracks whi ch are frequentl y no cause for compl ai nt
become defects later due to the effects of water. Thi s situa
tion can often be seen pri mari l y on the side exposed to the
prevai l i ng wi nd.
1 6
Patterns of damage
- A network of fi ne, i rregul ar cracks not penetrati ng the ful l
thi ckness
Cause:
too much bi nder in the mi x
i mpuri ti es i n the aggregate
pl aster/render rubbed too earl y, too l ong and too
vi gorousl y
Shrinkage cracks:
a too rapi d water l oss ( due to sunshi ne, hi gh temperature
or draughts)
Network of wider cracks:
( i nadequate adhesi on to substrate)
too much bi nder in the mix (cracks penetrate ful l coat
thi ckness)
a too rapi d water l oss
Hairline cracks not penetrating deep into the plaster/render:
these cracks are caused by rubbi ng the surface of the
pl aster/render where the surface i s rich in bi nder and
water
fi ne-grai n aggregate with a smooth surface to the pl aster/
render
Cracks following the line of the masonr joints:
I n thi s si tuati on the stresses in the pl aster/render over the
joi nts are different to those over the masonry units them
sel ves (capi l lary water absorpti on of masonry units and j oi nt
mortar is di fferent and resul ts in di fferent dryi ng conditions) .
89
Plaster/Render on cl ay masonry contd.
Cause:
mortar remai ns damp for l onger when the masonry units
have a hi gher sucti on rate than the mortar
defective substrate (joi nts not fi l l ed compl etel y)
perpends cl osed off onl y on the i nner and outer faces
(thermal bri dge with formation of condensati on water)
Plaster/Render separates like "puf pastr"
excess water in the mi x has frozen before it coul d escape
mi x was not yet strong enough
frost progresses from outsi de to i nsi de and the freezi ng
water causes the mi x to become detached i n layers
Low mix strength
too l ittle bi nder, too rapi d loss of moi sture, poor gradi ng of
aggregate
coat too dense when usi ng P ' ( l i me mi x) ( P I requi res a
regul ar suppl y of moi sture to reach its strength)
Plaster/Render detaches frm substrate
(with good bond between fi ni sh coat and undercoat)
i nadequate bond when the surface absorbs too l i ttle water
- the bi nder paste i s not absorbed to a suffi ci ent extent
(bondi ng forces are i neffective)
excessi vel y absorbent substrate (spatterdash recom
mended as regul ati ng i ntermedi ate l ayer)
absorbent cl ay masonry units shoul d be pre-wetted dur
i ng hot weather
pl aster/render i s not compati bl e with substrate (regulated
by means of hi gh suction pri mer)
Inadequate adhesion between fnish coat and undercoat
undercoat was not pre-wetted ( duri ng hot weather) ,
undercoat not roughened
fi ni sh coat stronger than undercoat (dense coats transfer
addi ti onal stresses as they dry out)
temperature gradi ent - in thi n pl aster/render especi al l y
due to di rect sunl i ght ( l ow heat di ssi pation inwards, par
ti cul arl y i n thermal i nsulation masonry)
90
A masonry structure made from l arge l i ghtwei ght
verti cal l y perforated cl ay bl ocks i s much more effi
ci ent in terms of thermal i nsul ati on ( i n accordance
with today' s requi rements) than the masonry struc
tures of the past bui lt from (smal l -format) cl ay
bri cks. Thi s devel opment has brought about a
change in the gross density and the strength. I n
combi nati on wi th other materi al s ( pri nci pal l y con
crete) , careful desi gn i s necessary pl us compre
hensi ve foresi ght i n wei ghi ng up the possi bl e ri sks:
Stresses due to deformations caused by
thermal processes (hot - col d, sun - shade, day
ni ght, summer - wi nter . . . )
moi sture-related processes (water - vapour, rai n
- snow - i ce, moi sture due to construction and
usage and the associated shri nkage and swel l
i ng)
material-related and chemi cal processes
Esti mates or cal cul ati ons of deformati ons together
with the structural engi neer are i nval uabl e. I n doi ng
so, the l oads from outsi de (ori entation wi th i nci
dence of sol ar radi ati on, prevai l i ng wi nd si de . . . ) are
to be i ncl uded in the catal ogue of risks to the same
extent as the loads from the structure itself: its si ze
and usage, the type of l oadbeari ng structure and
the materi al s used i n i ts constructi on. Li kewi se,
al so any protective arrangements such as roof
overhangs, canopi es, bal coni es . . . ri ght up to pro
jecti ons, re-entrant corners and shoul ders.
What are the consequences for thi s book? The
detai l drawi ngs are "compati bl e" with each other
but remai n as typi cal , parti al i nformati on. Thei r fea
si bi l i ty and compati bi l ity must be careful l y checked
i n each i ndi vi dual case because i ntegrati ng these
into the desi gn of each new, different structure
coul d necessitate fundamental changes.
Suppl ement, August 2003
Desi gners wi shi ng to create durabl e structures
must be prepared to l earn from recent experi ences
i n order to avoi d vul nerabl e si tuati ons (see Schaden
freies Bauen mit Mauererk, Katalog von Riss
schaden und Mafnahmen zu deren Vermeidung,
Prof. P. Schubert; Masonr Construction Manual,
Pfei fer et al . , p. 1 06) .
Diferential deformations
As di fferential deformations represent a key prob
l em, the primary parameters of wal l materi al s are
l i sted bel ow (characteri sti c values but al so ranges
whi ch i ndi cate somethi ng of the di versity and scat
ter of the materi al ) . Thi s wi l l enabl e a rough esti
mate of differenti al temperature or moisture defor
mati ons to be made and hence the compati bi l ity or
i ncompati bi l ity between materi al s.
Supports for reinforced concrete foor slabs
Deformations in rei nforced concrete fl oor sl abs
cause stresses i n the external masonry; these can
be superi mposed on and i ncrease other deforma
ti ons. If temperature-related deformati ons can be
ruled out thanks to adequate and properl y i nstal l ed
thermal i nsul ati on, deformations due to the l oads
pl us shri nkage and creep of the concrete are the
pri nci pal causes:
Defl ecti on of the sl ab and l ifti ng of the sl ab at the
supports due to the rotati on of the edges of the
sl ab, aggravated by the excessi ve sl enderness of
the sl ab and a low verti cal load at the supports.
The resul t i s horizontal cracks at the supports or
in the underl yi ng courses. The corners of roof
sl abs without any vertical load are parti cul arl y at
ri sk due to the " di shi ng" effect.
Deformation parameters for shri nkage, creep and temperature changes to DI N 1 059 tabl e 2
Type of Fi nal moi sture expansi on Fi nal creep coeffi ci ent
masonry uni t shri nkage, chem. swel l i ng
Char. val ue Range Char. val ue
mm/m mm/m
Cl ay 0 +0. 3 to -0.2 1 . 0
Cal ci um si l i cate -0. 2 -0. 1 to -0. 3 1 . 5
Li ghtwei ght concrete -0. 4 -0. 2 to -0. 5 2. 0
Concrete -0. 2 -0. 1 t o -0. 3 1 . 0
Aerated concrete -0. 2 +0. 1 t o -0. 3 1 . 5
shorteni ng (shri nkage) : - si gn; l engtheni ng (chemi cal swel l i ng) : + si gn
* for l i ghtwei ght concrete with expanded cl ay as pri nci pal aggregate
Range
0. 5 to 1 . 5
1 . 0 to 2. 0
1 . 5 to 2. 5
-
1 . 0 to 2. 5
Coeff. of thermal expansi on
Char. val ue Range
1 0-/K 1 0-/K
6 5 to 7
8 7 to 9
1 0 (8*) 8 to 1 2
1 0 8 to 1 2
8 7 to 9
91
Suppl ement, August 2003
Shorteni ng of the slab and " pul l i ng" the masonry
units at the support. The result i s hori zontal
cracks at the support but al so downward di ago
nal cracks i n i nternal crosswal l s at the supports or
hori zontal cracks i n the mi ddl e of the wal l .
Eccentri c load transfer at the support - al so a
consequence of the aforementi oned deforma
ti ons. The result can be cracks on the outsi de of
the wal l or al so cracks beneath the support on the
i nsi de due to excessive edge beari ng pressure.
Countermeasures
Concrete technol ogy and workmanshi p: the use
of low-shri nkage concrete with a l ow water/
cement ratio ( beware of uncontrol l ed additi on of
concrete additi ves) , careful curi ng (stri ki ng the
formwork l ater, protecti ng concrete surfaces
agai nst sunshi ne and wi nd by coveri ng keepi ng
moist, spri nkl i ng wi th water . . . ) .
