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# Preprint typeset in JHEP style - HYPER VERSION

Lectures on String Theory

Gleb Arutyunova

a

Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands

Abstract: The course covers the basic concepts of modern string theory. This includes covariant and light-cone quantisation of bosonic and fermionic strings, geometry and topology of string world-sheets, vertex operators and string scattering amplitudes, world-sheet and space-time supersymmetries, elements of conformal ﬁeld theory, Green-Schwarz superstrings, strings in curved backgrounds, low-energy eﬀective actions, D-brane physics.

Contents

1. Introduction to the course 1.1 Historical remarks 2. Relativistic particle 3. Classical relativistic bosonic string 3.1 Nambu-Goto string 3.2 The Polyakov action 3.2.1 Symmetries 3.2.2 Equations of motion 3.2.3 Conformal gauge 3.2.4 Polyakov string in the ﬁrst order formalism. 3.3 Integrals of motion. Classical Virasoro algebra. 3.3.1 Solutions of the equations of motion 3.3.2 Poincar´ symmetry. String tension. e 3.4 Strings in physical gauge 3.4.1 First order formalism 3.4.2 Poisson structure of the light-cone theory 3.4.3 Lorentz symmetry 4. Quantization of bosonic string 4.1 Remarks on canonical quantization 4.1.1 Virasoro algebra 4.1.2 Virasoro constraints in quantum theory 4.1.3 The spectrum 4.1.4 Propagators 4.1.5 Vertex operators. Tachyon scattering amplitude 4.2 Quantization in the physical gauge 4.2.1 Lorentz symmetry and critical dimension 4.2.2 The spectrum 4.3 BRST quantization 5. Geometry and topology of string world-sheet 5.1 From Lorentzian to Euclidean world-sheets 5.2 Riemann surfaces 5.3 Moduli space 2 2 8 13 13 16 16 16 18 19 21 24 25 28 28 35 37 38 38 41 43 45 47 48 58 59 63 66 77 77 79 84

–1–

6. Classical fermionic superstring 6.1 Spinors in General Relativity 6.2 Superstring action and its symmetrices 6.3 Superconformal gauge and supermoduli 6.4 Action in the superconformal gauge 6.5 Boundary conditions 6.6 Superconformal algebra 7. Quantum fermionic string 7.1 Light-cone quantization and superstring spectrum A. Dynamical systems of classical mechanics B. OPE and conformal blocks C. Useful formulae D. Riemann normal coordinates E. Exercises

92 92 99 100 102 106 107 108 111 119 123 127 128 130

**1. Introduction to the course
**

1.1 Historical remarks String theory arose at the end of sixties in an attempt to describe the theory of strong interactions. In 1969 Veneziano found a beautiful formula for the scattering amplitude of four particles. This amplitude comprised many features that physicists expected to be found in the theory of strong interactions. It was realized very soon by Nambu and Susskind that the underlying dynamical object from which the Veneziano formula can be derived is a relativistic string. The fundamental diﬀerence of strings from the theory of point particles is that strings are extended, one-dimensional, objects; when string moves through space and time it sweeps two-dimensional surface called the string “world-sheet”. The strings can be of two types: open – with topology of an interval and closed – with topology of a circle. Subsequent investigations revealed however severe diﬃculties to treat the string as the theory of strong interactions. These diﬃculties are 1. Existence of a “critical dimension”. 2. Existence of a massless spin two particle which is absent in the hadronic world.

–2–

Thus. The number 26 was named the “critical dimension”. The status of string theory changed again with the discovery of supersymmetry. Indeed. Neveu and Schwarz constructed a new bosonic string theory. who constructed a string analogue of the Dirac equation (the spinning string). this particle neatly ﬁts the properties of the graviton – string theory predicts that this particle interacts according to the standard laws of General Relativity. Scherk and Schwarz came up with a proposal to completely alter the view on string theory. Even if one accepts that quantum mechanics of relativistic strings can be deﬁned in the unusual number 26 of the space-time dimensions. They suggested to consider the massless spin two particle absent in the hadronic world as the graviton – the quantum of the gravitational interaction. Critical dimension. In 1974. including gravity and it operates on a new fundamental scale. This is a huge number in comparison with characteristic energies of hadronic physics. Many physicists hope today that supersymmetry could provide an underlying principle for uniﬁcation of all interactions. On the one hand. tachyon and absence of fermions were the puzzling features the string theory had to face. Such string does not contain fermionic degrees of freedom and it predicts the existence of a particle with the negative mass squared: m2 < 0. On the other hand. They realized that the two constructions were diﬀerent facets of a single theory . another problem arises. is a source of instability and its existence indicates that either the theory is ill-deﬁned or it is formulated around a “wrong” ground state. 100 − 200 MeV. or as physicists say. called the Planck mass.If one tries to construct the quantum mechanics of relativistic strings one ﬁnds that mathematically consistent theory exists if and only if the dimension of spacetime where string propagates is 26. Supersymmetry is a new type of symmetry between bosons and fermions (Wess and Zumino 1974). around a “wrong” vacuum. it was certainly not clear why a theory that shared at least some qualitative features with hadronic physics should exist in 26 dimensions only. which is around 1019 GeV. Such a particle. All universe is made of two fundamental types of particles: bosons and fermions. Shortly afterwards. according to their view. string theory could provide the unifying description of all the particles and matter forces. tachyon. A subsequent discovery of QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) as the most appropriate candidate to describe the theory of strong interactions led to a considerable loss of interest to string theory. The ﬁrst success in incorporating supersymmetry in string theory was achieved in 1971 by Ramond.an interacting superstring theory containing Neveu and Schwarz’s –3– . Gravitational interactions have a natural scale. it was pretty remarkable and unexpected to ﬁnd an example of physical theory which puts restrictions on space-time where it is deﬁned. Fermions constitute all the matter and bosons mediate interactions of the matter particles.

Quite remarkably. there is a strong evidence that the divergency problem of quantum (super)gravities is resolved by string theory. cf. Instead of 26 found for purely bosonic string. As is known. 1 For instance. In this limit superstrings give rise to the low-energy eﬀective theories. Thus. These theories can be deﬁned in a way completely independent of string theory: they can be thought of as supersymmetric generalizations of the pure Einstein gravity. superstring theory has at least two advantages in comparison with bosonic strings: critical dimension 10 < 26 and the absence of tachyon. called the Type IIA and Type IIB. String theories have a natural particle limit. This was advent of the NSR (Neveu-Ramond-Schwarz) superstring. ¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ –4– . The supersymmetry of the two-dimensional string world sheet was recognized by Gervais and Sakita in 1971. In 1977 Gliozzi.bosons and Ramond’s fermions. the course on Quantum Field Theory). Resolution of the four-fermi interaction. It also turned out that the GSO projection can be imposed in two diﬀerent ways which lead to two diﬀerent types of superstrings. In 1972 Schwarz demonstrated the consistency of the superstring theory in 10 dimensions. Supersymmetric theories tend to be less divergent than non-supersymmetric ones which gave initially a hope that supersymmetry could cure the nonrenormalizable inﬁnities of the quantum gravity. the critical dimension for the NSR string appears to be 10. known as supergravities. It seems that supergravities themselves are still not capable to solve the divergency problem1 . when the length of string vanishes. At high energies the weak force is mediated by a heavy boson. Scherk and Olive realized that further conditions should be imposed on the spectrum (the GSO projection mechanism) of the NSR string which lead to both the so-called space-time supersymmetry (to compare with the world-sheet supersymmetry mentioned above) and to the removal of tachyon. it is unknown if the so-called N = 8 supergravity is ﬁnite or not. attempts to quantize gravity in the standard framework of quantum mechanics fail because gravity is a non-renormalizable theory (there are inﬁnitely many divergent graphs with any number of external legs and with an arbitrarily high index of divergence.

String states form an inﬁnite tower of particles of arbitrarily high mass and spin and all of them participate in the interaction process. the reason is that the corresponding theory of Fermi-interactions in non-renormalizable. in string theory all these vertices get dissolved by the exchange of the massive string states.e. interaction vertex one ﬁnds irremovable ultraviolet divergencies at higher loop orders. i. One of the major obstacles to build a uniﬁed theory is the left-right asymmetry recorded in the present days experiments. Resolving the ultraviolet divergency problem string theory appears to be a natural candidate for the theory of quantum gravity. the four string coordinates remain uncompactiﬁed. of breakdown of classical symmetries by quantum eﬀects. point-like. while the other six are curled up and parametrize a compact space of a very small size (of the order of the Plank length). analogously to the old Fermi theory. Expanding the Einstein√ Hilbert action −gR one gets more and more complicated point-like vertices which render the theory non-renormalizable. –5– . In higher space-time dimensions it becomes even more non-trivial to achieve cancellation of anomalies. Trying to describe the decay of the neutron by the Fermi-type Lagrangian containing the quartic. In this case.To get a better feeling why it happens it is convenient to envoke an analogy with the theory of weak interactions. “rear” cases anomalies cancel (as it happens for instance for a standard generation of quarks and leptons. Chiral fermions are usually a source of anomalies. The solution of this problem lies in a fact that at higher energies (more than 100 GeV). Very similar phenomenon occurs in string theory. The basic approach to obtain four-dimensional theories is along the old ideas of Kaluza and Klein and it consists in compactifying of the ten-dimensional theory down to four dimensions. In the new theory one has qubic vertices and this ultimately makes the theory renormalizable. the pointlike vertex gets resolved and the interaction is mediated by a heavy Wboson. There is a still an important question how to relate the superstring theory deﬁned in a ten-dimensional space-time with a our conventional four-dimensional physics. the course on the Standard Model). Only in some special. cf.. Again. In opposite. It appears that the internal space cannot be completely arbitrary – it must have vanishing Ricchi-curvature. A theory in which there is an asymmetry between the left and the right must contain chiral fermions. Anomalies render a theory eventually inconsistent.

but the corresponding theory was still far from phenomenology. One of the important questions is why there exists non a unique but several consistent string theories. Lecture Notes. The gauge groups SO(32) and E8 × E8 are realized in the so-called “heterotic string” which is a hybrid of the old d = 26 dimensional bosonic string and the d = 10 superstring. D. It was a ﬁrst example of a string theory whose low-energy limit was not in an immediate conﬂict with all known physics. With a recent advent of the string dualities and D-branes an interesting new picture start to emerge (but still very far from being complete). “Introduction to String Theory”. 1987. M. Theisen. 2005. Alvarez-Gaum´ and Witten demonstrated that anomaly cane celled out in the chiral Type IIB supergravity theory. 1989. ’t Hooft. namely SO(32) and E8 × E8 . –6– . in 1983. Shortly afterwards Green and Schwarz (1984) showed that cancellation of anomalies in the open superstring theories singles out two gauge groups. L¨st and S. Recommended literature: 1. “Superstring Theory”. It was shown that compactifying the theory down to four dimensions one can obtain several generations of the chiral fermions. Witten. Lecture Notes in Physics. Schwarz and E. J.? Type I Type IIB E 8 x E 8 heterotic Type IIA SO(32) heterotic String theories Remarkably. “Lectures on string theory”. according to which diﬀerent superstring theories provide diﬀerent descriptions of the one and the same theory valid in diﬀerent regimes of the coupling constant parameters. This was nice. volume I and II. 3. 2. u Springer Verlag. Cambridge University Press. Green.

Cambridge university press. 1998. Zwiebach. Cambridge university press. J. 5. –7– . Polchinski. B. “A ﬁrst course in string theory”. “String theory”. volume I and II.4. 2004.

+1. x) then ds = Thus. . Action S = −α s0 s s ds Note that s0 ds has maximum along straight lines. . the action is τ1 − dxµ dxµ dτ ≡ dτ dτ −ηµν dxµ dxν dτ dτ dτ √ c2 − v 2 .. v= dr dτ S = −αc τ0 1− v2 dτ c2 The Lagrangian in the non-relativistic limit L = −αc 1− v2 v2 dτ = −cα 1 − 2 c2 2c + . . Embedding xµ ≡ xµ (τ ): ds = If xµ = (cτ. Relativistic particle Consider relativistic particle of mass m moving in d-dimensional Minkowski space: ηµν = (−1.2.. . . = −αc + αv 2 + . The action is invariant under reparametrizations of τ : δxµ = ξ(τ )∂τ xµ Let us show this δ( −xµ xµ ) = ˙ ˙ 1 1 (−2xν δ xν ) = − ˙ ˙ xν ∂τ (ξ xν ) = ˙ ˙ µ 2 − xµ x ˙ ˙ − xµ xµ ˙ ˙ 1 1 =− ˙ ¨ xν xν ξ + ξ xν xν = − ˙ ˙ ˙ xν xν ξ + ξ∂τ ( −xµ xµ ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ µ µ −xµ x ˙ ˙ −xµ x ˙ ˙ = −xµ xµ ξ + ξ∂τ ( −xµ xµ ) = ∂τ (ξ −xµ xµ ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ as long as ξ(τ0 ) = ξ(τ1 ) = 0 –8– . +1). +1. 2c To get the standard kinetic energy one has to identify α = mc In what follows we will work in units in which c = 1. this explains the sign “-” in front of the action. .

Constraints which have vanishing Poisson bracket: {φi . Dynamical systems with the Hessian of non-maximal rank are called singular.. the reader may consult appendix A. φj } = 0 About the Hamiltonian approach to dynamical systems of classical mechanics. Let us therefore try to develop the Hamiltonian (canonical) formalism for the relativistic particle.e. the local reparametrization transformations. Mass-shell condition for the point particle is a primary constraint. In general the number of primary constraints is equal to the number of zero eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix: Hµν = ∂pµ ∂ 2L = ∂ xν ˙ ∂ xµ ∂ xν ˙ ˙ For the relativistic particle we have only one eigenvector xµ with zero eigenvalue ˙ ∂pµ ν x = ˙ ∂ xν ˙ m xµ xν ˙ ˙ δµν + m 3 µ −xµ x ˙ ˙ (−xµ xµ ) 2 ˙ ˙ xν = 0 ˙ The inverse function theorem stats that absence of zero eigenvalues of the Hessian is a necessary condition to be able to express the velocities xµ via the canonical ˙ µ momenta p . The canonical momenta 2 pµ = We notice that ∂ ∂L = −m µ ( −xµ xµ ) = m ˙ ˙ µ ∂x ˙ ∂x ˙ p2 ≡ pµ pµ = −m2 xµ ˙ − xµ xµ ˙ ˙ Thus. we arrive at τ1 δS = −m τ0 ∂τ (ξ −xµ xµ ) = −m ξ ˙ ˙ −xµ xµ |τ =τ1 = 0 . ˙ ˙ τ =τ0 i.r.t. The most elegant way to quantize a system is to use the Hamiltonian formalism . rather they obey the constraint φ ≡ p2 + m2 = 0 (2.1) Constraints which follow just from the deﬁnition of the canonical momenta without using equations of motion are called primary constraints. the action is indeed invariant w.Therefore. we see that the canonical momenta are not independent. 2 –9– .

The mass-shell constraint for the relativistic particle is of the ﬁrst class.are called the ﬁrst class constraints. S= Equations of motion: for xµ for e(τ ) d 1 µ x =0 ˙ dτ e 1 1 ˙ ˙ − 2 xµ xµ − m 2 = 0 2e 2 1 2 x ˙ m2 1 2 τ1 dτ τ0 1 dxµ dxµ − em2 e dτ dτ =⇒ x2 + m2 e2 = 0 ˙ The last equation can be solved for e: e2 = − which leads to m d √ xµ = 0 ˙ dτ − xν xν ˙ ˙ which is nothing else as the old eom for xµ . There is another action for the relativistic particle. The Hessian ∂2L 1 ∂ 1 = xν = ηµν ˙ ∂ xµ ∂ xν ˙ ˙ e ∂ xµ ˙ e is of maximal rank. Equation of motion for e is purely algebraic. Also – 10 – .2) 2 τ0 m − x2 ˙ τ0 1 1 ˙ ˙ pµ = xµ =⇒ p2 = 2 x2 = −m2 e e but this time due to equations of motion for e. Also if we substitute solution for e into the new action then this action reduces to the old one: √ τ1 √ 1 τ1 − x2 2 ˙ m 2 S= dτ √ x − ˙ m = −m dτ −x2 ˙ (2. The constraint p2 + m2 = 0 does not follow from the deﬁnition of the canonical momentum along. It has the following two characteristic features • it does not contain square root • it admits generalization to the massless case Introduce e(τ ) the auxiliary ﬁeld on the world-line. Constraints which are satisﬁed as consequences of equations of motion are called secondary. but one has to use equations of motion.

xµ } = 2ηpµ = xµ = ξ xµ . Thus. the massive and massless cases. the relativistic particle moves freely in Minkowski space over time-like geodesics. 1 ˙ The second transformation for e is easily derived from e2 = − m2 x2 . ˙ ˙ e η ≡ eξ . To this end we have to represent the initial Lagrangian in the form L = pµ xµ + Lrest ˙ ˙ ˙ where pµ = 1 xµ and express in Lrest the derivatives xµ via pµ . In doing so we obtain e the phase-space Lagrangian e L = pµ xµ − (p2 + m2 ) ˙ 2 We clearly see that the auxiliary ﬁeld e we introduced in our second formulation plays here the role of the lagrangian multiplier to the constraint p2 + m2 = 0. ¨ x2 = −1 ˙ Thus. ¨ Finally. we treat the relativistic particle in the so-called ﬁrst order (the Hamiltonian) formalism. ˙ In the case of the massless particle we can set e = 1 and get eoms xµ = 0 . e) and reparametrization symmetry which acts on them and leaves the action invariant. This reparametrization freedom 1 can be used to put e = m which results into the following equation xµ = 0 ¨ This is not the end however. By 1 using the gauge freedom we can ﬁx the gauge e = m and the physical Hamiltonian becomes in this case 1 2 H= (p + m2 ) 2m – 11 – . Space-like and light-like straight lines are excluded by the constraint x2 = −1. in our new formulation we have the set of ﬁelds (xµ . ˙ Complete eoms are xµ = 0 . the constraints are integral of motions: they are preserved in time due to the dynamical equation xµ = 0. ¨ x2 = 0 ˙ In both.The action has local gauge symmetry which is now δxµ = ξ xµ ˙ δe = ∂τ (ξe) The ﬁrst symmetry transformation is generated by the constraint p2 + m2 : η δη xµ = η{p2 + m2 . because there is eom for e which now reads as x2 = −1.

The choice of the coeﬃcients χn (τ ) in H is equivalent to the choice of the gauge. 2m θ 2m H = Hcan + χφ = We get the time-evolution χ= dxµ θ 2 θ ={ (p + m2 ). the static gauge consists in imposing the condition t ≡ x1 = τ . θ 2 (p + m2 ) . . It can be found from the eom for e: p2 = m2 = 0 =⇒ − p 2 + p2 + m 2 = 0 t =⇒ pt = p2 + m 2 . 3 1 m is a close analogue of the conformal gauge to be considered for the string – 12 – . This nicely illustrates the general point: in order to write down the evolution equations in a system with local gauge invariance one has ﬁrst to identify the “time” variable. More generally. Choosing θ = 1 means that we identify the time variable with ˙ the proper time. For instance. . This Hamiltonian3 should be provided with the constraint p2 +m2 = 0 which is the eom for e. Other gauge choices are possible. . The gauge e = case. In our present case xν xν ˙ ˙ Hcan = m − (−m −xµ xµ ) = 0 ˙ ˙ −xµ xµ ˙ ˙ and Hamiltonian dynamics of the system is due to the mass-shell condition only. d. evolution of a singular system is governed by the Hamiltonian H = Hcan + n χ n φn Here {φn } is an irreducible set of primary constraints and Hcan is the canonical Hamiltonian: Hcan = pµ xµ − L ˙ Only on the constraint surface φn = 0 the Hamiltonian H coincides with Hcan . xµ } = pµ = dτ 2m m θ xµ ˙ −xµ xµ ˙ ˙ Therefore x2 = −θ2 . Equation for pt ≡ p1 allows us to determine e: dt δL = − ept = 0 δpt dτ =⇒ e= 1 pt The physical Hamiltonian dual to the world-line time τ coincides in this case with the momentum pt conjugate to t: H = pt .which is in complete agreement with our previous discussion (We actually have to identify θ = e). . Note that here p = {pi } with i = 2.

It can be easily found from the equation for e: H= The gauge-ﬁxed Lagrangian becomes 1 ˙ ˙ ˙ L = x− p+ + xp − p− = xp − H = xp − + (p2 + m2 ) ˙ p The variable p+ is canonically conjugate to x− .1 Nambu-Goto string Two-dimensional surface traced by string during its time evolution is called worldsheet. while ﬁxing the static gauge the Hamiltonian appears to be a non-linear square root. Finally. The physical phase space inherits the canonical Poisson bracket. Fixing the gauge e = 1 we get the polynomial Hamiltonian. d − 1 as x and p. The auxiliary ﬁeld e was solved in terms of physical ﬁelds. . there is another type of gauge known as the light-cone gauge. . Notice that both in the static and in the light-cone gauge the number of physical degrees of freedom is 2(d − 1).This gauge choice leads to the common Hamiltonian of the relativistic particle H= p2 + m2 . . 2 xd = x+ + x− 1 pd = (p+ − p− ) 2 and denote the other “transverse coordinates” xi and pi with i = 2. – 13 – . The action for a relativistic string should be a functional of a string trajectory.e. . From the kinetic term of the Hamiltonian it is clear that the variable x+ is conjugate to p− and therefore p− is the physical Hamiltonian. 1 2 (p + m2 ) p+ 3. Then the phase space Lagrangian becomes e ˙ L = x− p+ − x+ p− + xp − (−p− p+ + p2 + m2 ) ˙ ˙ 2 The light-cone gauge consists in choosing x+ = τ . Classical relativistic bosonic string 3. This exercise with the relativistic particle also shows how sensitive is the Hamiltonian to the choice of the gauge. of the world-sheet. In the next lecture we extend these diﬀerent approaches to dynamics of relativistic particles to relativistic strings. i. We introduce the light-cone coordinates t = x+ − x− 1 pt = (p+ + p− ).

(3. What is a local characteristic of the string world-sheet? Consider a point on the world-sheet and the space of all vectors tangent to the surface is at this point. These vectors sweep two-dim vector space.3) d2 σ ˙ ˙ (XX )2 − X 2 X 2 = −T √ d2 σ −Γ ˙ ˙ X µ Xµ ˙ ˙ X µ Xµ ˙ X µ Xµ X µ Xµ ˙ ˙ = (XX )2 − X 2 X 2 . Identify x0 = t = τ . (3. In this case events which happen at the same time are space-separated.4) • If ds2 > 0 the interval is called time-like. Recall the standard deﬁnitions from the theory of special relativity. In this case the diﬀerent events which happen in the same space-point are always time-separated. • If ds2 = 0 the interval is light-like.2) dA = −T d2 σ −det ∂X µ ∂X ν ηµν ∂σ α ∂σ β (3. The physical propagation of the string requires that in these two-dim vector space there is a basis built over two vectors one of them is time-like and another is space-like. We have the invariant interval between two inﬁnitezimal events: 3 −ds = ηµν dx dx = −dx dx + i=1 2 µ ν 0 0 dxi dxi . Vectors v µ obeying the condition v 2 = ηµν v µ v ν = 0 are called light-like or null. SN G = −T Here Γ = detΓαβ . • If ds2 < 0 the interval is called space-like. where Γαβ = ∂X µ ∂X ν ηµν ∂σ α ∂σ β (3. Then ˙ ˙ X µ Xµ = −1 + v 2 ≤ 0 ⇐ time − like X µ Xµ = (X i )2 ≥ 0 ⇐ space − like – 14 – .The Nambu-Goto action SN G = −T This we can write as −det Thus.1) is the metric induced on the string world-sheet.

