PSALMS

Leader’s Book

Leaders and Members’ Basics www.TheLAMBofCA.com Leadership Training Materials for Central Asia See page 47 for the full curriculum

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---TABLE OF CONTENTS--Introductory Note.......................................................................................................................................................5 LESSON ONE ...........................................................................................................................................................6 A SKETCH OF PSALMS:..................................................................................................................................6 Preparation for Study - A Literary Look at Psalms: .......................................................................................7 Keys to the Books of Psalms: .......................................................................................................................8 No. 1 Kingdom Key: God’s Purpose in View...........................................................................................8 No. 2 Godly Key: Names of God..............................................................................................................8 Psalm Types:......................................................................................................................................................9 Psalm Type No. 1 - Wisdom and Teaching Psalms: .................................9 Background for Psalm 1:........................................................................................................................9 Background for Psalm 119:..................................................................................................................11 Psalm Type No. 2 - Nature and Creation (Psalms 8, 19, 33, 65, 104)............................................15 Background for Psalm 19.....................................................................................................................15 LESSON 2..............................................................................................................................................................17 No. 3 Master Key: God’s Son Revealed ...............................................................................................17 No. 4 Key Word: Worship .......................................................................................................................18 Psalm Types .....................................................................................................................................................18 Psalm Type No. 3 - Individual Lament of Repentance: ......................................................................18 Background for Psalm 51.....................................................................................................................18 Psalm Type No. 4 - Individual Thanksgiving Psalms:..........................................................................20 Background for Psalm 32.....................................................................................................................20 Background for Psalm 34.....................................................................................................................21 LESSON 3..............................................................................................................................................................23 No. 5 Key Verses: Psalm 19:14; 145:21...............................................................................................23 No. 6 - Power Key: God’s Spirit at Work................................................................................................23 Psalm Types:....................................................................................................................................................24 Psalm Type 5 - Historical Psalms: ....................................................................................................24 Background for Psalm 136...................................................................................................................24 Psalm Type No - 6, Supplication:............................................................................................................24 Background for Psalm 86:....................................................................................................................24 LESSON 4..............................................................................................................................................................26 Key Authors:...............................................................................................................................................26 No. 8 Key Themes: Sin and Righteousness ........................................................................................27 Psalm Types:....................................................................................................................................................27 Psalm Type No. 7 - Cursing: .........................................................................................27 Background for Psalm 10.....................................................................................................................28 Psalm Type No. 8 - The Pilgrimage Psalms: ........................................................................................29 Background for Psalm 133...................................................................................................................29 Lesson 5 ...................................................................................................................................................................30 Key No. 9 - Key Dates ..............................................................................................................................30 Key No. 10 - Key Doxologies: .................................................................................................................30 Psalm Types .....................................................................................................................................................31 Psalm Type No. 9 - Messianic Psalms (Psalms 22, 23, 24)..............................................................31 Background for Psalm 22.....................................................................................................................32 Background for Psalm 23.....................................................................................................................32 Background for Psalm 24:....................................................................................................................33 Psalms Type No. 10 - Praise Psalms:...................................................................................................35 Background for Psalm 150:..................................................................................................................35 Supplementary Material..........................................................................................................................................37 A SKETCH OF PSALMS: ..............................................................................................................................38 3

Appendix A......................................................................................................................................................39 Appendix B ......................................................................................................................................................40 Appendix C ......................................................................................................................................................41 Appendix D......................................................................................................................................................42 Appendix E ......................................................................................................................................................43 Appendix F ......................................................................................................................................................44 Appendix G......................................................................................................................................................45 Appendix H......................................................................................................................................................46 Psalm Numbering System for Russian and Kazakh.........................................................................................47 For Further Study and Training in Righteousness ....................................................48

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Introductory Note
Due to the lack of time before publishing this book on Psalms, this manuscript has been written with the verses following the English version. Therefore, the verse numbering does not start with the titles of individual Psalms as in the Russian and Kazah versions. However, the Psalm chapter numbers are written in keeping with the Russian and Kazak versions. Therefore, you will need to add one verse to the scripture reference you are looking for when the title of the psalm appears in parentheses as verse number one. For example: Psalm 3:4 becomes Psalm 3:5. Psalm 3:1 is a historical title, denoting when David fled from Absalom. The titles of individual psalms are usually not assigned a verse number in many translations, giving the impression that they are separate from other verses. In the Hebrew Bible the titles are usually numbered as the first verse. The titles are either an original part of the psalms, or at least from an extremely early tradition. The titles may be divided into five basic types: authorship, historical, musical, literary type and instructions for use in worship. In the future there will be a second printing of this book and the verses will be printed according to the Russian and Kazak versions.

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LESSON ONE
A SKETCH OF PSALMS:

Writer…………… Theme division…. Compiler……….. Date……………..

Vol. 1, #1 - 41 David “ Creation, Man, Sin and Redemption” King David (1020-970 BC)

Vol. 2, #42 - 72 David and Korah “Deliverance Redemption” King Hezekiah (970-610 BC)

and

Vol. 3, #73 - 89 Asaph and descendants “Tabernacle and God’s holiness” King Josiah (970-610 BC)

Vol. 4., #90 - 106 David and others “Wilderness Wanderings” Ezra the Priest (609-430 BC)

and

Vol. 5, #107-150 David and others “Scripture, Thanksgiving and Praise” Nehemiah the Governor and Leader (609 – 430 BC)

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For Teacher: 1. Copy the “Sketch of Psalms” chart and give out. 2. Copy and give out Appendix A. 3. On the “Sketch of Psalms” chart: Discuss the Keys – these are the main points in understanding Psalms. Discuss the Stones - These are the various categories of Psalms. You will discuss 2 Keys and 2 Stones each day. 4. Discuss the divisions of the book using the “Sketch of Psalms” chart and especially Appendix A. Background: The Hebrew title of this book, Sepher Tehillim, means “Book of Praises.” The Greek titles, Psalmoi or Psalterion, stand for a poem that is to be accompanied by a stringed instrument. However, the Psalter contains more than temple songs and hymns of praise. It includes laments, personal and national prayers, petitions, meditations, instructions, historical anthems, and acrostic (alphabet) tributes to noble themes. We will discuss these types throughout our study of Psalms. The Book of Psalms is not arranged in a haphazard sort of way. The Book of Psalms is arranged in an orderly manner. In fact, some Bible scholars have said that the Book of Psalms is arranged and corresponds to the Pentateuch of Moses. There are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy sections coinciding with each of the volumes. Each book is a collection of several ancient groups of songs and poems. The psalmists have placed a fitting doxology at the end of each book. Book One (Pss. 1–41) emphasizes Creation, Man, Sin and Redemption. Most of the songs are attributed to David. Compiled before his death, the collection is largely personal psalms that reflect David’s own experiences. Book Two (Pss. 42–72) emphasizes Deliverance and Redemption. These were probably added in the days of Solomon. They are a collection of songs by, of, or for the sons of Korah, Asaph, David, and Solomon, with four anonymously written. Book Three (Pss. 73–89) speaks of the Tabernacle and God’s Holiness. It is marked by a large collection of Asaph’s songs. He was King David’s choirmaster (1 Chr. 16:4–7). Most psalms in Book Four (Pss. 90–106) tell of the Wilderness and the Wanderings of the Jews. These are without given authors, although Moses, David, and Solomon are contributors. These were collected in the days of the Exile. More of David’s songs are found in Book Five (Pss. 107–150), the Deuteronomy section. The emphasis is the Word of God, Thanksgiving and Praise. The final book is greatly used in worship and probably was organized around the time of Ezra the scribe after the return from Babylonian captivity. The series of songs called the Egyptian Hallel (Pss. 111–118) is found here as well. The final songs (Pss. 146–150) in Book Five are known as the “Great Hallel” series. Each song begins and ends with the Hebrew exclamation of praise, “Hallelujah!” Questions: 1. How many volumes (books) are in the book of Psalms? 2. Who are the main writers of Psalms? 3. How is Psalms divided by themes? 4. When was first volume written and when was the last volume written?

Preparation for Study - A Literary Look at Psalms:
We need to be acquainted with the various literary styles used by the authors of poetic writing. Much of the writing style came from the Caananite influence as Abraham, Issac, Moses, and David lived in the Caananite lands. Other Psalms (126, 137) were influenced by the Babylonian captivity. 7

Some of the main styles are: Look up and discuss: 1. Simile: comparison of two things, usually using words “as” or “like” (“He is like a tree,” Psalm 1:3). Ps. 117:8; Ps. 131:2; Ps. 128:3; Ps. 127:4; Ps. 133; Ps. 52:8 2. Metaphor: comparison of two things without using the words “like” or “as” (“You are my rock and my fortress”). Ps. 84:11, Ps. 3:3; Ps. 28:7; Ps. 18:2; Ps. 42:9; John 6:35; John 8:12; John 10:9; John 15:5 3. Hyperbole: exaggeration for effect (“make my bed swim/dissolve my couch with tears” Ps. 6:6) Ps. 119:20; Ps. 78:27; Ps. 73:6,7; Ps. 69:1, 2, 4, 9 4. Personification: applying personal traits (characteristics) to inanimate objects. (“all my bones will say, Lord who is like you” - Ps. 35:10) Gen. 4:10, Joshua 24:27, Job 31:7, Ps. 7:14, Eph. 1:18, Ps. 77:6 5. Apostrophe: addressing (speaking to) inanimate (non-living) things. (“Why is it, O sea, that you fled, O Jordan, that you turned back? Ps. 114:5) Ps. 87:3, Ps. 52:2, Ps. 24:7,9; I Cor. 15:55, Hosea 13:14

Keys to the Books of Psalms:
No. 1 Kingdom Key: God’s Purpose in View The Book of Psalms reveals the priority and power of worship as its central theme. Praise and worship are worthy of the Lord solely because of His majesty. The Psalms reveal praise as an essential means by which the believer realizes fullest dignity and destiny. • Psalmic Worship Is Founded on the Rule of God (Psalm 95) • Psalmic Worship Shows Praise as the Role of Man (Psalm 150)

No. 2 Godly Key: Names of God God Himself is the key Person of the Psalms. Without Him there could be no song at all. As we look at the Psalms, God is identified by His various Hebrew names: El, Adonai, Jehovah, and Shaddai. NAMES OF GOD IN THE PSALMS: BOOK V 107 – 150 41 12

HEBREW NAME EL Adonai

TRANSLATION

MEANING Almighty One Sovereign Lord Covenant Maker and Fulfiller Provider Blesser

BOOK I 1 – 41 67 13

BOOK II 42 - 72 207 19

BOOK III 73 - 89 85 15

BOOK IV 90 – 106 32 2

God Lord

Jehovah Shaddai

LORD Almighty

277

31 1

43 1

101 1

226

Questions: 1. Which name of God is used most often in Psalms? Why? 2. Which name of God is used least? Why? 8

Psalm Types:
Psalm Type No. 1 - Wisdom and Teaching Psalms:

The reader is exhorted and instructed in the way of righteousness (see Psalm 1, 37, 119)
Background for Psalm 1: For The Teacher: Prepare Appendix B and hand out to students. Have them fill in the blanks as you discuss. Use the following illustration to answer Appendix B:

“The Lord Knows the Way of the Righteous, But the Way of the of the Ungodly will perish.” Psalm 1:6

Outcome: Like Chaff Will not endure Will not stand with the righteous

Outcome: Like a well-watered tree Blooming and Productive Resilient Prosperous

?