A suffi ci ent sl ab depth: DI N 1 8530 specifi es maxi
mum sl enderness ratios for roof sl abs (general l y
without vertical loads) ; it i s al so possi bl e to
repl ace the l ack of verti cal l oad by i ncorporati ng
a vertical ti e to the sl ab bel ow.
Reduce the shorteni ng due to shri nkage, espe
ci al l y that of the roof sl ab, by l i mi ti ng the l ength
of the slab or i ncorporating contraction joi nts.
I ncl ude a bed of hi gh-strength mortar or a sepa
rati ng layer between the concrete sl ab and the
masonry at the supports.
A suffi ci entl y wide beari ng for slabs with l arger
spans:
' a: I ncorporate compressi bl e stri ps on the i nsi de
of the support to centre the l oad transfer and avoi d
damage due to the beari ng pressure on the edge
' b: Reduce the thi ckness of the faci ng leaf (bri ck
sl i ps i nstead of hal f-bri ck units) or bed the concrete
in a sui tabl y prepared cl ay channel bl ock.
Capping and ring beams
The shri nkage of ri ng beams, cappi ng beams and
other concrete and rei nforced concrete compo
nents withi n the masonry can l ead to damage i f
these processes are not consi dered when desi gn
i ng the detai l s. Concrete components whi ch are
not absol utel y essential shoul d therefore be
omi tted.
92

7
7
7 "_
7
7 7
7
7 7
7
7
7
7
7

Securi ng unsupported edges of masonry and the


stabi l i ty of the bui l di ng can be achi eved by provi d
i ng structural connecti ons to appropri atel y braced
components, l i ke roof or floor pl ates.
Openings in wals
I n masonry structures wel l -known patterns of
cracks can occur, e. g. i n spandrel panel s, whi ch
usual l y run di agonal l y downwards from the corners
of openi ngs. To avoi d these, the drawi ngs el se
where in this book show "anti -crack rei nforcement"
i n the spandrel panel s. Thi s "anti-crack rei nforce
ment" , whi ch merel y l i mi ts the width and di stri bu
ti on of cracks, shoul d compri se steel bars pro
tected agai nst corrosi on, better sti l l , speci al l y
desi gned bri ckwork rei nforci ng el ements of stai n
l ess steel - such rei nforci ng el ements have nodes
and cannot be pul l ed out. The rei nforcement
shoul d extend i nto the masonry adjoi ni ng, for
exampl e, an openi ng by about 600-800 mm.
Suppl ement, August 2003
At l arger openi ngs the rei nforcement shoul d be
i ncorporated as "hi gh" as possi bl e, i . e. in the top
most bed joi nt. l t i s al so possi bl e to i ncorporate the
approx. 5 mm reinforci ng el ements i n l i ghtwei ght
mortar because thi s is not cl assed as rei nforced
masonry ( DI N 1 053 part 3) .
Chases and recesses
These can severely weaken the load-carryi ng
capaci ty of the homogeneous masonry due to the
change i n the cross-secti onal area, the fl exural stiff
ness and the eccentricity of the remai ni ng area.
Chases and recesses made i n the fi ni shed masonry
can lead to consi derabl e damage because they
are often cut unsupervi sed and in parti cul arl y sensi
tive areas wi thout consultati on. I n external wal l s
they al so form undesi rabl e thermal bri dges. I n
other words, chases and recesses must be prop
erl y pl anned and i ntegrated into the structure
Chases and recesses not requi ri ng a structural anal ysi s in load beari ng wal l s to DI N 1 0botabl e !0
Verti cal chases and recesses i n a masonry bond
Wal l thi ckness (mm) Chase wi dth (mm) Resi dual wal l thk. (mm) Edge di stance
! !b
z40 max. oob mi n. 1 1 b mi n. z x chase wi dth
but at least z40mm
oob max. oob mi n. z40
Di stance between chases and recesses to be at least equal to mi ni mum chase wi dth.
The total wi dth of chases per z. 00 m of wal l l ength may not exceed the maxi mum chase wi dth.
Chases and recesses cut subsequentl y ( l ength of chase unl i mited)
Wal l thi ckness (mm) Hori zontal and di agonal Vertical chases and recesses
depth (mm) depth (mm) wi dth of si ngl e chase
1 1 b max. 1 0 max. 1 00
z40 max. 1 b max. o0 max. 1 b0
oob max. z0 max. o0 max. z00
Edge di stance of chases and recesses from openi ngs to be at least ! 1 b mm.
Hori zontal and di agonal chases are onl y permi ssi bl e when at least 0. 40 m above or bel ow the structural floor sl ab
and onl y on one si de of a wal l . When usi ng tool s wi th whi ch the cutti ng depth can be set accuratel y, the depth
may be i ncreased by 1 0 mm and wal l s at least z40 mm thi ck may have chases cut on both si des max. 1 0 mm
deep. Chases max. o0 mm deep and max. ! z0 mm wi de that extend no more than !. 00m above the fl oor may be
cut i n wal l s at least z40mm thi ck.
93
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
96
Clay masonry buildings - examples
Housi ng compl ex i n Muni ch
Chri stoph Wal l ner, Muni ch
C Semi -detached house i n Muni ch
Andreas Meek and
Bri gitte Pui s, Muni ch
T Houses in Muni ch
Thomas M. Hammer and
Dori s Schmi d-Hammer, Muni ch
T Z House in Hal lertau
Waiter Stolz, Rosenhei m
T Studi o house in Ei chstatt
Di ezi nger Kramer, Ei chstatt
T Housi ng devel opment in Neu-Ui m
G. A. S. -Sahner, Stuttgart
TC Housi ng compl ex in Wal dkrai burg
Andreas Meek, Muni ch
T T Housi ng compl ex in Ludwi gsburg
Hartwig N. Schnei der wi th
Gabri el e Mayer, Stuttgart
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Housing compl ex in Munich
Chri stoph Wal l ner, Muni ch
a
Situated to the north of Muni ch in a
resi denti al di stri ct wi th detached and
terraced houses, thi s bri ghtl y pai nted
obl ong bui l di ng i mmedi atel y catches
the eye. The compl ex, contai ni ng four
apartments, i s located on a corner pl ot
wi th appl e trees and i s not out of scal e
with its surroundi ngs. The fl at si des of
the box are broken up by openi ngs for
l oggi as at ground floor l evel and a
spaci ous staircase to the apartments
on the fi rst floor. The wal l s are sol i d
with a thermal i nsul ati on composite
system. The wi ndows are emphasi sed
a a
Ground floor pl an Secti on Scal e 1 :400
Detail Scale 1 : 20
by thei r dark wooden frames fl ush with
the wal l . The cl i ent, a ski l l ed pai nter
hi msel f, al so had a hand in deci di ng
on the fi nal col our scheme. The enti re
external ski n was first gi ven two coats
of an opaque yel low si l i cone resi n
pai nt. The fi nal coat of outdoor gl aze
with a terracotta shade was appl i ed
with brushes and sponges i n del i cate
wi pi ng movements. From outsi de, the
bui l di ng l ooks as though i t has been
col oured with a pi gment
DETAI L 1 2/2003
97
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Semi-detached house i n Munich
Andreas Meek and Bri gitte Pui s,
Muni ch
At first si ght thi s smal l semi -detached
house seems to represent the arche
typal housi ng devel opment uni t a di s
tinct, compact envelope with a steep
pitched roof and eaves and verge vi r
tual l y fl ush wi th the wal l s, standi ng out
peaceful l y from the surroundi ng, i nho
mogeneous bui lt envi ronment. Thi s i s
hel ped by restri cti ng the number of dif
ferent bui l di ng materi al s. Onl y upon
cl oser i nspecti on do we appreci ate the
sensi ti ve treatment of the everyday ar
chitectural l anguage. Si mpl i ci ty i s the
basi c concept behi nd thi s bui l di ng. I n
stead of the conventi onal Vel ux-type
roof wi ndows, conspi cuous boxes with
straightforward top-hung openi ng
l i ghts penetrate the roof surface. Un
treated mahogany wi ndows fi t fl ush
with the external wal l but sti l l seem to
protrude just a l ittl e from the facade.
The omi ssi on of gl azi ng beads and the
way the panes of gl ass are gl ued fl ush
i nto thei r frames al l ow the wi ndows to
appear as flat el ements without any
depth. Onl y the entrance doors set
back into the facade create a di sti nct
accent and correspond to our i dea of
the customary "hol e in the wal l " so
typi cal of masonry facades.
