Chapter 4 : Organization of Life

A. CELL Cell is the smallest living unit of structure and function in living organism. Cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke (1665). Living organism which is formed by a cell is called unicellular organism. For instance Amoeba, Paramecium. The living organisms which form many cells is called multicellular organism. The study of cells is called cytology. Parts of cell 1. Plasma membrane / cell membrane It is part of the cell which controls what substances come into and out of a cell. In plant cell, it is protected by cell wall. Cell wall is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the plant cell. Mostly cell wall is of a material called cellulose. Cell wall is to protect and support the cell. 2. Protoplasm Liquid in organelle cells. Contains water, protein, carbohydrate, fat, mineral, salt, and vitamin. Protoplasm is differentiated into nucleoplasm ( liquid inside the nucleus) and cytoplasm ( liquid outside the nucleus). 3. Nucleus It is part of the cell that controls all the cell’s activities. Parts of the nucleus:  Nucleolus : Core of the nucleus  Nucleoplasm : Liquid inside the nucleus  Nucleus membrane : Outer layer that protects the nucleus  Chromatin fibres: Contains genetic material  DNA ( Deoxy Ribo Nucleic Acid), Made mostly of amino acid Organelle cells No. Organelle Cells 1 Mitochondria 2 Ribosome

Function Cell respiration Site of protein synthesis


Endoplasmic reticulum

Channel connected

Note Produce energy They could be attached to the ER or float in the cytoplasm There are rough ER and smooth



between nucleolus and cytoplasm Carry on photosynthesis







Golgi body



Contain chlorophyll, found in plant cell Storage area for Most plants have food and waste a big vacuole products which contain liquid called cell sap Role in cell Found in the division animal cell, in the centrosome Role in processes, Sometimes called packages and golgi apparatus secretes modified cell products Contain chemicals Found in animal including enzymes cells that break down certain materials

Everything in life is made of smaller pieces and a membrane is no different. The phospholipids make the basic bag. That model shows that . The proteins are found around the holes and help move molecules in and out of the cell. Scientists describe the organization of the phospholipids and proteins with the fluid mosaic model.animal cell No. Component 1 Shape 2 Cell wall 3 Chloroplast 4 Vacuole 5 Centriole 6 Mitochondria Differences between plant and Plant cell Regular Present Present Bigger Absent Less Animal Cell Irregular Absent Absent Smaller Present Many Cell Membrane The cell membrane is not one solid piece. Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up most of the cell membrane.

While we talk about membranes all the time. Cell Walls . Some organelles have two membranes. They may just sit on the surface of the membrane. A mitochondrion has an outer and inner membrane. Those proteins that cross the layer are very important in the active transport of ions and small molecules. The tails bump up against each other and the heads are out facing the watery area surrounding the cell. What about the membrane proteins? Scientists have shown that the proteins float in that bilayer.the phospholipids are in a shape like a head and a tail. you should remember they all use a basic phospholipid bilayer. Some of them are found on the inside of the cell and some on the outside. integral membrane proteins are permanently connected to the cell membrane. They do not have the same chemical makeup as the cell membrane. you will find that most have a membrane. Integral proteins are the hard workers of the cell membrane. The inner molecule holds digestive enzymes that break down food. Other proteins cross the bilayer with one end outside of the cell and one end inside. The outer membrane contains the mitochondrion parts. They are both different from the cell membrane. Some integral proteins cross the membrane and act as pathways for ions and molecules. The heads like water (hydrophilic) and the tails do not like water (hydrophobic). but have many other different parts. anchored with a few hydrogen (H) bonds. When you look at the whole membrane. The membrane that surrounds a lysosome is different from the membrane around the endoplasmic reticulum.peripheral proteins and integral proteins. The two layers of cells are called the bilayer. They have large sections embedded in the hydrophobic (middle) layer of the membrane. As you can guess from the name. As you learn more about the organelles inside of the cell. there are very few integral proteins when compared to the number of peripheral ones. Some of the ion movement may not require work (passive transport). Each membrane is unique to the organelle. Peripheral proteins are not bonded as strongly to the membrane. There are two types of proteins in the cell membrane -. but other processes require a lot of energy and pumping action (active transport).