The Way of the Ungodly

The Way of the Righteous

• • •

Separated from the World Saturated with the Word of God Situated by the Waters

Decisions based on…. Walking in the counsel of the ungodly Standing in the way of sinners Sitting in the seat of the scornful

Decisions based on…. Delighting in God’s Law Meditating on God’s ways

The theme of this Psalm is the happiness of the godly and the judgment of the ungodly. Verse 1 can be translated, “O the happinesses of the man.” No matter where we turn in the Bible, we find that God gives joy to the obedient (even in the midst of trial) and ultimately sorrow to the disobedient. God sees but two persons in this world: the godly, who are “in the Messiah,” and the ungodly, who are “in Adam.” See 1 Cor. 15:22, 49. Let us look at these two persons. 9

I. THE PERSON GOD BLESSES (1:1-3) From the beginning of creation, God blessed mankind (Gen. 1:28); it was only after sin had entered the world through Adam’s disobedience that we find the word “curse” (Gen. 3:14-19). It has always been God’s desire that mankind should enjoy His blessings. Ephesians 1:3 tells us that the believer in the Messiah has been “blessed with all spiritual blessings.” How rich we are in Him! However, many believers do not “possess their possessions” (Obadiah 17) and enjoy their blessings in the Messiah. God blesses the following types of people: A. A person who is separated from the world (v. 1) The believer’s life is compared to a walk (see Eph. 4:1, 17; 5:2, 8, 15). It begins with a step of faith in trusting Messiah and it grows as we take further steps of faith in obedience to His Word. Walking involves progress, and believers are to make progress in applying Bible truths to daily life. But it is possible for the believer to walk “in the darkness,” outside the will of God (1 John 1:5-7). The people God blesses are careful in their walk: though they are in the world, they are not of the world. By contrast, we see the person walking near sin, then standing to consider it, and finally sitting down to enjoy “the pleasures of sin for a season” (Heb. 11:25). (Use example of a new believer who once gambled. Now, he walks over and sees his old friends gambling. Next, he stands and watches. Then he sits down and joins in with them.) We also see this sad development in Peter’s disobedience. Jesus said Peter and the other disciples should go away (John 18:8), but instead, Peter walked after Jesus (18:15). Next we see him standing with the wrong crowd (18:18), and before long he is sitting by the fire (Luke 22:55). You know what happened: he walked right into temptation and three times denied his Lord. If believers start listening to the counsel (advice, plans) of the ungodly, they will soon be standing in their way of life, and finally will sit right down and agree with them. B. A person who is saturated with the Word (v. 2) Those whom God blesses are not delighted with what pertains to sin and the world; they delight in the Word of God. It is love for and obedience to the Bible that brings blessing on our lives. See Joshua 1:8. The people God blesses not only read the Word daily, but they study it, memorize it, and meditate on it during the day and night. Their mind is controlled by the Word of God. Because of this, they are led by the Spirit and walk in the Spirit. Meditation is to the soul what “digestion” is to the body. It means understanding the Word, “chewing on it,” and applying it to our lives, making it a part of the inner person. See Jeremiah 15:16, Ezekiel 3:3, and Rev. 10:9. C. A person who is situated by the waters (v. 3) Water for drinking is a picture of the Holy Spirit of God (John 7:37-39). The believer is here compared to a tree that gets its water from the deep hidden springs under the dry sands. This world is a desert that can never satisfy the believer. We must send our “spiritual roots” down deep into the things of the Messiah and draw upon the spiritual water of life. See Jeremiah 17:7-8, Ps. 92:12-14. There can be no fruit without roots. Are we more concerned about the leaves and the fruit than the roots? The roots are the most important part. Unless believers spend time daily in prayer and the Word, and allow the Spirit to feed them, they will wither. The believer who draws upon the spiritual life in close relationship to the Messiah will be fruitful and successful in the life of faith. When believers cease to bear fruit, it is because something has happened to the roots (Mark 11:12-13, 20, Luke 13:6-9). What kind of fruit are we to bear? See Rom. 1:13 and 6:22, Gal. 5:22-23, Heb. 13:15 and Col. 1:10. Discuss these verses. Of course, the perfect example of this godly person in vv. 1-3 is Jesus the Messiah. He is the Way (v. 1), the Truth (v. 2), and the Life (v. 3). See John 14:6. II. THE PERSON GOD JUDGES (1:4-6) “Not so!” This means that all that the godly person enjoys and experiences is not true in the life of the ungodly. 10

The godly are compared to a tree—strong, permanent, beautiful, useful, fruitful. The ungodly are compared to chaff— ---they have no roots ---they are blown with the wind ---they are useless to the plans of God ---they are neither beautiful nor fruitful. John the Baptist used a similar picture in Matt. 3:10-12 when he described God as the harvester, visiting the threshing floor and separating the grain from the chaff. “He will burn up the chaff!” See also Ps. 35:5 and Job 21:18. What a tragedy for people to spend their whole life on earth as chaff and as far as eternal things are concerned, amount to nothing. Is there a future judgment? Verse 5 informs us that there is. Of course, in the Old Testament we do not find the full explanation of the future judgments as we do in the New Testament. For the believer in the Messiah, there is no judgment of sin (John 5:24; Rom. 8:1.) But for the unbeliever, there is “a fearful expectation of judgment” (Heb. 10:27). This judgment of the lost is described in Rev. 20:11-15. There will be no believers at that scene, only unsaved people. The true character of the wicked will be revealed at that judgment; they will be seen as chaff, worthless lost souls. Verse 5 says the wicked will not be able to endure the judgment. When the books are opened, these individuals will be flung to their knees in confession of sin and of the truth of God’s Word and God’s Son (Phil. 2:9-11). They will perish. These ungodly people will never be allowed to enter the heavenly congregation of the righteous, even though on earth they might have been members of religious groups. See Matt. 7:21-23. The word “know” in the Bible means much more than the mental understanding indicated when we say, “I know the names of the twelve Apostles.” In addition, it has the idea of choosing and caring. “The Lord knows those who are His” (2 Tim. 2:19, ). “I know my sheep . . . . As the Father knows me, even so I know the Father (John 10:14-15, ). Jesus’ statement to the lost is, “I never knew you” (Matt. 7:23). The Lord knows the way of the righteous: He has planned it and marked it out (Eph. 2:10), and He keeps His eyes upon the righteous as they walk this way. The life of the godly person is an eternal plan of God! What he says, where he goes, what he does—all of these have eternal consequences. But the ungodly have “turned every one to his own way” (Isa. 53:6). The path of the righteous leads to glory (Prov. 4:18), but the way of the ungodly shall perish. Verse 6 sets before us the familiar teaching of the “two ways.” Jesus concluded His Sermon on the Mount with this picture (Matt. 7:13), and we see it mentioned throughout the Book of Proverbs (Prov. 2:20; 4:14; 4:24-27). Why are the ungodly lost? Because they will not submit to the Messiah and His Word. They prefer the counsel of the ungodly to the “whole counsel of God” in the Word (Acts 20:27). They prefer the friendship of godless people to the congregation of the righteous. They spend their days thinking about sin, not about the Word of God (Gen. 6:5). They think they are secure in the earth—but they are only chaff! How can the believer practice Psalm 1:1-3? It begins with surrender to the Lord, a daily surrender of all that we are and all that we have (Rom. 12:1-2). It involves spending time with God’s Word, reading it and meditating upon it. It means living a life separated from the world (not isolated, of course, but separated from its defilement). It demands a life with roots that draw upon the hidden resources of God. What a blessed life, one that gives satisfaction here and hereafter.

Background for Psalm 119: For Teacher: 1. Prepare Appendix C to give to the participants. 2. Use the diagram below to outline Psalm 119. 11

Psalm 119

What the Bible Is!

What the Bible Does!

What we must do with the Bible

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Water for cleansing – 9 Wealth and Treasure – 14, 72 127, 162 A Friend and Companion – 24 A Song to Sing – 54 Honey – 103 A Lamp – 105, 130 A Great Spoil – 162 Heritage - 111

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

It blesses – 1-2 It gives life – 25, 3, 7, 40, 50, 88, 93 Gives strength – 28 Gives liberty – 45 Imparts wisdom – 66, 97 – 104 Creates friends – 63 Gives comfort – 50, 76, 82, 92 Gives direction - 133

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

Love it – 97, 159 Prize it – 72, 128 Study it – 7, 12, 18, 26 – 27 Memorize it – 11 Meditate on it – 15, 23, 48, 78, 99, 148 Trust it – 42 Obey it – 1 – 8 Declare it – 13, 26

This psalm is special in several ways. It is the longest psalm (176 verses), and it is an acrostic psalm, following the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. In most editions of the Bible, the twenty-two sections of this psalm are headed by the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet (Aleph, Beth, Gimel, etc.). In the Hebrew Bible, each verse in a section begins with that Hebrew letter. For example, all the verses in the “aleph” section (vv. 1-8) begin with the Hebrew letter “aleph.” The Jews wrote in this fashion to help them memorize the Scriptures so they could meditate on God’s Word. We do not know who wrote this psalm, although the writer refers to himself many times. I. WHAT THE BIBLE IS A. Water for cleansing (v. 9) This whole section (vv. 9-16) deals with victory over sin. Young people in particular need to learn to heed and hide the Word that they might overcome temptation. As you read the Word and meditate on it, it cleanses your inner being just as water cleanses the body. See John 15:3 and Eph. 5:25-27. B. Wealth and treasure (vv. 14, 72, 127, 162) Many people do not know the difference between prices and values. Your Bible may not cost much, but what a treasure it is. How would you feel if you lost God’s Word and could not replace it? Or someone took the Bible from you? C. A companion and friend (v. 24) The writer was a stranger (v. 19), rejected by the proud (v. 21) and by princes (v. 23), but he always had the Word to be his counselor. Read Prov. 6:20-22.