The 240 mm cl ay masonry i s covered
compl etel y on the outside with a ther
mal i nsulation composite system; the
smooth surface of the render has been
gi ven no further treatment. No coats of
pai nt conceal the i rregul ari ti es of the
i ndi vi dual stages of the work or sub
sequent maki ng good. The surface ap
pears ani mated and can al ready tel l i ts
own story. The render on the gabl e ter
mi nates el egantl y i n cl assi cal style at
the del icate, zi gzag l i ne of the cl ay
bul l nose roof ti l es.
DETAI L 1 /2 2002
98

..

Ground floor pl an Section scal e !:400


Section through facade scale 1 : 1 0
Mi neral render, fi ni shed di rectl y on the
undersi de of the clay roof ti l es
2 Render background:
30 mm wood-wool sl abs
3 80 mm ri gi d polystyrene foam
4 Untreated mahogany wi ndow
b Balustrade, wel ded 30 x 8 mm steel flats,
gal vani sed and coated
6 Untreated mahogany entrance door
7 In situ concrete step
8 60 mm ri gi d cel l ul ar gl ass i nsulation
a a
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Houses i n Munich
Thomas M. Hammer and
Dori s Schmi d-Hammer, Muni ch
The governi ng i dea for the desi gn of
thi s pai r of houses was i ndependent
yet j oi nt l ifestyl es. The loose coupl i ng
of the houses gi ves each of the cl i ents
- two brothers - space to enjoy hi s
own l ifestyl e. Two di fferent envel opes
were created, l i nked by a tal l wal l on
the road si de. The entrance and
garage doors along this facade are
protected by a conti nuous canopy,
si gni fyi ng the access zone. The per
sonal l i festyl es of the brothers are
pri mari l y evi dent i n the different i nteri or
l ayouts. One of the houses i s partly i n
ti mber and takes account of the needs
of a communal l ifestyl e. Here, the
open-pl an l i vi ng room/ki tchen forms
the communal , communi cati ons hub
of the house, al though each occupant
i s provi ded wi th l i vi ng and worki ng
areas, al l the same si ze.
The external wal l of the other house,
whi ch i s paral l el to the road, i s of
365 mm l i ghtwei ght cl ay masonry with
a white render fi ni sh. The spaci ous
open-pl an l i vi ng and di ni ng area for
the fami l y occupi es vi rtual l y the whol e
of the ground fl oor. The vari ous pri vate
rooms are located on the upper floor
and under the roof; these serve as
bedrooms, studi es or chi l dren's rooms
dependi ng on the size of the fami l y.
Despi te the compactness of thi s bui l d
i ng, ski l ful desi gn has resulted i n an i n
teresti ng i nteri or layout with di verse i n
ternal and external vi ews. The i ngen
ious use of natural l i ghti ng underl i nes
and rounds off thi s effect.
' i n DETAI L Single Family Houses
1 00
a a
a a
Sections Ground floor pl an
scal e 1 : 400
Detai l s scal e 1 :20
Standi ng seam roof coveri ng of sheet
titani um-zi nc
2 layers of bi tumen roofing felt
24 mm rough-sawn tongue and
groove boards
1 00 mm ventilation cavity between
1 00 A 1 00 mm rafters
1 9 mm bi tumen-impregnated softboard
220 mm cel l ulose insulation between
1 20 A 220 mm purl i ns
24 mm open boardi ng
2x 10 mm pl asterboard wi th vapour
barri er between
2 365 mm cl ay masonry
Hlz 1 2-1 ,0- 1 2 L| units
3 Basement wal l :
cement render on bondi ng coat
cel l ul ar gl ass i nsulation
waterproofing
4 Sol i d wood l i ni ng, 50 mm larch
101
Clay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
House in Hallerau
Wai ter Stol z, Rosenhei m
d .
1 02
The pl ot is located in a new resi denti al Careful choi ce of materi al s and si mpl e,
devel opment with a variety of detached preci se detai l i ng have resul ted in a
homes on the outskirs of thi s l ittle town bui l di ng that rel ates to both contempo-
i n Bavari a. The house and garage are rary archi tecture and regi onal bui l di ng
posi ti oned at the top end of thi s gentl y tradi ti ons. The wal l s are of 365 mm
sl opi ng si te. Together with the wal l i n l i ghtwei ght cl ay masonry with a fi ni sh
between, they form a boundary on the of three-coat l i me render pai nted si -
road si de and enclose the west-faci ng enna red. The natural -col our concrete
garden with its vi ew towards the town roof ti l es termi nate at the eaves and
i n the val l ey. verges wi thout an overhang, si mpl y
The north elevation of the mai n bui l d- with sheet metal flashi ngs.
i ng has very few openi ngs but i ncl udes DETAI L 1 /1 999
a gl azed porch, whi ch acts as a cl i mate
buffer and l obby for the entrance.
a a
1 5 1 6
Ground floor pl an Section
scale 1 : 250
Section Verge detail
scale 1 : 20
Roof construction:
natural-colour concrete roof til es
battens and counter battens
roofi ng felt, open to diffusion
22 + 40 mm wood fi bre insulati on
80 A 1 76 mm rafters with
1 00 60 mm thermal i nsulation between
vapour barrier
1 6 mm spruce boards
2 240 A 300 mm rei nforced concrete
ri ng beam
3 Li ghtwei ght cl ay toothed bl ocks,
8-0,8-1 2 L|
4 3-coat l i me render
5 Heat-absorbing glass
(2 panes of toughened safety gl ass)
6 Perforated sheet titani um-zinc
7 60 A 1 60 mm wall plate
8 Steel angl e, 90 A 90 A 7 mm both
si des of rafter
9 8 mm toughened safety glass
1 0 25 A 25 A 3 mm stai nl ess steel angle
1 1 Wood/Al umi ni um window
1 2 Louvre bl i nd
1 3 Prefabricated cl ay l i ntel
14 Drai nage channel
15 24 mm veneer plywood
1 6 Ti tanium-zinc verge fl ashi ng
1 7 Clay channel
1 03
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Studio house in Ei chstatt
Di ezi nger Kramer, Ei chstatt
On the edge of the ol d quarter of the
town, a compact, rendered studi o
house has been erected to repl ace a
rui ned arti san's house dati ng from the
1 6th century whi l e retai ni ng the con
tours of the ol d bui l di ng. Wi th i ts di s
tinct, modern stance, the new house i s
not i nti mi dated by the confi nes of its
surroundi ngs and i ntroduces a stri ki ng
urban hi ghl i ght. The di agonal entrance
el evati on, l i ke the ol d bui l di ng, and the
freel y arranged openi ngs ani mate the
envel ope wi th its ri gi d contours. The
whi te, bri ghtl y l i t i nteri or contrasts wi th
the rendered external wal l s wi th thei r
coat of dark grey pai nt. Thi s two-storey
house has a total of about 75 m2 of
floor space. The ground floor has a
smal l di splay area and a l arger room
for recepti ons and si mi l ar events (but
al so sui tabl e as guest accommoda
ti on) . Upstairs i s the scul ptor's studi o.
The bathroom, i n red-pai nted wood, i s
a stark contrast to the whi te of the rest
of the i nteri or surfaces. The two l evel s
are l i nked by the smal l di splay area
next to the entrance, extendi ng ri ght
up to the underside of the roof. Passers
by can see into thi s area through the
"di spl ay wi ndow" whi ch i s fi ni shed
fl ush wi th the render and conti nues
around the corner of the bui l di ng.
Despite its smal l si ze, the di spl ay area
forms a l i nk between i nteri or and exter
ior, and acts as a focal poi nt for the
internal layout. All the fixed l i ghts are
posi ti oned flush with the render. There
are no frames around the panes of
gl ass; the gl ass i s hel d in pl ace by
cl i ps between the panes. The top-hung
Velux-type roof wi ndows open outwards.
' DETAI L 7/8 2002
1 04
.
bb
a a
. . . l

n
l
.
n ! 1

Sections Plans
scal e 1 : 200
Section
scale 1 : 20
.