This situation should persist in any Lorentz frame. At any point on a string worldsheet one should always be able to ﬁnd two vectors: one is time-like and another is space-like. µ µ Consider S µ (λ) = ∂X + λ ∂X must be space- or time-like as λ varies. ∂τ ∂σ ˙ ˙ S µ Sµ = X 2 + 2λXX + λ2 X 2 ≡ y(λ) . Discriminant must be positive then there are two roots and therefore the regions of λ with time- and space-like vectors. Discriminant is ˙ ˙ (XX )2 − X 2 X 2 > 0 . This condition guarantees the causal propagation of string. Action is invariant under reparametrizations δX µ = ξ α ∂α X µ , Two possibilities: • Open strings: 0 ≤ σ ≤ π • Closed strings: 0 ≤ σ ≤ 2π Equations of motion: S=

τ1 τ2 π

ξ α = 0 on the boundary

dτ

0

dσL

Variation δS = δX µ δL δL ∂ δX µ + ∂σ δX µ ˙µ τ δX µ δX τ1 0 τ2 π δL δL + ∂σ =− dτ dσ ∂τ ˙ δX µ δX µ τ1 0 π τ2 δL δL δX µ |τ2 + δX µ |σ=π + dσ τ1 σ=0 ˙µ δX µ δX 0 τ1 dτ dσ

δL (τ, σ δX µ τ2 π

(3.5) (3.6) (3.7) = 0) = 0

• Open string boundary conditions: • X µ (σ + 2π) = X µ (σ). Canonical formalism. Momentum Pµ = We see that

= π) =

δL (τ, σ δX µ

˙ ˙ δL (XX )X µ − (X )2 X µ = −T ˙ δX µ ˙ ˙ (XX )2 − X 2 X 2

P µ Xµ = 0 P Pµ + T X = 0

µ 2 2

(3.8) (3.9)

– 15 –

Exercise Show that the Hessian matrix has for each σ two zero eigenvalues cor˙ responding to X µ and X µ . Equations of motion are very complicated: µ 2 ˙µ µ 2 µ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ (XX )X − (X ) X ∂ (XX )X − (X) X + = 0. ∂τ ∂σ ˙ )2 − X 2 X 2 ˙ ˙ )2 − X 2 X 2 ˙ (XX (XX Exercise Think how reparametrization invariance can be used to bring this equation to the simplest form. 3.2 The Polyakov action Introduce a word-sheet metric hαβ (σ, τ ). Consider the action Sp = − Here h = dethαβ . 3.2.1 Symmetries The reparametrization invariance δX µ = ξ α ∂α X µ δhαβ = ξ γ ∂γ hαβ + hαγ ∂β ξ γ + hβγ ∂α ξ γ δhαβ = ξ γ ∂γ hαβ − hαγ ∂γ ξ β − hβγ ∂γ ξ α √ √ δ( −h) = ∂α (ξ α −h) The Weyl invariance The Weyl invariance consists in rescaling the metric hαβ → e−2Λ(σ,τ ) hαβ . 3.2.2 Equations of motion First we discuss the equation of motion for the intrinsic metric hαβ . This discussion amounts to the introduction of the two-dimensional stress-energy tensor which is a response of the action to the change of the metric δSp = −T that is √ d2 σ −h Tαβ δhαβ (3.11) T 2 √ d2 σ −hhαβ ∂α X µ ∂β X ν ηµν (3.10)

1 δSp Tαβ = − √ T −h δhαβ

– 16 –

Thus, eom for hαβ is Tαβ = 0 . Performing a variation we obtain 1 1 Tαβ = ∂α X µ ∂β Xµ − hαβ hγδ ∂γ X µ ∂δ Xµ . 2 4 From here we immediately notice that the stress-energy tensor is traceless

α Tα = Tαβ hαβ = 0

(3.12)

This is a direct consequence of the Weyl symmetry. Due to the equations of motion for the scalar ﬁelds X µ this tensor is covariantly conserved: α Tαβ = 0 . This can be easily derived as follows. Consider a variation of the action: δSp = d2 σ δL δL δhαβ + δX µ αβ µ δh δX

δL We see that on the equations of motion for X µ , i.e. on δX µ = 0, we have √ √ δSp = −T d2 σ −h Tαβ δhαβ = −2T d2 σ −h Tαβ α ξ β ,

where on the r.h.s. we speciﬁed the variation to be a diﬀeomorphism transformation. The last expression can be integrated by parts and, die to δSp = 0, we conclude that α Tαβ = 0. This derivation is similar to the derivation of the charge conservation law in electrodynamics, the latter being a consequence of the gradient invariance.

Let us show directly that

α

Tαβ = 0. We have

α

2 Since

α

Tαβ =

α

∂α X ∂β Xµ + ∂α X

µ

µ

α

∂β Xµ −

1 2

β

h

γδ

∂γ X ∂δ Xµ

µ

(3.13)

**∂α X µ = 0 is eom for X µ we ﬁnd 2
**

α

Tαβ = ∂α X

µ

α

∂β Xµ −

1 2

∂β h 1 2

γδ

∂γ X ∂δ X µ

γδ µ

µ

=

γδ

= ∂α X h

µ αδ

δ ∂β Xµ

−

∂β h

µ

∂γ X ∂δ Xµ − h

αδ

∂γ X ∂δ ∂β Xµ =

γδ

µ

= ∂α X h

µ αδ

∂δ ∂β Xµ − ∂α X ∂s Xµ h

Γδβ −

s

1 2

∂β h

∂γ X ∂δ Xµ − h

µ

γδ

∂γ X ∂δ ∂β Xµ .

µ

**Here the ﬁrst term cancels with the last one and we ﬁnd 2
**

α

Tαβ = −∂α X ∂s Xµ h

µ

αδ

Γδβ −

s

1 2

∂β h

γδ

∂γ X ∂δ Xµ

µ

**Only symmetric part of hαδ Γs = 1 hαδ hsp ∂δ hpβ + ∂β hpδ − ∂p hβδ δβ 2 β, δ. Finally, 2
**

α

in the indices α, s matters! This translates into symmetry of

Tαβ = −

2

1 αδ 1 sp µ γδ µ h ∂β hpδ h ∂α X ∂s Xµ − ∂β h ∂γ X ∂δ Xµ = 0 . 2

(3.14)

Equations

α Tα = 0 , β

Tαβ = 0

are consequences of the Weyl and diﬀeomorphism symmetry, respectively. These two are gauge symmetries, and the relations above can be understood as the second Noether theorem.

– 17 –

e. 4 The basic relations are ∂τ = ∂+ + ∂− . ξ γ hτ τ ∂γ hτ τ + 2∂τ ξ τ = Λ ξ γ hσσ ∂γ hσσ + 2∂σ ξ σ = Λ . the conformal Killing equations reduce in the conformal gauge to ∂σ ξ τ − ∂τ ξ σ = 0 ∂τ ξ τ − ∂σ ξ σ = 0 or equivalently (∂τ + ∂σ )(ξ τ − ξ σ ) = 0 (∂τ − ∂σ )(ξ τ + ξ σ ) = 0 (3.2.17) By using the world-sheet light-cone coordinates σ ± = τ ± σ this can be reformulated as4 ∂+ ξ − = 0 = ∂− ξ + . First we take α = τ and β = σ and using hτ σ = 0 we ﬁnd hτ τ ∂σ ξ τ + hσσ ∂τ ξ σ = 0 → ∂σ ξ τ − ∂τ ξ σ = 0 Second. Subtracting one from the other we get ∂τ ξ τ − ∂σ ξ σ = 0 . ∂± = 1 2 ∂τ ± ∂σ . We get ξ γ ∂γ hτ τ + 2hτ τ ∂τ ξ τ = Λhτ τ ξ γ ∂γ hσσ + 2hσσ ∂σ ξ σ = Λhσσ i.16) (3. we take α.15) This equation can be split as follows.3 Conformal gauge Consider the conformal Killing equation ξ γ ∂γ hαβ + hαγ ∂β ξ γ + hβγ ∂α ξ γ = Λhαβ and solve it assuming the conformal gauge hαβ = e2φ −1 0 0 1 (3. – 18 – . ∂σ = ∂+ − ∂− . β = σ.18) (3. β = τ and then α. Thus.3.

Since φ is periodic the allowed solutions ξ ± of the conformal Killing equation are those which lead to periodic Λ. P ν (σ . Xµ ) are canonical. The phase-space Lagrangian shows that the variables (Pµ . ξ − = ξ − (σ − ) solve the conformal Killing equations. H} = T X µ . τ )} = {P µ (σ. P ν (σ . T ˙ P µ = {P µ . τ ). H} = P µ . (3. τ ). In the ﬁrst order formalism the density L ≡ L(σ.19) L = Pµ ∂τ X µ + 2T γ τ τ γ The conformal gauge consists in imposing the following two conditions γ τ τ = −1 . {X µ (σ. The gauged-ﬁxed Lagrangian density is L = Pµ ∂τ X µ − and the Hamiltonian density is H= 1 Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ 2T 1 Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ 2T (3.23) (3.2. Indeed. i. the corresponding Poisson bracket is {X µ (σ. τ ).22) The dynamics of the system in the conformal gauge is governed by the Hamiltonian H= Equations of motion 1 ˙ X µ = {X µ . The ﬁnal remark concerns restrictions on ξ ± following from the periodicity conditions. (3. 3.21) (3.24) dσ H = 1 2T dσ Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ – 19 – . τ ) of the Polyakov Lagrangian takes the form γτ σ 1 Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ + τ τ Pµ X µ (3. This is a freedom (reparametrization + Weyl rescaling) which does not destroy the conformal gauge condition. τ )} = 0 . The factor Λ must be periodic in σ because the metric hαβ is. X ν (σ .4 Polyakov string in the ﬁrst order formalism.e. τ ) . for the Weyl factor Λ we have ξ τ ∂τ φ + ξ σ ∂σ φ + 2∂τ ξ τ = Λ(σ.Thus. τ )} = η µν δ(σ − σ ) . ξ + = ξ + (σ + ) .20) γ τ σ = 0. One can easily see that this implies that ξ ± must be periodic in σ.

30) (3. The Hamiltonian itself is 2π T−− = T−− (σ − ) . H} = ∂σ T++ ∂τ T−− = {T−− (σ). C1 (σ )} = 4T 2 ∂σ C2 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 8T 2 C2 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . H} = −∂σ T−− =⇒ =⇒ (∂τ − ∂σ )T++ = ∂− T++ = 0 . C2 (σ )} = ∂σ C2 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C2 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) .32) Constraints T++ and T−− Poisson commute and form two independent Poisson algebras! Now one can easily ﬁnd the evolution equations for T++ and T−− .28) (3. T−− (σ )} = − ∂σ T−− (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2T−− (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . (3.which result into ¨ Xµ − X µ = Xµ = 0 We see that we have two constraints C1 = Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ . it is a sum of zero modes of the left. We ﬁnd the following Poisson brackets {C1 (σ). (3.27) (3. 2 8T (3. T++ (σ )} = 1 ∂σ T++ (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2T++ (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . {C2 (σ).25) Instead of the constraints C1 and C2 we can equally consider their linear combinations T++ = T−− 1 (C1 + 2T C2 ) = 8T 2 1 = (C1 − 2T C2 ) = 8T 2 1 (Pµ + T Xµ )2 . (∂τ + ∂σ )T−− = ∂+ T−− = 0 . 2T 1 {T−− (σ). {C1 (σ).29) C2 = Pµ X µ (3.e. {C2 (σ). Thus. – 20 – .and right-moving constraints. We have ∂τ T++ = {T++ (σ). i.33) H = 2T 0 dσ(T++ + T−− ) . 2 8T 1 (Pµ − T Xµ )2 . T−− (σ )} = 0 .31) Their Poisson algebra becomes {T++ (σ). (3. C2 (σ )} = ∂σ C1 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C1 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) .26) (3. we see that evolution equations imply that T++ = T++ (σ + ) . C1 (σ )} = ∂σ C1 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C1 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . 2T {T++ (σ).

τ ) = 0 (3. we deﬁne ¯ Lm = 2T 0 2π dσ eimσ T++ (σ.36) − 1 − − ˙ = − eimσ (X µ − X µ ) = −eimσ ∂− X µ . τ ) − then 5 dLm = 2T dτ = 2T 2π 0 2π 0 2π dσ ∂τ eim(τ −σ) T−− (σ. if we deﬁne the Fourier components 2π Lm = 2T 0 dσ eimσ T−− (σ.35) Z Z dσdσ e −imσ−inσ −imσ−inσ {T−− (σ). H}.3. This algebra acts on X µ (σ. Ln } = −i(m − n)Lm+n . ¯ ¯ ¯ {Lm . Note that T±± themselves are not the good conserved quantities as they depend on time! However. Ln } = −i(m − n)Lm+n . 2 5 When ﬁnding the time dynamics of Lm one has to remember that the function Lm has an explicit time-dependence and. τ ): {Lm . Ln } = 0 . τ ) dσ imeim(τ −σ) T−− (σ. ¯ The Poisson brackets of the Lm and Lm generators are {Lm . the Fourier components of the stress-energy tensor provide an inﬁnite set of the conserved constraints.3 Integrals of motion. X µ } = 2T 0 2π dσ eimσ {T−− (σ ). + which is also an integral of motion. ¯ {Lm . {Lm . τ ) dσ imeim(τ −σ) T−− (σ. dτ – 21 – . Ln } = 4T 2 (3. τ ) − eim(τ −σ) ∂σ T−− (σ. String has an inﬁnite set of integrals of motion (quantities which are conserved in time due to equations of motion) which are constructed with the help of T±± . Analogously. τ ) . therefore dLm = ∂τ Lm + {Lm . τ ) + eim(τ −σ) ∂τ T−− (σ.34) = 2T 0 Thus. Note that in this derivation we never used the constraints T++ = 0 = T−− . Classical Virasoro algebra. τ ) + ∂σ eim(τ −σ) T−− (σ. X µ (σ)} = (3. T−− (σ )} ∂σ T−− (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2T−− (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) −i(m+n)σ = −2T Z = −2T dσdσ e dσ = − T−− (σ)∂σ e Z dσe + 2e −imσ T−− (σ)∂σ e −inσ = −i(m − n) 2T −i(m+n)σ T−− (σ) = −i(m − n)Lm+n This is the so-called Wit algebra.

+ (3. ¯ {L0 − L0 .Analogously. X µ } = 2T 0 2π dσ eimσ {T++ (σ ). L0 −L0 generates rigid σ-translations. In particular. This hypersurface remains invariant under the action of Lm ’s ¯ and Lm ’s. The Virasoro constraints Lm = 0 = Lm deﬁne a time-independent hypersurface on which the dynamics of string takes place. The transformations we consider transform a solution Xµ = 0 into another solution of this equation.e.37) + 1 + + ˙ = − eimσ (X µ + X µ ) = −eimσ ∂+ X µ . The phase space of string. − − − (P . for any periodic function f we deﬁne 2π Lf = 0 dσf (σ + )T++ . X µ } = −eimσ ∂+ X µ .38) (3. X) Lm _ Lm _ L m =0 L m =0 ¯ Fig. ¯ {Lm . – 22 – . X µ (σ)} = (3. X µ } = ∂σ X µ − ¯ {Lm . 2 To summarize {Lm . X µ } = −eimσ ∂− X µ . we have for instance ∂+ ∂− eimσ ∂− X µ = imσ − eimσ ∂+ ∂− X µ + eimσ ∂− ∂+ ∂− X µ = 0 as the consequence of ∂+ ∂− X µ = 0. Indeed. 1.39) ¯ i. Even more generally.

τ ) − T−− (0. τ ) = T−− (π. τ ) we obviously have T++ (π. Finally. + − (3. T++ (0. therefore. the boundary term vanishes and. τ ) dτ Due to the open string boundary conditions X µ (π. Lm are conserved quantities in the open string case. τ ) − 2T eimτ T++ (0. τ ) .40) The point is that there appears additional boundary terms which show that the old ¯ Lm and Lm are not separately conserved. It corresponds to reparametrizations of the special type (solutions to the conformal Killing equation): σ + → ξ + (σ + ) . Thus. – 23 – .Then we see that 2π 0= 0 dσ∂− f (σ + )T++ = ∂τ Lf − 0 2π dσ∂σ f (σ + )T++ . 2π ∂τ Lf = 0 dσ∂σ f (σ + )T++ = 0 . τ ) Therefore. τ ) + + − − + + − − + + − − π = 2T 0 + 2T e im(τ +π) The bulk term vanishes as before and we left with the boundary term dLm = 2T eim(τ +π) T++ (π. To summarize: we see that upon ﬁxing conformal gauge we are still left with gauge freedom. τ ) − T−− (π. τ ) − 2T eimτ T++ (0. τ ) = 0 = X µ (0. where ξ ± are two arbitrary functions periodic in σ. for the case of open string we deﬁne π Lm = 2T 0 dσ eimσ T++ + eimσ T−− . With our new deﬁnition of Lm we obtain dLm = 2T dτ = 2T 0 π π 0 dσ imeimσ T++ + eimσ ∂τ T++ + imeimσ T−− + eimσ ∂τ T−− dσ imeimσ T++ + eimσ ∂σ T++ + imeimσ T−− − eimσ ∂σ T−− dσ imeimσ T++ − ∂σ eimσ T++ + imeimσ T−− + ∂σ eimσ T−− T++ (π. σ − → ξ − (σ − ) . τ ) − T−− (0. τ ) = T−− (0. τ ) − e−2πim T−− (π.

3.3.1 Solutions of the equations of motion Here we are going to discuss the solutions of the string equations oﬀ motion Xµ = 0 which arises upon ﬁxing the conformal gauge. • Closed strings. We have

µ µ X µ (σ, τ ) = XL (τ + σ) + XR (τ − σ)

**where 1 pµ i µ XR (τ − σ) = xµ + (τ − σ) + √ 2 4πT 4πT 1 p i µ XL (τ + σ) = xµ + (τ + σ) + √ 2 4πT 4πT
**

µ

n=0

1 µ −in(τ −σ) α e n n 1 µ −in(τ +σ) α e ¯ n n

(3.41) (3.42)

n=0

**Since X µ (σ, τ ) are real then (xµ , pµ ) are real as well and
**

µ µ α−n = (αn )† ,

αµ α−n = (¯ n )† ¯µ

**Let us deﬁne the zero modes as
**

µ α0 = α0 = √ ¯µ

1 pµ . 4πT

**Oscillators obey the Poisson relations
**

µ ν {αm , αn } = {¯ m , αn } = −imδm+n η µν , αµ ¯ ν µ {αm , αn } = 0 ¯ν

(3.43)

µν

{x , p } = η The Virasoro constraints become

µ

ν

.

1 Lm = αµ αnµ , 2 n=−∞ m−n

∞

1 ¯ Lm = αµ αnµ . ¯ ¯ 2 n=−∞ m−n

∞

(3.44)

• Open strings Solution of the wave equation with the open string boundary conditions is X µ (σ, τ ) = xµ + i pµ τ+√ πT πT 1 µ −inτ cos nσ . α e n n (3.45)

n=0

– 24 –

**Oscillators obey the Poisson algebra
**

µ ν {αm , αn } = −imδm+n η µν ,

{xµ , pν } = η µν .

(3.46)

µ If we deﬁne the zero mode as α0 = √1 pµ then the generators of the open πT string classical Virasoro algebra are realized as

1 Lm = αµ αnµ . 2 n=−∞ m−n

µ µ The hermiticity property of the non-zero modes are α−n = (αn )† .

∞

(3.47)

3.3.2 Poincar´ symmetry. String tension. e The Noether currents of the Poincar´ symmetry e √ α Pµ = −T −hhαβ ∂β Xµ √ µν Jα = −T −hhαβ (Xµ ∂β Xν − Xν ∂β Xµ )

(3.48) (3.49)

Here Pα is a current corresponding to translational invariance X µ → X µ + a, where a is an arbitrary constant, and J µν is a current corresponding to Lorentz rotations X µ → Λµ X ν , where Λµ is a (constant) matrix comprising the parameters of the ν ν Lorentz transformation. We see that

µν α α Jα = Xµ Pν − Xν Pµ .

Both currents are conserved due to equations of motion of X µ and their τ -components integrated over σ deﬁne the conserved charges (for the open string case integration rans from 0 to π) Pµ =

0 2π

dσPτµ ,

J µν =

0

2π

µν dσJτ .

Imposing the conformal gauge and using the fundamental brackets for (X, P ) one ﬁnds the following Poisson algebra {P µ , P ν } = 0 {P µ , J ρσ } = η µσ P ρ − η µρ P σ {J µν , J ρσ } = η µρ J νσ + η νσ J µρ − η νρ J µσ − η µσ J νρ . Substituting solution for X µ one ﬁnds P =T

0 µ 2π

(3.50)

˙ dσ X µ = pµ ,

– 25 –

i.e. the total mass momentum of string coincides with pµ . The total angular momentum of closed string in the conformal gauge is is deﬁned as J µν = T

0 2π

˙ ˙ dσ(X µ X ν − X ν X µ ) .

(3.51)

**Substituting the oscillator expansion we get ¯ J µν = xµ pν − xν pµ +S µν + S µν ,
**

µν

where

∞

S

µν

= −i

n=1 ∞

1 µ ν µ ν α−n αn − α−n αn , n 1 µ ν α α − α−n αn . ¯ ¯ ¯ν ¯µ n −n n

(3.52) (3.53)

¯ S µν = −i

n=1

For the case of open string expressions are the same (again integration runs from 0 to ¯ ¯ π) except S µν is absent. Here µν is the angular momentum of string and S µν + S µν is its internal spin. Let us show that both P µ and J µν are invariant under the action of the Virasoro algebra. We have {Lm , P µ } = {Lm , pµ } = 0 as Lm does not contain xµ . Let us separate the zero mode part6 of Lm

ρ Lm = α0 αmρ +

(3.54)

1 αρ αnρ . 2 n=0,m m−n

**We ﬁrst compute {Lm ,
**

µ ρ } = {α0 αmρ , xµ pν − xν pµ } = √ ν µ µ ν = αm α0 − αm α0 .

1 αmρ {pρ , xµ pν − xν pµ } = 4πT (3.55)

Second, since S µν = −

i µ ν k=0 k α−k αk

we have

**1 ρ i µ ν { αm−n αnρ , − α−k αk } = 0 , 2 k n,k=0;n=m i µ ν ρ µ ν ν µ {α0 αmρ , − α−k αk } = αm α0 − αm α0 , k k=0
**

6

We assume here that m = 0.

– 26 –

From here we deduce the mass ∞ M = −p = 8πT n=1 2 2 αn α−n . Physical states will be classiﬁed in terms of representations of the Poincar´ group of d-dimensional Minkowski space. 1 2 J 2 = Jij J ij .therefore. {Pµ P µ . to ¯ the action of Lm and Lm . {Lm .r. Another invariant of the Poincar´ group is e J2 = 1 2 Jαβ J αβ + 2 P J αλ P β Jβλ 2 α M . Poincar´ symmetry descends on the space of e physical states. Of course. Jαβ J µ αβ } = −4J µρ Pρ . Checking Poincar´ invariance of this expression is straightforward. Separating the zero mode 1 1 2 L0 = αn α−n = α0 + αn α−n . 2 n=−∞ 2 n=1 we have pµ p + 8πT n=1 µ ∞ n=∞ ∞ µ α0 = √ 1 pµ 4πT αn α−n = 0 .m=1 nm (αn αm )(αm αn ) − (αn αm )(αn αm ) ∗ ≤ 1 nm (αn αm )(αm αn ) . By using reparametrization invariance ﬁx the static gauge X 0 = τ . j = 1. J ρλ } = 0 . Also Pα J αλ P β Jβλ = 0 and. . e Indeed. as an intermediate step we note the relations e {J µν . The angular moment µν of this string is zero. d − 1.t.m=1 i j j i = 1 n. It coincides with the mass: M 2 = −Pµ P µ .m=1 nm ∞ X α−n αn − α−n αn ∗ ∗ i j j i α−m αm − α−m αm ∗ ∞ X n. µν + S µν } = 0. . where i. L0 = 0. P 2 is also invariant w. . e An important invariant of the Poincar´ group is the square of the momentum Pµ P µ . Consider now one of the constraints. The terms Jαβ J αβ and Pα J αλ P β Jβλ separately Poisson commute with J µν . . . ∗ ∗ – 27 – . . Pρ J ρσ } = η νσ J µρ Pρ − η µσ J νρ Pρ {P . Consider an open string which has P i = pi = 0 for all i = 1. Mass is created due to internal excitations of string! From this expression it is not obvious that M 2 is non-negative. P ν } = {Pµ P µ . . d − 1. Thus. We have 1 ∞ X J 2 = − 1 2 n. therefore.

Consider the Polyakov action and introduce the light-cone momenta conjugate to the light-cone coordinates P± = ∂L . tension is energy per unit length. t = Rτ . The function J = α M 2 is a straight line in the (M 2 . Thus. Here the parameter α = 1 2πT is called a slope of the Regge trajectory. i = 1. 3.m=1 (αn αn )(αm αm ) = ∗ ∗ 1 ∞ X 4 n=−∞ αn α−n ∞ X m=−∞ αm α−m = 1 (2πT )2 M 4 because in the open string case M 2 = πT ∞ X n=−∞ αn α−n = 2πT X n>0 αn α−n . J) plane whose slope is α . 2πR 2πR i. where ξ ± are two arbitrary functions (periodic in σ).4 Strings in physical gauge As we have seen upon ﬁxing conformal gauge we are still left with the gauge freedom. for an open string motion we found inequality p J2 ≤ 1 2πT 2 J ≡ M . J 2 ∗ ∗ ∗ 2 ≤ (αn αn )(αm αm ) ≤ nm(αn αn )(αm αm ) .4. ˙ ∂X ± Pi = ∂L ˙ ∂X i (3. It corresponds to reparametrizations of the special type (solutions to the conformal Killing equation): σ + → ξ + (σ + ) . . 3. We see that P 0 = 2πRT =⇒ T = y = R sin σ cos τ .56) – 28 – .1 First order formalism Introduce the light-cone coordinates in the d-dimensional Minkowski space 1 X ± = √ (X 0 ± X d−1 ). σ − → ξ − (σ − ) . 2 X i. This is achieved by imposing the so-called light-cone gauge. Consider a closed (pulsating) string solution x = R cos σ cos τ . P0 E ≡ . ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ≤ ∞ X n. . .e. d − 2 . . This freedom can be further ﬁxed leaving only physical excitations.It follows from the Schwarz inequality that (αn αm )(αm αn ) = |(αn αm )| Therefore.