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D. A song to sing (v. 54) Imagine making a song out of statutes—laws! The songs of the world mean nothing to us, but God’s Word is a song to our hearts. E. Honey (v. 103) The sweetness of the Word is like honey to the taste. It is sad when the believer must have the “honey” of this world to be satisfied. See Ps. 34:8 and Job 23:12. F. A lamp (vv. 105, 130) This is a dark world and the only dependable light is the Word of God (2 Peter 1:19-21). It leads us a step at a time, as we walk in obedience. First John 1:5-10 tells us that we walk in the light as we obey His Word. G. Great spoil (v. 162) Poor soldiers were made rich from the spoil left by the defeated enemy. The riches of the Word do not come easy; there must first be that spiritual battle against Satan and the flesh. But it is worth it. Read Luke 11:14-23. H. A heritage (v. 111) What a precious inheritance is the Bible! II. WHAT THE BIBLE DOES A. It blesses (vv. 1-2) It is the book with a blessing (Ps. 1:1-3). We are blessed in reading the Word, understanding the Word and obeying the Word. We are also blessed when we share the Word with others. B. It gives life (vv. 25, 37, 40, 50, 88, 93) The Word gives us eternal life when we believe (1 Peter 1:23). It is the living Word (Heb. 4:12). But the Word also gives us life when we are weak, discouraged, and defeated. Revival comes when we yield to God’s Word. C. It gives strength (v. 28) Trusting the Word encourages us (Matt. 4:4). God’s Word has power (Heb. 4:12) and can empower us when we believe and obey. D. It gives liberty (v. 45) A law that gives liberty! Sin would have dominion over us (v. 133), but the Word sets us free (John 8:32). True liberty comes in obeying God’s will. His Word is “the perfect law of liberty” (James 1:25). E. It imparts wisdom (vv. 66, 97-104) We may get knowledge and facts in other books, but true spiritual wisdom is found in the Bible. Note in vv. 97-104 that there are various ways to discover truth—from your enemies, from your teachers, from your older friends—and all of these are good. But above them all is a knowledge of the Bible. F. It creates friends (v. 63) Knowing and obeying the Bible will bring into your life the very finest friends. Those who love God’s Word are friends indeed. There are false friends who may overwhelm you with their worldly wisdom and wealth, but their friendship will lead you astray. Stay with those who “stay” with the Bible (v. 31).

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G. It gives comfort (vv. 50, 76, 82, 92) More than sixty verses in this psalm mention trial and persecution (vv. 22, 50-53, 95, 98, 115, etc.). The believer who obeys the Word will have trials in this world, but the Bible gives him lasting comfort. The Comforter, the Spirit of God, takes the Word of God and applies it to our hearts to comfort us. H. It gives direction (v. 133) The believing life is a “walk,” a day at a time and a step at a time (vv. 1, 3, 45). The Word directs our steps, both for walking and for running (v. 32). Note the prayers in vv. 35 and 116-117. As we pray for guidance, the Lord answers through His Word.

III. WHAT WE MUST DO WITH THE BIBLE A. Love it (vv. 97, 159) The way you treat your Bible is the way you treat the Messiah. To love Him is to love His Word. The Word is a delight (vv. 16, 24 , 16, 35, 47, 70) and not a disappointment. We rejoice to read it (vv. 14, 162). B. Prize it (vv. 72, 128) To hold the Bible in high esteem is the mark of a true saint. It should be more precious to us than any earthly treasure. C. Study it (vv. 7, 12, 18, 26-27) At least twelve times the psalmist prays, “Teach me.” The believer who daily studies his Bible will be blessed of God. Bible study is not always easy, for it takes the “whole heart” (vv. 2, 10, 34, 69, 145). D. Memorize it (v. 11) We all need to memorize the Word. Not children and young people alone. Joshua was not a youth when God commanded him to memorize the Law (Joshua 1:8). Jesus was able to quote Scripture when He faced Satan in the wilderness (Matt. 4:1-11). E. Meditate on it (vv. 15, 23, 48, 78, 97, 99, 148) Meditation is to the soul what digestion is to the body. To meditate means to “turn over” God’s Word in the mind and heart, to examine it, to compare Scripture with Scripture, to “feed on” its wonderful truths. What if someone in authority speaks evil against you? Do you feel powerless? When it happens, what do you usually do? Do you meditate on the evil spoken to you?---Meditating on garbage---- So, what must we do? F. Trust it (v. 42) We trust the Bible about everything, because it is right about everything (v. 128). It is true and can be trusted wholly. To argue with the Bible is to argue with God. We test every other book by what God says in His Word. G. Obey it (vv. 1-8) How many times is the word “walk,” “keep” or “obey” used in these verses? Look it Up! To keep the Word is to obey it, to walk in its commandments. Satan knows the Word, but he cannot obey it. If we know God’s truth and fail to obey it, we are only fooling ourselves.

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H. Declare it (vv. 13, 26) As we obey, we should also witness to others about the Word and tell them what the Lord has done for us.

Questions: 1. What characterizes the 119th Psalm? 2. What 3 ways can we divide the psalm? 3. Review the 3 divisions. Psalm Type No. 2 - Nature and Creation (Psalms 8, 19, 33, 65, 104)

Background for Psalm 19 For teacher: Prepare Appendix D to give to the participants and fill it out. Use the chart below to outline Psalm 19

He Speaks in the Skies. 19:1 – 6

He Speaks in the Scriptures. 19:1 - 11

He Speaks in the Soul. 19:12 - 14

V. 2 – Day and Night v. 3 – 4 Creation speaks a universal language to all nations. Romans 1:18 - 32

A. What the Bible is – 1. The perfect law 2. The sure testimony 3. The right statutes 4. The pure commandment 5. The clean fear of the Lord 6. True, righteous judgments 7. Better than gold 8. Sweeter than hone B. What the Bible Does – 1. Converts 2. Makes wise 3. Rejoices 4. Enlightens 5. Satisfies 6. Warns 7. Rewards

Prayer Meditation

God’s revelation to man is the theme of this psalm. It is amazing that God speaks to us at all. Men and women are sinners and have no desire to listen to God, yet He graciously continues to speak. God speaks to us in three ways:

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I. HE SPEAKS IN THE SKIES (19:1-6) God’s wisdom, power, and glory are seen in His creation. The psalmist looks at the marvels of heaven and earth and sees God. See also Pss. 8 and 29 as well as Isa. 40:12-31. Jesus saw His Father’s handiwork in the lilies and the birds (Matt. 6:24-34). Both by day and by night, God’s creation is speaking (v. 2), but this speech is not heard with the human ear. In verse 3 we hear voice of God in creation and we see His wisdom and power. Certainly so complex an entity as our universe (and the universes beyond our own universe) demands a Creator and Sustainer. To believe that the universe evolved out of nothing and arranged itself in this orderly manner is folly. Creation speaks a universal language to all nations (vv. 3-4). It is this fact that Paul used in Rom. 1:18-32 to prove that all people everywhere are under the wrath of God. “Are the unbelievers lost?” is an often repeated question, and the answer is “Yes.” On what basis are they lost if they have never heard the Gospel? ---On the basis of God’s revelation in creation. The unbelievers see God’s power and wisdom, His “eternal Godhead,” in creation and know that they have a responsibility to Him. Paul uses Ps. 19:4 again in Rom. 10:18. Nature preaches a thousand sermons a day to the human heart. Each day begins with light and moves to darkness, from waking to sleeping, a picture of life without God. Each year moves from spring to winter, from life to death. We see the grass mowed down (Isa. 40:6-8), the tree cut down (Luke 13:69; Matt. 3:10), the fire destroying the waste (Matt. 13:40-42). The activities of nature, under the hand of God, are vivid object lessons to the hearts of sinners but, many do not want to see or hear. The lost sinner, wherever he or she may be on this globe, stands condemned before the throne of God. II. HE SPEAKS IN THE SCRIPTURES (19:7-11) A. What the Bible is (1) The perfect law—There is no error in the Bible, either in historical fact or in spiritual truth. Of course, the Bible records the lies of men and of Satan, but the total message of the Bible is that of truth. See Ps. 119:128 and 160. (2) The sure testimony—The Word does not change; it is sure and steadfast, Ps. 119:89. It is God’s testimony to man -- His witness of what is true and right. See Matt. 5:18. (3) The right statutes—“Statutes” means “precepts, rules for daily living.” Some rules are wrong rules; God’s Word is right. Obeying the Word brings blessing to daily life. (4) The pure commandment—See Pss. 12:6; 119:140; Proverbs 30:5. The “sacred books” of some world religions are may not be pure, but God’s Word is pure, even when dealing with sin. Nothing in the Bible, rightly understood, could lead a person into sin. (5) The clean fear of the Lord—The phrase “fear of the Lord” (v. 9) is another reference to “the Law,” since the Word of God produces a reverence for God. See Deut. 4:10; Ps. 111:10. To fear God makes a person clean; to worship heathen idols makes a person filthy. (6) True, righteous judgments—God’s evaluation of men and things is true. He knows all things completely. It pays for the believer to believe what God says and not to depend on his own evaluation. Lot made this mistake and lost everything. (7) Better than gold—What a treasure is the Bible (Ps. 119:72; Prov. 8:10; 16:16). (8) Sweeter than honey (Ps. 119:103)—The spiritual believer does not need the artificial things of this world for satisfaction; the Word satisfies the spiritual appetite. B. What the Bible does (1) Converts—This is the same as “restores” in Ps. 23:3. The Word converts the sinner from his ways and restores the saint when he wanders. It refreshes and heals. (2) Makes wise—Read Ps. 119:97-104; Isa. 8:20; Jer. 8:9; Col. 1:9; James 1:5. (3) Rejoices—The spiritual believer finds joy in the Word (Jer. 15:16). (4) Enlightens—“The entrance (opening) of Your words gives light” (Ps. 119:130). (5) Endures—Other books fade and are forgotten, but God’s Word remains. 16

(6) Enriches—It is better than gold or silver (Prov. 3:13-15). (7) Satisfies—The honey satisfies the body; the Word satisfies the soul. (8) Warns—It is better to prevent sin and avoid trouble than to confess sin and try to remedy mistakes. Knowing the Word and obeying it guides the believer on the safe path. See Prov. 2. (9) Rewards—Money cannot buy the rewards of a godly life: a clean conscience, a pure heart, joy, peace and answered prayer.