Wal l construction:
25 mm painted mi neral render
365 mm verti call y perforated cl ay masonry
galvani sed rei nforcement to top 3 courses
2x L 8 mm bars per bed joint
1 5 mm l i me-gypsum plaster
2 Floor construction:
60 mm end-grai n wood-bl ock fl ooring
1 0 mm hot-rol l ed asphal t
45 mm cement screed on PE sheeti ng
20 mm impact sound i nsul ati on on
PE sheeti ng
220 mm rei nforced concrete floor sl ab
3 50 mm mi neral fi bre thermal insulati on to
si de of 1 40 mm rei nforced concrete beam
4 Cl ay channel l i ntel on gal vani sed steel
angl es, 200 A 200 A 1 6 mm
5 Wooden window with si ngl e gl azi ng
6 36 mm white-faced pl ywood
7 Gl azi ng cl i p between panes
8 Doubl e glazi ng: 6 mm fl oat gl ass + 1 6 mm
cavity 8 mm toughened safety gl ass,
edge seal enamel l ed for UV protection
1 05
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Housing development i n Neu-Uim
G. PS. -Sahner, Stuttgart
Georg Sahner
Not far from the town of Neu- Ui m,
adjoi ni ng an area of farml and, there i s
a smal l resi denti al di stri ct with a core
of 20 system houses. With thei r asso
ci ated storage sheds, the smal l en
trance yards to these L -pl an houses
form an i mportant pri vate area. At fi rst
si ght it is not obvious that al l the houses
here have an i denti cal ground floor lay
out and belong to the same system.
The pi cture i s too di verse - due t o the
different roof shapes but, pri nci pal l y,
the various groupi ng options. The basic
idea i s to bui l d houses with a modul ar
1 06
structure. Starti ng wi th a mi ni mum unit
si ze, whi ch encompasses two rooms,
the stairs and the central uti l i ti es bl ock
with kitchen, bathroom and WC, the
houses can be extended by addi ng i n
di vi dual rooms. The l argest vari ati on
has seven rooms spread over three
floors.
The si zes of the rooms and the layouts
are si mi l ar so that hi ghl y di verse occu
panci es are possi bl e. Further vari a
ti ons are possi bl e by i ncl udi ng base
ments and attachi ng di fferent roof
modul es.
a a
The concept al so al l ows for the use of
the most di verse bui l di ng materi al s i n
order to sui t the l ocal suppl iers and
avai l abi l ity of materi al s. The group of
houses i n Neu-Ui m was bui lt usi ng
cl ay masonry.
DETAI L 4/2001
Ground floor Section
scale 1 : 250
Section
scale 1 : 20
Roof construction:
1 8 A 76 mm corrugated al umi ni um sheeting
50 A 40 mm battens and counter battens
roofi ng felt
24 mm rough-sawn spruce boards
80 A 220 mm spruce rafters
200 mm mi neral fibre i nsul ati on
between rafters
vapour barrier
48 7 28 mm spruce battens
1 2. 5 m pl asterboard
2 3-ply core pl ywood, 25 mm spruce
3 Upper floor constructi on:
carpet or PVC fl oor coveri ng
50 mm screed on pol yethyl ene
separati ng l ayer
50 mm thermal and i mpact
sound i nsul ati on
200 mm precast concrete fl oori ng units
4 365 mm gauged clay masonry units
(_ 0. 1 1 W/mK)
5 Ground floor construction without
basement:
carpet or PVC fl oor covering
50 mm screed on pol yethylene
separati ng layer
50 mm thermal and impact sound
i nsul ati on
waterproofi ng
200 mm i n si tu concrete ground sl ab
pol yethyl ene separating layer
80 mm perimeter i nsul ati on
1 07
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Housing complex i n Waldkraiburg
Andreas Meek, Muni ch
Thi s compl ex i s the fi rst phase of what
is i ntended to be a l arger devel op
ment. Situated al ongsi de a busy road,
i t is desi gned to act as a noi se barri er
for the pl ots further from the road.
Access i s vi a two staircases and there
are 1 1 apartments pl us a cafe. The
ei ght mai sonettes are arranged i n two
groups of four on two l evel s, meani ng
that the entrances are at ground fl oor
l evel and second fl oor l evel . On the
road si de the anci l l ary rooms serve as
a buffer for the l i vi ng accommodati on
and bedrooms, whi ch face away from
1 08
the road. Every apartment has its own
garden or rooftop terrace.
The arrangement of the access to the
mai sonette entrances at ground floor
l evel nearest to the road hel ps to pre
serve pri vacy: a paved pathway be
tween grassed areas l eads to the two
steps up to a covered l andi ng in front
of the entrance door. From here we
pass through a l obby, whi ch projects
from the mai n line of the facade, into the
hal lway which l eads to the vari ous
rooms. Access to the upper fl oor i s vi a
a si ngl e fl i ght of stai rs.
The entrances to the upper mai son
ettes are si tuated al ong the covered
wal kway, with onl y a narrow openi ng
on the si de faci ng the road. Thi s open
i ng al l ows the afternoon sun to shi ne
through on to the l arch wood benches
next to the doors. These extend the
private sphere and encourage soci al
contact between the tenants.
() DETAI L 4/1 997
a a

7
Ground floor 1 st floor
scale 1 : 200
Horizontal section Verti cal section
scale 1 : 20
Wall construction:
1 5 mm plaster
240 mm verti cal l y perforated cl ay masonry
40 mm mi neral wool thermal i nsul ati on
between counter battens
50 mm battens/venti lati on cavity
8 mm fibre cement sheets
2 Doubl e gl azi ng i n wooden frames, outer
pane of wired gl ass

b
,J,_!.J'L

.!'
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
3 Bench of 40 x 40 mm larch wood strips on
50 steel section brackets wel ded to end
pl ates
4 Wooden doubl e-ski n door, painted
5 Rooftop terrace/covered wal kway
construction
300 x 300 x 50 mm paving fl ags in
50 mm chi ppi ngs
waterproofi ng on separating layer
1 60 (80) mm thermal i nsul ati on
vapour barrier
reinforced concrete slab
6 Precast concrete copi ng
7 Rendered verti cal l y perforated clay
masonry, 240 mm
8 Rol l er shutter box
9 Li nol eum fl oor covering on floating screed
a
bb
1!|
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
1 09
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Housing complex in Ludwigsburg
Hartwig N. Schnei der
with Gabri el e Mayer, Stuttgart
These 60 publ i cl y assi sted rented
apartments for different occupanci es
si ngl es, si ngl e-parent fami l i es, coupl es
and fami l i es - were erected i n a qui et
urban locati on between the ci ty centre
and the suburbs, among low-density
devel opments from the 1 950s. Cl earl y
arranged around three semi -private
courtyards, this devel opment compl e
ments the open desi gn of the surround
i ngs whi l e provi di ng a hi gh densi ty
( pl ot ratio 1 . 2) through a differentiated
concept of accommodation and open
spaces. Al l the apartments, wi th one,
two and three rooms (pl us bathroom
and ki tchen) , someti mes on two floors,
are wel l l it from two si des. The l i vi ng
rooms l ead on to l oggi as with sl i di ng
wi ndows i n the rendered facades.
Sl i di ng gl ass shutters wi th an enam
el l ed i nsi de face provi de pri vacy for
the bedrooms. The tree- l i ned court
yards face the road and are accessed
from there vi a open staircases; covered
passageways l i nk them to the gardens
on the south si de. Located beneath the
courtyards are two natural l y venti l ated
underground parki ng areas.
The envel ope was bui lt i n l i ghtwei ght
clay masonry and fi ni shed wi th pi g
mented mi neral render, the surface of
whi ch changes with the weather. To
contrast with thi s some parts of the
facade make use of untreated ti mber
cl addi ng. _On the south el evation sl i d
i ng wooden shutters and narrow bal co
ni es of col oured precast concrete el e
ments defi ne the appearance. Wooden
windows with heat-absorbi ng gl ass were
instal l ed but in some more exposed
areas wood/al umi ni um wi ndows were
empl oyed. DETAI L 1 /1 999
1 1 0
a
Section Pl ans
scal e 1 : 500
7

Section through west elevation


Hori zontal section through sl i di ng
gl azi ng and render
scal e 1 : 20
8 mm toughened safety gl ass,
i nsi de face enamel l ed
2 Wall constructi on:
20 mm mineral render
300 mm Hlz l i ghtweight clay masonry
1 5 mm pl aster
3 300 mm l i ghtwei ght cl ay channel
4 1 00 x 50 x 5 mm al umi ni um channel
5 Wood/Al umi ni um wi ndow
6 Reconstituted stone window board
7 8 mm toughened safety gl ass
8 60 x 20 x 3 mm steel hol l ow section,
galvani sed
9 Loadbeari ng thermal i nsul ation el ement
10 Fl oor construction:
5 mm floor covering
0. 2 mm polyethylene separating layer
20 mm i mpact sound i nsulation
60 mm thermal insulation
1 80 mm reinforced concrete floor slab
1 1 1
Cl ay masonry bui l di ngs
Exampl es
Horizontal secti on Verti cal section
scal e 1 : 20
4
1 1 2
Wall constructi on:
!bmm pl aster
240 mm Hlz cl ay masonry
80 mm mi neral wool
protective covering (non-woven fabri c)
58 mm prefabricated cedar wood cl addi ng
2 1 40 x 30 mm ti mber closing pi ece
3 Fi xed cedar wood cl addi ng
4 Cedar wood sl i di ng shutter
b Parapet cl addi ng, 1 4 mm wood-cement
fi breboard
6 Upper track for sl i di ng shutters
7 Lower track
8 Bal ustrade of gal vani sed, col our-coated
steel secti ons
9 Precast concrete element, col oured
1 0 220 x 48 mm ti mber cl osi ng pi ece
Appendi x
Contents
Appendi x
1 1 4 Standards, references, associ ati ons
1 1 5 Manufacturers
1 1 7 Subject i ndex
1 1 8 I ndex of persons, pi cture credi ts
1 1 3
Appendi x
Standards, references, associ ati ons
The bri ck and bl ock formats used
i n thi s book, thei r desi gnati ons and
the statutory i nstruments menti oned
correspond to German standards.