It's like taking a water balloon and putting it in a cardboard box. Cell walls are made of specialized sugars called cellulose. Golgi apparatus. They are not the same. It will look just the same as when it started. So if a plant is drooping because it needs water. Cell walls also help a plant keep its shape. Those holes are called plasmodesmata. The other walls might be made from proteins or a substance called chitin. but they are very different molecules.Filling Fluid Cytoplasm is the fluid that fills a cell. Scientists used to call the fluid protoplasm. Cellulose provides a protected framework for a plant cell to survive. cell walls made of cellulose are only found around plant cells. cell walls are slightly elastic. a 100-foot tall redwood tree does not. Early on. it can recover when water is added. they didn't know about the many different types of fluids in the cell. While you have a skeleton to hold you up. The balloon is protected from the outside world. It uses the strong cell walls to maintain its shape. Fungi and some protozoa also have cell walls. But even when the plant cell loses water. cell walls and cellulose also allow plants to grow to great heights. Big redwoods need strength in high winds and sway very little (except at the top). waste.While cell membranes might be around every cell. Cellulose is called a structural carbohydrate (complex sugar) because it is used in protection and support. While they do protect the cells. These holes have a problem: water can also be lost. They all serve the same purpose of protecting and maintaining structure. Only plant cell walls are made out of cellulose. Bacteria also have a structure called a cell wall. endoplasmic reticulum. Wind can push them over and then they bounce back. For smaller plants. the basic shape is maintained by the cell walls. There is special fluid in the mitochondria. There are small holes in the wall that let nutrients. A cell wall is not a fortress around the delicate plant cell. and ions pass through. You may hear about cell walls in other areas of biology. Cytoplasm . The only two 'plasms' left are . and nucleus.

It is not always present in the nucleus. A defined nucleus that holds the genetic code is an advanced feature in a cell. If you don't remember.cytoplasm (the fluid in the cell also called cytosol) and nucleoplasm (the fluid in the nucleus). The cell organelles are suspended in the cytosol. You'll find enzymes. Nucleus The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. the nucleoplasm fills the space again. When the cell divides. chances are the nucleus knows about it. . It uses its dissolved enzymes to break down all of those larger molecules. You don't need a nucleus to have DNA. It doesn't have big organelles in suspension. After the cell nucleus has reformed. If it happens in a cell. The cytosol in a cell does more than just suspend the organelles. It will be a big dark spot somewhere in the middle of all of the cytoplasm (cytosol). Biology breaks cell types into eukaryotic (those with a defined nucleus) and prokaryotic (those with no defined nucleus). and reproduction. Waste products are also dissolved before they are taken in by vacuoles or sent out of the cell. The nucleoplasm is the suspension fluid that holds the cell's chromatin and nucleolus. You will learn that the microfilaments and microtubules set up a "skeleton" of the cell and the cytosol fills the spaces. fatty acids. Each of those fluids has a very different composition. You probably won't find it near the edge of a cell because that might be a dangerous place for the nucleus to be. the nuclear membrane dissolves and the nucleoplasm is released. Not all cells have a nucleus. The products can then be used by the organelles of the cell. the cytoplasm is the fluid that fills cells. The nucleus is not always in the center of the cell. and amino acids that are used to keep the cell working. Glucose may exist in the cytosol but the mitochondria can't use it for fuel. You may have heard of chromatin and DNA. It helps control eating. Nucleoplasm has a little different composition. The cytoplasm has many different molecules dissolved in solution. sugars. If you don't have a defined nucleus. movement. The cytosol has enzymes that break glucose down into pyruvate molecules that are then sent to the mitochondria. your DNA is probably floating around the cell in a region called the nucleoid. Nucleoplasm can only be found inside of the nucleus.