Express now the velocities via the corresponding momenta ˙ X± = 1 (P − T γ τ σ X ± ) , T γτ τ ˙ Xi = 1 (−P i − T γ τ σ X i ) . T γτ τ

Note that the light-cone indices are raised and lowered according to the rule P− = −P + , P+ = −P − .

Now we can construct the phase-space Lagrangian in the light-cone coordinates: ˙ ˙ ˙ L = Pi X i + P+ X + + P− X − + rest . After explicit computation we ﬁnd ˙ ˙ ˙ L = Pi X i + P+ X + + P− X − + + 1 2T γ τ τ − 2P− P+ + Pi P i + T 2 Xi X i − 2T 2 X − X + (3.57)

γτ σ Pi X i + P− X − + P+ X + . γτ τ

The phase-space light-cone gauge consists in imposing the following two conditions 1. Closed string X+ = 2. Open string X+ = p+ τ, πT P + = const ≡ 1 + p . π (3.59) p+ τ, 2πT P + = const ≡ 1 + p . 2π (3.58)

This gauge choice is done to remove completely the gauge degrees of freedom (recall that in the conformal gauge we still had a gauge freedom left which was generated by solutions of the conformal Killing equation). We further consider the closed string case in detail. We will derive and solve all the constraints followed from the Lagrangian (3.57) in several steps. 1. Varying the Lagrangian w.r.t. γ τ τ and imposing the light-cone gauge allows one to solve for P − : P− = π Pi P i + T 2 Xi X i . + p (3.60)

Thus, equation of motion for γ τ τ allows one to determine P − .

– 29 –

2. Varying w.r.t. γ τ σ leads to determination of X − : X−=− 1 2π Pi X i = + Pi X i . P− p (3.61)

**If we integrate the last equation over σ we obtain 2π X (2π) − X (0) = + p
**

− − 2π 0

dσPi X i .

(3.62)

**The closed string periodicity condition requires the fulﬁllment of the following constraint
**

2π

V=

0

dσPi X i = 0 .

(3.63)

This is the only constraint which remains unsolved and it is known as the level matching condition. We will impose it on physical states of the theory. 3. Now we can determine the world-sheet metric γ αβ . Equation of motion for P+ is δL P− γτ σ ˙ 0= = X+ − + ττ X + , δP+ T γτ τ γ which with our gauge choice gives γ τ τ = −1 .

˙ 4. Equation of motion for X − gives d δL δL d p+ δL 0= − =− − ˙ dt δ X − δX − dt 2π δX − which gives ∂σ γτ σ P− γτ τ =⇒ δL = 0, δX −

= 0 =⇒ ∂σ γ τ σ = 0 .

For the closed string case this implies that γ τ σ = γ τ σ (τ ) is an arbitrary function of τ . The presence of this function signals a residual symmetry. Indeed, on the τσ solutions of the level-matching constraint V = 0 the ratio γ τ τ can be shifted by γ an arbitrary function f (τ ) of τ without aﬀecting the Lagrangian. 5. Varying w.r.t P− we ﬁnd an evolution equation for X − : 0= P+ π δL ˙ ˙ = X− − = 0 =⇒ X − = (Pi P i + T 2 Xi X i ) . ττ + δP− Tγ Tp

– 30 –

Thus, the variable X − is not physical and can be solved from the following two equations we found above ˙ X− = X− π (Pi P i + T 2 Xi X i ) + Tp 2π = + Pi X i p (3.64) (3.65)

These two equations can be rewritten as ∂± X − = 2πT (∂± X i )2 . + p (3.66)

It is worth noting that two equations (3.64), (3.65) are compatible. Indeed, the σ-derivative of the ﬁrst equation must be equal the τ -derivative of the second one. One can see that this is indeed so due to equations of motion for physical ﬁelds.

Now we are ready to construct the gauge-ﬁxed Lagrangian. Substituting solutions of all the constraints and the gauge conditions into eq.(3.57) we obtain the density 1 + ˙− p+ − p+ − ˙ L = Pi X i − p X − P − γ τ σ (τ ) Pi X i − X . 2π 2πT 2π Thus, the Lagrangian itself is

2π

(3.67)

L=

0

dσL = −p+ x− + ˙

0

2π

˙ dσ Pi X i −H − γ τ σ (τ )V .

(3.68)

deﬁnes Poisson structure

Here x− denotes the zero (constant) mode of the variable X − and the Hamiltonian is 2π 1 H= dσ Pi P i + T 2 Xi X i . 2T 0 We also see that γ τ σ (τ ) plays the role of the Lagrangian multiplier to the levelmatching constraint V. Without loss of generality we will choose γ τ σ = 0 which corresponds the conformal gauge condition discussed above. From the gauge-ﬁxed Lagrangian we conclude that our physical variables are (Pi , Xi ), where i = 1, . . . , d−2, and also (x− , p+ ) and they have the following Poisson brackets {X i (σ, τ ), X j (σ , τ )} = {P i (σ, τ ), P j (σ , τ )} = 0 , {X i (σ, τ ), P j (σ , τ )} = δ ij δ(σ − σ ) , {p , x } = 1 .

+ −

(3.69)

– 31 –

(3. Xi ). V generates the rigid σ-rotations. . . We also have the evolution equations {X i .73) αn−m αm . d − 2. (3. equations ∂± X − = 2πT (∂± X i )2 p+ (3.65) we ﬁnd that the zero mode of X − evolves as x− = ˙ 1 H H =⇒ x− (τ ) = x− + + τ . i = 1. The variables (Pi . the important diﬀerence is that now they involve 2(d − 2) physical ﬁelds only plus two additional degrees of freedom (x− . + p p It is this τ -independent mode x− which is conjugate to p+ . are called transversal. from eq.The physical Hamiltonian and the Poisson brackets look the same as the ones in the conformal gauge. m=−∞ ∞ n = 0. . T 2 {P i . The variables (Pi . ¯i ¯i m=−∞ These formulae give a complete solution for X − . {P i . The only constraint which we were not able to solve explicitly is the level-matching constraint V = 0. however. n = 0. (3. . where i = 1. . d − 2. (3. σ) = x− + i p− τ+√ 2πT 4πT H p+ n=0 1 − −inσ− + αn e + αn e−inσ .70) − can be solved for the longitudinal oscillators αn . Thus. p+ ).72) (3. H} = T ∂σ X i = ∂τ P i . Xi ) are physical excitations while X ± . The variable P − plays the role of the Hamiltonian for physical excitations! Equations of motion for physical ﬁelds are the same as before ¨ Xi − X i = 0. P ± are longitudinal. ¯− n (3.75) – 32 – .e. It is easy to check that {X i . αn with n = 0 by substituting an ¯− expansion X − (τ.74) i. V} = ∂σ P i . Second. the light-cone gauge allows for the explicit solution of the Virasoro constraints. . H} = 1 i P = ∂τ X i . while X ± . V} = ∂σ X i . First.71) We ﬁnd p− = 2πT H p+ and πT = + p √ πT αn = + ¯− p − αn √ ∞ i i αn−m αm . P + were removed by the light-cone gauge choice and by solving the constraints. . .

58) is taken to be compatible with the form (3.76) n=0 Our gauge choice (3. 4πT One may wonder why one cannot completely remove X + . it means taken equal to zero all oscillators + ¯+ αn = 0 = αn . The symmetry algebra itself is {Ln . Imposition of the light-cone gauge is possible because in the conformal gauge the ﬁeld X + satisﬁes the wave equation: X + = 0.0 . i. ¯ ¯ {H.One can also see that the τ . an are arbitrary constants. Lm } = imLm .76). String in the light-cone gauge can be treated in the standard framework of the Hamiltonian reduction. Eﬀectively. In other words these transformations can be ¯ written as X → X + ξ − (σ − ) . Lm } = −i(m − n)Ln+m . V} = 0 . ¯ + where an . where ξ ± are arbitrary functions obeying only one requirement: they must be periodic in σ.e. These functions can be used to remove all oscillator modes and the zero mode x+ but they cannot remove p+ τ = p+ (τ 2 − σ) + p+ (τ 2 + σ) because the functions τ − σ and τ + σ are not periodic in σ. ¯ ¯ H = L0 + L0 is invariant under the symmetry algebra on the surface Lm = 0 = Lm : {H. n=0 and also x+ = 0 or p+ + αn = αn = √ ¯+ δn. Lm } = imLm . ¯ ¯ ¯ {Ln . The Hamiltonian – 33 – . Lm } = −i(m − n)Ln+m . The corresponding solution for X + is X + (τ.and σ-ﬂows generated by H and V respectively commute with each other because {H. − X→X+ n an einσ ∂+ X . X → X + ξ + (σ + ) . σ) = x+ + p+ i τ+√ 2πT 4πT 1 + −inσ− + + αn e−inσ . To understand this point one has to remember that the inﬁnitesimal conformal transformations are of the form X→X+ n an einσ ∂− X . ¯+ αn e n (3. to choose a gauge X + = 0.

which simultaneously leads to solving the Virasoro constraints. Hamiltonian reduction conditions ¯ Lm = 0 = Lm correspond to ﬁxing the moment map. ¯ solutions of Lm = 0 = Lm action of Virasoro P = . 2. ¯i ¯i αn α−n + αn α−n = ¯i ¯i 2 n=−∞ 4πT n=1 Thus. The action of the Virasoro algebra is factored out by imposing the light-cone gauge. Mass of the string in the light-cone gauge is computed as follows (recall that mass is a quadratic Casimir of the Poincar´ group).X) Fig. ¯ where the isotropy subalgebra is a subalgebra of the Virasoro algebra which leaves the surface Lm = 0 = Lm invariant. therefore. Since we have found that p− = 2πT H e p+ we get for the mass M 2 = −pµ pµ = −(pi )2 + 2p+ p− = −(pi )2 + 4πT H . In our present situation this subalgebra coincides with the algebra itself and.Orbits of the Virasoro algebra Gauge condition for X + Constrained surface _ L m =L m =0 Phase space (P.78) M 2 = 4πT n=1 i i αn α−n + αn α−n = ¯i ¯i 2 α ∞ i i αn α−n + αn α−n . a property which was not obvious in the conformal gauge. The transversal coordinates introduced above provide the description of the reduced phase space. The physical Hamiltonian is 1 (pi )2 i i i i H= + αn α−n + αn α−n . The reduced phase space P is deﬁned as a quotient space ¯ solutions of Lm = 0 = Lm isotropy subalgebra In the framework of the P = . – 34 – . ¯i ¯i n=1 (3. The physical phase space is obtained by solving the Virasoro con¯ straints Lm = 0 = Lm and reducing the action of the Virasoro algebra on the constrained surface by imposing the light-cone gauge.77) (3. One would like to reduce the dynamics of the system over the action of the symmetry algebra.79) This clearly shows positivity of M 2 . we obtain ∞ ∞ ∞ (3.

Poisson brackets of the light-cone modes. {p− . . .4. = +n + . ¯i ¯i n=0 (3. – 35 – . x− } = −2πT + 2 = − + . The variable p− is essentially the Hamiltonian: p− = 2πT pH . αm } 0 − inδ ij δn+m i √ 4πT i mαn+m p+ − Tab. αn } = 1 i j j 1 i {x . The brackets involving α ¯ + variables are the same. x− } = {2πT H − 1 H p− . 3. We ﬁrst summarize the basic Poisson relations for the closed string case {. the level-matching condition tells that the left.Finally. . + p p − − The most complicated bracket is {αm . These relations are easy to derive.80) Thus. . } p+ p− pi xi x− i αn − αn p+ 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 − − p− 0 0 0 pi p+ p− p+ 2πiT i nαn p+ 2πiT − nαn p+ pj 0 0 0 δ ij 0 0 0 xj 0 pi − p+ − δ ij 0 0 ij δ − δ4πTn i n − α+ p x− 1 − − p+ p 0 0 0 0 − α− n p+ j αm 0 2πiT j mαm p+ 0 δ ij δm 4πT − αm 0 2πiT − mαm p+ 0 αi m p+ α− m + √ p 4πT i i p+ nαn+m − − {αn . p αn } = + αn . therefore. x } = −2πT H + 2 {p+ . αn }.2 Poisson structure of the light-cone theory Using the Poisson brackets of physical ﬁelds we can now establish the Poisson relations between all quantities of interest. one has to remember that the variable αn contains the zero mode α0 √ pi αi πT i i − αn = + 2α0 αn + . We ﬁnd V= 1 2T i i αn α−n − αn α−n = 0 .and right-moving oscillators contribute the same amount of energy. p p and. − {xi . p+ (p ) (p ) p i − Also. we can write the level-matching condition in terms of transversal oscillators. For instance. 1.

0 αm−k αk . in the light-cone gauge the Virasoro − algebra is carried over by the longitudinal oscillators αn . one ﬁnds the following result √ − − {αm . l=n. Also we conclude that with this deﬁnition p − = √ πT (α0 + α0 ) . If n = −m then in eq. } i (3.81) first bracket second and third brackets forth bracket Thus. i i {αm . αn } = − − 4πT p+ −i(m − n)αm+n − . i i X l=n.0 αm−l αl j n X k=m.0 {αm . αn } = − − −i(m − n)αm+n − . αn } = 4πT − −i(m − n)αm+n . If m + n = 0 then the ﬁrst term vanishes and we {αm . i i p+ p+ It is therefore natural to deﬁne α0 ≡ − √ πT ∞ X k=−∞ p+ αk α−k . X j j i i pj αj n p+ o − 2πT (p+ )2 + √ πT p+ X l=n. Therefore. αn } = −im − − where due to αi = √ p 0 i can rewrite the last formula as √ 4πT p+ 4πT we combined the second and a third terms into one sum.(3. αn } = n pi αi p+ −im | m − − m p+ + αm−k αk . ¯ − − Thus.0 i αn−l αl πT n pi αi n p+ pi pi (p+ )2 {z δn+m −2i(m − n) }| √ πT (p+ )2 {z p+ 0 . – 36 – .0 αn+m−k αk A . Lm } = −i(n − m)Ln+m we therefore ﬁnd which is the classical Virasoro algebra! Thus. pj αj o n p+ √ + πT n pi αi m p+ √ p+ .Let us outline the computation of this bracket.81) contribution from the second and the third term vanishes and we get pi pi (p+ )2 0 + 2πT (p+ )2 @−2im X k=0 i i 1 α−k αk A ≡ −2im √ {αm . 4πT {Ln . α−m } = −2im − − 4πT 0√ @ πT ∞ X k=−∞ 1 αk α−k A . we are getting pi pi (p+ )2 0 δn+m + 2πT (p+ )2 @−i(m − n) ∞ X k=−∞ 1 αn+m−k αk A . p+ If we introduce p+ − Ln = √ αn .0 αn−l αl X j j j o = o + πT (p+ )2 1 i . l=m.0 αn−l αl j j o p αn+m + }| i @−i(m − n) {z X k=m+n. √ {αm . i i With this deﬁnition we obtained a universal formula (valid for all indices m and n): √ {αm . n pi αi √ πT p+ X k=m. α−m } = −im − − 4πT 0√ @ πT h p+ p+ pi √ 4πT !2 + X k=0 1 i i i αk α−k A .

n → n + m and m → m + n respectively. α−n αn } = −i p Bα n | {z } | {z } n B −n p+ n=0 n=0 @| A B X 1 − 2πiT p+ nα−n αn + {z j − 1 2πiT p+ nα−n αn j − } α− i j − p α−n n p+ | {z from B C C C C . We have the generators of the Lorentz algebra which in terms of transversal oscillators become realized non-linearly. from the Poincar´ e algebra we must have {J i− . x p } + {x p . In the second and the third summonds one makes the change of summation indices. Consider the Poisson bracket of the internal spin components i− j− {S . J µν } . j− } = {x p i − − x p . j− } = 0.m=0 1 nm j {α−n αn . there are terms which are still left. J µν } = 0 = {Lm . Here the ﬁrst ﬁrst sum is zero (proved by changing n for −n). i j (3. First we have { i− . α−m αm } = − − i − − j − j i − − − i j i − j − =− X n.m=0 {α−n .n=0 i = = iδ ij X α− α− n −n n=0 n p+ − 1 m α−n+m α−m αn + i j − 1 n α−n αn−m αm + i j − n−m nm α−n α−m αm+n i j − . C }A from A – 37 – . { i− . j− } = p x − {z − j p x −p x }| − i i j +x p δ {z − − ij +p x j i −x p δ {z − − ij .3 Lorentz symmetry The light-cone gauge manifestly breaks the d-dimensional Lorentz invariance of the theory. terms for which −n + m = 0 and also the term of the last summond for which m + n = 0 . J j− } = 0 .x p j − − i j − −x p }= j − i − − j − i − j − j = {x p .4. By using the Poisson brackets from Table 1 we obtain pi | p+ pj p+ p− p+ p− p+ i − − i { i− . αm }α−n α−m √ +i 4πT X m. α−m }α−n αm + {αn . For instance.3.S } = −i {x p − x p . x p } − {x p . x p } − {x p . After this change these terms cancel exactly against the last one. we will get the following contribution from the left-moving modes Then we compute 0 B i X 1 B j B j i i− j− i − − i − − αn +x { . However. these are the terms in the second and third summonds containing zero modes.82) Analogously.S j− }=− 4πT n p+ α0 − X 1 n=0 n αn α−n . Thus. α−m }αn αm + {α−n . which means that the Poisson bracket of J µν admits a ¯ reduction on the constraint surface Lm = 0 = Lm ). i p+ X 1 n=0 √ p α−n − p α−n αn + 2i i j j i − {S i− . Thus. i. x p } . }| } first bracket second bracket third bracket and the forth bracket vanishes. the generator ∞ J i− = xi p− − x− pi −i i− n=1 1 i − 1 i − − i α−n αn − α−n αn − i α α − α−n αn ¯ ¯ ¯− ¯i n n −n n n=1 ∞ is not anymore quadratic in oscillators because p− and α− are non-trivial function of the transversal oscillators.S }=− 1 nm X n.e. In particular. Let us check this explicitly. αm }αn α−m + {αn . In spite of rather non-linear realization one can check that all the Poisson relations involving J i− are still satisﬁed (this is also consequence of the fact that ¯ {Lm .

αn ] = 0 .82) and (3.85) However. i j (3. ¯ν (4. p ] = iη 7 µ ν µν Here the indices µ. 4. ]. τ )] = 0 . αn ] = [¯ m . Quantization of bosonic string 4. j− } + {S i− .S j− ¯ } + {S i− . [x . ¯ν (4.83) we obtain √ 4 πT p+ α− + α− ¯0 0 2 X 1 n=0 { i− . } → [ . Thus. j− ¯ } + {S i− ¯ . i where is the Plank constant. [X µ (σ. we arrive at p− X 1 p+ n=0 n i X 1 { i− . αn ] = mδm+n η µν . (4.S j− }=i α0 − ¯ − n αn α−n . we consider now X(σ. Thus. P ν (σ . τ )] = iη µν δ(σ − σ ) .2) µν [x . j− } = −2i αn α−n + i j p+ n=0 n p α−n − p α−n αn . αn ] = 0 . τ )] = [P µ (σ. τ ) as the quantum mechanical operators which obey the following commutation relations7 [X µ (σ. we have to invoke the level-matching constraint which simply tells that α− = α− and makes both eqs. τ ). µ [αm .84) and (3.85) ¯0 0 separately vanish.S j− } + {S i− .1) These commutation relations induce the commutation relations on the Fourier coefﬁcients µ ν [αm . p ] = i η µ ν . For the case of open string the modes αn are absent. ν run from 0 to d − 1. ¯ ¯ i j (3.S j− } + {S i− . αµ ¯ ν µ [αm .S j− }=i α0 − − n αn α−n . τ ).3) . J j− } = 0 is indeed satisﬁed.84) At ﬁrst glance this expression is non-zero and it can not be compensated by the contribution of left-moving modes √ 4 πT p+ α− + α− ¯0 0 2 X 1 n=0 { i− ¯ . τ ) and P (σ.Thus. – 38 – . αn ] = mδm+n η µν . αn ] = [¯ m . X ν (σ .83) Now summing up equations (3. so that the commutation relations read as ν µ αµ ¯ ν [αm . i j j i − (3. In what follows we will work ¯ in units in which = 1. we have indeed shown that the most non-trivial relation {J i− .(3. τ ). P ν (σ .1 Remarks on canonical quantization According to the standard principles of quantum mechanics canonical quantization consists in replacing the Poisson brackets of the fundamental phase space variables by commutators 1 { .

(αm )† ] = mη 00 = −m . ¯ ~ Let us take m > 0 and rescale am = √1m αm . [Nm . pµ |pν = pµ |pν .m an ¯m which are the standard commutation relations of two inﬁnite sets of independent quantum harmonic oscillators. Introduce the number operator for m’s mode µ Nm =: αm α−m. (αm )† ]|0 = 0|αm (αm )† |0 = ||(αm )† |0 ||2 = −m < 0 . Then using the hermiticity property the commutation relations can be rewritten as [aµ .To restore . This construction brings us to the major problem of canonical quantization. we induce from here (let even a ground state carries zero momentum pµ ) 0 0 0 0 0 0|[αm . one has to simply rescale the modes as α → 1 √ α. ~ α→ ¯ 1 √ α. States with negative norm are sometimes called “ghosts” and they do not allow for probability interpretation of the corresponding quantum-mechanical system. α−m ] = [αm . ˆ (4.4) The whole inﬁnite-dimensional (Hilbert) space of states is obtained by acting on the ground state with creation operators. α−m ] = mα−m . Consider for m positive the following commutator 0 0 0 0 [αm . From here we conclude that • Modes with m > 0 should be identiﬁed with the lowering operators • Modes with m < 0 should be identiﬁed with the raising operators Construction of the representation of the canonical commutation relations is completed by introducing the ground state which satisﬁes the following properties µ αm |pν = 0 . – 39 – . a†ν ] = η µν δn. αm ] = −mαm . Thus. Minkowskian type of the target-space metric leads to the existence in the Hilbert space the states with negative norm. a†ν ] = η µν δn. Thus.m n m [¯µ .µ : Then we see that for m > 0 [Nm .

in ¯ quantum theory expressions for Lm and Lm are quadratic in oscillators and might involve operators (quantum oscillators) which do not commute with each other! From all Lm a constraint which suﬀers from ordering ambiguity is L0 as 1 L0 = αµ α−n. 2 n=−∞ The normal ordering prescription means that : αm1 . ¯ In the classical theory we have the constraints Lm = 0 = Lm . Since the ground state obeys pµ |p = pµ |p it can be regarded as the usual quantumˆ ∂ mechanical eigenstate of the momentum operator pµ = −i ∂xµ which is in the moˆ mentum representation has the form of the plane-wave |p ≡ eip µx µ |0 .6) in the operators are ordered in such a fashion that all annihilation operators are put on the right from all the creation operators. for L0 we have 1 2 µ L0 = α0 + α−n αn. .µ 2 n=−∞ n ∞ (4. The order of the creation (or annihilation) operators between themselves does not matter because these operators commute between themselves and therefore their expression does not have ordering ambiguity. the normal-ordering prescription here is : pµ xν := xν pµ . αmk := αn1 . αnp αs1 . The covariant approach to quantization consists in deﬁning the subspace of physical states in the original Hilbert space which obey the Virasoro constraints.5) µ µ and oscillators αn and α−n do not commute with each other. As to the zero modes. . .µ − a . In particular. – 40 – . The standard way to deal with this ambiguity in quantum ﬁeld theory is to use the normal ordering prescription 1 µ Lm = : αm−n αn.µ : . 2 n=1 ∞ (4.One can correctly anticipate that the problem with negative norm states arose because we did not take into account the Virasoro constraints. However. . αsr all creation all annihilation ∞ (4.7) where we include a so far unknown normal ordering constant a. One can further show that in a special dimension of space-time (d = 26) the negative norm states decouple from the physical Hilbert space. . .