III. HE SPEAKS IN THE SOUL (19:12-14) No person can understand his or her own heart (Jer. 17:9). We need the mirror of the Word to reveal our sins to us (James 1:22-25). The psalmist closes by asking God to reveal his secret sins to him (see Ps. 139:23-24). The Old Testament (OT) law provided for sins of ignorance (Lev. 4-5; Num. 15:22). But for sins of open defiance and rebellion, there was no sacrifice (see Num. 15:30-31). David asks not only to be cleansed of secret faults, but to be restrained from running head-long into open sin. “Watch and pray, that you enter not into temptation.” This kind of wicked abandonment to sin leads to slavery, and sin becomes the master of the life. Romans 6 tells us that sin should not have dominion over us. Of course, it is by allowing the Word of God to control our lives that we get victory over sin. In v. 13, the psalmist seems to mean a “sin unto death” or a repeated rebellion against God that brings forth His wrath. It is by an accumulation of the little secret sins of v. 12 that the person gradually walks into the great sin. It is important that believers confess their sins immediately and allow the Word and the blood to cleanse the heart. The prayer of v. 14 ought to be on our lips and in our hearts all day long. The meditation of the heart controls the words of the mouth (Mark 7:14-23). The word “meditation” here has the image of a musician plucking the strings of a harp. Who controls the music of your heart -- God or Satan? Meditation is the taking in of the Word of God and making it a part of the inner being. As the heart and mind think on the Word all day long, the Spirit guides the life. This is what it means to walk in the Spirit (Gal. 5:16) and to have the spiritual mind (Rom. 8:1-8). Is your Bible all to you that God wants it to be? Read this psalm again and ask God to enable you to love the Word, live in it, and obey it—and He will bless you.

Group Work: Have the group divide into groups of 3. Look up the literary styles that were discussed in class.

LESSON 2

No. 3 Master Key: God’s Son Revealed Approximately half of the Old Testament references to the Messiah which are quoted in the New Testament are in the Psalms. The apostles saw prophetic reference in this book to: • The Messiah’s birth (Acts 13:33) • His lineage (Matt. 22:42–45) • His zeal (John 2:17) • His teaching by parables (Matt. 13:35) • His rejection (Matt. 21:42) 17

• • • • • •

His priesthood (Heb. 5:6) His betrayal by Judas (John 13:18) His vicarious suffering (Rom. 15:3) His triumphant Resurrection (Acts 2:25–28) His Ascension (Acts 2:34) His Reign (1 Cor. 15:27) No. 4 Key Word: Worship

The central theme of the Book of Psalms is worship—God is worthy of all praise because of who He is, what He has done, and what He will do. His goodness extends through all time and eternity.

Psalm Types
Psalm Type No. 3 - Individual Lament of Repentance: Directly addressed to God, these Psalms petition Him to rescue and defend an individual. They have five Petition elements: • an introduction (usually a cry to God) • the lament • a confession of trust in God • the petition • a declaration or vow of praise. Most psalms are of this type ( 3–7; 12; 13; 22; 25–28; 35; 38–40; 42; 43; 51; 54–57; 59; 61; 63; 64; 69–71; 86; 88; 102; 109; 120; 130; 140–143) Background for Psalm 51 Teaching Activity: 1. Use the diagram below to explain the Psalm. This can be put on the board as you discuss. 2. Have the group count how many times the words – “me” and “my sin” are used in the Psalm. 3. Locate the five “Petition” elements in Psalm 51.

The Cost

Commiting Sin

Confessing Sin

Cleansing Sin

The background for Psalms 51 and 32 is 2 Sam. 11-12. You will want to give a short story of David’s sin. (David lusted after his neighbor’s wife, committed adultery, made the husband drunk, had him killed and then covered the whole affair.). He was not a youth when he fell into these sins; he was a mature man, ruling over a great kingdom. “Let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall” (1 Cor. 10:12, ). Psalm 51 was David’s prayer of confession, and Ps. 32 his song of praise for forgiveness. Background Reading: Read 1 John 1:5 - 2:2 for God’s provision for cleansing.

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Have the group read Psalm 51 silently and count how many times the words “me” and “my sin” are used. Give them about 5 minutes to read and count. The count will vary according to your translation. Questions: 1. How many times do you find the words me and my sin used? 2. Who is David concerned with? 3. What kind of feelings does he have? 4. Why does he feel this way? 5. When you sin what kind of feelings do you have? Let’s talk about Psalm 51: DAVID’S PRAYER OF CONFESSION This is a very personal prayer. Note how often David uses “me” and “my sin.” His eyes are not on someone else; his eyes are on himself and on his Lord. What is sin? To women it might mean a flawed or failed relationship with God the Father because of sin. To men it might mean breaking God’s law and commands. Let’s look how David saw sin. A. The cost of committing sin Falling into lust and adultery seemed momentary acts, but what a tremendous price David paid. (It is possible, though, that David had “planned to sin” when he came home from the battle.) As we shall see in Ps. 32:3-4, David paid for his sins physically and became ill. But the spiritual cost was also great. He lost the purity of his heart (vv. 1-2) and therefore needed to be washed and cleansed (v. 7). Note the words used for sin here: transgression (wrong doing) means acts of rebellion, defying God by crossing over the line God has drawn. Iniquity means inward crookedness, perversity. Sin means missing the mark, failing to meet God’s standard. Use the diagram. (Put on board.) Verse 17 suggests that David’s heart not only became defiled, but it also became hard. When we hold on to sin, it hardens the heart. David’s eyes were also affected; all he could see were his sins (v. 3). People with a dirty conscience are usually on the defensive, wondering what other people may know. Sin also affected his ears, for he lost the sound of joy and gladness (v. 8). Nothing sounds good to a person out of fellowship with God. Even David’s lips were affected, for he could no longer testify or witness, or even sing God’s praises (vv. 13-15). Nothing stops a believer’s testimony like un-confessed sin. His mind was affected, for he begged for wisdom (v. 6). The inner person (heart and spirit, v. 10) was out of fellowship with God (v. 11), and there was no joy. God does not take away the Holy Spirit when we sin (John 14:16), but we do grieve the Spirit and thereby lose His fellowship and help (Eph. 4:30-32). May we never forget the high cost of committing sin! B. The cost of confessing sin True confession of sin involves repentance, a sincere change of mind. During that year when David covered his sins, he thought he would “get away” with something. But when Nathan confronted him with his sins, David’s heart spoke to him and he repented. There is a difference between admitting sins and confessing sins. Confession (1 John 1:9) literally means “to say the same thing.” If we say the same thing about our sins that God says about them, and we truly mean it, then we are confessing sin. David even went so far as to admit his sinful nature, born in sin. (v. 5). Beware of “cheap confession.” Merely praying with the lips, “Lord, I have sinned, please forgive me!” is not confession. True confession costs something—a broken spirit and a contrite heart (v. 17). This does not mean that we pay money to the church or do much fasting or do many pilgrimages to earn forgiveness, but it does mean that we are so broken by our sins that we hide nothing from God. 19

C. The cost of cleansing sin Good works cannot cleanse sin, not even religious works (good deeds, fasting, pilgrimages) and sacrifices (vv. 16-17). Only the blood of Jesus the Messiah, through his sacrifice on the cross, can wash away sins (Heb. 10:1-18; 1 John 1:7-2:2). Forgiveness is not a cheap thing; it cost Jesus the Messiah His life. We receive forgiveness because of what He has done, not because of our prayers or tears. God is willing to blot out sins (vv. 1, 9; see Isa. 43:25) and purge us completely. The high cost of cleansing alone ought to make us hate sin and want to turn from it.

Psalm Type No. 4 - Individual Thanksgiving Psalms: The psalmist publicly acknowledges God’s activity on his behalf. These psalms thank God for something He has already done or express confidence in what He will do. They have these elements: • a proclamation to praise God • a summary statement • a report of deliverance • a renewed vow of praise (e.g., 18; 30; 32; 34; 40; 41; 66; 106; 116; and 138). For the Teacher: 1. Find the 4 Thanksgiving elements in Psalm 32. 2. Hand out Appendix E and discuss as you teach.

Background for Psalm 32 DAVID’S PRAISE AND THANKSGIVING FOR GOD’S CLEANSING The first two verses are quoted by Paul in Romans 4:7-8, so be sure to read that passage. Literally, David sang: “Oh, the happiness of the man whose rebellion has been forgiven, whose failure to hit the mark has been covered. How happy is the man on whose account the Lord does not count his crookedness, and in whose spirit there is no deceit.” David had been guilty of all of this: he had rebelled against the Law and failed to meet God’s righteous standard; he had allowed his crooked nature to control him and he had deceitfully covered the whole matter up. See Proverbs 28:13 and apply it to David’s case. “He who conceals his transgressions will not prosper, but he who confesses and forsakes them will find compassion.” Prov. 28:13 A. The silence of conviction (vv. 3-4) What happened to David when he refused to confess his sins? He suffered. He suffered spiritually (as we saw in Ps. 51), but he also suffered physically. He became like an old man. God’s hand of conviction was heavy upon him day and night. He “dried up” like a brook in a drought. Some people who go to the doctor to take care of their symptoms ought to go to the Lord to take care of their sins. This does not mean that all sickness is caused by sin, but it does mean that unconfessed sin can cause physical affliction. See 1 Cor. 11:29-32. B. The tears of confession (v. 5) Literally, “I began to make known to You my sin.” David immediately confessed that he had sinned when Nathan spoke to him (2 Sam. 12:13), but then, privately, he allowed the Spirit of God to uncover his sins one by one.