Standards
DI N 1 05: Clay bri cks
DI N 1 045: Structural use of concrete
DI N 1 053: Masonry
DI N 4095: Pl anni ng, desi gn and
i nstal l ation of drai nage systems
protecti ng structures agai nst water i n
the ground
DI N 41 08: Thermal i nsulation and
energy economy i n bui l di ngs
DI N 41 09: Sound i nsul ati on i n
bui l di ngs
DI N 4226: Aggregates for concrete
DI N 1 81 95: Waterproofi ng of bui l di ngs
and structures
DI N 1 8530: Sol i d structural decks for
roofs
DI N 1 8550: Pl aster
1 1 4
References
Masonry Constructi on Manual
Gunter Pfei fer, Rol f Ramcke,
Joachi m Achtzi ger, Konrad Zi l ch
2001
Der Mauerzi egel
Franz Hart, Ernst Bogenberger
1 964
Baukonstrukti on fUr Architekten
Franz Hart
1 959
Di e Kunst der Wil bung
Franz Hart
1 965
Ri ssschaden an Mauerwerk
Werner Pfefferkorn
1 994
Schadenfrei es Bauen mit Mauerwerk
Peter Schubert
2002
I nformation suppl i ed by the cl ay
i ndustry:
Zi egel l exi kon
1 999
Aussenputz auf Zi egel mauerwerk
2002
Trade associations
Bayeri scher Zi egel i ndustrie-Verband e.V.
Bavari ari ng 35
D-80336 Minchen
Tel : +49 (0) 89 74661 6-0
Fax: +49 (0) 89 7 4661 6-30
bzv@zi egel . com
www. zi egel . com
Fachverband Zi egel i ndustri e
Sudwest e. V.
Fri edri ch-Ebert-Str. 1 1 - 1 3
l ndustriehaus
D-67433 Neustadt a. d. Weinstrasse
Tel : +49 (0) 6321 852-0
Fax: +49 (0) 6321 852-290
vse@verband-stei ne-erden. de
www.verband-stei ne-erden. de
Fachverband
Zi egel i ndustrie Nord e.V.
Bahnhofsplatz 2a
D-261 22 Oldenburg
Tel : +49 (0) 441 21 0260
Fax: +49 (0) 441 21 02620
fachverband@zi egel -i ndustri e. de
www. zi egel -i ndustri e. de
Fachverband Zi egel i ndustri e
Nordwest e. V.
Am Zehnthof 1 97-203
D-45307 Essen
Tel : +49 (0) 201 5921 306
Fax: +49 (0) 201 5921 359
info.zz@t-onl i ne. de
www. zi egel-zentrum. de
Bundesverband der
Deutschen Zi egel i ndustrie e. V.
Schaumburg-Li ppe-StraBe 4
D-531 1 3 Bonn
Tel: +49 (0) 228 91 493-0
Fax: +49 (0) 228 91 493-28
info@zi egel . de
www. zi egel . de
Massiv mei n Haus e.V.
Falkensteinstr. 9
D-8631 6 Friedberg
Tel: +49 (0) 821 7849773
Fax: +49 (0) 821 784447
info@massiv-mei n-haus. de
www. massi v-mein-haus. de
Appendi x
German manufacturers/associ ati ons arranged accordi ng to postcode
Wienerberger Werk Ei senberg
Jenaer StraBe 56
07607 Eisenberg/Thiringen
Tel: +49 (0) 36691 71 - 1 00
Fax: +49 (0) 36691 71 -1 1 5
i nfo@wzi .de
Wi enerberger Werk Zwickau
BOrgerschachtstraBe 6a
08056 Zwickau
Tel : +49 (0) 375 27535-0
Fax: +49 (0) 375 27535-99
info@wzi.de
Wienerberger Werk Hai ni chen
Frankenberger StraBe 60
09661 Hainichen
Tel: +49 (0) 37207 45-0
Fax: +49 (0) 37207 45-29
i nfo@wzi .de
Wienerberger Lager BrOck
Paui-Ruoff-StraBe 2
1 481 1 Brick
Tel : +49 (0) 33844 61 0
Fax: +49 (0) 33844 61 1 25
info@wzi . de
Wienerberger Werk
Bad Freienwalde
Eberswalder StraBe 1 07
1 6259 Bad Freienwalde
Tel : +49 (0) 3344 41 7-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3344 41 7-1 1 9
i nfo@wzi . de
Wi enerberger Werk Gransee
Strelitzer StraBe
1 6775 Gransee
Tel : +49 (0) 3306 7983-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3306 7983-83
info@wzi . de
Wienerberger Werk Jeddel oh
Jeddel oher Damm 26
26188 Edewecht
OT Jeddel oh 1
Tel : +49 (0) 4405 7020
Fax: +49 (0) 4405 8496
i nfo@wzi . de
Wi enerberger Werk Sittensen
27419 Sittensen OT Tiste
Tel : +49 (0) 4282 2041
Fax: +49 (0) 4282 2044
i nfo@wzi . de
Wienerberger Ziegelindustrie GmbH
Olden burger AI lee 26
30659 Hannover-Lahe
Tel: +49 (0) 51 1 61 070-0
Fax: +49 (0) 51 1 61 4403
i nfo@wzi . de
Ton- und Zi egelwerke
Werner Florke KG
Niedermehner Str. 36
32351 Stemwede
Tel : +49 (0) 5773 202
Fax: +49 (0) 5773 31 7
Otto Bergmann GmbH
I m Roten Li th 3 (Werk 1 )
32689 Kalletai -Hohenhausen
Tel : +49 (0) 5264 6482-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5264 6482-64
l nfo@Bergmann-Ziegel . de
Otto Bergmann GmbH
Hei nri ch-Spier-Str. 1 1 (Werk 2)
32839 Steinheim-Bergheim
Tel: +49 (0) 5233 9558-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5233 9558-28
August LOcki ng GmbH Co. KG
Postfach 2409
33050 Paderborn
Tel : +49 (0) 5251 1 340-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5251 1 340-20
MeckBo@aol . com
Pasel Lohmann GmbH
Sal zkottener Str. 35/36
33178 Borchen-Aifen
Tel : +49 (0) 5258 6001
Fax: +49 (0) 5258 6588
pasel -l ohmann. al fen@t-onl i ne. de
Wienerberger Werk Rietberg
33397 Rietberg OT Westerwiehe
Tel : +49 (0) 5244 9039-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5244 9039-1 7
i nfo@wzi . de
August LOcki ng GmbH Co. KG
Eggestr. 2
34414 Warburg-Bonenburg
Tel : +49 (0) 5642 6007-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5642 6007-22
Wi enerberger Lager Volkmarsen
Steinweg 65
34471 Volkmarsen
Tel : +49 (0) 5693 9896-0
Fax: +49 (0) 5693 6350
info@wzi . de
Hei nri ch Abhau GmbH
Li spenhauser StraBe 1
361 99 Rotenburg a. d. Fulda
Tel: +49 (0) 6623 9248-0
Fax: +49 (0) 6623 9248-21
Jul i us Zange GmbH Co. KG
Schl itzer StraBe 40
36272 Niederaula
Tel : +49 (0) 6625 91 51 -0
Fax: +49 (0) 6625 91 51 -79
mail@zange-zi egel . de
Zi egelwerk Schenklengsfel d
GmbH Co. Baukeramik KG
Ri ngbergstraBe 1 0
36277 Schenklengsfeld
Tel : +49 (0) 6629 332
Fax: +49 (0) 6629 7861
Wi enerberger Werk Wefensl eb.en
Zechenhauser Weg
39365 Wefensleben
Tel : +49 (0) 3 9400 961 2-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3 9400 2081
info@wzi . de
Wienerberger Lager Lauterbach
Zi egel ei 1
36367 Wartenberg/ Angersbach
Tel: +49 (0) 6641 9644-0
Fax: +49 (0) 6641 9644-1 1
i nfo@wzi . de
Zi egelwerk Fri edl and GmbH
Hei mkehrerstraBe 1 2
37133 Friedland