You will also find the nucleolus inside of the nucleus. It does not have much DNA at all. When . it looks like a nucleus inside of the nucleus. they are usually at right angles. When you look through a microscope. Chromatin is made of DNA. There are nine groups of microtubules. It is made of RNA and protein. The nuclear envelope is a membrane similar to the cell membrane around the whole cell. They are there to help the cell when it comes time to divide. The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and all of its contents. Centriole Every animal-like cell has two small organelles called centrioles. Those threads are called the mitotic spindle. It condenses. And what are centrioles made of? Microtubules. A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way. you may also see groups of threads attached to the centrioles. During division. you can see the chromosomes.The things that make a eukaryotic cell are a defined nucleus and other organelles. and nuclear proteins. You will see a condensed and darker area of the cytoplasm called the centrosome. When the cell is in a resting state there is something called chromatin in the nucleus. You will not see well-defined centrioles when the cell is not dividing. When two centrioles are found next to each other. When the chromatin comes together. The centrioles are found in pairs and move towards the poles (opposite ends) of the nucleus when it is time for cell division. DNA and RNA are the nucleic acids inside of the cell. RNA. They are put to work in both the process of mitosis and the process of meiosis. There are pores and spaces for RNA and proteins to pass through while the nuclear envelope keeps all of the chromatin and nucleolus inside. When the cell is going to divide. We already mentioned that you would find centrioles near the nucleus. the chromatin becomes very compact. You will usually find them near the nucleus but they cannot be seen when the cell is not dividing.

During anaphase. the chromosomes are split and pulled towards each centriole. the chromosomes begin to unravel and new nuclear envelopes begin to appear. When you need to make proteins. Those threads then connect to the now apparent chromosomes. Interphase is the time when the cell is at rest. Ribosomes Cells need to make proteins. Those floating ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside of the cell. They are like construction guys who connect one amino acid at a time and build long chains. Other ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. the centrioles will appear and move to opposite ends of the nucleus. the centrioles move to opposite ends of the nucleus and a mitotic spindle of threads begins to appear. One pair moves in each direction. The centrioles have done their job. Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell. When it comes time for a cell to divide. Ribosomes are found in many places around the cell.the time comes for cell division. During division you will see four centrioles. During prophase. . You might find them floating in the cytoplasm (cytosol). Those attached ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside the cell and proteins made for export out of the cell. It looks bumpy under a microscope. Endoplasmic reticulum with attached ribosomes is called rough. Those proteins might be used as enzymes or as support for other cell functions. you look for ribosomes. Once the entire cell begins to split in telophase. the centrioles duplicate.

Prokaryotic cells have ribosomes made of 50-S and 30-S subunits. mRNA is created in the nucleus. Scientists named them 60S (large) and 40-S (small). We just explained that mRNA is made in the nucleus and sent into the cell. The mRNA is then sent into the cell and the ribosomes. The process of making proteins is quite simple. It's a small difference. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. The 60-S/ 40-S model works fine for eukaryotic cells. The mRNA then combines with the ribosome subunits. There are two pieces or subunits. When the cell needs to make protein. With the mRNA offering instructions.A ribosome is not just one piece. the two subunits come together and combine with the mRNA. Scientists have used this difference in ribosome size to develop drugs that can kill prokaryotic microorganisms that cause disease. A mitochondrion is shaped perfectly to maximize its efforts. but one of many you will find in the two different types of cells. . Another nucleic acid lives in the cell tRNA. and creates energy for the cell. Mitochondria Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. The subunits lock onto the mRNA and start the protein synthesis. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients. which stands for transfer RNA. tRNA is bonded to the amino acids floating around the cell. When it is time to make the protein. breaks them down. Slowly the ribosome makes a long amino acid chain that will be part of a larger protein. the ribosome connects to a tRNA and pulls off one amino acid. The process of creating cell energy is known as cellular respiration.

depending on the cell's needs. The outer membrane covers the organelle and contains it. Many of the chemical reactions happen on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. After the oxygen is added. If you have more room to work. If the purpose of the cell is to transmit nerve impulses. That folding increases the surface area inside the organelle. If the cell feels it is not getting enough energy to survive. The inner membrane folds over many times (cristae). They are only found in plant cells and some protists. you can get more work done. How are mitochondria used in cellular respiration? The matrix is filled with water (H2O) and proteins (enzymes). The fluid inside of the mitochondria is called the matrix. Similar surface area strategies are used by microvilli in your intestinal cells. there will be fewer mitochondria than in a muscle cell that needs loads of energy. The mitochondria are the only place in the cell where oxygen can be combined with the food molecules. Those proteins take food molecules and combine them with oxygen (O2). and combine with other mitochondria. move. The increased surface area allows the small organelle to do as much work as possible. The number depends on what the cell needs to do. Sometimes they can even grow. They are working organelles that keep the cell full of energy. Mitochondria have two membranes (not one as in other organelles). the material can be digested. more mitochondria can be created. Animal cells do not have . You might find cells with several thousand mitochondria. A mitochondrion may also be involved in controlling the concentration of calcium (Ca) within the cell. Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell.Mitochondria are very small organelles.