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David’s prayer was no “general confession”; he named his sins specifically. Because he confessed, God forgave. One writer has said, “The less you spare yourself, the more God will spare you.” Paul said, “For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged” (1 Cor. 11:31). God does not forgive us because we feel sorry or because we pray. He forgives us when we confess our sins because He is “faithful and just”—faithful to His promise and just with reference to the Cross. God will not make us pay for sins that the Messiah has already paid for. Read Rom. 8:31-39. C. The song of cleansing (vv. 6-7) David’s sighing has been replaced by singing. He is surrounded by “songs of deliverance” and wherever he turns, he discovers something to sing about. It used to be that wherever he turned, he saw his sins (51:3). He warns us that we should pray to God for forgiveness “in a time of finding.” This may have two meanings: in a time when we find out our sins, and in a time when God may be found (Isa. 55:6-7). If a believer allows sins to accumulate, God will have to step in and chasten (Heb. 12). David is no longer afraid, for God is his hiding place. Let troubles come; he is not afraid. D. The shout of confidence (vv. 8-11) God is now speaking to David and assuring him that He will direct his steps. “He restores my soul; He leads me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake” (Ps. 23:3). God wants to guide us, not with a heavy rod, but with His eye. An obedient child watches his parents’ eyes, to see what their will is. The believer must constantly stay under the Father’s eye and live to please Him. In v. 9 David talks about two extremes: the horse that rushes ahead impulsively, and the mule that lags behind stubbornly. Believers should avoid both of these patterns of behavior. We should walk with the Lord a step at a time in loving obedience. Horses and mules must be controlled by bits and bridles “or else they will not come near you.” Some believers must have “bits and bridles” before God can control them. But the normal way is for God to guide us with His eye upon us. Dumb animals have no understanding, but God’s people can understand what the will of the Lord is (Eph. 5:15-17). After we as believers have sinned and been restored, satan tries to undermine our peace and confidence. We begin to worry about the past and the consequences of our foolishness. Yes, there are bitter fruits from disobedience (and how David found that out!), but vv. 10-11 assure us that God protects and upholds those who belong to Him. The wicked have many sorrows, and sorrows come to the lives of disobedient saints, but the cleansed believer experiences the loving-kindness and mercy of the Lord. No wonder David ends by shouting. The past is forgiven—the present is joyful—and the future is secure in the hands of God. When you pray a prayer of repentance, how do you pray? Do you use the illustration outlined in Psalm 32? Background for Psalm 34 For Teacher: 1. Prepare Appendix F and hand out. 2. Fill in the diagram as you teach The historical background of this acrostic (alphabetic) psalm is related in 1 Samuel 21:10–15. Why were Alphabetic Psalms used? 21

Fearful that Saul would kill him, David fled to Gath and sought the protection of the enemy (1 Sam. 21:10–22:2). But you are never safe out of the will of God, and David had to lie to escape. This psalm is David’s personal testimony of what God did for him. “I will bless” (1–10). These verses contain the praise, thanksgiving and testimony of the one who was redeemed. David had every reason to praise the Lord, for the Lord had rescued him from certain death. When you call on the Lord in faith, He saves (vv. 4–6), He keeps (v. 7) and He satisfies (vv. 8–10). Why run to the enemy when you can run to the Lord and be safe? “I will teach” (11–22). David wanted the next generation to know the Lord and trust Him. He gave some wise counsel about how to have “good days” (vv. 12–14; 1 Pet. 3:8–12), and he urged them to call on the Lord in the time of trouble. God’s eyes see your needs, God’s ears hear your prayers, and God is near you when your heart is broken. When God does something special for you, tell somebody else. The next generation needs to know that God is alive. This psalm of David is when he changed his behavior before Abimelech who drove him away and he departed. In the psalm David does not talk about his sinfulness, but rather spends his time praising the Lord for His grace. “I will bless”: 34:1–3. I will bless the LORD at all times. The psalmist’s resolve is steadfast. In every situation and under every circumstance, he is determined to bless the Lord. But more than that, his blessing of the Lord will not just be in his heart, but his praise shall continually be in his mouth … O magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his name together. David extends a call for Israel to come and praise Jehovah with him. The reasons that such praise is justified are listed in verses 4–10. What are these reasons? • This poor man cried, and the LORD heard him. The poor man is a reference to David himself. • saved him out of all his troubles. • The angel of the LORD encamps around about them that fear him, 4–7. They looked to him, and were delivered. • 8–10. O taste and see that the LORD is good. Put the matter to the test of experience (I Pet 2:3). • there is no want to them that fear him. Jehovah will not allow His faithful servants to starve, nor to lack in any of the necessities of life. They that seek the LORD shall not want any good thing. “I will teach”: Suddenly, David’s praise for the Lord gives way to teaching others. He calls to them -• 11–12, Come, you children, listen to me: I will teach you the fear of the LORD. What can a man do if he desires a long life and good days all his life? It is to this that David now addresses himself. • 13–14. Keep your tongue from evil. Sins of the tongue have been abundantly noted in the Psalms (5:9; 10:7; 12:3; 15:3; 50:19; 57:4; 73:8–9; etc.). • Depart from evil, and do good. Now some positive and negative advice. Depart from evil means to go away from evil, to avoid it as one would avoid a plague. Positively, once one has departed from evil, he may do good. It is not simply enough to lack evil; one must possess good. In addition, • Seek peace, and pursue it. . • 15–16. The eyes of the LORD are upon the righteous. The eyes and the ears of the Lord are always open to those who live righteously, and no righteous act ever escapes God’s eye. Equally, • The face of the LORD is against them that do evil. God is never indifferent to the deeds of sinful men. 22

• •

• •

17–18. The righteous cry, and the LORD hears.… The LORD is near to them that are of a broken heart. The Lord does not hear the cry of the proud, but when we live righteously and humbly, He is always near in friendship to receive and console us. 19. Many are the afflictions of the righteous. For the believer, afflictions come from every point of of our lives (Job 36:8–10; Acts 14:22; I Cor 15:19; II Tim 3:12; Heb 11:33–38; 12:5–10). But the LORD delivers him out of them all. Whenever God has allowed suffering to do its perfect work in purging, molding and shaping us, He will then remove that difficulty from us. 20–21. He keeps all his bones: not one of them is broken. The bones are the entire frame of the body, that which provides structure to the entire body. Not a bone of the Lord’s body was broken at His crucifixion. And they that hate the righteous shall be desolate. Although they are rebellious group now, those who have caused hurt and who have hated all who live righteously will one day find themselves forsaken, desolate and alone. 22. The LORD redeems the soul of his servants. With great price and great power the Lord Jesus has taken the soul of the redeemed from satan’s grasp. Our souls have been set free, liberated, by the paying of a price. The ransom was Jesus the Messiah. And none of them that trust in him shall be desolate. What a tremendous promise with which to conclude this psalm.

LESSON 3

No. 5 Key Verses: Psalm 19:14; 145:21 Psalm 19:14 “Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart Be acceptable in Your sight, O LORD, my rock and my Redeemer.”

Psalm 145:21 “My mouth will speak the praise of the LORD, And all flesh will bless His holy name forever and ever.”

Questions: 1. Why are these two verses special? 2. What is important about the heart in order to praise and worship the Lord? No. 6 - Power Key: God’s Spirit at Work The Book of Psalms ministers to the soul of humankind and to the heart of God because they are the product of the work of the Holy Spirit. David, the major contributor to the Book of Psalms, was anointed by the Holy Spirit (1 Sam. 16:13). Not only was this anointing for kingship, but it was for the office of a prophet (Acts 2:30). The prophetic statements he recorded were by the power of the Holy Spirit (Luke 24:44; Acts 1:16). In fact, the lyrics of his songs were composed by the inspiration of the Spirit (2 Sam. 23:1–2), as were his plans for appointing chief musicians and choirs with their accompanying orchestras (1 Chronicles 28:12–13). Specific statements show that the Holy Spirit is at work: a. in creating life (104:30) b. as He faithfully accompanies the believer (139:7) c. as He guides and instructs (143:10) d. as He sustains the penitent (51:11–12)as e. as He interacts with the rebellious (106:33).

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Psalm Types:
Psalm Type 5 - Historical Psalms: These psalms review God’s dealings with His people. (68, 78, 105, 106, 136) Background for Psalm 136 Two choirs sang this psalm. One choir sang the first line of each verse, and the other choir answered, “For His mercy endures forever.” This was not worthless repetition (Matt. 6:7), for the second choir was offering inspired praise to the Lord. You can never say too much about the mercy of God! God reveals His mercy by giving you a wonderful creation to use and to enjoy (vv. 4–9). He reveals His mercy in His care for you, helping you fight your battles and defeat your enemies (vv. 10–25). Israel was not always faithful to God, but that is where His mercy comes in! He was faithful to them. Every verse in this psalm mentions the mercy of God. It exalts God’s mercy. In Ephesians 2:4 Paul says, “But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy….” The God of heaven is caring for you on earth! His mercy endures forever! For the Teacher: 1. Divide the group into 2 groups. 2. Have one group read the top line and the other group read the second line of each verse of Psalm 136. 3. Do this two of times. 4. For 10 minutes of quiet time in the group have each person write down 5 - 10 things in his history that he/she can say, “His mercy endures forever.” Go around the group, each one sharing one item at a time, with the rest of the group saying, “His mercy endures for ever.” Psalm Type No - 6, Supplication: Prayers of the Righteous- The Psalmist cries to God for his own need, or intercedes for another’s need. Ps. 17; 20; 25; 44; 50; 86, etc. Background for Psalm 86: We have come now to another Davidic psalm and it is a prayer of David. “Preserve my life” (1–10). David was in trouble again. As he always did, he turned to the Lord for help, and he presented some reasons why God should answer him. God was his God, and he was God’s servant. God was merciful, and he needed mercy. He wanted God alone to be glorified in the victory. God is good and great and ready to help. “Unite my heart” (11–13). A divided heart leads only to instability (James 1:5–8), because you cannot serve two masters (Matt. 6:22–24). With a single heart, fear the Lord, learn from the Lord, obey the Lord and praise His name. “Strengthen my hand” (14–17). David’s strength and experience were inadequate to face the foe; he needed the strength of the Lord. David knew God’ Word (v. 15; Exod. 34:6; Neh. 9:17) and that helped him in his praying. The better you know God, the better you can approach Him with your needs. One of the significant things about this Psalm is that David gives a reason for almost everything he says, whether in petition or adoration. We may illustrate this by the following arrangement: For the Teacher: 1. Have the group list the Petition and the Reason for the Petition on the board for verses 1-7. 24

PETITION REASON 86:1 To meet with the Lord………………………………..The psalmist’s helplessness and need. 86:2a For preservation …………………………………. His position as a holy person 86:2b For salvation from enemies…………………………..No explicit reason is given but it may be implied in the clause “You are my God” 86:3 For gracious consideration………………………. David’s persistence in prayer all day long. 86:4 For joy and gladness……………………………….His hope is in the Lord and in no one else. 86:5 This verse may give an additional reason for the preceding requests. Or it may be added to the prayer in verse 6. ……………………………The goodness and readiness to forgive, and mercy of the Lord are poured out on all those who call upon Him.