Tel: +49 (0) 5504 8080
Fax: +49 (0) 5504 80827
fri edl and-zi egel@t-onl i ne. de
Wi l hel m Alten Zi egel ei
Zi egel weg 1
37586 Dassei-Wellersen
Tel: +49 (0) 5562 252
Fax: +49 (0) 5562 661 0
altenzi egl ei @t-onl i ne. de
Zi egelwerk Buch GmbH
HansastraBe 1
37671 Hixter
Tel: +49 (0) 5271 2248
Fax: +49 (0) 5271 381 84
i nfo@ziegelwerk-buch. de
Jani nhoff GmbH Co. KG
ThierstraBe 1 30
48163 Munster
Tel : +49 (0) 251 981 680
Fax: +49 (0) 251 981 6830
jaco@Jani nhoff.de
Wienerberger Werk Bul dern
R6dder 59
48249 Dilmen-Buldern
Tel : +49 (0) 2590 9455-0
Fax: +49 (0) 2590 41 85
i nfo@wzi . de
Ei feler Zi egel - und Kl i nkerwerke
Peter Koos GmbH Co. KG
54675 Utscheid- Neuhaus
Tel : +49 (0) 6522 71 7
Fax: +49 (0) 6575 1 300
Adol f HOni ng GmbH Co. KG
HauptstraBe 1
59399 Olfen
Tel: +49 (0) 2595 9642-0
Fax: +49 (0) 2595 9642-22
webmaster@hueni ng-zi egel . de
JUWO-Porotonwerke
Ernst Jungk Sohn GmbH
Zi egel hOttenstraBe 42
55597 Willstein
Tel: +49 (0) 6703 91 0-0
Fax: +49 (0) 6073 91 0-1 59
poroton@juwoe. de
Keraform Spezi al zi egel
Hamburger StraBe 97
61 1 1 8 Bad Vilbel
Tel: +49 (0) 61 01 5448-48
Fax: +49 (0) 61 01 5448-40
i nfo@keraform. de
Zi egelwerk
Franz Wenzel
Offenbacher LandstraBe 1 05
6351 2 Hainburg
Tel : +49 (0) 61 82 9506-0
Fax: +49 (0) 61 82 9506-20
zi egelwerk-wenzel @t-onl i ne. de
Adol f Zel l er GmbH Co.
Poroton-Zi egelwerke KG
Markerstr. 44
63755 Alzenau
Tel : +49 (0) 6023 97760
Fax: +49 (0) 6023 301 57
i nfo@zel l erporoton. de
Zi egelwerk U. GrOn
Hahner StraBe 80
64354 Reinheim
Tel: +49 (0) 61 62 341 5
Fax: +49 (0) 61 62 331 6
info@klimaton. de
Trost Mauerzi egel
An der 83
69254 Malsch
Tel: +49 (0) 7253 208-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7253 208- 1 6
i nfo@trost-onl i ne. com
Hess Zi egelwerke
Amei senbOhl 40
71 332 Waiblingen
Tel: +49 (0) 71 51 51 034
Fax: +49 (0) 71 51 1 8949
zi egelwerke_hess@freenet.de
Neuschwander GmbH
Nei ppergerstraBe 41
74336 Brackenheim
Tel: +49 (0) 71 35 961 09-0
Fax: +49 (0) 71 35 961 09-3
info@neuschwandner. de
Zi egelwerk Schmi d
Erl i ghei mer StraBe 45
74357 Binnigheim
Tel : +49 (0) 71 43 8744-0
Fax: +49 (0) 71 43 8744-50
info@zi egelwerk-schmi d. de
Wienerberger Werk MOhlacker
Zi egel ei straBe 1 2
7541 7 Mihlacker
Tel : +49 (0) 7041 8706-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7041 8706-55
i nfo@wzi . de
Cerali ne GmbH
Weisweiler StraBe 6
79771 Klettgau-Erzingen
Tel: +49 (0) 7742 9240-0
Fax: +49 (0) 77 42 9240-40
erzi nger-zi egel werke@t-onl i ne. de
Zi egel systeme Mi chael Kel lerer
Zi egel ei straBe 1 3
82282 Oberweikertshofen
Tel : +49 (0) 81 45 923-0
Fax: +49 (0) 81 45 5422
Zi egelwerke
Leipfinger-Bader KG
Puttenhausen (Werk 2)
AuBere Frei si nger Str. 31
84048 Mainburg
Tel: +49 (0) 8751 9021
Fax: +49 (0) 8751 4571
Schl agmann Baustoffwerke
Grafentraubach 505
84082 Labereinting
Tel: +49 (0) 8772 9686-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8772 9686-1 0
info@schl agmann. de
1 1 5
Appendi x
German manufacturers/associ ati ons arranged accordi ng to postcode
Erl us Baustoffe AG
Hauptstr. 1 06
84088 Neufahrn/NB
Tel : +49 (0) 8773 1 8-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8773 1 8-1 1 3
GI MA Girnghuber GmbH Co. KG
Ludwi g-Gi rnghuber-Str. 1
84163 Marklkofen
Tel : +49 (0) 8732 24-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8732 24-200
Schlagmann Baustoffwerke
Lanhofen 1 00
84367 Tann
Tel : +49 (0) 8572 1 7-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8572 81 1 4
info@schl agmann. de
Schl agmann Baustoffwerke
Lengdorfer StraBe 4
84424 1sen
Tel : +49 (0) 8083 5399-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8083 1 563
info@schl agmann. de
Ziegelwerk Aubenham
Adam Hol zner KG
Aubenham 3
84564 Oberbergkirchen
Tel : +49 (0) 8637 841
Fax: +49 (0) 8637 454
Zi egelwerke Lei pfi nger-Bader KG
Vatersdorf 1 0 (Werk 1 )
84712 Buch a. Erlbach
Tel : +49 (0) 8762 733-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8762 733-1 1 0
info@l ei pfi nger. de
Zi egelwerk Gerhard Turber
Ri edenburger Str. 25
85104 Pforring
Tel: +49 (0) 8403 9294-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8403 9294-25
Zi egelwerk l gnaz Schiele
Wittenfelder StraBe 1 5
851 1 1 Adelschlag
Tel : +49 (0) 8424 8922-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8424 8922-22
i nfo@schi el e-uni por. de
Hirl Hartmann
Ziegeltechnik GmbH
Pel l hei mer Str. 1 7
85221 Dachau
Tel : +49 (0) 81 31 555-0
Fax: +49 (0) 81 31 555-222
info@hoerl-hartmann. de
Ziegelwerk-Deckensysteme
Wihrl GmbH
Berghaselbach 5
85395 Wolfersdorf
Tel: +49 (0) 81 68 9062-0
Fax: +49 (0) 81 68 9062-23
i nfo@woehrl-zi egel . de
Ziegelwerk Anton Hanri eder OHG
Harland 1 9 1 /2
85406 Zolling
Tel : +49 (0) 81 67 950284
Fax: +49 (0) 81 67 9036
Hanri eder. Harland@t-onl i ne. de
1 1 6
Zi egelwerk
Franz X Hanrieder OHG
Kratzerimbach 3
85406 Zolling
Tel : +49 (0) 81 67 950233
Fax: +49 (0) 81 67 931 7
Hirl Zi egei -Technik
Zi egel eistraBe 24
86368 Gersthofen
Tel : +49 (0) 821 4789-0
Fax: +49 (0) 821 4789-299
l nfo@hoerl-hartmann. de
Schl agmann Baustoffwerke
Zi egel ei straBe 31
86551 Aichach
Tel : +49 (0) 8251 8881 -0
Fax: +49 (0) 8251 8881 - 1 0
i nfo@schl agmann. de
Zi egelwerk Stengel GmbH
l ngolstadter Str. 1 01
86633 Neuburg-Ried
Tel : +49 (0) 8431 831 9
Fax: +49 (0) 8431 41 1 28
Creaton AG
Di l l i nger Str. 60
86637 Weringen
Tel : +49 (0) 8272 86-0
Fax +49 (0) 8272 86-500
Rapis-Ziegel
Markt Wald GmbH
Lechfelder Str. 20
86830 Schwabminchen
Tel: +49 (0) 8232 4074
Fax: +49 (0) 8232 3321
Rapis@t-onl i ne. de
Zi egelwerk Klosterbeuren
Ludwi g Lei nsi ng GmbH Co.