1 Virasoro algebra Let us now investigate the algebra of the operators Lm in the quantum case. Plane-waves are not square-integrable functions but they form a basis of a generalized Hilbert space and they are assumed to be normalized as p|p = δ(p − p ) . then we have [Lm . Ln ] + 2 p=−∞ 2 0 0 ∞ µ µ [αm−p αp .h. p=1 p=q−n In the underbraced terms we make a change of summation index p = q − n and get [Lm . 2 p=−∞ p We write down the normal ordering explicitly (to simplify the notation we write the Lorentz summation index on the same level) 1 1 µ µ [Lm .ν :] = p=−∞ 1 2 p=−∞ ∞ µ µ µ mδm+p αn−p + mαp δm+n−p = mαn+m . Ln ] = [αp αm−p . We ﬁrst assume that the normal ordering constant a = 0. 4. n µ µ (q − n) αq αm+n−q not ordered! + – 41 – . Ln ] = 1 2 0 µ µ (m − p)αp αm+n−p + p=−∞ ∞ +∞ n µ µ (q − n)αq αm+n−q q=−∞ µ µ p)αm+n−p αp + p=1 (m − + µ µ (q − n)αm+n−q αq . pµ is not an operator and |0 denotes the zero-momentum ground state.where on the r. Ln ] = 1 2 0 µ µ (m − n)αp αm+n−p + p=−∞ ∞ q=1 n µ µ (m − n)αm+n−p αp + p=n+1 q=1 µ µ (m − q)αm+n−q αq . Then we have 1 [Lm .µ :. Ln ] = 1 2 ν µ [αm . Ln ] = p=1 ∞ = 1 µ µ pαµ αµ +(m − p)αp αm−p+n 2 p=−∞ p+n m−p p=q−n + 1 2 ∞ µ µ µ µ (m − p)αm−p+n αp + pαm−p αn+p .s. : αp αn−p. Ln ] . We start by computing ∞ µ [αm . q=n+1 Without loss of generality we assume that n > 0. Ln ] = [: αµ αm−p.1.

Finally. If we restore the Plank the algebra relations take the form [Lm . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + 2 c m(m2 − 1)δm+n .µ µ µ µ µ µ µ Using αq αm+n−q = αm+n−q αq + qδm+n δµ = αm+n−q αq + qdδm+n .0 then the linear term in m in the central term changes [Lm . The central term obviously vanishes in the semi-classical limit. If we introduce a normal ordering constant a by shifting the deﬁnition of Lm as Lm → Lm − δm. 12 where the constant term c is known as the central charge. Ln } = lim 1 [Lm . Ln ] = Since 1 d µ µ (m − n) : αp αm+n−p : + δn+m 2 p=−∞ 2 n ∞ n (q 2 − nq) . Ln ] = −i(m − n)Lm+n . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + c 3 c m + 2a − m δm+n . In a more general setting the algebra is written as [Lm . 12 12 We see that the central term has an invariant meaning and cannot be removed for all Lm by adjusting the normal ordering constant a. – 42 – . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + c m(m2 − 1)δm+n . where d is the dimension of the Minkowskian space-time where string propagates. We see that it is diﬀerent from the classical Virasoro (Wit) algebra by the presence of the central term. ~→0 i which coincides with the Wit algebra. 12 We see that one can deﬁne the Poisson bracket {Lm . the algebra relation is [Lm . 2 q=1 one ﬁnds the ﬁnal result [Lm . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + d m(m2 − 1)δm+n 12 which is the famous Virasoro algebra. Thus. q=1 1 q = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) . we comment on the relation to semiclassics. 6 q=1 2 n 1 q = n(n + 1) .

if eqs. Because of the anomaly term the ﬁrst-class Virasoro constrains of the classical theory turn upon quantization into the constraints of the second class! From the experience with the quantum electrodynamics one can try to impose only “half” of the constraints. We have ∞ M = −p = 4πT (−a + N ) .8) where in fact the normal-orderings constants a and a must be equal to each other8 and ¯ ¯ 0 are understood as the normal-ordered generators. n ∈ Z .8) cannot be consistently imposed for all m.8) would be satisﬁed for all m we would have [Ln . however. i. expectation values of Ln vanish for all nonnegative n.9) The conjugate state then obeys Φ|L−n = 0 for n > 0 and we see that Φ|Ln |Φ for all n = 0. Ln |Φ = 0 . i.e.(4. L−n ]|Φ = 2nL0 |Φ + i. The physical reason for impossibility to impose in quantum theory the same set of constraints as in the classical one is an anomaly. ¯ This follows from the constraint (L0 − L0 )|Φ = 0.µ . Due to the normal-ordering ambiguity in the deﬁnition of L0 in quantum theory the ¯ classical conditions L0 = 0 = L0 are replaced now by (L0 − a)|Φ = 0 . 12 for any n . d n(n2 − 1) |Φ 12 This is obviously not possible to satisfy unless |Φ = 0.2 Virasoro constraints in quantum theory ¯ At ﬁrst sight it seems that the natural analog of the classical equations Ln = 0 = Ln in quantum theory is to require that a physical state should be annihilated by all Virasoro generators: ¯ Ln |Φ = 0 = Ln |Φ . Indeed. Let us recall that the mass operator is obtained from the constraint L0 − a = 0. L0 . – 43 – . 8 2 2 N= n=1 µ α−n αn.1. n > 0. It is easy to see. (4. (L0 − a)|Φ = 0 . 0= 2na + d n(n2 − 1)|Φ .4. ¯ (L0 − a)|Φ = 0 . L that eqs.e.(4.e. ¯ (4.

Virasoro primaries. L−2 ] + L−2 L−1 = L−3 + L−2 L−1 . Thus. a0 ] = − −m n=1 0 0 0 α−n [αn . a0 ] = mα−m −m since commutator of two time-like oscillators contributes with the negative sign. There are two basis descendents with the number NΦ + 2. L−2 L−1 |Φ . 1. The counting of descendents changes at NΦ + 3. 3. Here the candidate descendents are L−3 |Φ . time-like creation operators contribute positively to N . If N |Φ = NΦ |Φ then N L−1 |Φ = (NΦ + 1)L−1 |Φ . the time-like oscillators themselves provide only non-negative contribution to N . descendents and physical states Let us introduce the following useful deﬁnitions. 2. It turns out that all eigenvalues of the number operator N are non-negative. −1 The second and the third states are not identical because the Virasoro operators do not commute. L3 |Φ . there are only three descendents with number NΦ + 3. Number a is called a weight of the Virasoro primary. because for any m>0 ∞ ∞ [N. namely L−2 |Φ and L−1 L−1 |Φ . However. ∞ d−1 0 0 − α−n αn + n=1 i=1 i i α−n αn . Indeed. Thus. However. – 44 – . a0 ] = − −m n=1 0 0 [α−n αn . N= We see the “-” sign coming from the time-like oscillators. A Virasoro descendent of a given primary is a state that can be written as a ﬁnite linear combination of products of negatively moded Virasoro operators acting on the primary state. States which are annihilated by all positively moded Virasoro operators and are eigenstates of the operator L0 with an eigenvalue a are called Virasoro primaries. A state which is both primary and descendent is called a null state.Here N is the number operator. If |Φ is a primary state then L−1 |Φ is its descendent. due to the Virasoro algebra there is one relation between the above states L−1 L−2 = [L−1 . L−1 L−2 |Φ .

correspond to pure gauge degrees of freedom. The choice a = 1 will be motivated by studying the quantization of strings in the physical (light-cone) gauge.1. one can realize that for the zero-momentum ground (primary) state |0 the descendent L−1 |0 vanishes identically. Any null state has a vanishing norm and it is orthogonal to any primary and to any descendent. then the new primary state has the same inner products with all primary states as the original one. In the next section studying the spectrum of open string we will see that the null states are indeed responsible for the gauge degrees of freedom.10) It is a conventional ordering of the Virasoro operators. This motivates the following deﬁnition of a physical state: A physical state is an equivalence class of a primary state with the weight a = 1 modulo the null states. The vanishing of such combinations happens not due to the Virasoro algebra relations but rather due to speciﬁc properties of the primary state |Φ . there can be a linear combination of descendents (4. An important property of the descendents is that they are all orthogonal to any primary. Note that here we talk about equivalent classes precisely because of the ambiguity created by the null states. For any given primary. Then for any primary state des|prime = χ|Lni |prime = 0 . a descendent |des can be written as L−ni |χ for some ni > 0 and some state |χ . since a primary |prime is annihilated by all positively moded oscillators. where n1 ≥ n2 ≥ . Indeed. which are both primary and descendents. Null states. Adding null states to primaries cannot change any physical expectation value. Primary states which diﬀer by a null state are physically indistinguishable. If we alter a primary state by adding a null state. . 4. .In general. one can choose an independent basis of descendents of the form k L−n1 L−n2 · · · L−nk |Φ . ≥ nk and i=1 ni = n .(4. Only the ground state is massless in the classical open string theory but because it carries no spin we are not able to identify it with photon.3 The spectrum The classical strings cannot provide a reasonable particle physics because the masses of string states take continuous values. Quantization procedure – this is what alters the nature of the classical – 45 – . For instance.10) which vanishes. for any ﬁxed level NΦ + n. Note that the number of descendents in this basis is equal to a number of partitions of integer n.

i. Generic state |ψ is not physical. Further condition gives √ µ µ L1 ζµ α−1 |p = (α0 α1 + α−1 α2 + · · · )ζµ α−1 |p = 2α ζµ pµ |p = 0 .string spectrum and makes it discrete. We.9) and is not a descendent. Later on studying the light-cone quantization we ﬁnd that the normal-ordering constant a must be equal to one. The corresponding hypothetic particle moving faster than light is called tachyon. We have µ µ µ (L0 − 1)ζµ α−1 |p = (α p2 + N − 1)ζµ α−1 |p = α p2 ζµ α−1 |p = 0 from which we deduce the on-shell condition p2 = 0. µ The next state to consider is ζµ α−1 |p . A physical state is a state which obeys the Virasoro constraints (4. Thus. for a physical state the momentum pµ and the polarization vector ζ µ must be related as ζµ pµ = 0 which is nothing else as the Lorentz gauge condition. – 46 – . All higher Virasoro modes Ln . the corresponding particle is massless. Let us look for some examples of physical states. 2α p2 = 0 . Thus. Consider open strings. The ﬁrst one is the ground state |p . The only non-trivial constraint is (L0 − a)|p = (α p2 − a)|p = 0 . n ≥ 2 are automatically annihilate the state. Simultaneously. have not described the physical state completely. Consider a state (κ is any constant) κ µ |d = √ L−1 |p = κpµ α−1 |p . a Since p2 = −M 2 we get that the on-shell condition for this state is M 2 = − α . however. n=1 µ=0 |ψ = are non-negative integers.e. the mass-squared of the ground state is negative: 1 M 2 = − α . The massless vector particle which is photon must have d − 2 independent polarizations while the Lorentz gauge lives d − 1 polarizations only. states to be identiﬁed with photon emerge in the quantum spectrum because of the downward shift of the M 2 producing thereby the massless states with a proper spin labels.µ |p . The basis vectors of the Hilbert space are ∞ 25 µ† (αn )λn. We should now recall that physical states are deﬁned modulo the null states. The Hamiltonian is H = L0 − 1 = α p2 + N − 1 .

σ) . The reason for this identiﬁcation can be understood as follows. σ ) . one can use the shift freedom ζµ → ζµ + κpµ to put.1. Thus. because p2 = 0. equivalently. σ)XR (τ .. σ)XR (τ . T XR (τ.4 Propagators Here we introduce the concept of propagator or. σ)XR (τ . because ζµ pµ = κp2 = 0. the states ζµ and ζµ + κpµ should be identiﬁed. σ)XR (τ . 4πT n=0 m=0 nm Thus. σ)XR (τ . Consider ﬁrst the right-moving ﬁelds of the closed string. σ ) : . as it should be for a massless photon. σ ) − : XR (τ. If ζµ pµ = 0 then (ζµ + κpµ )pµ = 0 as well. σ ) = T XR (τ. XR (τ. e. σ ) = = X 1 µ −in(τ −σ) pµ i 1 µ x + (τ − σ) + √ αn e 2 4πT 4πT n=0 n X 1 µ −in(τ −σ) pµ i 1 µ x + (τ − σ) + √ αn e 2 4πT 4πT n=0 n X 1 µ −im(τ −σ ) pν i 1 ν x + (τ − σ ) + √ αm e 2 4πT 4πT m=0 m X 1 µ −im(τ −σ ) pν i 1 ν x + (τ − σ ) + √ αm e 2 4πT 4πT m=0 m : . for any vector ζµ obeying ζµ pµ = 0. one of the components of ζµ to zero. It is physical. σ)XR (τ . On the other hand. for τ < τ . σ ) = − 1 8πT 1 x p (τ − σ ) + µ ν 1 8πT p x (τ − σ) µ ν 1 µ ν µ ν : x p : (τ − σ ) − : p x : (τ − σ) 8πT 8πT X X 1 1 µ ν µ ν −in(τ −σ) −im(τ −σ ) − (αn αm − : αn αm :)e e . this identiﬁcation reduces the number of independent polarizations to d − 2. XR (τ . Thus. −: Most of the terms cancelled and we are left with XR (τ. the two-point Green function.This state has the same form as before with ζµ = κpµ (longitudinally polarized photons). = − η (τ − σ) − ln @1 − 8πT 4πT ei(τ −σ) 8πT η (τ − σ) + µν ei(τ −σ ) 1m – 47 – . As the result. for τ > τ . Substituting the commutators we obtain XR (τ. x ](τ − σ) − µ ν 1 X X 1 4πT n>0 m<0 nm [αn . αm ]e µ ν −in(τ −σ) −im(τ −σ ) e .g. Indeed. σ)XR (τ . σ)XR (τ . σ)XR (τ . XR (τ. it is null as it appears to be a descendent of L−1 .11) where T means time-ordering prescription. σ ) = − i 8πT i η µν (τ − σ) − η µν X 1 4πT m<0 m η µν X 1 e im(τ −σ) −im(τ −σ ) e 0 @ = − A 4πT m>0 m ei(τ −σ) 0 1 i η µν ei(τ −σ ) µν A . σ ) = 1 8πT [p . σ ) = For τ > τ we have XR (τ. Their propagator is deﬁned as XR (τ. σ )XR (τ. (4. 4.

8πT where we made an identiﬁcation z = ei(τ −σ) . σ)X(τ . For τ > τ we have η µν 1 X(τ.1. σ ) = ln z − ¯ ln(¯ − z ) . It is important to realize that the situation here is diﬀerent to what one usually accounters in QFT. σ)XL (τ . σ ) = − ln z . Open (closed) strings interact by means of joining and splitting. n 4.Thus. ¯ Computation for the case of open string is similar.5 Vertex operators. σ)XR (τ . Out split string on a mass−shell V Insertion of a local operator emmiting a particle Out In In Fig. 8πT 4πT η µν η µν XL (τ. σ ) = η µν η µν ln z − ln(z − z ) . for τ > τ one obtains the propagators9 XR (τ. 3. Tachyon scattering amplitude Here we approach for the ﬁrst time the question about string interactions. in the latter case one would obtain non-linear interacting theory but still of a single string. The interaction of strings cannot be introduced by adding non-linear terms to the string Lagrangian. σ)XL (τ . because correlation functions of the massless ﬁeld in two-dimensions suﬀer from IR divergencies. σ ) = −i τ+ πT πT Performing the sum one ﬁnds X(τ. σ)X(τ . Rigorous justiﬁcation of these formulae requires an introduction of an IR regularization. Emission of a point particle on mass-shell is represented by insertion of a local vertex operator. ∞ n=1 1 −inτ +inτ e cos nσ cos nσ . σ ) = − η µν log eiτ − e−i(σ−σ ) eiτ 4πT + log eiτ − e−i(σ+σ ) eiτ + log eiτ − ei(σ−σ ) eiτ + log eiτ − ei(σ+σ ) eiτ . 9 – 48 – . z = ei(τ +σ) . z ¯ 8πT 4πT η µν XR (τ.

the r. if A has conformal weight ∆ = 1 then it’s zero mode commutes with all Lm . An ] = (m(∆ − 1) − n)An+m Thus. ∂τ This transformation law can be written as A(τ )(dτ )∆ = A(τ )(dτ )∆ . A(τ )] = eimτ (−i∂τ + m∆)|∆=1 A(τ ) = −i i. An alternative way to understand this is to notice that for ∆ = 1 we have [Lm . σ) which depends on the emitted state and transforms |In into the outgoing state |Out : |Out = V |In . to any physical state |Φ from the spectrum one can put in correspondence a local vertex operator VΦ . If a split string is on-shell it can be thought as an inﬁnite collection of particles which form its spectrum. For ∆ = 1 this implies that A(τ )dτ is a one-form. Thus. Conformal operators Operator A(τ ) is called conformal with the conformal dimension ∆ if10 A (τ ) = dτ dτ ∆ A(τ ) . Thus. Therefore. – 49 – . A(τ )] = eimτ (−i∂τ + m∆)A(τ ) If the operator A is expandable as A(τ ) = An e−inτ . A0 = [Lm .h.e. is the total derivative.String interactions are introduced by allowing a topology of a wold-sheet to change.s. A0 ] = −i 10 dA d − ∆A dτ dτ ∂ imτ e A(τ ) . In the limiting case of single emitted particle the process of scattering can be viewed as application to an initial state |In of a local vertex operator V ≡ V (τ. ∂τ dτ A(τ ) will transform as dτ ∂ imτ e A(τ ) . for its Fourier modes the last relation implies [Lm . Under inﬁnitezimal variation τ → τ = τ + (τ ) one gets δA(τ ) = − With = −ieimτ [Lm . A0 maps physical states into physical states: |Φ = A0 |Φ .

To this end we need to compute by using the Leibnitz rule e−iα k τ [Lm . V− ] : V0 : V+ + V− [Lm . σ) = e √1 πT P∞ n=1 µ kµ α−n einτ n cos nσ ikµ (xµ + p τ ) − √1 πT πT e µ e P∞ n=1 µ kµ αn −inτ e n cos nσ .B] Thus. the operator pµ should be always on the right from xµ which is not the case for V0 . V+ ] . You will ﬁnd that fulﬁlment of the operator relation at order 2 will require 1 to ﬁx α = 2 . pν ] = iη µν we therefore ﬁnd that eikµ x µ µ +i kµ p τ πT = eiα k 2τ : eikµ x ei µ kµ pµ τ πT := eiα k 2τ : V0 : Thus.where the expression on the r. is speciﬁed by the periodicity/boundary properties of A(τ ). 11 2 2 – 50 – .B] with the forgotten coeﬃcient α. At σ = 0 this simpliﬁes to V (k. Rescale A and B with a 2 small parameter to get e A e B = e A+ B+ α[A.s. τ ) = e √1 πT P∞ n=1 µ kµ α−n einτ n e p ikµ (xµ + πT τ ) µ e − √1 P∞ πT n=1 µ kµ αn −inτ e n . Suppose you forgot an exact coeﬃcient in front of the commutator term.B] . V− V0 V+ This operator is “almost” normal-ordered and can be concisely written as V (k. V ] = [Lm .pν ] Recalling that [xµ . we have : eikµ x ei µ kµ pµ τ πT kµ pµ τ πT µ µ +i kµ p τ − τ πT 2πT := eikµ x ei µ = eikµ x kµ kν [xµ . τ ) = V− V0 V+ Here only zero modes entering V0 are not normal-ordered. Write the operator identity in the form eA eB = eA+B+α[A. according to our conventions : pµ xν := xν pµ . The normal-ordering of V0 can be achieved with the help of the Baker-CampbellHausdorﬀ formula11 1 eA eB = eA+B+ 2 [A. Now expand both sides up to order 2 keeping the order of operators. we obtain completely normal-ordered vertex operator V = eiα k τ V− : V0 : V+ We would like to investigate the transformation properties of this operator under conformal transformations. τ. : V0 :]V+ + V− : V0 : [Lm . Explicit example of a vertex operator Consider the following operator acting in the Hilbert space of open string V (k. Indeed.h.

e µ √1 πT kν αν P∞ −p ipτ e p=1 p ]αn. V− ] . α−p ] e V− αn. : V0 :] =: V0 : √ πT 1 [Lm . – 51 – . V− ]αn. 2 n=−∞ m−n 2 n=−∞ m−n [Lm . V− ] = √ 2 πT ∞ eipτ V− (kαm−p ) + (kαm−p )V− p=1 (αm k) [Lm . for instance +∞ X 1 2 n=−∞ [αm−n . V− ]αn. it can be written in the form 1 [Lm .p=m m−1 1 1 + √ eimτ V− (kα0 ) + √ πT 2 πT Further we get eipτ [kαm−p .µ √ 2 πT p=1 n=−∞ | m−n {z } p n=m−p ∞ X ipτ 1 µ e V− (k αm−p. V− ] = √ ei(m−p)τ V− πT This leads to 1 [Lm .µ = µ X 1 m−1 2 n=−∞ [αm−n . V− ] .µ + αm−n [αn. p=1 (m−1)eimτ V− 12 The calculation is as follows: X X 1 +∞ 1 +∞ µ µ µ [α [α αn. Indeed. p=1 k2 [kαm−p . V− ] = √ πT ∞ eipτ : (kαm−p )V− : p=1.Assuming for deﬁniteness that m > 0 it is not diﬃcult to ﬁnd12 1 [Lm .µ = ∞ X m−1 X 1 kν ipτ µ ν [α .h. V− ] = The two terms on the r.µ ) . are computed separately. V− ] = . V+ ] = √ 2 πT −1 ∞ e p=−∞ ipτ V+ (kαm−p ) + (kαm−p )V+ = p=1 e−ipτ √ : V+ (kαm+p ) : πT Here the ﬁrst commutator is of particular importance because it still contains the terms which are not normal-ordered.µ .µ . V− ] = √ πT ∞ eipτ : (kαm−p )V− : p=1. = √ 2 πT p=1 The other terms are computed in a similar way.s.p=m m−1 1 k2 + √ eimτ V− (kα0 ) + 2πT πT eimτ V− .

We also see that on the zero-momentum ground state V (k. – 52 – . V0 ]V+ : +α k 2 (m − 1)eimτ : V− V0 V+ : +√ πT πT 1 e−ipτ √ +√ : V− V0 V+ (kαm ) : + : V− V0 V+ (kαm+p ) : πT πT p=1 Here the underlined terms are nicely combined with a single sum13 with the range of summation variable p form −∞ to +∞ and if we further take into account that k2 [kα0 . for k 2 = α the conformal dimension ∆ = 1 and the vertex operator 1 we discuss corresponds to emission of the tachyon with the mass m2 = − α . 1 In particular. V0 ] = √ V0 πT we will get [Lm . V ] = 2 eipτ √ : (kαm−p )V− V0 V+ : πT p=1.p=m ∞ eimτ eimτ : V− V0 (kα0 )V+ : + √ : V− [kα0 . V ] = eimτ − i∂τ + α k 2 m V and. therefore. V ] = eimτ eiα k 2τ ∞ e−ipτ √ : V− V0 V+ (kαp ) : πT p=−∞ 2τ ∞ + α k 2 (m + 1)eimτ eiα k It remains to note that −i∂τ V = α k V + e 2 iα k2 τ : V− V0 V+ : V e−ipτ √ : V− V0 V+ (kαp ) : πT p=−∞ ∞ With the account of this formula we obtain [Lm . 13 µ It is convenient to shift the summation variable p for p → p − m. we conclude that the operator V has the following conformal dimension ∆: ∆ = α k2 . 0)|0 = V− eikµ x |0 .Plugging everything together we ﬁnd e−iα k τ [Lm .

X :: Y .m=k X n−k Y m−k : (n − k)! (m − k)! Thus. .m) k=0 X Y : X n−k Y m−k m! n! : k! XY n! m! k!(n − k)! k!(m − k)! k ∞ k = = n. k k The are k! ways to pair all the terms in the last expression.As we will discuss later on.m=0 ∞ To apply the Wick theorem we ﬁrst calculate the number of ways we can pick up k n! X’s from X n . . . 2 2 – 53 – .m=0 ∞ min(n. 0)|0 = eikµ x |0 . Y : . τ2 ) : |0 . τ2 ) ≡ 0|V (k1 . τ1 ) :: V (k2 . µ i.e. we ﬁnd : eX :: eY :=: e XY +X+Y It is now easy to see that the last formula can be generalized for the case of several vertex operators as follows : eXi := e i P i<j Xi Xj :e P i Xi : (4. Clearly one gets : e :: e := X Y : Xn : : Y m : . Analogously. τ1 )V (k2 . τ1 )V (k2 .e.12) Two-point function of tachyon vertex operators Consider the two-point correlation function V (k1 .m) : e :: e := n. application of the Wick theorem gives ∞ min(n. where X and Y are two operators with the propagator XY .m=0 k=0 X n−k Y m−k XY : : (n − k)! (m − k)! k! = k=0 XY k! : k ∞ : n. Normal-ordering the product of exponents Consider the normal product : eX :: eY :. Thus. n! m! n. which is obviously k!(n−k)! . one can perform an analytic continuation τ → −iτ under which the exponent entering the vertex operator V− will transform as eiτ → eτ . Then in the limit τ → −∞ we see that V− → 1 and in the Euclidean picture τ →−∞ lim V (k. τ2 )|0 = eiα k1 τ1 +iα k2 τ2 0| : V (k1 . . Now we have to pair (i. at τ → −∞ this vertex operator creates a particle with the momentum kµ . the number of ways to pick m! up k Y ’s from Y m is k!(m−k)! . to form propagators) k ﬁelds X with k ﬁelds Y : X .