Every green plant you see is working to convert the energy of the sun into sugars. There are even molecules other than chlorophyll that are photosynthetic. Mitochondria work in the opposite direction and break down the sugars and nutrients that the cell receives. Three types of chlorophyll can complete photosynthesis. they are not all green or the same structure as chlorophyll. The molecular reactions create sugar and oxygen (O2). We said that chlorophyll molecules sit on the outside of the thylakoid sacs. The stroma is an area inside of the chloroplast where reactions occur and starches (sugars) are created. While those compounds might complete photosynthesis. When the energy from the Sun hits a chloroplast. They create sugars. Two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast. That process happens in the chloroplast.chloroplasts. We'll hit the high points for the structure of a chloroplast. Plants and animals then use the sugars (glucose) for food and energy. The stacks of sacs are connected by stromal lamellae. Not all chlorophyll is the same. The purpose of the chloroplast is to make sugars and starches. Animals also use the oxygen to breathe. The lamellae act like the skeleton of the chloroplast. and the byproduct of that process is the oxygen that we breathe. and fucoxanthin (brown algae). They use a process called photosynthesis to get the job done. chlorophyll uses that energy to combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The thylakoids have chlorophyll molecules on their surface. Plants are the basis of all life on Earth. phycoerythrin (algae). Photosynthesis is the process of a plant taking energy from the Sun and creating sugars. One thylakoid stack is called a granum. Endo Plasmic Reticulum . That chlorophyll uses sunlight to create sugars. keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle. One day you might hear about carotenoids. phycocyanin (bacteria).

It might not want to search the environment for ions. It does not work alone. a small membrane bubble. They are very important in the synthesis and packaging of proteins.Another organelle in the cell is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It also stores ions in solution that the cell may need at a later time. Steroids are a type of ringed organic molecule used for many purposes in an organism. The ribosomes are attached to the membrane of the ER. They are not always about building muscle mass like a weight lifter. depending on the cell's function. There are rough ER and smooth ER. It creates a network of membranes found through the whole cell. The ER may also look different from cell to cell. The ion storage is important because sometimes a cell needs ions fast. mRNA. When the protein is complete. It acts as a storage organelle. The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus. As you learn more about cells you will discover two types of ER. Some of those proteins might be used in the cell and some are sent out. Sacs of the ER called cisternae store the complex molecules. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids. and tRNA. the chain is pushed into the ER. the ER functions as a packaging system. Smooth ER has its purpose in the cell. They both have the same types of membranes but they have different shapes and rough ER has ribosomes attached. Sometimes the ER looks like a flat balloon. While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain. RNA. That vesicle. . the rough ER pinches off a vesicle. Rough ER was mentioned in the section on ribosomes. can move to the cell membrane or the Golgi apparatus. ribososmes. so it is easier to have them stored in a pack for easy use. Rough ER looks like sheets of bumpy membranes while smooth ER looks more like tubes. As the ribosome builds the amino acid chain.

enzymes) are stored and changed. It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac. a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. packages them in vesicles. The Golgi complex is a series of membranes shaped like pancakes. Vacuole . It then takes those big molecules. Golgi complexes in the plant may also create complex sugars and send them off in secretory vesicles. It is also the organelle that builds lysosomes (cell digestion machines). as soft a "G" sound. While layers of membranes may look like the rough ER. sugars. the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell. Because the Golgi complex absorbs vesicles from the rough ER. The vesicles are pinched off the membranes and float through the cell. This vesicle or sac floats through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus and is absorbed.Golgi Body / Golgi Apparatus / Golgi Complex The Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is found in most cells. you will also find ribosomes in those pancake stacks. The Golgi complex works closely with the rough ER. The single membrane is similar to the cell membrane in that it has two layers. The vesicles are created in the same way the ER does it. The Golgi complex gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell. It is pronounced GOL-JI in the same way you would say squee-gie. It was named after Camillo Golgi. an Italian biologist. they have a very different function. When a protein is made in the ER. From there. The membrane surrounds an area of fluid where the complex molecules (proteins. something called a transition vesicle is made.