86:7 For help in the day of his trouble. …………………The fact that God does hear and will answer prayer.

2. The psalmist turns to praise in the next verses. List the verses that praise the Lord and the reason for the praise. PRAISE REASON 86:8 For the matchlessness of the Lord’s Person and works. …………. 86:9 For His worthiness to be adored by all nations. (This will be fulfilled in the Millennium) 86:10 God is great. His works are wondrous. There is no other God.

4. David is asking the Lord for what? What the reason for the petition.? PETITION 86:11 For instruction in the way of the Lord REASON In order that the psalmist might walk in obedience to God’s truth. For a heart that is completely dedicated to revere and obey the Lord. 5. David again praises the Lord. What are his reasons for praising Him? PRAISE 86:12, 13 Here David simply expresses his determination to praise the Lord with all his being, and to glorify His name forevermore. REASON

For God’s great mercy in delivering him from the depths of the grave. If we apply the Psalm to the Messiah, then this is a reference to His resurrection. 6. 86:14–16 The remaining verses describe the imminent danger of the psalmist. A mob of arrogant, violent men have conspired to take his life. These men have no time for God. But David knows the Lord and in this crucial moment he comforts himself in the knowledge that God is: What characteristics does David give of God? full of compassion gracious longsuffering abundant in mercy and truth. 25

Therefore he is confident in asking the Lord to turn to him in pity, to strengthen him and to save him. 7. What is David’s request of God? 86:17 Finally, the psalmist asks that the Lord will give him some definite sign of His favor. Then his enemies will realize that they have been on the wrong side when they see how God has helped David and comforted him. We mentioned in the beginning that the Psalm was important in that it gave reasons for most of its prayers or praises. There are two other unique features that should be mentioned. First, David has quoted effectively from other Scriptures; he is actually praying or praising with a collection of Bible verses. Second, the divine name “Adonai” is used seven times (it is translated “Lord” in vv. 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12 and 15). God-fearing Jews often used this title rather than Jehovah. The Sopherim, or ancient custodians of the Sacred Text, changed the name Jehovah to Adonai 134 times when reading aloud, out of what they considered extreme reverence for the Inexpressible Name “Jehovah.” Questions: 1. In your life as a believer, have you been in circumstances you could not control? Did you turn to God in prayer and He answered that prayer? Could you describe God because of that answered prayer? What characteristics would you give for God? 2. If you were in trouble of some kind, what characteristics of God would you use in your prayer to Him? 3. How would you address God? Group Time: 1. Put the following questions on the board. 2. Divide in groups of 3 and answer these question from either Psalms 8, 16, 42. Questions: 1. What are the repeated ideas, phrases, words? 2. What places or events are mentioned? 3. What kind of Psalm is it? (Use Appendix A to help you answer the question.) 4. What does this Psalm tell you about the God/writer/nature/people? 5. What emotions does the writer have? Is there an Old Testament story that helps you understand “why” he feels that way? 6. What blessings or promises come to the righteous? 7. What judgments come to the unrighteous? 8. What are some circumstances in your life that these “Words of Life” can help? 9. How can you apply these words to yourself?

LESSON 4

Key Authors: Almost half (73) of the psalms are designated as Davidic. David’s wide experience as shepherd, musician, warrior and king (1011–971 B.C.) is reflected in these psalms. In addition to the seventy-three by David, • twelve were by Asaph, a priest who headed the service of music (see 50; 73–83; Ezra 2:41) 26

• • • • • • •

ten were by the sons of Korah, a guild of singers and composers (see 42; 44–49; 84–85; 87; Num. 26:9–11) two were by Solomon, Israel’s most powerful king (72; 127) one was by Moses -- a prince, herdsman, and deliverer (90) one was by Heman -- a wise man (see Psalm 88; 1 Kin. 4:31; 1 Chron. 15:19) and one was by Ethan -- a wise man (see Psalm 89; 1 Kin. 4:31; 1 Chr. 15:19). The remaining fifty psalms are anonymous: 1; 2; 10; 33; 43; 66–67; 71; 91–100; 102; 104–107; 111–121; 123; 125–126; 128–130; 132; 134–137 and 146–150. Some of the anonymous psalms are traditionally attributed to Ezra. Author David Korah Asaph Solomon Ethan Heman Moses Others Psalms 3-9; 11-32; 34-41; 51-65;68-70;86;101;103;108110;122;124;131;133;138-145 42;44-49;84-85;87 50; 73-83 72;127 89 88 90 All other psalms

No. 8 Key Themes: Sin and Righteousness Questions: 1. Are the words “sin and righteousness” mentioned in Psalms? How many times? 2. What is your definition of sin? What scripture do you use to define sin? 3. What is your definition of righteousness? What scripture do you use to define righteousness? Since man’s worship of God is the main theme in Psalms, the spiritual conditions for access to a holy God are referred to throughout the book . We have studied in Psalm 1 where it introduces Psalms by distinguishing between the righteous man and the wicked man. The righteous man fellowships with God. sin is a wall that separates sinful man from God. Depending on your translations, you may see throughout the Psalms the repetitions of such words as these: o o o o Righteous and righteousness ----- over 130 times Sin and iniquity ------ at least 50 times Good and evil ------- about 40 times Judgment ----- more than 100 times

These words remind us of our spiritual condition before a Holy God and how we are to come before Him.

Psalm Types:
Psalm Type No. 7 - Cursing: Some psalms cry out not only for the righteous to be vindicated, but also for God to punish the wicked (Ps. 69:22–28). Through this God brings judgment on the wicked. With the coming of Jesus to bear God’s judgment, the warfare of God’s people continues, but is directed now against “spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places” (Eph. 6:12). In their spiritual warfare, believers are commanded not to curse, but to bless their personal enemies, overcoming evil with good (Rom. 12:17–21). [Ps. 10, 35, 52 58,59,69,83,109,137,140]

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Background for Psalm 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Read Psalm 10. Ask the students to tell you the characteristics of the wicked as you list them on the board. Ask, “Do you see these things happening today?” “What are your feelings toward the wicked? Are they like David’s feelings?” How do you pray for the wicked? Prepare Appendix G (Define belief, feelings and actions). “Read Psalm 10 to find David’s beliefs, his feelings and his actions which result from these beliefs and feelings. Put your answers on the chart. ” Read Psalm 10 to find the wicked man’s beliefs, his feelings and his actions which result from these beliefs and feelings. Put your answers on the chart.”

David now asks that the Lord would deal with his wicked enemies. This psalm reflects a sense of urgency: the psalmist pleads for immediate deliverance.

The structure of Ps. 10 is: David points to the present condition in the world where God seems to have permitted the wicked to triumph over the righteous (1-11). • an inquiry into the Lord’s inaction (vv. 1, 2) • a description of the actions of the wicked (vv. 3–11) He then appeals to the Lord to act, to set the matter right, confident that the King of the world will do so (12-18). • a renewed call for the Lord to rise in judgment (vv. 12, 13) • a confession of trust in the Lord’s final judgment (vv. 14, 15) • a presentation of praise to God who is King (vv. 16–18). This prayer asks God to rise up in justice against “the man of the earth” (or “man who is of the earth” -Ps. 10:18). The psalm describes this person as “wicked.” Notice what characterizes him: • • • • • • • • • • • • arrogant pride and boasting mistreatment of the poor carefully devised plots greedy friends disdain and disrespect for God ignorance of pain, failure, and misfortune disrespect for his enemies who are the righteous ones curses lies trouble and evil speech murder the assumption that he will never be caught

People that fit this description can be found in newspaper stories on any day of the week. They range from street thugs to professional people who criminals. They may or may not use violence. But one thing they have in common is that they prey on the weak, the defenseless, and the powerless. But Psalm 10 assures us that when we oppose evil, in all its individual and institutional forms, we are joined by the Lord. Ultimately, He will prevail and bring long-overdue justice to the “fatherless and the oppressed.” Meanwhile, believers are to work toward that end now. If you look at this book prophetically you see the deceitful career of the Antichrist. Through pride and boasting, the Antichrist will attempt to deceive the entire world -- oppressing the righteous and lurking in hiding places for the saints (Rev. 13 – 19). As the psalm ends with thanksgiving to the Lord, the great King, we see He is The LORD the King forever and ever (29:10, 146:10). The Antichrist cannot stop the establishment of God’s kingdom. 28

God will hear the believer’s humble prayer. And the man of the earth, satan, will be defeated by the man from heaven (Rev. 11 – 21). Psalm Type No. 8 - The Pilgrimage Psalms: Also known as Songs of Zion, these psalms were sung by pilgrims traveling up to Jerusalem for the three annual religious feasts of Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles (see 43; 46; 48; 76; 84; 87; 120– 133, 134). In contrast to the “cursing” psalms, the Pilgrim and prophetic Passover psalms are joyful. They became a part of the Passover celebration in Judaism. These psalms are a remarkable celebration of the great acts of the Lord in delivering His people from Egypt, which is the theme of the Passover celebration. They point forward to the deliverance that would come through the Savior Jesus. Background for Psalm 133 It has been called “A Psalm of Brotherhood,” and it certainly is a psalm of fellowship. Not only did this pilgrim come to Jerusalem with his wife and children, but he is with friends. They are having a wonderful time of fellowship together. V. 1 -- As believers, we are told to endeavor to “… keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace” (Eph. 4:3). Believers are one in the Risen Lord. It is good and agreeable to the will of God to be in unity. It is pleasant and pleasing to God and all men; it brings constant delight to those who do live in unity. V. 2 -- It is fragrant as the holy anointing oil, which was strongly perfumed to the delight of the bystanders. And it was so plentiful that it ran down to the bottom of his garment. This verse also refers to the time that Aaron was anointed high priest. It also speaks of the priesthood of the Lord Jesus the Messiah. Someone has said that in this verse you have the fragrance of a lovely rose. This precious ointment was put on the priest to indicate that he was a priest unto God. We see that this is a picture of the Lord Jesus the Messiah. Not only is He King but He is also our High Priest. It is said of Him in Psalm 45:7 that He is anointed “… with the oil of gladness above [His] fellows.” In Ezekiel 39:29 we read, “Neither will I hide my face any more from them: for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of Israel, said the Lord GOD.” Ezekiel speaks of a future day, and like that ointment that ran down on Aaron, so will God pour out His Spirit. This is the meaning, by the way, of Joel’s prophecy of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the “Israel of a coming day,” which was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost. However, in our day we are baptized with the Holy Spirit when we believe, which puts us into the body of believers, and Jesus is our Great High Priest. Since this is true, we should attempt to keep the unity the Holy Spirit made and give off the fragrance of the risen Messiah in our lives. The psalmist concludes by saying that for brethren to dwell together in unity is “as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion.” This high mountain is located to the north of Israel. It received such large amounts of water that it seemed to be a source of moisture for the lands below. Similarly, the blessings of God flow to His people. Where do we receive the blessing? ----“for there the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore.” [Ps. 133:3] ---- “there” means where the people are in unity in the Lord. What kind of blessings are they? Commanded blessings. These are blessings according to the promise – his covenant forever. Group work: Divide into groups of 3. Using the questions from lesson 3, discuss and write out the answers to the questions. Use Psalm 3.