τ1 )V (k2 . The amplitude is deﬁnes as ∞ eiα k (τ1 +τ2 ) .where we assume that τ1 > τ2 . τ ) :: V (k2 . i=1 dτ e−iα k3 τ e−2iα (k3 k4 )τ (1 − e−iτ )2α (k2 k3 ) δ 2 – 54 – . τ1 )V (−k. δ(k1 +k2 ) µ µ Thus. τ2 ) = Four-tachyon scattering amplitude Here we compute the scattering amplitude of four tachyonic particles. τ )V (k2 . πT Thus we ﬁnd ∞ A= 0 dτ eiα k3 τ e2α (k2 k3 ) log(e 2 iτ −1) k4 |ei(k2 +k3 )xµ ei2α k3 pµ τ |k1 µ µ µ Further simpliﬁcation gives ∞ 4 A= 0 ∞ dτ e dτ e 0 ∞ 2 iα k3 τ (e − 1) e iτ 2α (k2 k3 ) 2iα (k3 k1 )τ e δ i=1 ki 4 = = 0 2 iα k3 τ 2iα (k1 +k2 )k3 τ (1 − e −iτ 2α (k2 k3 ) ) δ i=1 4 ki ki . 0) : = eiα k3 τ e−k3 k2 2 µ ν 2 Xµ (τ )Xν (0) : V (k3 . τ2 ) = eiα k1 τ1 +iα k2 τ2 e 2 2 k1 k2 πT log(eiτ1 −eiτ2 ) 0| : V (k1 .12) one ﬁnds V (k3 . τ1 )V (k2 . Using the deﬁnition of the tachyonic vertex operators and the formula (4. the two-point function is non-zero only if k1 = k = −k2 . τ2 ) = eiα k1 τ1 +iα k2 τ2 e2α k1 k2 log(e 2 2 iτ1 −eiτ2 ) 0|ei(k1 +k2 )xµ |0 . τ )V (k2 . τ2 ) : |0 . τ )V (k2 .12) we ﬁnd V (k1 . (eiτ1 − eiτ2 )2α k2 ei∆(τ1 +τ2 ) . (eiτ1 − eiτ2 )2∆ 2 A= 0 dτ k4 |V (k3 . 0) = eiα k3 τ : V (k3 . In this case we get V (k. τ2 ) = We thus ﬁnd that V (k. This is the famous Veneziano amplitude which subsequently led to discovery of string theory. τ1 )V (−k. τ1 )V (k2 . 0) : Recalling the open string propagator at σ = σ = 0: η µν X(τ )X(0) = − log eiτ − 1 . The vacuum expectation value of the normal-ordered expression on the right hand side reduces to the contribution of the zero modes only and we get V (k1 . By using the formula (4. 0)|k1 µ Here k4 | is understood in an unusual way k4 | = 0|eik4 xµ .

h. Search of amplitudes with this symmetry property led Veneziano in 1960’s to this amplitude which was the starting point of modern string theory. Γ(α (s + t) − 2) In fact this function is known as the Euler beta-function. . α – 55 – . 1. Performing now the Wick rotation τ → −iτ and changing the integration variable τ for x = e−τ we ﬁnd 1 A= 0 dx x2α k3 k4 (1 − x)2α k2 k3 . the scattering amplitude can be essentially written as ∞ A(s. The Γ-function has poles at non-positive integers with residues Γ(x) → (−1)n 1 n! x + n as x → −n . n = 0. is a polynomial of degree n. It is interesting to analyze the Veneziano formula in more detail. One of the interesting properties of the representation of A in terms of the Euler beta-function is that the latter is explicitly symmetric under the interchange of s and t. where for the sake of simplicity we omitted the δ-function which encodes the conservation law of the momenta. Thus. the amplitude behaves as A(s.s. Thus. .1 2 Recall that for tachyons on shell we have ki = α . the r. when α s → 1 − n. . In our case we see that the poles arise due to exchange by hypothetical particles whose masses are quantized as 2 Mn = −s = 1 (n − 1) . In scattering theory resonances (or simply poles) of the scattering amplitude are interpreted as an exchange by intermediate particles whose masses are obtained from the condition of having poles. i. t) = n=0 (−1)n Pn (α t) . n ≥ 0.e. t) → (−1)n 1 Γ(α t − 1) n! α s − 1 + n Γ(α t − 1 − n) Here the dependents of the variable t is polynomial because for n > 0 we have Γ(α t − 1) Γ(w + n) = (w + n − 1) · · · (w + 1)w = Γ(α t − 1 − n) Γ(w) w = (α t − 2)(α t − 3) · · · (α t − n − 1) ≡ Pn (α t) . Introducing the Mandelstam variables s = (k1 + k2 )2 and t = (k2 + k3 )2 the last formula can be cast in the form 1 A= 0 dx xα s−2 (1 − x)α t−2 = Γ(α s − 1)Γ(α t − 1) . n! n − 1 + α s P0 (α t) = 1 .

It also follows from the scattering theory that appearance of a polynomial of degree n as the residue of the amplitude signals that the exchanged particles of the mass 2 Mn carry spin up to the maximal value Jmax = n. It is important to understand the behavior of the correlation function when two operators are taken to approach each other. α α −σ ) We will also use the concise notation z = ei(τ −σ) and w = ei(τ . where Oi (x) is a local operator. σ ) = 1 : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (z)∂− X ν (w)∂− Xν (w) : α2 4 + 2 ∂− X µ (z)∂− X ν (w) : ∂− Xµ (z)∂− Xν (w) : α 2 + 2 ∂− X µ (z)∂− X ν (w) ∂− Xµ (z)∂− Xν (w) . σ)T (τ . Here x ≡ (τ. Let us take as a local operator the stress tensor and try to work out the correµ sponding OPE. The Operator Product Expansion states that a product of two local operators can be approximated to arbitrary accuracy by a sum of local operators Oi (x)Oj (y) = k k Cij (x − y. By using the Wick theorem. . Our later analysis of string in the physical gauge will reveal that the exchanged particles delivering the resonances of the Veneziano amplitude are those from the spectrum of open string! Operator Product Expansion Consideration of the Veneziano amplitude shows that the object of primary interest in string perturbation theory is a correletation function of local operators Oi1 (x1 )Oi2 (x2 ) . Consider the component T−− of the stress tensor normalized as T ≡ T−− = 1 1 ν : ∂− X µ ∂− Xµ := : ∂− XL ∂− XLν : . we get T (τ. Oin (xn ) . σ ) = 1 : ∂− X µ (z)∂+ Xµ (z) :: ∂− X ν (w)∂+ Xν (w) : α2 and try to expand it over a basis of local operators. σ) is a point on the two-dimensional world-sheet. In what follows we consider the product of two stress tensors evaluated at two different points T (τ. α – 56 – . The technique to describe this limit in known as the Operator product Expansion or OPE for short. . σ)T (τ . ∂y )Ok (y) . Introduce the short-hand notation T ≡ T++ and X µ ≡ XL .

we will ﬁnd the following most singular z → w contribution T (z)T (w) = d/2 2 1 + T (w) + ∂w T (w) + . 2 (z − w)4 α2 T (τ. where c is the central charge. σ) z2 Since we have ∂ ∂z ∂− = = 1 ∂ iz ∂z 1 ∂ ∂ 1 ∂z ∂z ∂ ∂ − = − = iz . In the general setting the coeﬃcient of this term is c/2. – 57 – . around the point w = z. α (z − w)2 2 (z − w)4 T (z)T (w) = = Expanding the r. σ)T (τ . the last formula can be written as 1 : ∂z X µ (z)∂z Xµ (z)∂w X ν (w)∂w Xν (w) : 2 α 2 1 η µν ηµν 1 µ + : ∂z X (z)∂w Xµ (w) : + . σ ) = 1 : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (z)∂− X ν (w)∂− Xν (w) : α2 4 x y + 2 ∂− ∂− X µ (z)X ν (w) : ∂− Xµ (z)∂− Xν (w) : α 2 z w z w + 2 ∂− ∂− X µ (z)X ν (w) ∂− ∂− Xµ (z)Xν (w) . .s. α 1 : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (z)∂− X ν (w)∂− Xν (w) : α2 2 zw − : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (w) : α (z − w)2 η µν ηµν z 2 w2 + .h.13) The ﬁrst term here reﬂects the appearance of the conformal anomaly (a purely quantum mechanical eﬀect). by using the propagators introduces above T (τ. 2 (z − w)4 A little computation gives T (τ. σ ) = It is further convenient to redeﬁne the stress tensor as follows T (z) = so that T (z)T (w) = = 1 : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (z)∂− X ν (w)∂− Xν (w) : z 2 w2 1 2 : ∂− X µ (z)∂− Xµ (w) : − α zw (z − w)2 1 η µν ηµν + . 4 2 (z − w) (z − w) z−w (4. 2 ∂τ ∂σ 2 ∂τ ∂σ ∂z ∂z and.s. . The coeﬃcients 2 of the second term coincides with the conformal dimension of T .We can now rewrite the r. σ)T (τ .h. therefore.

] p+ p− pi xi x− i αn − αn p+ 0 0 0 0 −i 0 0 p− 0 0 0 pi i p+ pj 0 0 0 iδ ij 0 0 0 xj 0 pi − i p+ − iδ ij 0 0 ij δ − i δ4πTn n − i α+ p i x− i − − i p+ p 0 0 0 0 n − i α+ p − i p+ p 2πT i nαn p+ 2πT − nαn p+ − j αm 0 2πT j − p+ mαm 0 ij δ m i δ4πT − αm 0 2πT − − p+ mαm 0 αi m i p+ m i α+ p √ 4πT i nαn+m p+ − − √ 0 nδ ij δn+m 4πT i mαn+m p+ − − [αn . αn ]. αn ] = + p (p ) 12 The normal ordering ambiguity √ − αn → − αn − 4πT aδn. Canonical structure of the light-cone modes.14) [αm . ¯ We would like to point out the following commutator √ 4πT i i − [αn . It can be computed precisely in the same way as [Lm . Ln ] of the previous section. αm ] Tab. [.2 Quantization in the physical gauge Quantization of strings in the physical (light-cone) gauge is perhaps the most straightforward way to obtain a restriction on the space-time dimension as well as to understand the spectrum of physical excitations. (4. The commutators + involving α variables are the same. The variable p− is essentially the Hamiltonian: p− = 2πT pH . 2. αm ] = nαn+m . αn ] = + p (p ) 12 12 – 58 – . Using the Poisson brackets and the basic quantization rules we can easily get the table of the basic commutator relations of the light-cone string theory.4. [αm . p+ − − One of the most important commutators of the light-cone theory is [αm . We ﬁnd the same result as before except we have now only d − 2 transversal ﬁelds which contribute to the central charge term with the factor d − 2 instead of d √ 4πT d − 2 4πT − − − (m − n)αm+n + + 2 m(m2 − 1)δm+n .0 p+ leads to the change as √ 4πT 4πT d − 2 3 d−2 − − − (m − n)αm+n + + 2 m + 2am − m δm+n .

(J µν )† = J µν .e. we require the Lorentz generators to be hermitian. We have [ i− . J j− ] = 0 . x p ] → − 2 (x p p+ − x p δ ) 2 p − j i − i − j − − ij i − 1 [x p . ¯ ¯ ¯− ¯i 2 n n −n n n=1 n=1 i− ∞ ∞ One can see that these generators are hermitian and normal-ordered so they can be considered as candidates to realize the Lorentz algebra symmetry. In quantum theory we want to realize a unitary representation of the Poincar´ e group and therefore. where we treat J µν as an operator acting in the Hilbert space. The latter requirement is equivalent to [J i− . i. Also the Lorentz generators must be normal-ordered to have the well-deﬁned action on the vacuum state. 1 (x p 2 − i − i j − +p x )−x p ] − j − j j − j i 1 i − i = 4 [x p .1 Lorentz symmetry and critical dimension Studying the classical string in the light-cone gauge we realized that the generators J i− of the Lorentz symmetry become rather complicated functions of transversal oscillators ∞ J i− =xp −x p −i n=1 i − − i 1 i − 1 i − − i α−n αn − α−n αn − i α−n αn − α−n αn . j− ] = [ 1 (x p 2 i − + p x ) − x p .4. x p ] → 2 ( p+ p x − p x δ ) 2 p − i j − j i − − − ij i − 1 [x p . x p ] → − 4 p+ (p x − p x ) p − j i − i − j − − ij i − 1 [p x . 1 1 i − 1 i − − i J i− = (xi p− + p− xi ) − x− pi −i α−n αn − α−n αn − i α α − α−n αn . First we discuss the orbital part. Consider the following ansatz for the Lorentz generators J i− . p x ] → 4 (p x − x p ) p+ 4 p i − − j − − ij i j − i − 1 [x p . ¯ ¯ ¯− ¯i n n n=1 ∞ We would like to ask a question whether we can use this expression in quantum theory regarding αn and αn as operators to deﬁne the quantum Lorentz generators? ¯ Due to the unusual canonical structure of the light-cone theory it is not obvious that consistent Lorentz generators should exist. p x ] → − 2 ( p+ x p − x p δ ) . x p ] → 4 (x p − − i j x p ) p+ p − i − − j i j i j i + 1 [x p . x p ] → − 2 (x p δ − x p p+ ) 2 p − − i j − j i j i i + 1 [p x . x p ] → − 4 p+ (p x − x p ) 4 p − − j j i i j 1 − i i + 4 [p x .2. which are the most intricate generators to be deﬁned in quantum theory. This is an equation we would like to prove. 2 p – 59 – .

αm ] = −i − m 4πT X n=1 p+ − αm−n αn + αm−n αn | {z } | {z } A i − α−n αm+n B − i αm−n αn i − − i + i √ ∞ 4πT X m p+ n=1 n − −i f (m) m αm . i Since we have m X n=1 αm−n αn = − i 0 X k=m−1 αk αm−k ≡ − i m−1 X n=0 αn αm−n − i we see that m X n=1 i − − i m X n=1 i − m−1 X n=0 i − m−1 X n=1 − i − αm−n αn + αm−n αn = − αm−n αn + αn αm−n − i = α0 αn − α0 αm + Pm−1 n=1 − i [αn . S j− ]. Note that m the r.Here by arrow we indicated the explicit expression for the corresponding commutator.17) i − − i 4πT (p+ )2 Thus. j− − − i j i j − − ij i i i ] = 4 [p .17) is normal-ordered. Reducing similar terms we get [ i− . αm ] − | √ 4πT p+ √ nαm−n αn + α−n [αn . i The terms in the ﬁrst line of the last equation can be partially cancelled upon changing the summation index and we ﬁnd that √ [S i− . x ] p+ + 4 p+ [p . αm ]αn − {z A i − i − − − − i (4. p p Thus.h. We will do further analysis in several steps. of eq.s. 1. p+ n=1 n [i j] j (4. p ]δ = 0 . Therefore. i n α−n αm+n − αm−n αn (4. – 60 – .15) Here and below we use the concise notation α−n αn = αi αj − α−n αi . αm ] = i + i 4πT √ (α0 αm − α0 αm ) + i m(m − 1) 2 − f (m) m ! i − − i ∞ 4πT X m n=1 p+ p+ αm . αm ] = −i = −i n [α−n αn − α−n αn .16) 4πT − i ∞ X 1 n=1 n } p+ nα−n αn+m . αm ] = −i √ ∞ 4πT X p+ n=1 α−n αm+n − αm−n αn + αm−n αn −α−n αn+m | {z } | {z } A B i i − − i − i − − i − i + i √ ∞ 4πT X m p+ n=1 n α−n αm+n − αm−n αn −i f (m) m αm .(4. αm ] = −i − i p+ n − nαm−n αn + α−n (n − m)αm+n + (n + m)αm−n αn − nα−n αn+m f (m) m αm . under the action of the Virasoro operators α− the spin components S i− transform in a nontrivial manner. x ] + 2 [x . First we consider the following commutator i− − ∞ X 1 n i − − i − [S . αm−n ] Using the fact that (m − n) = 1 m(m − 1) we obtain 2 √ − [S i− . −n n n Now we are in a position to study the most diﬃcult commutator [S i− .S ] + [S . This further gives i− − [S . √ [S i− − ∞ 4πT X 1 n=1 i i − i − − i − i . the generators of the orbital part of the total momentum have vanishing commutator. Next we compute i− j− i− j− ∞ p− X 1 [i j] [ . ] = −2 α αn + p+ n=1 n −n ∞ i 1 X 1h j − − j i i − − i j + − (α−n αn − α−n αn )p + (α−n αn − α−n αn )p . αm ] −[α−n .

We consider the ﬁrst sum. α−m ] = −i j n α−n [αn . we compute (m > 0) √ 4πT p+ √ (α−m α0 − α−m α0 ) − i m(m − 1) 2 − f (m) m ! α−m .m=1 n α−m−n αm αn + √ 4πT where in the last sum we made a substitution k = m + n and then summed over m. S j− ] we obtain √ ∞ 4πT X 1 p+ ∞ X n=1 n=1 [S i− .(4. this resulted in the factor k − 1. i j – 61 – .m=1 n α−m α−n αm+n = − i j ∞ X 1 n. i j j i 4.n=1 − j 1 n p+ i α−m α−n αm+n −(α−n αn−m −α−m−n αn )αm | {z } | {z } A j − i − A i j − i j j i j i − i j j i − + α−n αn−m αm − α−m αm−n αn − α−n−m αn αm −α−m (α−n αm+n −αm−n αn ) . which is not normal-ordered.S j− ] = n − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn − α−n α0 αn − j j − i j i − i − j − i j − 4πT (p+ )2 ∞ X n−1 2 1 n f (n) n2 i ! α−n αn − [i j] + √ 4πT p+ i m. n with the condition m + n = k kept ﬁxed.m=1 n α−m−n αn αm = j i − ∞ X 1 n.17) by simply substituting m → −m. αm ] = i j p+ n α−n αm+n − αm−n αn .m=1 1 n α−m−n [αn . α−m−n αm αn + = n p+ k=2 n. α−m ]αn − α−n δ δn−m | {z } 0 as i=j i − j − j i − ij = −i √ ∞ 4πT X m p+ n=1 n α−n αn−m − α−n−m αn .m=1 n ∞ X α−m−n αm αn + j − i j − i ∞ X n. We therefore obtain √ ∞ 4πT X p+ n=1 √ ∞ X 4πT p+ n X 1 m=1 n j n X 1 m=1 I ij = − α−n αn−m αm + i − i i j − n j α−m αm−n αn j − i − i j − j i + n. Analogously. which we write as follows √ I ij = 4πT ∞ X m. We ﬁrst analyze the last two lines of the equation above. The next step consists in ﬁnding the commutator ∞ X 1 n=1 [S i− . Analogously. αm ] j i − ∞ X j i α αn+m p+ n. i − i i − ∞ 4πT X m n=1 [S i− .m=1 −m−n √ ∞ ∞ X 1 j 4πT X j i − i (k − 1)α−k αk . α−m ] − [α−n . the same is for the B-terms. | {z } | {z } B B Upon changing the summation variables the A-terms can be partially cancelled.m=1 n α−n α−m αm+n + i − j √ ∞ 4πT X p+ k=2 (k − 1)α−k αk . i j j i Substituting all our ﬁndings into the commutator [S i− .m=1 = 1 n. and try to bring it to the normal-ordered form: ∞ X 1 n. − One can recognize that in the second line of the equation above the ﬁrst and the last terms are not normal-ordered.n=1 − α−m (α−n αm+n − αm−n αn ) − (α−n αn−m − α−m−n αn )αm − i j − i j j i − i i j j i − + (α−n αn−m − α−n−m αn )αm − α−m (α−n αm+n − αm−n αn ) . 3.m=1 α−m−n αn αm + α−n αn−m αm − α−m αm−n αn − α−m α−n αm+n . we achieve the normal-ordering of the second sum ∞ X 1 n.2. Finally we compute the commutator √ [S i− ∞ 4πT X m n=1 . α−m ] = i + i − p+ n α−n αn−m − α−m−n αn i − − i 4πT (p+ )2 In fact these formula is also obtained from eq.

m=1 ∞ X α−m−n αm αn + α−n αn−m αm − α−m αm−n αn − α−n α−m αm+n {z } | {z } | {z } | {z } | A B A B [i j] 1)α−n αn − (p+ )2 n=1 (n − .15). 1 (n−1) 2 Thus.(4. Again we see that upon change of the summation index the A-terms partially cancel (the same is for the B-terms) and we arrive at √ n ∞ 4πT X X 1 p+ √ + n=1 m=1 I ij = n − α−n αn−m αm + α−m αm−n αn j − i i − j i j − − j i ∞ X 4πT X n−1 1 n=1 m=0 ∞ X p+ 4πT n − αm−n α−m αn + α−n αm αn−m [i j] − (p+ )2 n=1 (n − 1)α−n αn . ¯ [i + 4πT (p+ )2 ∞ n=1 d−2 1 d−2 − 2 n + 2a − 12 n 12 – 62 – . From here we ﬁnd √ ∞ n 4πT X X 1 p+ 4πT (p+ )2 n=1 m=1 ∞ X n=1 I ij = n − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn 1 n−m n {z A α[i αj] − −n n } 4πT ∞ X [i j] i j − − j i j − i i − j 0 @ − n−1 X | m=1 (p+ )2 n=1 (n − 1)α−n αn . the commutator of the internal spin components we are interested in acquires the form √ ∞ 4πT X 1 p+ n=1 [S i− . S ] = 2 p+ i− j− ∞ n=1 1 [i j] α α + n −n n + − 1 p+ ∞ ∞ n=1 1 j − − j i − − i (α−n αn − α−n αn )pi − (α−n αn − α−n αn )pj n j] α−n αn .(4. our commutator takes the form √ ∞ 4πT X p+ n=1 √ ∞ X 4πT p+ 4πT n X 1 m=1 n j n X 1 m=1 − I ij = − α−n αn−m αm + − i i i j − n α−m αm−n αn j j − i i − j − j i + 1 n n. (p+ )2 n2 The ﬁnal step consists in commuting the factor α− on the left to compare with eq. J i− j− √ − ] = 2 p − 2 πT α0 − 1 p+ ∞ n=1 1 [i j] α α + n −n n j] α−n αn + (αn → αn ).S j− ] = n − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn − α−n α0 αn i j − − j i j − i i − j j − i j i − i − j − i j − ∞ X n=1 − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn − α−n α0 αn + α−n α0 αn ! 4πT f (n) [i j] 2(n − 1) − α−n αn .Thus. 0 We thus ﬁnd √ − 2 πT α0 [S . adding this expression to eq. [i n=1 f (n) 4πT 2n − 2 + )2 (p n Finally.15) we arrive at [J .

It is a d − 2 component vector which transforms irreducibly under the transverse group SO(24). However. as was discussed in the previous chapter. i. i i α M 2 (α−1 |pi ) = (1 − a)α−1 |pi = 0 . n=1 where. The ground state |pi carries no oscillators and it has a mass α M 2 |pi = −|pi This is a tachyon.2 The spectrum In the light-cone gauge the spectrum is generated by acting with transversal oscillators on the vacuum state. for special values d = 26 . Thus. We see that =⇒ α M 2 = −1. the normal-ordering constant a should be equal to 1 in order to guarantee the Lorentz invariance of the light-cone theory. for general values of a and d the theory is not Lorentz invariant: the quantum eﬀects destroy the Lorentz invariance which was present at the classical level.As for the case of classical string the ﬁrst term here vanishes due to the level matching condition α0 = α0 .2. a=1 the anomaly term vanishes and the Lorentz invariance is restored! 4.e. i The ﬁrst excited state is α−1 |pj . – 63 – . while the second sum is an anomaly which appears due to non¯ commutativity of the oscillators in quantum theory. The mass operator is the light-cone gauge for open strings is 1 M = α 2 ∞ i i α−n αn − a . this vector is massless. We ﬁrst discuss the spectrum of open strings.

Tachyon realizes the one-dimensional representation. Unitary representations of non-compact groups are either trivial (i. In general states obey the inequality J ≤ α M2 + 1 .level α mass2 rep of SO(24) little group SO(1. d − 2)) For tachyon the little Lorentz group is non-compact. Further analysis reveals that all states corresponding to higher levels are massive and that being the tensors of SO(24) they combine at any given mass level to representations of SO(25). – 64 – . we have Jmax = n = α M 2 + 1. the latter is the little Lorentz group for massive states. 3. This is highly non-trivial implication of the Lorentz invariance and it occurs only in the critical dimension and for a = 1! At level n the mass of the corresponding states is α M 2 = n − 1. one-dimensional) or inﬁnite-dimensional. In general. The spectrum of open bosonic string up to level 3. therefore. the Lorentz invariance requires that physical states transform irreducibly under the little Lorentz group which is • SO(d − 2) for massless particles • SO(d − 1) for massive particles (for tachyon SO(1. Among them there is always a symmetric traceless tensor of rank n. 24) rep of little group 1 0 −1 |0 1 1 0 i α−1 |0 24 SO(24) 24 2 +1 i α−2 |0 24 j i α−1 α−1 |0 299s +1 j i k α−1 α−1 α−1 |0 2576s +24 SO(25) 324s 3 +2 i α−3 |0 24 j i α−2 α−1 |0 276a +299s +1 SO(25) 2900s + 300a Tab.e. This is a state with maximal spin Jmax = n and.