Those vacuoles gain and lose water depending on how much water is available to the plant. Plant cells do not shrink because of changes in the amount of cytoplasm. When a plant cell has stopped growing. Plants may also use vacuoles to store water. Vacuoles hold onto things that the cell might need. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. The size of that cell may still increase or decrease depending on how much water is present. there is usually one very large vacuole. . The structure of vacuoles is fairly simple. just like a backpack. Eventually. Sometimes that vacuole can take up more than half of the cell's volume. The vacuole holds large amounts of water or food. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. those waste products would be sent out of the cell.Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. the vacuoles are much larger than in animal cells. Those tiny water bags help to support the plant. Plants use cell walls to provide support and surround cells. There is a membrane that surrounds a mass of fluid. A drooping plant has lost much of its water and the vacuoles are shrinking. They are closely related to objects called vesicles that are found throughout the cell. It still maintains its basic structure because of the cell walls. Those waste products are slowly broken into small pieces that cannot hurt the cell. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. Most of a plant cell's volume depends on the material in vacuoles. Vacuoles also play an important role in plant structure. In that fluid are nutrients or waste products. In plant cells. Don't forge that vacuoles can also hold the plant waste products.

Once the material is inside the cell. When the signal is sent out. they go to work when the cell absorbs or eats some food. Those proteins are packaged in a vesicle and sent to the Golgi apparatus. lysosomes will actually digest the cell organelles for nutrients. What creates a lysosome? You'll have to visit the Golgi complex for that answer. Since lysosomes are little digestion machines. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The enzyme proteins are first created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. the lysosomes attach and release their enzymes. Here's something scientists are still trying to figure out. A lysosome is basically a specialized vesicle that holds a variety of enzymes.When the plant finds a new source of water. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. If the lysosome holds many types of enzymes. the vacuoles are refilled and the plant regains its structure. TISSUE . Lysosomes You will find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. how can the lysosome survive? Lysosomes are designed to break down complex molecules and pieces of the cell. The Golgi then does its final work to create the digestive enzymes and pinches off a small. Lysosomes are single-membrane organelles. The enzymes break down complex molecules that can include complex sugars and proteins. very specific vesicle. From there the lysosomes float in the cytoplasm until they are needed. But what if food is scarce and the cell is starving? The lysosomes go to work even if there is no food for the cell. Why don't the enzymes break down the membrane that surrounds the lysosome? B. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. That vesicle is a lysosome.

Component Illustration Number and Nucleus location Shape Location How they work Smooth muscle One. at the edge Striated Attached to the bones Voluntary Cardiac muscle More than one in the middle Striated and branched Heart Involuntary . in the middle Long and tapered At internal organs Involuntary Skeletal muscle Many. b. Muscle tissue This tissue is a collection of muscle cells which by their contraction and relaxation bring about movement in our body. Epithelial tissue A type of tissue that covers a body structure or which line has a cavity. Animal tissue Animal Tissue Epithelial Muscle Connective Nervous Loose Fibrous Blood tissue Dense Fibrous Adipose Tissue a. Epithelial tissues protect the tissue underneath.1. also as gland. absorb and receive stimulation come from the outside body.

Each muscle fiber is packed by many myofibrils. c. the smooth muscles in the stomach wall produce peristaltic action. (erythrocyte) (leukocyte) (thrombocyte) glucose protein vitamin Distribute oxygen immune sys. for example:  Elastic fiber  Collagen fiber d. Loose and dense connective tissue Connective tissue bind one tissue with another to strengthen and protect weaker parts of the body. Blood clotting mineral water no nucleus biconcave nucleus present irregular shape fat and oil . For example. Blood tissue Blood tissue Blood plasma Blood cell Distribute nutrition Red blood cell White blood cell Platelets and hormones. Dense connective tissue functions to supports of the body. muscles tissues are called active locomotion tool. Thus. for example :  Tendons attach muscles with the bone  Ligaments attach one bone to another bone Loose connective tissue functions to bind and support organs.