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Lesson 5
Key No. 9 - Key Dates The individual psalms may have been written at dates extending from the Exodus to the restoration after the Babylonian exile. But the small collections seem to have been gathered at specific periods in Israel’s history, such as the reign of King David (1 Chr. 23:5), the rule of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:30), and during the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh. 12:24). For the teacher: You can put this chart on the board in a simple diagram and discuss.

1400 BC

1000 BC

971 BC

931 BC

722 BC

Ps. 90

Most of the Psalms were written in this time.

Ps. 137

Ps. 126

For the Teacher: 1. Prepare handout for the translated Doxologies 2. Give each person a copy of these. 3. Ask the students if they have a definition of the word “Doxology?” Discuss Doxology. Key No. 10 - Key Doxologies: As you look at “A sketch of Psalms’ and Appendix A, there are five groups of Psalms. These end with a doxology. You may see these as a clue to the content of each of the five divisions. These doxologies will reveal a certain conception of God and an attitude of the soul in worship resulting from that conception. DOXOLOGY — a declaration of praise to God or a brief hymn expressing His power and glory. The word itself does not appear in the Bible, but the concept is certainly present. Several passages in the Bible are called doxologies because of their clear declaration of praise to God. Volume I, Psalm 41:13 – God the Provider of our blessings. This psalm begins with a blessing of God on the righteous; it ends with the righteous blessing their Lord. The word here for blessed may be different from the word in v. 1. Here the word identifies the Lord as the source of our blessing. The word Amen, meaning “surely” and “let it be,” is an affirmation of faith in God. It is simply saying “yes” to God. The repetition of the word parallels the repetition of the word everlasting and expresses enthusiastic agreement with the praise in the psalm. Volume II, Psalm 72:18, 19 - God the Mighty One who cares for His children The repetition of the word blessed, (v.16), and the double Amen all indicate that this psalm was used in the worship of God in His temple.

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Restorat ion

Solomo n

Divided Kingdo m

Moses

David

Exile

500 BC

Volume III, Psalm 89:52 - God is faithful Faithfulness is a key word in this psalm (vv. 1, 2, 5, 8, 24, 33). God’s faithfulness is seen from generation to generation (vv. 1–4), among His people (vv. 5–10), in creation (vv. 11–13), among the nations (vv. 14–18), and toward David and his family (vv. 19–37). Ethan, the writer of the psalm, knew all of this because he knew the Scriptures. But recent events seemed to deny the truthfulness of the covenant and the faithfulness of the Lord. 89:52 But in the closing verse faith triumphs. Though Ethan cannot see the answer to his perplexity, he can still bless Jehovah. It is as if he is saying, “Lord, I can’t understand but I will still trust.” So he ends his prayer on the high note, “Blessed be the LORD forevermore! Amen and Amen.”

Volume IV, Psalm 106:48 - God is Merciful and Faithful This psalm is one of national lament, though it might also be classified as a historical psalm. In this psalm the emphasis is on the people’s faithlessness and the Lord’s justice. Which was opposite of Psalm 136. Verse 47 has been interpreted to imply that the setting of the psalm was the Babylonian captivity. Second, a confession of Israel’s past sins (vv. 6–46) takes up the bulk of the psalm. Finally, the psalmist concludes with a twofold petition, save us … gather us, with a twofold purpose, to give thanks … and to triumph (v. 47). In verse 48, it reads, blessed be the LORD God of Israel from everlasting to everlasting. Not only is this verse a fitting conclusion but it also concludes this book of the Psalms (Book IV). And let all the people say, Amen. The other doxologies end with Amen, and Amen, but here the single Amen is used in order to give way to a Hallelujah. Praise you the LORD.

Volume V, Psalm 150:6 - God is worthy! He alone is worthy of praise. Who should praise Him? “Everything that has breath” (v. 6). But things that do not have breath praise Him (Ps. 148:7–9), so we have even more reason to do so! Our breath comes from Him (Acts 17:25), so we ought to use it to praise His name. Breath is the weakest thing we have, but we can devote it to the highest service, praising the Lord.

Questions? 1. From the chart where are the doxologies located in each book? Book I - 41:13; Book II – 72:18 – 19; Book III – 89:52; Book IV – 106:48; Book V – 150:6 2. What is characteristic of these doxologies?

Psalm Types
Psalm Type No. 9 - Messianic Psalms (Psalms 22, 23, 24) These psalms refer in some sense to the Savior, the Messiah, who will come from David’s line. They foretell the coming of the Messiah and His ministry. In fact, they make little sense unless read with Jesus in mind. Jesus said, “All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the ….psalms concerning me” (Luke 24:44). Psalms can explain a great deal about the ministry of the Savior. Nine of the Messianic psalms are called Royal Psalms because they exalt Jesus as the King of the nations (Ps. 2,18,20,21,24,45,61,72,110, and 132). Ten messianic Psalms are called Prophetic Psalms because they tell of the coming of the Messiah (8, 16, 23, 40, 45, 68, 72, 97, 110, and 118). 31

Six are called Passion Psalms because they describe Jesus’ suffering in death on the cross (22, 35, 41, 64, 69, and 109) . Background for Psalm 22 These three familiar and beloved psalms present the Messiah as the Shepherd, each one emphasizing a different aspect of His Person and His work. • • • Psalm 22 pictures the Good Shepherd dying for the sheep (John 10:11) Psalm 23 pictures the Great Shepherd caring for the sheep (Heb. 13:20-21) Psalm 24 pictures the Chief Shepherd coming for the sheep (1 Peter 5:4)

In other words, Jesus the Messiah died for us (past), Jesus lives for us (present), and Jesus the Lord will come for us (future). I. THE GOOD SHEPHERD (22) This psalm presents the crucifixion of the Messiah in vv. 1-21 and His resurrection in vv. 22-31. Since the Jews did not know of crucifixion back in David’s time, this vivid description of the Messiah’s death on the cross could only have been written by inspiration of the Spirit. It is interesting to contrast the two sections of this psalm. In vv. 1-21, we see the Messiah’s suffering and crucifixion, while in vv. 22-31, we see His glory and resurrection. The first passage depicts pain and prayer; the second passage depicts praise and promise. And the first shows the Risen Lord in the midst of His enemies; the second, the Risen Lord in the midst of the church. It is not difficult to see the fulfillment of this chapter in the NT story of the cross: v. 1 Jesus spoke these words (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34) v. 2 Alternate light and darkness (Matt. 27:45) vv. 6-8 The reproach of the people (Matt. 27:39-44) vv. 11-12 No help was offered Him (Matt. 26:56) v. 16 His hands and feet pierced (Matt. 27:35) v. 17 People staring at Him (Luke 23:35) v. 18 Gambling for His garments (John 19:23-24) At v. 22, the scene changes and we move to resurrection. See Heb. 2:11-12 for the NT explanation of this. The Messiah is no longer on the cross; He is in the midst of His brethren (the church) declaring the glory of God. Verse 24 must be read in connection with Heb. 5:7. This final section is filled with praise: in the church (v. 22), in Israel (vv. 23-26), and among the Gentiles (vv. 27-31). Verse 31 ends, “He has done this,” paralleling Jesus’ words, “It is finished.” Because of the Messiah’s work on the cross, salvation has been accomplished and all who come to Him by faith will be saved. Questions: 1. What does this Psalm represent? 2. Can you see the crucifixion in these verses? 3. When was this Psalm written? 4. Do you see the prophetic words written about Jesus’ death and resurrection?

Background for Psalm 23 For the Teacher: Prepare Appendix H and give to the participants. II. THE GREAT SHEPHERD (23) Hebrews 13:20-21 informs us that today Jesus is the Great Shepherd who cares for the sheep. We are His sheep, and as we follow Him He ministers to us. The Messiah did not simply die for us but He 32

rose again and lives for us. He is the Great Shepherd, the Great High Priest. “I shall not want” is the theme of Ps. 23. “I shall not want” for: • • • • • rest and refreshment (v. 2) restoration and righteousness (v. 3) protection in trouble (v. 4) provision in the wilderness (v. 5) a home to go to at the end of the day (v. 6)

Of course, the picture here is that of the Oriental shepherd and his flock. Illustrate on the board. (You can pass out Chart I) 1. Such a shepherd knows each sheep by name. The shepherd goes before the sheep and makes sure they are not walking into danger (John 10:27-28). The sheep never need worry when they follow the shepherd, for he will protect them and provide for them. 2. Even when they go through a dangerous valley (v. 4), or are attacked by animals, the shepherd is beside them, protecting them with his rod and staff. Beyond the valley is the house of rest. 3. At the end of the day, the shepherd leads the flock back to the fold and stands by the open door of the pin to examine each one as it enters. If he sees one that is bruised or weary, he puts the refreshing oil upon it to soothe and heal it, and gives it a drink of cool water. How gracious our Shepherd is to care for us! • • • • • • • • Each of the OT names for God is seen in this psalm: Jehovah-Jireh” - The Lord will provide” (Gen. 22:13-14) Jehovah-Rapha” - The Lord will heal or restore” (Ex. 15:26) Jehovah-Shalom” - The Lord our peace” (Jdg. 6:24) Jehovah-Tsidkenu” - The Lord our righteousness” (Jer. 23:6) Jehovah-Shammah” - “The Lord is there” (Ezek. 48:35) Jehovah-Nissi “ - The Lord our banner” (Ex. 17:8-15) Jehovah-Raah “ - The Lord my shepherd” (Ps. 23:1).

In other words, Jesus the Messiah is to His sheep all that they ever need. A little child once said when misquoting this psalm, “The Lord is my shepherd—what more shall I want?” For teacher: 1. Looking at the 23rd Psalm, match the names of God with what God does on Appendix H. 2. Have the students fill in the blanks with the appropriate Names of God.