Now we discuss the spectrum of closed strings. The spectrum of closed bosonic string up to level 2. 24) rep of little group 1 0 −4 |0 1 1 0 i ¯j α−1 α−1 |0 299s +276a +1 i α−2 α−2 |0 ¯j 299s +276a +1 j i ¯k ¯l α−1 α−1 α−1 α−1 |0 299s +1+299s +1 SO(24) 299s + 276a + 1 20150s + 32175 2 +4 i α−2 α−1 α1 |0 ¯j ¯k (24)×(299+1) j i α−1 α−1 α−2 |0 ¯k (299+1)×(24) SO(25) 52026 + 324s + 300a + 1 Tab. 4. ¯ The ground state is a tachyon which is scalar particle with α M 2 = −4.The values of J and M 2 are quantized and the last inequality implies that the states lie on the Regge trajectories. ¯i ¯i which simply means that the excitation (level) number of α-oscillators should be equal to the excitation number of α-oscillators. The mass operator for closed strings is ∞ ∞ 2 i 2 i M = α α + αi αi − 2a ¯ ¯ α n=1 −n n n=1 −n n In addition one has to impose the level-matching condition ∞ ∞ i i α−n αn − n=1 n=1 V= α−n αn = 0 . It can be decomposed into irreducible – 65 – . level α mass2 rep of SO(24) little group SO(1. The i ¯j ﬁrst excited state α−1 α−1 |0 is massless.

representations of the transversal (and simultaneously little) Lorentz group SO(24) as follows 1 1 [i j] (i j) k k i α−1 α−1 |0 = α−1 α−1 |0 + α−1 α−1 − δ ij α−1 α−1 |0 + δ ij α−1 α−1 |0 . related to each other by gauge transformations. This can be understood looking at a much simpler example of the two-dimensional integral +∞ +∞ −∞ Z= −∞ dxdy e−(x−y) . The starting point is the Polyakov action and a new BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) symmetry. 2 – 66 – . i. where G is the Newton constant and MP is the Planck mass: −2 α = MP . This occurs because we integrate inﬁnitely many times over physically equivalent. To make this identiﬁcation one has to relate the string scale α with the −2 Planck scale G = MP . τ )eiSp [X. ¯j ¯ ¯ ¯k ¯k 24 24 276 299 singlet The massless excitation of spin two transforming in representation 299 of SO(24) was proposed to be identiﬁed with a graviton. by this reason. The basic idea is to deﬁne the path integral using the Polykov action and integrate over hαβ . 2 Due to the gauge invariance the last integral is ill-deﬁned. these 2 string excitations are extremely heavy due to the large value of MP and.e. the quantum of the gravitational interaction.3 BRST quantization The path integral approach proved to be a very useful tool for quantizing the theories with local (gauge) symmetries.h] α 2 M + 2. quantum-mechanically this is not the case. τ )DX µ (σ. X µ being considered as independent variables: Z= Dhαβ (σ. they do not show up at the energy scales of the Standard Model. conﬁgurations. As in the opens string case the higher massive states of closed string are combined at a given mass level into representations of the little Lorentz group SO(25). We know that the induced metric Γαβ = ∂α X µ ∂β Xµ and the intrinsic metric hαβ are related classically through the condition Tαβ = 0. 2 Since the masses of the massive string modes are proportional to 1/α = MP . However. The relation between maximal spin and the mass is now Jmax = 4.

– 67 – . v) u = x − y. i. Divergence caused by a presence of the translational symmetry. x Orbits x−y=const y x+y=0 gauge slice intersect each orbit at one point Fig. v = x + y.e. x = u+v 2 and y = +∞ −∞ u−v . a= x+y 2 This suggests to introduce new coordinates “along” the gauge orbit and “orthogonal” to it: (x.a). Thus. where we divided over the inﬁnite volumes of the reparametrization and Weyl groups. τ )eiSp [X. y) as (x.It is divergent since the integrand depends on x − y only. our discussion suggests that a proper deﬁnition of the path integral in string theory should be Z= 1 VDiﬀ VWeyl Dhαβ (σ. y) = x−y y−x + . y →y+a leaves the measure invariant. 2 2 x−y + y−x =0 2 2 x+y x+y . One integrates over the orbits of the gauge group while both the measure and the integrand are translation invariant. 2 2 shift by (a. Also one sees that the group of translations x → x + a.h] . Let us split the coordinates (x. 2 Then the integral takes the form e −u2 1 Z= 2 +∞ −∞ √ √ π du dv = 2 +∞ d(x + y) = −∞ √ +∞ π −∞ da . volume π This example illustrates the basic idea to deﬁne the path integral – one has to divide the original Z by the inﬁnite volume of a symmetry group. y) → (u. 4. τ )DX µ (σ.

δX) = – 68 – . The ﬁrst problem in realizing this approach for string theory is to ﬁnd a measure for functional integration that preserves all symmetries of the classical theory (reparametrizations + Weyl symmetry). y)) ∂f ∂a a=0 e −(x−y)2 Here ∂f ∂a a=0 is known as the Faddeev-Popov determinant. Here the integral over s is one-dimensional.Let us illustrate this procedure on our simpliﬁed example. −∞ −∞ −∞ −∞ J = is the Jacobian. The integral can be now written as Z = Z +∞ −∞ da Z +∞ −∞ ds e −(x −y )2 ∂f ∂x + ∂f ∂y . −∞ Here insertion of the δ-function can be regarded as the gauge-ﬁxing condition. which allows for a solution ∂y = − ∂f and ∂x = ∂f and. y(s)) Then Z = where x − y = x − y and Z +∞ Z +∞ Z +∞ Z +∞ −(x−y)2 −(x −y )2 e dxdy = e dsda|J| . therefore. What happens if we change the gauge ﬁxing condition? Suppose we take another slice “orthogonal” to the gauge orbits. the functions x and y are the functions of s and it is independent of a. ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ∂ ∂s ∂f ∂x ∂f ∂y J = (x − y ) = + . δh) = (δX. y) ∂(s. The inﬁnite volume arising upon integrating over a can be factored out and taking into account that ∂f ∂a we obtain the ﬁnal and ﬁnite expression Z +∞ −∞ |a=0 = ∂f ∂x + ∂f ∂y |a=0 Zfinite = dxdy δ(f (x. a) ! = J = ∂x ∂s ∂y ∂s 1 1 ! = ∂x ∂s − ∂y ∂s = ∂ ∂s (x − y ) . One can convert this one-dimensional integral into a two-dimensional one by substituting the δ-function with the gauge condition Z +∞ −∞ −(x −y )2 da e ∂f ∂x + ∂f ∂y = Z +∞ −∞ dxdy δ(f (x. Since x = x + a and y = y + a we have ∂x ∂s ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂a ∂y ∂a ∂(x. y) = 0 = ⇒ (x(s). Let s will be a free one-dimensional parameter on this slice s: Chose now new coordinates (x. y) = (x . it selects a single representative from each gauge orbit. y))e −(x−y)2 ∂f ∂x + ∂f ∂y . a) | {z } along s f (x. The integral can be rewritten by using the δ-function: Z +∞ −∞ Z = da Z +∞ −(x−y)2 e dxdy 2δ(x + y) −∞ = Z +∞ −∞ da Z +∞ −z 2 e dz . √ d2 σ hhαβ hγδ δhαγ δhβδ √ d2 σ hhαβ δX µ δXµ (δh. Along s 0= ∂f ∂x ∂x ∂s + ∂f ∂y ∂y ∂s = ∂f ∂x ∂x ∂s + ∂f ∂y ∂y ∂s . y ) +(a.

Λ) In fact. Let us ﬁrst assume the simplifying situation when all metric on a world-sheet M with a given topology are conformally equivalent (i. Λ) Jacobian where in the last formula we changed the variables ˜ (P ξ.e. Λ) for the price of getting a non-trivial Jacobian. Here D(ξ) is the measure which gives upon integration an inﬁnite volume of the diﬀeomorphism group and ˜ ∂(P ξ. which maps vectors into traceless symmetric tensors. ∂(ξ. In this case by using reparametrizations we can bring the metric to the form hαβ = e2φ gαβ . + β ξα − γξ γ hαβ . Under reparametrizations and the Weyl rescalings the variation of the metric can be decomposed as ˜ δhαβ = (P ξ)αβ + 2Λhαβ . Λ) → (ξ. they are related to each other by diﬀeomorphism and Weyl rescalings. Then the integration measure can be written as follows ˜ ∂(P ξ. this is the case when operator P † does not have zero modes). where P is the following operator (P ξ)αβ = α ξβ 1 ˜ Λ=Λ+ 2 γξ γ . Λ) ˜ Dh = D(P ξ)D(Λ) = D(ξ)D(Λ) . however none of them is Weyl invariant. where gαβ is a ﬁducial (reference) metric. |detP | = DbDc e−i 2 2 T ∂(P ξ) ∂(P ξ) ∂ξ ∂Λ ˜ ˜ ∂Λ ∂Λ ∂ξ ∂Λ = ∂(P ξ) ∂ξ ˜ ∂Λ ∂ξ 0 = |detP | 1 α γ + δα β − hαβ γ δ(σ − σ ) R d2 σd2 σ √ γ h bαβ (σ) δβ γ α +δα β −hαβ γ σ δ(σ−σ )cγ (σ ) .These scalar products deﬁne natural reparametrization-invariant and Poincar´ ine variant measures. Λ) = ∂(ξ. – 69 – . we have δ(P ξ)αβ (σ) γ = δβ δξ γ (σ ) Thus.

i. it is called antighost ﬁeld. in order not to overcount the conﬁgurations which are related by a conformal transformation one has to exclude integration over the zero modes of cα ghosts. In the deriving this expression we also used the tracelessness of bαβ . Both the ghost and the antighost ﬁelds are real. the total action is given now by the sum of the Polyakov action and the ghost action: T S=− d2 σγ αβ ∂α X µ ∂β Xµ + 4ibβγ α cγ 2 There are several subtle issues we have not touched so far • Conformal anomaly. Here the last term vanishes on shell. while bαβ is traceless and symmetric. In the world-sheet light-cone coordinates σ ± the non-vanishing components of the stress-tensor are T++ = i 2b++ ∂+ c+ + (∂+ b++ )c+ . possible dependence of the thrown away volume of the diﬀeomorphism group on the Weyl (scale) degree of freedom φ. We see that equations of motion for cα are just conformal Killing equations. Therefore. We can deﬁne the stress-energy tensor of the ghost ﬁelds δSgh = T Performing the variation one ﬁnds gh Tαβ = i(bαγ βc γ √ d2 σ −h T αβ δhαβ . • So far we assumed that all symmetric traceless deformations of the metric can be generated by reparametrizations. One can verify that this tensor is covariantly conserved α Tαβ = 0. The ghost cα corresponds to inﬁnitezimal reparametrizations while baβ corresponds to variations perpendicular to the gauge orbits. This is however not the case if P † has zero modes. • Reparametrizations which satisfy P ξ = 0. – 70 – . These zero modes correspond to zero modes of the b ghosts.Here cα is called a ghost ﬁeld. + bβγ αc γ − cγ γ bαβ − hαβ bγδ γ δ c ). T−− = i 2b−− ∂− c− + (∂− b−− )c− .e. Thus. The last formula can be now written as |detP | = DbDc e− πα i R √ d2 σ h bαβ α cβ . i.e. conformal Killing vectors.

{bm . c+ (σ . τ )} = 2πδ(σ − σ ) . n=−∞ b−− (σ. cn } = 0 and the same for the barred oscillators. ∂+ c − = ∂− c + = 0 . Note that for the closed string case b++ and c+ are left-moving waves. bn } = {cm . The canonical anti-commutation relations are {b++ (σ. while b−− and c− are the right-moving ones. b bn e−in(τ −σ) . The Virasoro generators are ∞ Lgh m = (m − n) : bm+n c−n : n=−∞ ∞ ¯m Lgh = (m − n) : ¯m+n c−n : b ¯ n=−∞ – 71 – . which follow by requiring the vanishing of the boundary terms arising upon deriving equations of motion. ¯ cn e−in(τ −σ) . τ ) = n=−∞ +∞ + cn e−in(τ +σ) . This equations are supplemented by • by periodicity condition for the closed closed string case b(σ + 2π) = b(σ) . τ ) = For the anti-commutation relations this becomes {bm . cn } = δm+n . {b−− (σ. τ )} = 2πδ(σ − σ ) . τ ). π . τ ) = n=−∞ +∞ ¯n e−in(τ +σ) . For the closed string case the Fourier mode expansions look as +∞ c (σ. τ ) = b++ (σ. c+ (σ) = c− (σ) for σ = 0. c− (σ . n=−∞ +∞ c− (σ. τ ). • by boundary conditions for the open string case b++ (σ) = b−− (σ) . c(σ + 2π) = c(σ) .Equations of motion are ∂− b++ = ∂+ b−− = 0 .

– 72 – . In fact. cn ] = −(2m + n)cm+n . Indeed. m+n m n where the central charge appears to be cgh (m) = 1 (2m − 26m3 ) . bn ] = (m − n)bm+n .The ghosts and anti-ghosts are conformal ﬁelds. 12 12 We see that the total central charge vanishes for d = 26 and a = 1. . m Comparing this with the transformation rule of the modes of a conformal operator of dimension ∆ [Lm . . c= BRST operator The concept of the BRST operator is very general. dimK {ci . it is easy to compute [Lgh . 12 Now if we introduce the total Virasoro generator as Lm = LX + Lgh − aδm. Consider a Lie algebra with generators Ki satisfying the relations k [Ki . bj } = δj . m [Lgh . Kj ] = fij Kk . . Lgh ] = (m − n)Lgh + cgh (m)δm+n . An ] = m(∆ − 1) − n Am+n we conclude that b and c are indeed the conformal ﬁelds of the conformal dimension ∆ = 2 and ∆ = −1 respectively. We again found the same values for the critical dimension and the normal-ordering constant as followed from the light-cone approach! Here these conditions on the theory follow from the requirement of vanishing of the total central charge.0 m m then it will satisfy the Virasoro algebra [Lm . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + c(m)δm+n with d 1 (m3 − m) + (2m − 26m3 ) + 2am . . the BRST operator can be associated to any Lie algebra and it is a useful tool to compute the Lie algebra cohomologies. Using the explicit expressions for the ghost generators Lgh it is not diﬃcult to compute the algebra [Lgh . Introduce ghost and anti-ghost ﬁelds ci and bi satisfying the anti-commutation relations i i = 1.

Thus. The eigenvalues of this operator are integers ranging from 0 up to dimK. Kj ] = fij Kk the ﬁrst three terms in the last expression cancel out and we are left with k p {Q. cs Ks − 1 fmn cm cn bp } 2 2 k p = ci cs Ki Ks − cs ci Ks Ki − 1 fij ci cj {bk . cm cn bp } . 4 It is easy to ﬁnd k p k p fij fmn {ci cj bk . Therefore. compute the anticommutator k p {Q. cm bm ] 2 k k = −cm {ci . the expression we are interested in reduces to k k k p {Q. The BRST operator is deﬁned as k Q = ci Ki − 1 fij ci cj bk .18) First we compute a commutator k [Q. Q] = Q and as the result it increases the ghost number by one: U Q|χ = (QU + Q)|χ = (Ngh + 1)Q|χ . Q} = 1 (fij fkm + fmi fkj + fjm fki )ci cj cm bp . bm }bk − 1 fij ci cj {bk . bm }Ki − cm 1 fij {ci cj . 3 – 73 – . the BRST operator has the following commutator with U : [U. Q} = ci cj [Ki . Due to the anti-commuting property of the ghosts the last expression can be rewritten as p p k p k k {Q. U ] = [ci Ki − 1 fij ci cj bk . Q} = {ci Ki − 1 fij ci cj bk . cm }bm 2 2 k 1 k = −ci Ki + fij ci cj bk − 2 fij ci cj bk = −Q . Second.Introduce the ghost number operator U : U= i ci bi . Q} = fij fkm ci cj cm bp . cs }Ks − 1 fmn cm cn {ci . Kj ] − 1 fij ci cj Kk − 1 fij ci cj Kk + fij fkm ci cj cm bp . 2 2 k Due to the algebra relation [Ki . bp }Ki 2 2 k p + 1 fij fmn {ci cj bk . 2 (4. cm cn bp } = 4fij fkm ci cj cm bp .

In our present case the operator Q takes values in the Lie algebra and it deﬁnes cohomologies with values in an given representation of the Lie algebra. We also assume that Q is hermitian. Let Hk will be a Hilbert space of states with ﬁxed ghost number U = k. Indeed. i. it its square is zero Q2 = 1 {Q. Thus. 2 This is the fundamental property of the BRST operator. An element |χ ∈ Hk is called BRST-invariant if Qχ = 0 (4. Such a state must be annihilated by all bk . where |λ is any state with the ghost number14 k − 1. The most important BRST-invariant states are those which can not be written in the form |χ = Q|λ . Q† = Q. any state of the form Q|λ .The expression in the bracket vanishes because this is the Jacobi identity written for structure constants of the Lie algebra p p k p k k fij fkm + fmi fkj + fjm fki = 0 . – 74 – . In fact. We will regard two solutions of equation (4. i. the states with zero ghost charge are of special importance. A diﬀerential form ω is called closed if dω = 0 and it is called exact if there is another form θ such that ω = dθ.e.19) equivalent if |χ − |χ = Q|λ for some λ.e.19) Clearly. 14 As we found the BRST-operator increases the ghost number by one. The factor-space of all closed forms over all exact forms of a given degree n n H (M) = closed forms exact forms is called n-th cohomology group of the manifold M. we recognize that the BRST-operator mimics all the properties of the de-Rahm operator d which acts on the space of external (diﬀerential) forms on a manifold M. it has a property that d2 = 0. Q} = 0 . is BRST-invariant because Q(Q|λ ) = Q2 |λ = 0 . Furthermore. For such states the BRST operator reduces to Q|χ = ci Ki |χ = 0 . we found that the BRST operator is nilpotent. The state Q|λ has zero norm because λ|Q† Q|λ = λ|Q2 |λ = 0 .

Q]. {Q. Q] = (Qbm + bm Q)Q − Q(Qbm + bm Q) = [bm . Q} = [Lm . bn }] = {[Lm .Thus. it is invariant under the action of the Lie algebra.e. The Lie algebra in this case is the Virasoro algebra and we supply it with the ghosts cm and ant-ghosts bm . Therefore.0 cm : −m −m The ghost-number operator is +∞ U= −∞ : c−m bm : We would like to investigate the fulﬁlment of the relation Q2 = 0 in quantum theory. bm+n } = (m − n)bm+n .0 is a total Virasoro operator. we see that [Lm . bm } From here [Lm . this state cannot be represented as |χ = Q|λ for some |λ because the ghost number of |λ should be equal −1 which is impossible. bm }. i. We ﬁnd 1 Q2 = {Q. Thus. Q2 ] = 0 as Q2 = 0. – 75 – . It turns out that this expression can be written as +∞ Q= −∞ 1 : LX + 2 Lgh − aδm. Ln ] = [Lm . 2 n. Q] = [{Q.m=−∞ Here Lm = LX + Lgh − aδm. Q2 = 0 for d = 26 m m and a = 1 as the consequence of vanishing of the total central charge! Inverse statement is also true: from Q2 = 0 it follows that the central charge of the Virasoro algebra vanishes. bn ]} = (m − n){Q. Indeed. we ﬁrst note that Lm = {Q. On the other hand. Let us apply this general construction to the string case. Q|χ = 0 is equivalent to the condition that Ki |χ = 0. The BRST operator is now +∞ Q= −∞ LX cm −m 1 − 2 ∞ (m − n) : c−m c−n bm+n : −ac0 . Ln ] − (m − n)Lm+n c−m c−n . [Lm . bn } =0 +∞ + {Q. −∞ where a is the normal-ordering ambiguity constant for L0 .

Zero-modes require special treatment. Physical states of bosonic string are cohomology classes of the BRST operator with the ghost number −1/2. consider cn |χ = bn |χ = 0 . δc+ = λc+ ∂+ c+ . c0 | ↑ = 0 .One can check that these objects are charges which correspond to new conserved currents gh B X J+ = 2c+ (T++ + 1 T++ ) 2 J+ = c+ b++ . The ghost numbers are U↓ = −1/2 and U↑ = 1/2. bn for n > 0 are annihilation operators. The BRST transformation is deﬁned as δY = [λQ. There is new and more fundamental fermionic symmetry present – it is BRST symmetry. n > 0 and b0 |χ = 0 . Y ] It is given by δX µ = λc+ ∂+ X µ + λc− ∂− X µ . Let λ be a grassman (anticomuting) parameter. 0 0 c0 | ↓ = | ↑ . {c0 . We thus reproduced the conditions for a physical state obtained in the old covariant quantization approach. b0 } = 1 ∞ There is a two-dimensional representation of this relations: b0 | ↑ = | ↓ b0 | ↓ = 0 . We have c2 = b2 = 0 . Indeed. – 76 – . The ghost number operator 1 U = (c0 b0 − b0 c0 ) + (c−n bn − b−n cn ) 2 n=1 Here cn . They are annihilated by b0 . δT++ = 0 . δb++ = 2iλT++ . The condition of the BRST invariance reduces to 0 = Q|χ = c0 (L0 − 1) + n>0 c−n Ln |χ . Physical states should have the ghost number −1/2.

Formula (5. for the world-sheet time τ this means τ → −iτ .1) A word of caution is needed here: One cannot really prove that the theory of the Lorentzian world-sheets is equivalent to the theory of the Euclidean ones. only a strip of the 2dim plane.5. Lines of constant τ are mapped into circles on the z plane and the operation of time translation τ → τ + a becomes the dilatation z → ea z . w) on the complex w-plane. Mapping the cylinder (τ.1) suggests to introduce the complex coordinates w = τ + iσ . w = τ − iσ . We start with considering a single closed string whose world-sheet has topology of a cylinder. therefore. The Euclidean version can be then used to learn as much as possible about its Lorentzian counterpart. (5. w Fig. A procedure of identifying dilatations with the Hamiltonian and circles about the origin with equal-time surfaces is called sometimes radial quantization. Thus. on the string-world sheet this Euclidean continuation corresponds to σ ± = τ ± σ → −i(τ ± iσ) . ¯ One can further map the strip to the whole complex plane by using the conformal map z = ew = eτ +iσ . Geometry and topology of string world-sheet 5. Mapping – 77 – . ¯ The Euclidean closed string covers only a ﬁnite interval of σ on the complex plane 0 ≤ σ ≤ 2π and. σ) to a strip (w. In particular. However. The connection to the theory of Riemann surfaces can be made by performing the Wick rotation of both world-sheet and the target space metrics. 5.1 From Lorentzian to Euclidean world-sheets String world-sheets and the target space both have Lorentzian signature. treating the world-sheets as Euclidean provides by itself a consistent theory of interacting strings.