Bone tissue Bone tissue chondrocyte Material Cartilage Compact/ true Shape Pipe/ long Short Lamellar Femur carpal Humerus tarsal osteocyte sternum scapula many collagen Hyaline elastic fibrous -Near ribcage -Between the ribs And sternum ears and nose between vertebrae columns f. and CO Female  12-14 Male 14-16 e.Placenta ( ari-ari )  hormones. which are used as reserve energy source.vitamin Breast feeding colostrum first breast milk Stem cell( parent cell ) placenta Hemofilia  disorder Hemoglobin  part of erythrocyte that brings O2. Adipose tissue Adipose tissues are composed of cells that contain fat. CO2 . g. These are located under the skin and under the eye ball. . Nervous tissue Nervous sys.

Plant tissue peripheral Plant tissue Permanent Meristematic Always divide Themselves General: -root Tip -stem tip Dicotyl and cambium: -cotyledon -cambium Cambium Supportive Vascular Parenchyma Epidermal Dicotyl & Non-dicotyl Gymnospermae non-gymnospermae Sclerenchyme collenchyme xylem phloem spongy palisade Dead cells in moncotyl . Axon 3. Dendrit 2. Body cell 2.) Spinal cord ( vertebrae columns) Peripheral ( nerve cell that connects to the organ senses) Nerve cell= Neuron 1.Brain Spinal cord Brain (central nervous sys.

Plant Kingdom Kingdom Plantae Non-vascular ( thallophyta ) Vascular (tracheophyta) Bryophyta (Moss) Algae (ganggang) Pterydophyta (Fern) Vegetative Spermatophyta (seed) Flower Hepaticae Chrysophyta (gold) Antophyta Musci Phaeophyta (brown) Gymnospermae (open seed plant) Rhodophyta (red) Angiospermae ( close seed plant ) Chlorophyta (green) Monocotyl (one cotyledonae) Dicotyl (two cotyledonaes) .

Lungs: play a role in the breathing process 3. Heart: pumps blood to all parts of the body 2. specific Organs External Organs in human 1.Cross section of a leaf Upper epidermis Palisade ( chlorophyll) Vascular tissue Spongy Organ Organ is a group of tissues that work together to perform a function. Stomach: plays a role in food digestion Internal .

Spongy 4. Transport tissue • Functions: • Location of photosynthesis • Location of evaporation and respiration • Vegetative propagation 4. Stem 1. Flower 5. minerals and photosynthetic products • Store reserve food 3. Pith • Functions: • Enable the plant to stand • Deliver water. Epidermal tissue 2. 1. Supportive tissue 4. Epidermal tissue 2. Phloem • Functions: • Absorb water • Support the tree to enable to stand • Store reserve food • Respiratory organ in some plants 2. Palisade 3. Liver: repairs red blood cells 5. Kidney: filter blood Organs in plants 1. Epidermal tissue 2. Roots 1. Endodermis tissue 4. Leaves 1. Fruit Organ System Organ system is organs that work together to perform a certain function. Xylem 5. Respiratory System .4. Cortex tissue 3. Endodermis tissue 3.

Digestive System Trachea Lungs (Alveolus) Digestive System Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large intestine Rectum (Bladder) Anus Tongue Teeth 3. Senses System .Respiratory System Nasal cavity (nose) 2. Blood Circulatory System 4. Nervous System Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral 5.

Excretory System Excretory System Kidney Skin Liver Lungs Urine Sweat Bile CO2 7. Reproduction System Reproduction System Female Male Ovarium Uterus Vagina Testis Penis 8.Senses System Eye Ear Nose Tongue Skin 6. Lymphatic System ( hormone ) .

Lymphatic System Pituitary Thyroid Esophagu s LH ADH Parathyro id Esophagu s Thymes Chest Pancreati c Pancreas Adrenal Anak ginjal Gonad Sex glands Male Brain Thyroxin Parathyro xin Growth Hormone Insulin Glucagon Adrenali ne Testosterone Female Progesteron Estrogen 5. Organism organ systems that are connected and work together to form Organism is one entity. .

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