Zi egel ei straBe 1 2
87727 Babenhausen
Tel: +49 (0) 8333 9222-0
Fax: +49 (0) 8333 4405
info@zwk. de
Zi egelwerk Arnach
J. Schmid GmbH Co. KG
Zi egel ei straBe 1
8841 0 Bad Wurzach-Arnach
Tel: +49 (0) 7564 308-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7564 308-90
zwa-info@t-onl i ne. de
Georg Ri mmel e KG
J. G. Scheerl e KG
Pfullendorfer StraBe 1 Q1 2
88512 Mengen
Tel: +49 (0) 7572 8275
Fax: +49 (0) 7572 6764
Ott Zi egel
Pful l endorf GmbH Co. KG
Oberl i nger StraBe 70
88630 Pfullendorf
Tel : +49 (0) 7552 921 6-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7552 921 6-22
uni por@gmx. de
Zi egelwerk Ott
Zi egel ei straBe 20
88662 Uberlingen-Deisendorf
Tel: +49 (0) 7551 6221 4
Fax: +49 (0) 7551 4947
THERMOPOR
Zi egei -Kontor Ul m GmbH
Ol gastraBe 94
89073 Ulm
Tel : +49 (0) 731 966940
Fax: +49 (0) 731 63053
Zi egel werk Bel l enberg
Wiest GmbH Co. KG
Tiefenbacher Str. 1
89297 Bellenberg
Tel: +49 (0) 7306 9650-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7306 9650-77
servi ce@bel l enberger-zi egel . de
Zi egelwerk Gundel fi ngen GmbH
AuBere Haunshei mer Str. 2
89423 Gundelfingen
Tel: +49 (0) 9073 9599-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9073 9599-60
Georg Ri mmel e KG
Ri edl i nger StraBe 49
89584 Ehingen
Tel: +49 (0) 7391 5008-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7391 5008-33
info@ri mmel e. de
Walther Dachzi egel GmbH
Lohmuhl e 3-5
90579 Langenzenn
Tel : +49 (0) 91 01 708-0
Fax: +49 (0) 91 01 708-38
Wi enerberger Werk Spardorf
Buckenhofer StraBe 1
91 080 Spardorf
Tel : +49 (0) 91 31 509-0
Fax: +49 (0) 91 31 509-50
i nfo@wzi . de
Dehn-Zi egel GmbH Co. KG
Am Hutsberg 1
91413 Neustadt a. d. Aisch
Tel : +49 (0) 91 61 8998-0
Fax: +49 (0) 91 61 8998-22
dehn-zi egei -NEA@t-onl i ne. de
Ansbacher Zi egel ei
Nagl erstraBe 40
91 522 Ansbach
Tel: +49 (0) 981 96955-0
Fax: +49 (0) 981 96955- 1 5
Service@ansbacher-zi egel . de
Schl agmann Baustoffwerke
Zi egel eistraBe 5
92444 Rotz
Tel : +49 (0) 9976 2001 1 -0
Fax: +49 (0) 9976 2001 1 -504
info@schl agmann. de
Zi egelwerk Sittl i ng
Kigl mai er OHG
Sittl i ng 23 1 /2
93333 Neustadt a. d. Donau
Tel : +49 (0) 9445 2834
Fax: +49 (0) 9445 2598
Jungmei er GmbH Co. KG
Landshuter Str. 1 30
94315 Straubing
Tel: +49 (0) 9421 5007-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9421 5007-400
Dehn-Zi egel GmbH Co. KG
Cul mer StraBe 1 4
95490 Mistelgau
Tel: +49 (0) 9279 998-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9279 998-66
dehn-zi egei-MGAU@t-onl i ne. de
Zi egelwerk Waldsassen AG
HART-KERAMI K
Mi ttertei cherstraBe 6
95652 Waldsassen
Tel: +49 (0) 9632 848-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9632 848-48
i nfo@hart-keramik.de
Zi egelwerk Waldsassen AG
HART-KERAMI K
Am Bergwerk 1 2
95706 Schirnding
Tel: +49 (0) 9233 771 4-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9233 771 4-1 4
Zi egelwerk Engl ert GmbH
Krautheimer StraBe 8
97509 Zeilitzheim
Tel : +49 (0) 9381 2433
Fax: +49 (0) 9381 4740
Wi enerberger Werk
Bad Neustadt
BesengaustraBe 1 9
97616 Bad Neustadt
Tel : +49 (0) 9771 61 340
Fax: +49 (0) 9771 2952
info@wzi . de
ZU Bayerische Zi egel uni on
Zur Zi egel ei 1 6
97753 Karlsstadt-Wiesenfeld
Tel : +49 (0) 9359 971 0-0
Fax: +49 (0) 9359 971 01 8
i nfo@bayerische-zi egel uni on. de
Wi enerberger Werk
Erfur-Gi spersl eben
Zur Alten Zi egel ei
99091 Erfur-Gispersleben
Tel : +49 (0) 361 7401 8-0
Fax: +49 (0) 361 7 401 8-99
i nfo@wzi . de
Wienerberger Werk Bol lstedt
Am Si l berrasenweg 1
99998 Bol lstedt
Tel : +49 (0) 3601 8816-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3601 881 6-1 4
i nfo@wzi . de
Appendi x
Subject i ndex
Subject index
Additives
Admixtures
Airight membrane
Airtightness
75, 83, 84, 88, 92
75, 83, 84
62, 63, 65, 67
20, 64, 72
Background for pl aster/render 1 3
Basement wall 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45,
48, 50, 51 , 52, 54, 81 , 82, 85, 86, 1 01
Basement wal l render 50, 86
Bi tumen felt 1 2, 1 6, 42
Bl i ndi ng 1 6, 45, 48
Bonding dimensi on 76, 87, 88
Bonding rules 76
Buckl i ng 80, 81
Bul k density 75, 85
Bullnose til es
Butt joint
Cappi ng beam
Chases
Chi mney
Chi mney stack
Clay channel
Clay hol low pot floor
Coating materials
Column
34, 62, 65
25, 76
63, 67, 81 , 82
56, 80, 82, 93
68, 69
67, 69
2 1 , 23, 91 , 1 03, 1 05, 1 1 1
30, 33, 79
83, 84, 85
80, 82
Compressive strength
Concrete l i ntel
21 , 50, 82, 85
22
9
42, 82, 83, 88, 89, 91 , 92, 93
Coupl e roof
Cracks
Creep
Crosswall
Curi ng
Damp-proof course
91
33, 76, 78, 80, 92
92, 93
1 3, 1 6, 1 7, 25,
45, 50, 51 , 52
Damp-proof membrane 1 3, 1 6, 42, 51 , 53, 55
Dimensional coordination 78
"Disrupti ons" 80
Door 1 4, 1 5, 1 6, 1 7, 1 8, 20, 43, 47, 54,
55, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 97, 98, 1 00, 1 08, 1 09
Drainage 42, 48, 50, 52, 54, 1 03
Eaves 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35,
62, 63, 64, 66, 98, 1 02
End-grai n wood-block flooring 1 05
Entrance door 54, 1 08
External wall 1 0, 1 1 , 1 2, 1 6,
1 8, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 32, 34, 41 , 43, 44, 45,
48, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 75, 76, 79, 82,
93, 98, 1 00, 1 04
False wall
Fi ni sh coat
Fire protection
Flat-pan tiles
Fl ue l i ni ng
Format code
Frost heave
Gabl e wal l
Gauged block
8, 9, 41 , 69, 70
83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90
33, 67, 83
34
69, 68
74, 75
1 2, 1 4, 1 6, 27
33, 37, 63, 65, 67
75
Gl azed door
Gri p (thumb) openi ngs
Gross density
Ground floor slab
1 4, 1 5
75
25, 50, 75, 91
1 3, 1 4, 1 8, 25, 26, 43
1 2, 1 3, 1 6, 42, 48, 54
Ri ng beam system
Rol l er shutter
Roof pl ate
Roof space
Hard core
Header bond 76, 77 Roof ti l e
Roofi ng felt
79, 81
9, 41 ' 55, 56, 57,
58, 59, 60, 61 , 1 09
62, 67
8, 9, 1 1 , 30, 32,
33, 34, 38, 40, 62, 63, 66
33, 35, 37, 63, 71 , 98, 1 02, 1 03
33, 35, 37, 39,
50, 62, 65, 1 01 , 1 03, 1 07 Interlocki ng perpends