A metric on a plane can be transformed to a metric on a sphere by a suitable choice of the conformal prefactor. However.from the cylinder to the plane cannot change the physical content of the theory if the theory is conformally invariant. We note that the plane is a non-compact manifold. ¯ i.e. Stereographic projection of a sphere onto z-plane. the left and right-moving excitation correspond now to analytic and anti-analytic ﬁelds on the complex z-plane. Since cot π = 0 and cot(0) = ∞ the incoming and outgoing strings are mapped to 2 the south and the north poles of the sphere respectively. The string boundaries are mapped to punctures on a compact Riemann surface. Asymptotic incoming and outgoing strings are mapped to the south and the north poles of the sphere respectively. The crucial observation is that conformal invariance allows to consider compact world-sheets instead of surfaces with boundaries corresponding incoming and outgoing strings. The corresponding compact surface arising in this way is the Riemann sphere. i. For instance one can pick up the metric 4dzd¯ z ds2 = (1 + |z|2 )2 θ The formula z = cot 2 eiφ deﬁnes a stereographic projection of the sphere onto the plane and under this projection the metric takes the form ds2 = dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2 . it is the standard round metric on a sphere. X = 0 transforms into ¤¥¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤¦¤¦ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¥¥ ¦ ¤¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¢£ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¥¥ ¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¤¦¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¤¦¤¦¤¦¥¥¤¦¥¦ £¤ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¥¥ ¥¤¦¤¦¥¤¦¤¦ ¤¤¦¤¦ ¤¤¦¥¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¤¦ ¥¥ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤ ¦¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¤¦¥¦¥¥¦¥¦ ¥¥ ¤¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¦¥¦ ¦¤¦§¨¦¤ ¤¦¦¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¦¤¥¥¦¤¥¦¤ ¥¥ ¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¤¦¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¦¤¥¥¦¤§¨¥¦¤§¨ ¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¤¦§¨¤¦§¨¤¦§¨ ¥¤¨¥¤¨ ¥§¥§ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¦¥¥¤§¨¦¥¤§¨¦ ¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¥¥ ¦¤¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¦¥¥¦¥¦ ¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¦¥¥¤¦§¨¥¤¦§¨ ¦¤¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¤¥¥¥¥ ¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¤¦¤¦¤¦¥¥¤¦¤¦¤§¨¦¥¤¦¤¦¤§¨¦ ¡ ¡ ¤¦¤¦¤§¨¦ ¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¦¥¥¥¥ ¢ south pole (incoming string) north pole (outgoing string) – 78 – . one can compactify it by adding a point at inﬁnity. 6. which is the case of string theory in critical dimension.e. The example above can be generalized to general world-sheets corresponding to interacting strings. Under the Euclidean continuation the basic equation ∂z ∂z X = 0 ¯ with a general solution ¯ z X(z. z ) = X(z) + X(¯) . z−plane Fig.

i. the metric is locally in the form ds2 = 2eφ |dz|2 . – 79 – . It is unique up to conformal transformations. a new system of the isothermal coordinates. Performing the coordinate transformation with an analytic function of z: z → f (z) we get ds2 → ds2 = 2eφ |f (z)|2 |dz|2 . assume that we have already found a system of isothermal coordinates. First.5. i. we get a conformally equivalent metric and. the line element can be written as ds2 = 2eφ |dz + µd¯|2 z with the following identiﬁcations eφ = 1 8 z = x − iy ¯ h11 + h22 + 2 h11 h22 − h2 .e. in a given coordinate chart) deﬁned by the line element ds2 = h11 dx2 + 2h12 dxdy + h22 dy 2 Introducing the complex coordinates z = x + iy . y) deﬁne a conformal map of a coordinate chart of a manifold to the Euclidean plane. therefore.e. The corresponding coordinate system is called isothermal or conformal and the coordinates (x. 12 µ= h11 − h22 + 2ih12 h11 + h22 + 2 h11 h22 − h2 12 . A theorem of Gauss For any real two-dimensional orientable surface with a positive deﬁnite metric there always exists a system of isothermal coordinates (the theorem of Gauss). If h11 = h12 and h12 = 0 then µ = 0 and the metric takes in this coordinate chart the form ds2 = 2eφ |dz|2 = 2eφ (dx2 + dy 2 ) .e.2 Riemann surfaces On a two-dimensional real manifold M the metric can be locally (i.

consider the so-called Beltrami equation ∂w ∂w = µ(z. z ) ¯ . Another way to understand that Riemann surface is a complex manifold is to note that in two dimensions the metric provides a globally-deﬁned integrable complex structure √ I α = hhαγ γβ β such that I 2 = −1. Every patch is homeomorphic to an open domain of the Euclidean plane. then |dw|2 = |∂z w + ∂z w|2 = |∂z w|2 |dz + µd¯|2 = z ¯ Thus. A two-dimensional topological manifold endowed with a complex structure is called a Riemann surface. If two metrics are related by a diﬀeomorphism and a Weyl rescaling they are said to deﬁne the same conformal structure. Second. in order to prove that isothermal coordinates exist. ∂z ¯ ∂z Suppose we solve this equation. then on the overlaps the metrics are conformally related. Thus. a Riemann surface is a complex manifold. The conformal structure is conformally-invariant and globally well-deﬁned. the transition functions on the overlaps Uα ∩ Uβ are analytic and the complex coordinates are globally deﬁned. The existence of an integrable complex structure is necessary and sufﬁcient for an even-dimensional manifold to be complex. |∂z w|2 |∂z w|2 2 ds . A system of analytic coordinate patches is called a complex structure and it is the same as a conformal structure. Covering the Riemann surface with coordinate patches.e. w deﬁnes a system of isothermal coordinates. ds2 = 2eφ |dw|2 ≡ λ|dw|2 .e. 2eφ i. ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¢ – 80 – . 6. If a manifold M is covered by a system of conformal (isothermal) coordinate patches Uα . It is a mathematical theorem that for a suﬃciently small coordinate patch and a diﬀerentiable metric a solution of the Beltrami equation with ∂z w = 0 always exists.coordinate chart Fig. i.

Thus. Here we brieﬂy discuss one way to prove the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.2) is a topological invariant and it coincides with the Euler characteristic χ(M) = 2 − 2g .e. being a compact orientable connected one-dimensional manifold. 2 Let us choose a system of isothermal coordinates. The number of handles. is called the genus.Recall the fundamental result from the theory of two-dimensional (real) manifolds. The Riemann tensor simpliﬁes to 1 ¯ Rzzzz = −hzz Rzz = − (hzz )2 R = eφ ∂ ∂φ . In this coordinate system the line element is ds2 = 2eφ dzd¯ and. a topological invariant. where is two-dimensional Laplacian (the Euclidean analogue of the operator). Then 1 4π √ M hR = χ(M) = 2 − 2g (5. g. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 The scalar curvature is ¯ R = −2e−φ ∂ ∂φ =⇒ √ ¯ hR = −4∂ ∂φ = − φ . the metric has two components hzz = hzz = z ¯ ¯ eφ . ∂z∂ z ¯ ∂z∂ z ¯ ∂z ¯ ∂z 2 – 81 – . Recall that in two dimensions the Riemann tensor has only one independent component which is the scalar curvature: Rαβγδ = R (hαγ hβδ − hαδ hβγ ) . we get √ ∂ 2φ ∂ ∂ 2φ ∂φ dx ∧ dy = −2i dz ∧ d¯ = 2i d¯ z z hR d x = −4 dz . Any compact orientable connected two-dimensional manifold is homeomorphic to a sphere with handles. has an associated genus. It is also useful to rewrite the integration measure in the complex coordinates i z dx ∧ dy = dz ∧ d¯ . every compact Riemann surface. Gauss-Bonnet theorem Let M is a compact orientable two-dimensional manifold of genus g with a metric hαβ . 2 i. therefore.

(5. z A function f (z) is called meromorphic if it does not have any other singularities except poles. on the intersections of the patches Uα ∩ Uβ we have fα eφα = φβ e fβ Thus.2) cannot change under smooth variations of the metric. √ This shows that hR is locally a total derivative and therefore. where fα is a meromorphic function15 . there exists a globally deﬁned function ϕ= eφα |fα |2 on Uα for all α . zα ) it can be written in the form Ω = fα dzα . we see again that eq. where Dk. 15 ∂ log ϕ = lim →0 |z|= ∂ log |z|−2m = −m lim →0 |z|= dz = −2πim . Therefore. we can rewrite our formula as ¯ Also one has ∂∂ = ∂ √ hR = 2id(∂φ) . lim →0 ∂Dk. Since log |fα |2 is harmonic outside zeros and poles of Ω we have √ hR = 2id(∂ log ϕ) . 2 . In particular. Let M = M − ∪Dk. To evaluate the integrals over the circles we note that at a zero or pole of Ω the function ϕ is of the form ϕ = ψ/|z|2m with a smooth function ψ without zeros and m is the order of zero or pole (m < 0 in the latter case). the de Rahm operator d = dx ∂x + dy ∂y ∂z ∂z ¯ can be written as ∂ ∂ ¯ d = ∂ + ∂ ≡ dz + d¯ . Thus. In a patch Uα the metric is ds2 = 2eφα |dzα |2 . We can also suppose that the coordinate patches are chosen in such a way that every Uα contains at most one pole or one zero of Ω. .e. – 82 – . z ∂z ∂z ¯ ¯∂ = 0. Then. are small disks around the singularities of Ω. It means that in a given coordinate patch (Uα .The last formula can be understood in the sense of calculus of exterior diﬀerential ∂ ∂ ¯ forms ∂f = ∂f and ∂f = ∂f . it is a topological invariant. which is a meromorphic diﬀerential form. by Stokes’s theorem we have √ M hR = 2i lim →0 M d(∂ log ϕ) = −2i k lim →0 ∂Dk. ∂ log ϕ . Therefore. This function is smooth except for singularities at zeros and poles of Ω. i. On a compact Riemann surface M we consider an abelian diﬀerential Ω.

7. We will take a model of a sphere which represent it as the complex plane (including the point at inﬁnity) with the metric ds2 = 16 4dzd¯ z = 2eφ dzd¯ . If there are two surfaces of genera g1 and g2 then by removing from each surface a half-sphere we can glue the resulting surfaces into a surface of genus g1 + g2 and the Riemann sphere of genus zero. – 83 – . e Finally we note that due to the identity αβ γδ = hαγ hβδ − hαδ hβγ the Euler characteristic can be rewritten in the form16 χ(M) = 1 8π αβ γδ M Rαβγδ .2) for a sphere. we compute the topological invariant eq. the Gauss-Bonnet theorem follows from the Poincar´-Hopf theorem. To illustrate the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.(5. z (1 + |z|2 )2 This is a non-trivial characteristic class of the tangent bundle to M known as the Euler class. where g is the e genus of the Riemann surface. Thus. where deg Ω is deﬁned as the diﬀerence of the number of zeros and the number of poles of Ω: deg Ω = # zeros − # poles . It is now the Poincar´-Hopf theorem that states that deg Ω = 2g − 2. g1 g 2 g1+ g 2 + g=0 Fig.Summing up we obtain M √ hR = −4π deg Ω .

a manifold of genus g = 1. (1 + r2 )2 which is indeed the Euler characteristic for sphere. The dimension of the moduli space is another topological invariant and it depends on the genus g only. 1 4π C =⇒ − φ= 8 . All ¯ ¯ z ¯ these tensors are one component objects...zz. It is also known that on a torus.¯(z.. z ) .. This again leads to the formula χ(g) = 2 − 2g.. ¯ z indices) are called holomorphic. a compact orientable manifold with genus g = 0.3 Moduli space The moduli space of all the metrics is the same as the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and it is deﬁned as the space of all metrics devided by diﬀeomorphisms and Weyl rescalings all metrics . Complex geometry Since we have a system of well-deﬁned complex coordinates on a Riemann surface we can consider general tensors ¯ z ¯ V z. In fact. 5. diﬀeomorphisms × Weyl rescalings Mg = The moduli space is ﬁnite-dimensional and it is parametrized by a ﬁnite number of complex parameters τi called moduli. (1 + |z|2 )2 √ 1 dxdy hR = 4π ∞ 2πrdr 0 8 = 2.. the Euler characteristic χ(g) for a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus g can be found by using the recurrent formula χ(g1 + g2 ) = χ(g1 ) + χ(g2 ) − χ(0) = χ(g1 ) + χ(g2 ) − 2 and the fact that χ(1) = 0.zz.. Therefore. Holomorphic tensors which depend on z variable – 84 – . Tensors with one type of indices (for example.i. there exists the globally deﬁned ﬂat metric. V z ∂z and V z ∂z are vector ﬁelds and Vz dz and Vz d¯ are one-forms. the Euler characteristic of torus is χ = 0. The metric hzz and hzz can be used to ¯ convert all z indices into z-indices. ¯ z ¯ in particular..¯ z.e the conformal factor φ and the action of Laplacian on it are φ = ln 2 − 2 ln(1 + |z|2 ) Therefore.

z ) ¯ (n) T = (∂ − n∂φ)T (n) (z. the rank n = p − q: z.. The elements of the complex geometry we introduced above allows one to obtain some information about the moduli space. ¯z ¯ This connection allows to deﬁne two covariant derivatives (n) z z (n) : : V (n) → V (n+1) .. Γzz = ∂φ . z ) ¯ z T z (n) (z. .. (n) (n) (z. V1 . V 2 (n) (n) ∈ V (n) and the associated norm ||V (n) ||2 = (V n |V (n) ). Denote by V (n) the space of all holomorphic tensors of rank n. This space can be supplied with the scalar product (V1 |V2 ) = (n) (n) √ (n) ¯ d2 z h (hzz )n V1 ∗ V2 (n) . f (¯)) . z ) → ¯ ∂f (z) ∂z n ¯z V (f (z).. z ) . z ) ¯ ¯ = hzz zT ¯ (n) ¯¯ (z.only are called analytic. z (z.. ¯ ¯ These two diﬀerential operators deﬁned on holomorphic tensors of a ﬁxed rank n commute with the analytic coordinate transformations z → f (z).z (z) ⇐ analytic tensor..z z. This scalar product is Weyl-invariant for n = 1 only. V (n) → V (n−1) . One can compute (n) an adjoint of z and ﬁnd that ( (n) † z ) =− z (n+1) . z ) = hzz ∂T (n) (z.z V q ¯ z . Consider an arbitrary inﬁnitesimal change of the metric ∂ δhαβ = Λhαβ + α Vβ + β Vα + δτi hαβ . z ) p ⇐ holomorphic tensor of rank n = p − q. In the analytical coordinate system the Christoﬀel connection has only two nonvanishing components z ¯ ¯ Γzz = ∂φ . . ∂τi i Weyl diﬀ moduli – 85 – . Under analytic coordinate transformations z → f (z) a holomorphic tensor of rank n transforms as follows V (z. V z. A holomorphic tensor with p lower and q upper indices has. by deﬁnition.

We can split this variation into trace and traceless parts δhtrace = Λ + αβ δhtraceless = αβ γ 1 Vγ + hγδ 2 β Vα δτi i γ ∂ hγδ hαβ ∂τi Vγ + i α Vβ + − hαβ δτi Operator P ∂ 1 ∂ hαβ − hαβ hγδ hγδ . We see. ∂τi 2 ∂τi We see that we can always shift the Weyl rescaling parameter Λ as Λ→Λ− γ 1 Vγ − hγδ 2 δτi i ∂ hγδ ∂τi so that the trace part of the variation will transform as δhtrace = Λhαβ . αβ In the complex coordinates we have hzz = hzz = 0 and therefore rewriting the ¯¯ variation formulae in these coordinates we ﬁnd δhzz = Λhzz . the dimension of the – 86 – .The last term here reﬂects the dependence of the metric on moduli which cannot be compensated by diﬀeomorphisms and Weyl rescalings. to the scalar product we introduced above. in particular. the space of zero modes) of the operator P † = z (2) consists of global analytic tensors of the second rank. ¯ ¯ δhzz = 2 (1) z Vz + i δτ i µi zz . Finally. zz Thus. The last equation is equivalent to z i (2) φzz =0 =⇒ ¯ ∂φi = 0 . Thus. that an inﬁnitesimal change of ¯ z (1) hzz can always be written as a Weyl rescaling. Also the covariant derivative z ¯ introduced above should be naturally identiﬁed with the operator P . Denote by φi a zz (1) basis of the orthogonal complement of z : (φi | zz (1) z Vz ) = −( z i (2) φzz |Vz ) for any Vz ∈ V (1) . Such tensors are of special importance and they are called quadratic diﬀerentials. the kernel (or.t. we note that decomposition into sum of two terms δhzz = 2 (1) z Vz + i δτ i µi zz is not orthogonal w. in other words.r. Operator P z where µi zz = ∂τi hzz = hzz µi¯.

e. for the norm we have ||V ||2 = 2π 0 ∞ 4dzd¯ z (1+|z|2 )2 one ﬁnds that z∂z . i. (1) ¯ = hzz ∂V z = 0 ¯ The globally deﬁned vector ﬁelds which span a kernel of z are called conformal Killing vectors. for instance. 1. Riemann-Roch theorem An important question of how many moduli for a Riemann surface of genus g exists (n) is answered by the Riemann-Roch theorem. They generate conformal Killing group (or the group of conformal isometries. the ﬁeld z 3 ∂z has an inﬁnite norm. Deﬁne the index of z as the number of its zero modes minus the number of zero modes of its adjoint z (n+1) .moduli space is equal to the number of lineally independent quadratic diﬀerentials on a given Riemann surface of genus g. The RiemannRoch theorem states that ind (n) z = dim ker (n) z − dim ker z (n+1) 1 = −(2n + 1)(g − 1) = (2n + 1)χg . therefore. We see that if k ≥ 3 the integral becomes divergent. rdr 8 r2k (1 + r2 )4 8π 3 k=0 = 4π k = 1 3 8π k=2 3 where k = 0. 2 For n = 1 we therefore have #complex moduli − #conformal Killing vectors = 3g − 3 One can ﬁnd the number of conformal Killing vectors for a compact Riemann surface in an independent way. The kernel of the operator (1) z Vz (1) z is spanned by vectors from V (1) : =⇒ ¯ ∂V z = 0 . The theory of quadratic diﬀerentials was developed by Kurt Strebel (I will add more on Strebel theory in due course). z 2 ∂z . ¯ Mg Here V z = Vn z n . – 87 – . Indeed. globally deﬁned diﬀeomorphisms which can be completely absorbed by the Weyl rescalings). 2 for the three vector ﬁelds in question. These are globally deﬁned analytic vector ﬁelds whose norm is ﬁnite √ ¯ ||V ||2 = hhzz V z V z < ∞ . For the case of sphere with metric ds2 = there exists three independent conformal Killing vectors ∂z .

The Riemann-Roch theorem gives for g = 1 #complex moduli − #conformal Killing vectors = 3 − 3 = 0 . 1 z (n) ) − nR(V (n) |V (n) ) (n) V non−negative non−negative Consider the case of a torus g = 1. One can count the number of conformal Killing vectors for higher genus Riemann surfaces as well. That means that all metrics on the sphere are conformally equivalent. for any vector from the kernel of ( (n) (n) | z V (n) (n) )+( z V z (n) | (n) V (n) z the following equality is valid 2 = 0. the Riemann sphere has three conformal Killing vectors and. − w∂w − ∂w . C) is the Lie algebra of analytic globally deﬁned maps of the Riemann sphere onto itself. Therefore. i. The three conformal Killing vectors we found correspond to the Virasoro generators L0 and L±1 and they span (over the complex ﬁeld) the Lie algebra sl(2. =1 (n) According to our general discussion of Riemann surfaces the sphere requires at least two coordinate patches to make an atlas.e. in other words. sl(2. 2 = Let V (n) ∈ ker (n) z . the equality above leads to two equations z ¯ ∂V (n) = ∂V (n) = 0 . it is not normalizable. The limit z → ∞ corresponds now to w → 0 and we see that these ﬁelds are wellbehaved at this point17 . Transformation from one patch to another is analytic and is given by w = 1/z. 17 – 88 – . The three conformal Killing vectors are well behaved at ∞ as can be seen by making conformal transformation w = 1/z under which −w2 ∂w . or. Then we have (n) (n) | z V (n) (n) ) z V z (n+1) (n−1) z 0 = ( = − = − = −(V (n) | (V z (n+1) (n) (n) (n) ) z V z (n+1) 1 2 1 (V (n) | (n) (n) ) z V z (n) − 1 2 | (n) (n) ) z V (n) (n) ) z V (V | 2 1h (n) (n) = ( z V | 2 (n) + 1 2 nR) − 1 2 (V (n) | z (n+1) (n) (n) ) z V +( z (n) | (n) V z (n) ) (n) V − 1 2 nR(V (n) |V (n) i ) . C). To this end one has to use the Ricci identity z (n+1) (n) z − (n−1) z z (n) 1 = nR . On a torus there is a globally deﬁned ﬂat metric ds2 = dzd¯ which gives R = 0. no moduli. dim ker z = 1.e. Thus. Therefore. according to the Riemann-Roch theorem. therefore.i. Thus. it corresponds to the rigid U(1)×U(1) rotations of the torus. Therefore. there is a unique Riemann surface of genus zero. there is a unique generator of conformal isometries. V (n) = const and.

n. The kernel of z (1) ωz z (1) is spanned by one forms =⇒ ¯ ∂ωz = 0 . λ2 ∈ C .e. These analytic diﬀerential forms are called abelian diﬀerentials of the ﬁrst kind. m ∈ Z . The Riemann surfaces with g ≥ 2 have no conformal (n) isometries and by the Riemann-Roch theorem that means that the number of complex moduli n = 1 is 3g − 3. For n = 0 we have dim ker z = 1. therefore. For g ≥ 2 there is theorem that states that the corresponding manifold always admits 1 a metric with constant negative curvature. g 0 1 >1 dim ker z 2n + 1 1 1 for n = 0 0 for n > 0 (n) dim ker z (n+1) 0 1 g (2n + 1)(g − 1) Moduli space of tori Here we would like to look more closely at the moduli space which describes conformally non-equivalent tori – the Riemann surfaces of the genus g = 1. dim ker z = 0. only their ratio τ = λ2 is scale-invariant.2 are subject to conformal transformations z → λz and.i. because the corresponding kernel is spanned by constants. the torus is characterized by one complex modulus τ . By using this freedom (the U(1)-rotation λ1 + real rescaling) one can always bring the parallelogram deﬁning the torus upon – 89 – . therefore. λ1 . n=0 = g. The torus can be obtained by performing the following identiﬁcation on the complex plane z ≡ z + nλ1 + mλ2 . The Riemann-Roch theorem implies then that dim ker i.e. The parameters λ1. dim ker z (1) z (1) (0) − dim ker =1 (0) z = (2n + 1)(g − 1) = g − 1 . ¯¯ = hzz ∂ωz = 0 Thus we arrive at another important consequence of the Riemann-Roch theorem: on a Riemann surface of the genus g there exists precisely g linearly independent (globally deﬁned) analytic one-forms. For n = 0 this means that − 2 nR > 0 and. The information we obtained by using the Riemann-Roch theorem is summarized in the Table below.

Deﬁning the torus by factorizing the complex z-plane. which gives τ → τ + 1. z Fig. τ +1 It turns out that these two transformations generate the group SL(2. 9. The parameter τ itself is named the modular or Teichm¨ller parameter.gluing the opposite sides to the canonical form depicted on Fig. which gives τ → τ . cd ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¢¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¢ ¢¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢ ¢ +1 1 – 90 – . They correspond to the so-called Dehn twists u • λ1 → λ1 . which corresponds to Imτ > 0. they leave the torus invariant but they act non-trivially on the Teichm¨ller parameter. The u Teichm¨ller parameter is not yet a parameter describing the moduli space. Canonical representation of the torus by parameter τ taking values in the Techm¨ller space which is identiﬁed with the upper half-plane. Z). • λ1 → λ1 + λ2 . u The reason is that there are global diﬀeomorphisms which are not smoothly connected to the identity. u 0 Fig. It is a group of matrices ab . λ2 → λ2 . λ2 → λ1 + λ2 . The parameter τ takes values in the upper half-plane which is called Teichm¨ller u space.9. 8.

Z) is a composition of a certain number of S and T generators: SST ST T T ST. modular group One usually uses the following generators of the modular group T : τ → τ + 1. Fixed points of S and ST −1 −1/2 Fig. S: 1 τ →− . Since two SL(2. b. The action on the modular parameter τ is in the form of the fractional-linear transformation τ →τ = aτ + b . the modular group of the torus is PSL(2. Z)-matrices + ab cd − ab cd act on τ in the same way. 8. τ Any element of SL(2. c.SST ¦ ¦ ¥¡¥¡ ¨ ¦¡¦¡ ¥¡¥¡ ¢ ¡¢ §§¨¨ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤¡¤¡ ¢¡¢¡ ¨¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¦¡¦¡¥¦ ¡ ¡ §¡ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¥¡¥¡ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¥¦ §¡ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¥¦ ¢ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤£¤ ££¤¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¤¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤£¤ ££¤¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¤¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¤¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤£¤ ££¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¤¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¤ £¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡£ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¤ ¤£¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£ ¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£ ¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡£¤£¤£ 0 1/2 1 i – 91 – 8 ..where a.. The moduli space of conformally non-equivalent tori is then the quotient of the Teichm¨ller space of the modular group u Mg=1 = Teichm¨ller space u . d ∈ Z and ad − bc = 1. cτ + d One can check that these transformations preserve the area of the parallelogram. Z) = SL(2. Fundamental domain Mg=1 of the Teichim¨ller space describing the u moduli space of conformally non-equivalent tori.. Z)/Z2 .

jq i Here tensor indices are acted with the matrices ∂x j which form a group GL(d.. It can be chosen as Mg=1 = − 1 1 ≤ Reτ ≤ 0. The point τ = i is the ﬁxed point of S: √ 2πi 1 τ → − τ and τ = e 3 = − 1 + i 23 is the ﬁxed point of ST .. If we have a i1 . Since it does not matter which fundamental region to choose in order to integrate over in the one-loop path integral the integrand the corresponding string amplitude should be invariant under modular transformations.. this ﬁeld transforms as follows 1 Tl1 .jq of rank (p.... rather it has singularities of the orbifold type.k ∂x k1 ∂x kp ∂xj1 ∂xjq i1 . 6.Any point in the upper-half plane is related by a modular transformation to a point in the so-called fundamental domain F ≡ Mg=1 of the modular group. |τ |2 > 1 . it leads to strong restrictions on the possible gauge groups for the heterotic string. q) on a manifold M then under general coordinate transformations of the coordinates xi on M: xi → x i (xj ).ip ··· ··· T (x) ..1 Spinors in General Relativity It is not straightforward to introduce spinors in General Relativity. – 92 – . |τ |2 ≥ 1 ∪ 0 < Reτ < .. R).. The discussion in the next paragraph is general and can be applied to a manifold of an arbitrary dimension d.lq p (x ) = k ..ip tensor ﬁeld Tj1 . This group does not have spinor representations. 2 2 The modular group does not act freely on the upper-half plane because some of the modular transformations have ﬁxed points. The requirement of the modular invariance is one of the most important principles of string theory.. In particular. The existence of the 2 ﬁxed points implies that Mg=1 is not a smooth manifold. 6. ∂x This is a group of all invertible real d × d matrices. ∂xi1 ∂xip ∂x l1 ∂x lq j1 .. Classical fermionic superstring Introduction of the world-sheet fermionic degrees of freedom requires understanding of how spinors on curved manifolds (world-sheets) are deﬁned.