Background for Psalm 24: III. THE CHIEF SHEPHERD (24) For the reading of the 24th Psalm: From the group, select 5 solo “readers”. They will shout loudly!! No. 1 Reader –verse 3 No. 2 Reader – verse 4 No. 3 Reader – verse 5 No. 4 Reader – verse 7 No. 5 Reader – verse 10 (first line) The group – verses 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 (last two lines). The last 2 lines will be shouted loudly. Jewish tradition says that this psalm was written to commemorate David’s returning the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 13-15). Retell the story in a shortened version. It was probably sung by different choirs and soloists, each answering the other. 33

• • • • • • • •

The choir would sing vv. 1-2 a voice would respond with v. 3 then another voice would answer with v. 4 Then the choir would sing vv. 5-6 Then another voice would respond with v. 7 As the people entered the gates of the city, the choir would sing out vv. 8-9 and the voice would ask again, “Who is this king of glory?” v. 10a Then the entire group would shout, “The Lord of hosts! He is the king of glory!” v. 10b

What a wonderful spectacle it must have been! But an even greater wonder awaits Jerusalem when the Chief Shepherd, Jesus the risen Lord, appears to claim David’s throne. This psalm describes the return of the King to Zion. (Read Rev. 19:11-16.) This present earth is under the influence of sin and Satan. Though it is the Lord’s by creation and redemption, it has not yet been delivered from bondage. But thank God, one day Jesus will return to the earth to claim His inheritance. Then the earth will be filled with the glory of the Lord. The question in v. 3 is important: who is worthy to rule over the earth from Mt. Zion? It reminds us of Rev. 5 when the question is asked, “Who is worthy to open the book and break the seals?” There can be only one answer: Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God. Psalm 24:4 describes Him as the Perfect Man, the Perfect King. David did not have clean hands, for he murdered a man; nor did he have a pure heart, for he lusted and committed adultery. He lifted up his soul to vanity and pride when he numbered the people. Solomon could not qualify for he was an idolater. Even great King Hezekiah fell because of pride. No, the only king who can qualify is Jesus the Messiah. When Jesus the Risen Lord claims Jerusalem, He will come as one fresh from the battle (v. 8), for He will have defeated the nations of the world at Armageddon (Rev. 19:19-21). Before Jesus was born, it was promised that He would sit on David’s throne (Luke 1:30-33). Today He is seated on His Father’s throne (Rev. 3:21) in Heaven, but when He returns to this earth in judgment and glory, He will claim David’s throne and reign over the house of Jacob. Of course, He will first return in the air to take the church to heaven (1 Thes. 4:13-18). Then will follow seven years of awful tribulation on the earth - “the time of Jacob’s trouble.” When Satan and his evil associates have done their worst, Jesus the Risen Lord will return to judge and to deliver the world from evil. Then there will be a renewed earth, a restored Israel and a righteous kingdom for a thousand years (Rev. 20:1-5). If Jesus the Messiah is your Good Shepherd because you have received Him as Savior, then let Him be your Great Shepherd to guide and bless your life. Then when He returns as the Chief Shepherd, you will be ready to meet Him.

For the Teacher: Have the students look up and read these verse in their Bibles. The Messiah of the Psalms

Psalm 2:7 8:2 8:6 16:10 22:1

Portrayal The Son of God Praised by children Ruler of all Rises from death Forsaken by God 34

Fulfilled Matthew 3:17 Matthew 21:15, 16 Hebrews 2:8 Matthew 28:7 Matthew 27:46

22:7, 8 22:16 22:18 34:20 35:11 35:19 40:7, 8 41:9 45:6 68:18 69:9 69:21 109:4 109:8 110:1 110:4 118:22 118:26

Derided by enemies Hands and feet pierced Lots cast for clothes Bones unbroken Accused by false witnesses Hated without cause Delights in God’s will Betrayed by a friend The eternal King Ascends to heaven Zealous for God’s house Given vinegar and gall Prays for enemies His betrayer replaced Rules over His enemies A priest forever The chief stone of God’s building Comes in the name of the Lord

Luke 23:35 John 20:27 Matthew 27:35, 36 John 19:32, 33, 36 Mark 14:57 John 15:25 Hebrews 10:7 Luke 22:47 Hebrews 1:8 Acts 1:9–11 John 2:17 Matthew 27:34 Luke 23:34 Acts 1:20 Matthew 22:44 Hebrews 5:6 Matthew 21:42 Matthew 21:9

Psalms Type No. 10 - Praise Psalms: These psalms focus on the person of God and praise Him by describing His nature and qualities (Ps. 33, 103, 139, 150). Many Psalms describe the characteristics of God: God’s majesty, wisdom, and power – Ps. 18 - 20 God’s mercy - Ps. 32, 85, 136 God’s infinite knowledge – Psalm 139 His creative power – Ps. 33, 89, 104 The first believers who met together were comprised mainly of Jewish people, so it was natural that they incorporated the singing of psalms, hymns and spiritual songs in their worship (Col. 3:16). Background for Psalm 150: For teacher: Give out Appendix I. Psalm 1 contains six verses and speaks of the man who is blessed. Psalm 150 also contains six verses but speaks of the God who is praised. No more fitting conclusion to the book could have been written!! While the other four books of the Psalms end with a brief verse or two of doxology, Psalm 150 in its entirety forms the doxology to complete the fifth book. Use the following as discussion questions: As the final song of praise, it appropriately answers four key questions about praise. 1. Where should God be praised? Everywhere, from His sanctuary on earth to His heavenly creation (v. 1). 35

2. Why should God be praised? For His powerful deeds on behalf of men and for His inherent greatness (v. 2). 3. How should God be praised? With every suitable instrument man can offer with his Godgiven creativity and artistry (vv. 3–5). See Appendix I for musical instruments. 4. Who should praise God? Everything that breathes (v. 6). Are these also our reasons for praising God? Though every verse of the psalm is cast in the form of a call to praise, the hymn is certainly prophetic of a day when every creature will in fact bow in praise to the Almighty God (Phil. 2:11; Rev. 5:8–14).

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Supplementary Material

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A SKETCH OF PSALMS:

Writer…………… Theme division…. Compiler……….. Date……………..

Vol. 1, #1 - 41 David “ Creation, Man, Sin and Redemption” King David (1020-970 BC)

Vol. 2, #42 - 72 David and Korah “Deliverance Redemption” King Hezekiah (970-610 BC)

and

Vol. 3, #73 - 89 Asaph and descendants “Tabernacle and God’s holiness” King Josiah (970-610 BC)

Vol. 4., #90 - 106 David and others “Wilderness Wanderings” Ezra the Priest (609-430 BC)

and

Vol. 5, #107-150 David and others “Scripture, Thanksgiving and Praise” Nehemiah the Governor and Leader (609 – 430 BC)

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Appendix A
N o. 38 3 18 1 1 8 3 1 11 89:52 Sons of Korah 84, 85, 87 Book III Chapters 73 – 89 Total Chapters 17 Heman 88 Ethan 89 David 95, 96, 101, 103, 105 Book IV Chapters 90 – 106 Total Chapters 17 3 1 1 5 King Hezekiah to King
Manasseh

Book Book I Chapters 1-41 Total Chapters 41

Writers And Chapters David 2-9, 11-32, 34-41 Anonymous David 51 – 65, 68 – 70 Asaph 50 Solomon 72

Period

Compiled

DOXO LOGY

King David

Probably by David

41:13

72:18 - 19

Book II Chapters 42 – 72 Total Chapters 31

Sons of Korah Anonymous 66 – 67, 71 David 86 Asaph 73 – 83

King Hezekiah

In Hezekiah’s Reign

Moses 90 Anonymous 91 – 94, 97 – 100, 102, 104, 106 David 108 – 110, 122, 124, 131, 133, 138 – 145 Solomon 127 Anonymous 107, 111 – 121, 123, 125 – 126, 128, 130, 132, 134 – 137, 146 – 150 Hezekiah might have written some Psalms 39

1
Manasseh

11 15 1

To Captivity

In Josiah’s Reign After Captivity In the time Of Nehemiah (Ezra may have compiled them)

106:48

150: 1–6 Return from Captivity Time Of Nehemiah

Book V Chapters 107 – 150 Total Chapters 44

10

Appendix B
Psalm 1

“ The Lord Knows the Way of the Righteous, But the Way of the Ungodly Shall Perish. “ Psalm 1:6

Outcome: 1. 2. 3.

Outcome: 1. 2. 3.

?

1. 2. 3.

Decisions based on…… 1. 2. 3. 40

Decisions based…….. 1. 2.

Appendix C
Psalm 119

41

Appendix D
Psalm 19

.

42

Appendix E
PSALM 32

3-4 5 6-7

8 –11

43

Appendix F
Psalm 34

What is David Doing? 1-3

WHY ? 4-10

What Does David Teach About God? 11 - 22

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Appendix G
Psalm 10

The Wicked Man:

Feelings Belief

Action

David:

Feelings Belief

Action

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Appendix H
Psalm 23

1 –2

3

_____________, ______________ _____________, _______________

_____________________, _____________

4 ___________________

5-6 _________________________

Appendix I

Hebrew Musical Instruments
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Psalm Numbering System for Russian and Kazakh
Kazah/ Russian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9a 9b 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Kazak/ Russian 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 71 73 Kazah/ Russian 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

English 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

English 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

English 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111

English 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

Kazak/ Russian 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146/147 148 149 150

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For Further Study and Training in Righteousness

Doctrine 1. Servant Leadership 3. Personal Evangelism I (The Camel Method) 5. Personal Evangelism II (Chronological Storying) 7. Believer’s Lifestyle 9. Spiritual Warfare 11. Church Planting 13. Doctrine of the Holy Spirit 15. Bible Interpretation 17. Doctrine of Salvation 19. The Godhead 21. Spiritual Disciplines 23. Old Testament Survey 25. Stewardship 27. Personal Evangelism III

Bible 2. Pastoral Letters (1 - 2 Timothy, Titus) 4. Romans 6. Theology of Genesis 8. 1 Corinthians 10. Ephesians 12. The Gospel of John 14. Acts 1 – 12 16. Acts 13 – 28 (The Ministry of Paul) 18. Exodus 20. The Journeys of Jesus (Synoptic Gospels) 22. Galatians 24. Hebrews 26. Psalms

A program of: CA SALT: Servant And Leadership Training
November, 2001

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