Li ghtwei ght mortar
Li ghtwei ght pl aster/render
Li ghtwei ght vertically
75
75, 93
1 3, 83, 85, 87
perforated clay masonry 75, 85
Li ghtwell 41 , 43, 46, 47, 49, 51 , 53
Li ntel 21 , 20, 22, 23, 53, 58,
Loadbeari ng wall
Make-up uni t
Masonry bonds
Maxi mum verti cal load
Mi ni mal chi mney
Mi ni mum vertical l oad
59, 81 , 82, 1 03, 1 05
8, 44, 45, 78, 79, 80, 93
21 , 75
20, 73, 76, 77
81 , 82
8
81 , 82
Screed 1 4, 1 7, 1 9, 33, 42, 44, 48, 58, 63,
67, 71 , 1 05, 1 07, 1 09
Separati ng layer
Shal l ow clay l i ntel
Shear wal l
Shoul der
Shrinkage
1 7, 45, 65,
92, 1 07, 1 09, 1 1 1
2 1 , 22, 23, 53, 58, 59
25, 37, 76, 79
21 , 20, 23, 27, 58, 59, 90
1 6, 67, 85, 88, 89, 91 , 92
Si l i cate plaster/render
Sl enderness
84
80, 91 , 92
1 7, 29, 31 ' 42, 44, Sound i nsul ati on
50, 70, 1 05, 1 1 1
Spaterdash 87, 88, 90
Stabi l ity 36, 79, 80, 81 , 93
Stop bead 1 6, 25, 45, 57
Non-loadbearing wall
Normal-wei ght mortar
79 Stretcher bond 76, 77
75
78 "octametri c" system
Openi ngs 22, 44, 56, 74, 75,
79, 80, 81 , 83, 93, 97, 1 02, 1 04
Partition
Party wall
1 1 ' 24, 26, 27, 29,
31 , 41 , 42, 53, 55, 68, 76
1 1 , 22, 23, 25, 28, 36, 39, 70
Perimeter i nsulation 41 , 44, 45, 46, 47, 1 07
Plaster 1 2, 1 3, 37, 45, 57, 63, 65, 73, 83,
84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 1 01 ,
1 05, 1 07, 1 09, 1 1 1 ' 1 1 2
Plasteri ng system 1 3, 86
Pl inth 1 1 , 1 2, 1 3, 1 6, 25, 40, 44, 45,
46, 50, 51 , 52, 85, 86
Pl i nth render 1 3, 51 , 86
Purl in roof 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34
Radiator recess
Raft foundation
41 , 55, 57, 56, 58, 59
44
Rai nwater dri p 21 , 65, 69
Recess 41 , 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 80, 93
Reinforced concrete floor sl ab 1 3, 1 6,
53, 60, 63, 81 ' 82, 91 ' 1 05, 1 1 1
Reinforced concrete ground sl ab 48, 50
Reinforced masonry 81 , 82, 93
Render 1 1 , 1 2, 1 3, 1 4, 1 6, 20, 21 , 22, 24, 45,
47, 50, 51 , 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61 , 63, 65, 68,
69, 73, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 98, 1 00,
1 01 ' 1 03, 1 04, 1 05, 1 09, 1 1 0, 1 1 1
Renderi ng system 83, 85, 87
Renovation plaster 85
Reveal 1 8, 20, 21 , 56, 58, 75
Ri ng beam 22, 30, 33, 36, 37,
39, 79, 81 , 92, 1 03
Strip foundation 1 3, 1 2, 1 6, 24, 42, 45, 48, 50
Structure 24, 30, 32, 33, 35, 39, 63, 67,
73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 85, 86, 90, 91 , 93, 1 06
Swel l i ng 91
Synthetic resi n pl aster 83, 84, 85
Synthetic resin render 85
Thermal bri dge 1 6, 43, 45,
49, 63, 67, 73, 90, 93
Thermal i nsul ati on 1 4, 1 6, 1 7, 20, 22, 23,
33, 37, 42, 43, 44, 48, 50, 52, 56, 57, 58, 60,
62, 65, 67, 73, 75, 83, 84, 85, 87, 90, 91 , 97,
98, 1 03, 1 05, 1 09, 1 1 1
Thermal i nsulation pl aster/render 83, 85, 87
Thi ckness of pl aster/render 86
Thi n-bed mortar 75
Three-dimensi onal construction 79
Timber joist floor 34, 35, 36, 37, 79, 80, 81
Tolerances 20, 61 , 67, 72, 73,
Toothed block 75, 1 03
Undercoat
Vapour barri er
Vapour check
Ventilation
Verge
Waterproofi ng
84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90
48, 62, 64, 1 03, 1 07, 1 09
64, 65, 67
32, 37, 63, 65, 69, 1 01 , 1 09
33, 35, 63, 65, 98, 1 02, 1 03
1 2, 1 3, 1 4, 42, 48, 50, 52, 70,
86, 1 01 , 1 07, 1 09
Window 9, 1 1 , 20, 21 , 22, 41 , 47, 53, 55,
56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 75, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 97,
98, 1 03, 1 04, 1 05, 1 1 0, 1 1 1
Window board
Window si l l
Wood-wool sl ab
56, 58, 1 1 1
21 , 59
57, 87, 88, 98
1 1 7
Appendi x
I ndex of persons, pi cture credi ts
Index of persons
page
Housing complex in Munich
Architect:
Chri stof Wallner, Muni ch
Associates:
Bettina Gbrgner, Cori nna Mul l er
Structural engi neer:
Joachi m Eiermann, Muni ch
page c
Semi-detached house i n Munich
Cl i ent:
Bri gitte Pui s, Muni ch
Architects:
Andreas Meek, Muni ch
Bri gitte Pui s, Muni ch
Detai l ed desi gn:
Stephan Kbppel , Muni ch
Structural engi neers:
Hans-Ludwig Hausdorfer,
Markt Schwaben
page T
Houses in Munich
Cl i ents:
Norbert und Klaus Weigl
Architects:
Thomas Hammer and
Doris Schmi d-Hammer, Muni ch
Associates:
Timo Jeskanen,
Manfred Wei hermann
Structural engi neers:
Behringer und Mul l er, Muni ch
page T Z
House in Hallertau
Architect:
Waiter Stol z, Rosenhei m
Associates:
Georg Trengl er
El i sabeth Mehrl (col our scheme)
Structural engi neers:
Bauer l ngenieure, Landshut
page T
Studio house in Eichstatt
Cl i ent:
Mr and Mrs Lang, Ei chstatt
Architects:
Di ezi nger Kramer, Ei chstatt
T T C
page T
Housing development in Neu-Uim
Cl i ent:
NUWOG/Hel mut Mi l dner,
Neu-Ui m
Archi tect:
G. A. S. -Sahner, Stuttgart
Georg Sahner
Structural engi neers:
l ng. Buro Mul ler, Ki rchberg/l l l er
page T c
Housing complex in Waldkrai burg
Architect:
Andreas Meek, Muni ch
Associates:
Egbert Ackermann,
Chri stoph Engl er
Structural engi neer:
Franz Mi tter-Mang, Unterreit
page T T
Housing complex in Ludwigsburg
Cl i ent:
Wohnungsbau Ludwi gsburg GmbH
Architect:
Hartwi g N. Schnei der wi th
Gabri el e Mayer, Stuttgart
Project architects:
Andreas Gabri el ,
l ngo Pel chen
Associates:
Franz Lutz
I ndex of persons
The names are l i sted after speci fyi ng the
respective archi tect.
Picture credits
pages 1, T c
Franz Wi mmer, Muni ch
pages , 1, c,
Mi chael Hei nri ch, Muni ch
pages T , T T
Henni ng Koepke, Muni ch
page T Z
Job Roman, Muni ch
page T O
Gerhard Schl btzer, Bamberg
page T
Andreas Gabri el , Muni ch
page T
Stefan Mul l er-Naumann, Muni ch
pages T , T
Peter Bonfi g, Muni ch
page T
Edwi n Kunz, Berg
pages T T , T T T
Chri sti an Kandzi a, Essl i ngen
page T T Z
Rol and Hal be/Contur, Col ogne
Photographs not speci fi cal l y credi ted
were taken by the archi tects, provi ded
by the manufacturer, or suppl i ed from
the DETAI L archi ves.
-
JN zbz
l ".
11 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 1
V J J k J 1 1 1 1