9. At each point of the manifold there is an inertial frame. a = 1. α β There is no a preferred choice of the basis in the tangent space and one orthonormal set of tangent vectors can be transformed into the other by means of local Lorentz transformations ea → Λab eb . x-dependent) Lorentz transformations as we will see in a moment.e. then there are ¡¢ ¢¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡¢¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢ ¢¡ ¡ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢¢¡¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¡¢¡¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡ ¡¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¢¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ e d e4 e 3 x e2 e 1 M – 93 – . The inverse matrix is eα and it obeys a a ea eα = δb . while the index a is called “ﬂat” and its acted by the local (i. In fact. The Lorentz group in d-dimensions is SO(d − 1. In this inertial frame the Lorentz transformations are well deﬁned. Vielbien ea is a collection of d orthogonal vectors forming a basis α of the tangent space at any point x on the d-dimenional manifold. On the other hand. 1) and it is not GL(d. the vielbein being d × d-matrix has d2 components. ea is an invertible d × d x-dependent α matrix which is called vielbein. we also have that α b ηab ea eb = hαβ . spinors are objects which transform under the spinor representations of the Lorentz group. . d α of orthonormal vectors: (ea . eb ) ≡ hαβ ea eb = η ab . . On the other hand. R).Tangent plane at a point x Fig. α β where η αβ is the ﬂat Minkowski metric. In the tangent plane we introduce a basis ea (x). . The index α is called “curved” and its acted by the general coordinate transformations (diﬀeomorphisms) as the usual vector index. α α Introduction of the vielbein in favour of the metric introduces additional degrees of freedom. One can think that the Lorentz transformations act in the ﬂat Minkowski space tangent to the manifold M at any given point x. Indeed. Because of this relation. if we 2 require that the theory we consider has the local Lorentz symmetry. In string theory M with d = 2 is the string world-sheet and x ≡ (σ. τ ). while the metric hαβ has only d(d+1) components in d dimensions. .

but they can be removed by a new symmetry which is the local Lorentz transformations. Rotation by the angle φ = 2π is an identity transformation in SO(3) but it is not the identity in SU(2). Indeed. n) = −g(φ. n2 . Due to existence of the discrete center Z2 representations of SU(2) split into two diﬀerent classes of integer and half-integer spin. – 94 – . Representations of SU(2) with half-integer spin are spinor (double-valid) representations of SO(3). Only representations with integer spin are those of (single-valid) SO(3). corresponds the transformation i i g(φ. a set of matrices from SU(2) which commute with all other SU(2)-matrices. These are not single-valued but rather double-valued representations of SO(d). The group SO(3) is not simply connected. 1)) SO(d) in addition to the usual tensor representations have also spinor representations. Consider. the vielbein brings new degrees of freedom. The relation between them is as follows SO(3) → SU(2)/Z2 . n3 ). n) ∈ SU(2). one can see that g(φ + 2π.e. n) = exp − φ ni σi = 2 cos φ − in3 sin φ 2 2 (−in1 + n2 ) sin φ 2 − (in1 + n2 ) sin φ 2 cos φ + in3 sin φ 2 2 . n) . n2 = 1. n) . the group SO(3). Indeed. while SU(2) is.local Lorentz transformations which should allow to remove the additional (unphysical) components of the vielbein: d2 − vielbein d(d−1) 2 d(d − 1) d(d + 1) = 2 2 local Lorentz metric Thus. Spinor representations (Pseudo-)orthogonal groups (SO(d − 1. the vielbein allows one to introduce coupling of the gravitational degrees of freedom with spinors. g(φ + 4π. On the other hand. i. Here Z2 = 10 01 . for instance. rotation by the angle φ around the axes given by a ﬁxed 3dim unit vector n = (n1 . n) = g(φ. −1 0 0 −1 is the center of SU(2). where σi are three Pauli matrices. One can easily verify that g(φ. This group has the so-called universal covering group which is SU(2).

1). T = diag(−1. One can show that SO+ (3. 2 where γ ab is the anti-symmetric product of the 4dim γ-matrices and ωab = −ωba are parameters of the Lorentz transformation. 1. 1). SL(2. 1)/SO+ (3. Majorana conjugate spinor is. 1. (γ b )t } = 2η ab . 1) is realized on the space C4 . P. 1). Sometimes (depending on the dimension and signature od space-time) it is possible to deﬁne the notion of Majorana spinor. The Majorana spinor is then the spinor for which the Dirac conjugate is equal to the Majorana conjugate: ψ†γ 0 = ψtC . C). T. Thus. C) is the double-cover of SO+ (3. Indeed. In any dimension one can deﬁne the charge conjugation matrix C. It is important to note that in general dimension d the spinor has 2 d 2 complex components. which is called a space of 4-component spinors. 1). γ b }t = {(γ a )t . 1) is not connected and it has four connected components. which is O(3. therefore by irreducibility of the corresponding representation of the Cliﬀord algebra there should exists a matrix C which intertwines the original and the transposed representation of the algebra. 1) coincides with SL(2. where P and T are the space inversion and time reversal operators P = diag(1. C)/{I. ψ t C. −1. which is the semidirect product of SO+ (3. Its importance is explained ¯ by the fact that the quantity ψψ = ψ † γ 0 ψ is an invariant of O(3. ¯ The spinor ψ = ψ † γ 0 is called the Dirac conjugate of ψ. 1) is the Klein four-group Z2 ×Z2 . 1) . – 95 – . Spinor algebra in two dimensions The group O(3. namely: (γ a )t = −Cγ a C −1 . The component which contains an identity coincides with SO(3. P T }. 18 The covering (or spin) group of SO+ (3. −1) . −1.18 This representation looks as g(ω) = exp 1 ab γ ωab . Matrix C is called the charge conjugation matrix. The transformations which preserve the direction of time are called orthochronous and they form the subgroup SO+ (3. C). the Cliﬀord algebra of γ-matrices transforms into itself under operation of transposition {γ a . The quotient group O(3. 1) with an element of the discrete group {1. −I} ≡ PSL(2. The spinor representation of O(3. 1). which are the transformations preserving orientation of the vierbein. 1) = SL(2.Another example is provided by the Lorentz group of the 4dim Minkowski spacetime. by deﬁnition. which however are not simply connected.

η ab = −1 0 0 +1 .e. i. Finally. ρβ } = 2hαβ . Spinors in 2dim have various interesting properties. The Majorana spinor is then ψ † ρ0 = ψ t C = ψ t ρ0 . ρ1 = 0 1 1 0 .1) – 96 – .The two-dimensional Dirac matrices ρa . being a 2dim analogue of the 4dim matrix γ 5 . with the help of the vielbein (“zweibein” in 2dim) one can deﬁne the “curved” ρ-matrices: ρα = eα ρa . a = 0. then the following identity is valid ¯ ¯ ψ1 ρα1 · · · ραn ψ2 = (−1)n ψ2 ραn · · · ρα1 ψ1 . The charge conjugation matrix can be taken to be C = ρ0 . ψ = ψ ∗ which simple means that the spinor is real. If we have two Majorana spinors ψ1 and ψ2 . 1 obey the algebra {ρa . One of them is the so-called spin-ﬂip identity. (6. t ¯ ¯ ψ1 ρα1 · · · ραn ψ2 = (ψ1 ρα1 · · · ραn ψ2 )t = −ψ2 (ραn )t · · · (ρα1 )t (ρ0 )t ψ1 ¯ = (−1)n ψ t Cραn C −1 · · · Cρα1 C −1 Cψ1 = (−1)n ψ2 ραn · · · ρα1 ψ1 . It is proved as follows. Indeed. A particular basis foe the Cliﬀord algebra is given by ρ0 = We also deﬁne a matrix ρ ¯ ρ = ρ0 ρ1 = ¯ 1 0 0 −1 0 1 −1 0 . therefore ρα ρβ ρα = −ρα ρα ρβ + 2ρβ = −2ρβ + 2ρβ = 0 . a They satisfy the following algebra {ρα . Thus. in 2dim Majorana spinor is just a spinor with real components. one has from the Cliﬀord algebra that ρa ρα = 2 and. 2 Another identity is ρα ρβ ρα = 0 . ρb } = 2η ab .

Γδ (x) → ea (x). Any ¯ 2 × 2-matrix M can be expanded as M = qa ρa + q ρ + qI . α αβ q = 1 Tr(M ρ) . d)-indices and α is the “curved” vector index. these local transformations.Finally.r. This means that the spin connection should not be a new independent ﬁeld. The spin connection plays the same role for the “ﬂat” indices as the Christoﬀel connection plays for the “curved” ones. we discuss the completeness condition for the ρ-matrices. Here a.t. more explicitly. The simplest and elegant way to do it is to notice that we have the covariant derivatives Dα V β = ∂α V β + Γβ V δ αδ a Dα V a = ∂α V a + ωα b V b – 97 – . rather it should be determined in terms of vielbein. The matrices ρa . The gauge ﬁeld of the local Lorentz symmetry is usually called the spin connection. ¯¯ The coeﬃcients of this expansion are found as follows q a = 1 Tr(M ρa ) . a the local Lorentz invariance can be achieved by introducing q gauge ﬁeld ωα b (x) for SO(d − 1. However. d). ωα b (x) . Introduction of the spin connection should not change the gravitational content of the theory. ρ and the identity matrix I form a basis in the space of all 2 × 2-matrices. ¯ ¯ αβ Spin connection We would like to introduce a new local symmetry which is the Lorentz symmetry. As for the case of any local gauge invariance. ¯ ¯ αβ Since M is an arbitrary matrix from here we derive the following completeness relation (ρa )δγ ρa + ρδγ ραβ + δδγ δαβ = 2δαγ δβδ . Under the local Lorentz transformations with the matrix Λ this ﬁeld transforms as follows ωα → Λωα Λ−1 − ∂α ΛΛ−1 . We have the following substitution of the basic objects in the theory a haβ (x). 2Mαβ = Mγδ (ρa )δγ ρa + ρδγ ραβ + δδγ δαβ . we have to guarantee that the the theory we are after should be invariant w. 2 Plugging this back we obtain 2M = Tr(M ρa )ρa + Tr(M ρ)¯ + Tr(M )I ¯ρ or. b are SO(d − 1. ¯ 2 ¯ 1 q = 2 Tr(M ) .

(6. In the region of triple intersection Uα ∩ Uβ ∩ Uγ = Uαβγ the transition functions should satisfy the following condition Λ(αβ) Λ(βγ) Λ(γα) = 1 . Now if we introduce locally a spinor ﬁeld ψ(α) then passing from one coordinate patch to another one the ﬁeld must transform according to ¯ ψ(α) (x) = Λ(αβ) ψ(β) (x) . 1) matrix in the spinor representation. Spin manifolds On which manifolds one can introduce spinors? This is rather non-trivial question. it is called sometimes composite. one has to have Dα V a = e a Dα V β . 1)) which is called the transition function.2) ¯ However. instead of Λ one can ¯ equally use −Λ. Vielbein can always be introduces locally in a coordinate patch Uα . Thus. This way of α transforming “ﬂat” to “curved” indices should be valid for any tensor. is not an independent ﬁeld. to deﬁne spinors on a non-parallelizable manifold one has – 98 – . since the spinor representation is double-valued. in particular. two-sphere is not parallelizable because there is no globally deﬁned vector ﬁeld (not talking about the vielbein) which vanishes nowhere. Thus. β β αβ λ β This equation can be solved for ωα expressing it through the vielbein: 1 1 1 ab ωα = eβa (∂α eb − ∂β eb ) − eβb (∂α ea − ∂β ea ) − eλa eγb (∂λ eγc − ∂γ eλc )ec . the vielbein is deﬁned locally and in the intersection of the coordinate patches Uα ∩ Uβ one has e(α) (x) = Λ(αβ) (x)e(β) (x) . ¯ Here Λ(αβ) is the SO(d − 1.The “ﬂat” and “curved” indices of the vector are related as V a = ea V α . a matrix from SO(d − 1.e. On the other hand. For spinorial ¯ transition functions Λ it also makes sense to require that in the triple intersection region the following relation is satisﬁed ¯ ¯ ¯ Λ(αβ) Λ(βγ) Λ(γα) = ±1 . by this means. It is quite rare that the vielbein can be also globally deﬁned. In the latter case such manifolds are called parallelizable. α α β β α 2 2 2 Since the connection is completely expressed via the dynamical vielbein and. Examples of parallelizable manifolds are Lie groups. β This is possible only if a Dα ea = ∂α ea − Γλ ea + ωα b eb = 0 . Here Λ(αβ) (x) is the local Lorentz transformation (i.

. .¯ to pick up the signs for Λ(αβ) such that relation (6. Note that M may admit several inequivalent spin structures. Let is the Majorana spinor. i. The ﬁrst one is the matter multiplet X µ. A . Local supersymmetry. 6. Finally. Finally we introduce e ≡ |detea | = h.e.2 Superstring action and its symmetrices The superstring action is based on two multiplest of 2dim supersymmetry. – 99 – . which is an auxiliary ﬁeld to guarantee the equality of the bososnic and fermionic degrees of freedom oﬀ-shell (i. d−1 we have d matter multiplets. . It turns out that in 2 and 3dim any orientable manifold is the spin manifold. the corresponding manifold M is said to admit the spin structure and it is called the spin manifold. without usage of the equations of motion). the Majorana spinor which is also a vector of the 2dim world-sheet. It has the following structure S=− 1 8π i ¯ d2 σe hαβ ∂α X µ ∂ β Xµ + 2iψ µ ρα ∂α ψµ − iχα ρβ ρα ψ µ ∂β Xµ − χβ ψµ ¯ ¯ 4 . α The superstring action is a generalization of the bosonic Polyakov action to include the include the world-sheet fermionic degrees of freedom in the supersymmetric way. We note that the kinetic term for the gravitino in any dimension is χα γ αβγ Dβ χγ and it is absent in ¯ two dimensions (because there are only two ρ -matrices while the anti-symmetrized √ product γ αβγ requires at least three to exist). ψ µ is the Majorana spinor in 2dim and F µ is the real scalar. String theory contains world-sheet fermions and therefore it can be deﬁned on spin-manifolds. We consider it as the inﬁnitezimal parameter of local supersymmetry transformations δ X µ = i¯ψ µ . F µ . ψµ. This action has ﬁve local symmetries 1. i δ ea = ¯ρa χα . Here X µ is a bosonic ﬁeld of the Polyakov string. α Here χα is the gravitino. Also the target space-time index µ is just a label so that for µ = 0. α 2 δ χα = 2Dα . It is not so in 4dim and higher.e. χ α . the second multiplet is the supergravity multiplet ea . δ ψµ = 1 α i ρ ∂α X µ − χα ψ µ ¯ 2 2 . . we state without proof that on a Riemann surface of genus g there are 22g inequivalent spin structures. When it is possible.2) is satisﬁed. The ﬁeld A is an auxiliary scalar ﬁeld which is needed to guarantee the equality of the bososnic and fermionic degrees of freedom oﬀ-shell.

Here Dα = ∂α − 1 ωα ρ and ωα is the connection with torsion: ¯ 2 i ωα = ωα (e) + χα ρρβ χβ . 1 δΛ ψ µ = − Λψ µ . 4.3 Superconformal gauge and supermoduli The gravitino ﬁeld is the reducible representation of the Lorentz group. τ ). Let ξ α be a bosonic vector parameter ξ α = ξ α (σ. δξ ψ µ = ξ β ∂β ψ µ . 1 ρχα . Let be a bosonic local parameter local Lorentz transformations are δ Xµ = 0 . The reparametrizations (diﬀeomorphisms) are δξ X µ = ξ β ∂β X µ . The Weyl transformations are δΛ X µ = 0 . 2. 6. Reparametrizations. τ ). Local Lorentz symmetry. 2 δΛ ea = Λea . δξ ea = ξ β ∂β eb + ea ∂α ξ β . Under the super Weyl transformations only the gravitino transforms as δη χα = ρα η . 1 ¯ δ ψ µ = ρψ µ . Weyl invariance. α α β δξ χα = ξ β ∂β χα + χβ ∂α ξ β . 2 3. ¯ ¯ 4 where ωα (e) = − 1 eαa βγ ∂β ea is the standard composite spin connection (it has γ e only one-non-trivial component in 2dim). Let η be the Majorana spinor. 2 δ ea = α δ χα = a b b eα = (σ. Let Λ be a bosonic local parameter Λ = Λ(σ. ¯ 2 5. The invarince of the action easily follows from the identity ρα ρβ ρα = 0. Super Weyl invariance. α α 1 δΛ χα = Λχα . To decompose it into irreducible representations one can use the following trick: 1 1 1 1 β β χα = δα χβ = δα − ρα ρβ χβ + ρα ρβ χβ = ρβ ρα χβ + ρα ρβ χβ 2 2 2 2 χα ˜ Here χα part is called ρ–traceless because. The . Indeed the gravitino χa transforms under local Lorentz ˜ a˜ – 100 – . due to the identity ρα ρβ ρα = 0 we get ˜ α ˜ ρ χα = ρa eα χα = ρa χa = 0. τ ).

ρa δ χa = 0. The local supersymmetry transformation for the gravitino ﬁled can be also decomposed into the traceless. 19 The element b a = ηac cb is the following matrix b a = −1 0 0 1 0 −1 1 0 = 0 −1 −1 0 . Decomposition of the gravitino into the ρ-trace and ρ-traceless part is decomposition into two irreducible representations of the Lorentz group corresponding to helicities ±3/2 and ±1/2 respectively. Global solvability of the last expression relies on the absence of zero modes of the operator Π† : (Π† τ ) = −2Dα τα .t.and the trace-parts: δ χα = 2Dα = 2(Π )α + ρα ρβ Dβ trace part Here we deﬁned the operator 1 (Π )α = ρβ ρα Dβ . The possibility to eliminate κ globally depends on the existence of a globally deﬁned spinor which solves the equation (Π )α = τα for arbitrary τα satisfying the condition ρα τα =0. i. Locally one can show that there always exists a spinor κ such that χα = ρβ ρα Dβ κ. – 101 – .r.e. This decomposition is orthogonal w. This equation is the supercousin of the bosonic equation (P ξ)αβ = tαβ whose global solvability relies on the absence of zero modes of P † . 2 =⇒ ρα (Π )α = 0 . the scalar ¯ product (φ|ψ) = d2 σ φα ψα . ˜ Comparing this with the supersymmetry transformation for χα we conclude that κ can always be eliminated (locally!) by a supersymmetry variation. ¯ 2 Condition ρa χa = 0 remains invariant under these transformations.transformations as the spin-vector:19 δ χa = − b a χb + 1 ρχa . According to our discussion of the bosonic case it makes sense to call dim kerP † = moduli dim kerΠ† = supermoduli and also dim kerP = conformal Killing vectors dim kerΠ = conformal Killing spinors .

By using reparametrizations and local Lorentz transformations the zweibein can a be brought to the form ea = eφ δα which is locally always possible. In quantum theory it will be possible in critical dimension only.r. The gauge α a ea = eφ δα . α χ α = ρα λ is called superconformal gauge.4 Action in the superconformal gauge In the superconformal gauge the action becomes rather simple S=− 1 8π ¯ d2 σ ∂α X µ ∂ α Xµ + 2iψ µ ρα ∂α ψµ . In classical theory the Weyl symmetry and super Weyl symmetry can be used to eliminate the remaining gravitational degrees of freedom φ and λ. To check the invariance we perform the variation δS=− 1 8π ¯ d2 σ 2∂α X µ ∂ α (i¯ψ µ ) + iψ µ ρα ∂α (ρβ ∂β Xµ ) − ¯ρα ∂α X µ ρβ ∂β ψµ . local reprametrizations and supersymmetry transformations which satisfy the requirement Pξ = 0. This action is invariant w. 6. (6.t. Π = 0. We would like to check directly that the action (6.4) Now we integrate by parts the ﬁrst term and write out the second term more explicitly δS=− 1 8π ¯ d2 σ − 2i X µ ¯ψµ + iψ µ ρα ρβ ∂α ∂β Xµ η αβ ¯ + iψ µ ρα ρβ ∂β Xµ ∂α − ¯ρα ∂α X µ ρβ ∂β ψµ .3) The world-sheet indices are now raised and lowered with the help of the ﬂat worldα sheet metric η aβ and ρα = δa ρa .3) is invariant under the supersymmetry transformations δ X µ = i¯ψ µ . (6. – 102 – . 1 δ ψ µ = ρα ∂α X µ 2 1 ¯ δ ψ µ = − ¯ρα ∂α X µ 2 provided the parameter satisﬁes the following equation ρβ ρα ∂β = 0 .

= 0. ψ + = −ψ− . we integrate the last term by parts and get δS=− 1 8π d2 σ 2i∂α ¯ρβ ρα ψ µ ∂β Xµ . reparametrizations which do not destroy the conformal gauge choice: ∂+ ξ − = ∂− ξ + = 0 =⇒ ξ ± ≡ ξ ± (σ ± ) .(6. With this convention we obtain that components of the Majorana spinor which is a parameter of the supersymmetry transformations satisfy the equations ∂+ − = ∂− + =0 =⇒ ± ≡ ± (σ ± ) . i. To analyze the ﬁrst equation it is convenient to denote the components of any spinor as follows ψ= ψ+ ψ− and = + − .4) more explicitly ρβ ρ0 ∂β = ρ0 ρ0 ∂0 + ρ1 ρ0 ∂1 ρβ ρ1 ∂β = ρ0 ρ1 ∂0 + ρ1 ρ1 ∂1 = − ρ0 ρ0 ∂0 + ρ0 ρ1 ∂1 = ∂0 + ρ∂1 ¯ = ρ∂0 + ∂1 ¯ = 0. = ρ0 ρ1 ∂0 + ρ1 ρ1 ∂1 Since ρ2 = 1 the second equation is obtained from the ﬁrst by multiplying with ρ ¯ ¯ and by this reason it is redundant.4). (∂0 − ∂1 ) − = ∂− − =0 One cab deﬁne the spinors with upper indices by using the following convention ψ − = ψ+ . This vanishes as the consequence of eq.e. Finally. We thus see that the ﬁrst equation reduces to (∂0 + ∂1 ) + = ∂+ + = 0. We can write equation (6. This equations should be contracted with the equations deﬁning the conformal Killing vectors. On-shell closer of the supersymmetry algebra – 103 – .Now we apply the spin-ﬂip identity in the second and the third term and get δS=− 1 8π d2 σ − 2i X µ ¯ψµ + i¯ψµ X µ + i∂α ¯ρβ ρα ψ µ ∂β Xµ − ¯ρβ ρα ∂β X µ ∂α ψµ .

Equations of motion Tαβ = 0 = Gα – 104 – . δ 2 ]ψ µ = ∂α (δ 1 X µ )ρα 2 Therefore. δ 2 ]ψ µ = i (∂α ¯1 ψ µ )ρα 2 i + (¯1 ∂α ψ µ )ρα 2 i − (∂α ¯2 ψ µ )ρα 2 i µ α 2 − (¯2 ∂α ψ )ρ 2 2 1 1 2 1 − ∂α (δ 2 X µ )ρα 2 1 i = ∂α (¯1 ψ µ )ρα 2 2 i − ∂α (¯2 ψ µ )ρα 2 1 + (6. the metric and the gravitino have their equations of motion which become the constraints on the other ﬁelds of the theory after ﬁxing the gauge. where the last formula stems from the spin-ﬂip property. rather it is a conformal transformation. bilinear combinations made of conformal spinors Consider now the commutator of two supersymmetry variations applied to a fermion ψ µ : 1 [δ 1 . We see that the commutator of two super-symmetry transformations generates a diﬀeomorphism transformation [δ 1 . e δeβ a We can also deﬁne the supercurrent as response of the action for variation of the gravitino ﬁeld 2π δS . The stress tensor in now deﬁned as Tαβ = − 2π δS eαa . Gα = −i ¯ e δ χα Analogously to what was in the bosonic case the stress tensor Tαβ will generate conformal transformations. However.5) Constraints In the original (gauge-unﬁxed) theory we have a world-sheet metric (vielbein) and the gravitino ﬁeld. because ξ α is nothing else as a conformal Killing vector! Thus.Consider ﬁrst the commutator of two supersymmetry variations applied to a bosonic ﬁeld X µ : [δ 1 . this is not an arbitrary diﬀeomorohism. before we ﬁx the gauge. δ 2 ]X µ = ξ α ∂α X µ with the parameter ξ α = i¯1 ρα 2 . δ 2 ]X µ = i¯1 δ 2 ψ µ − i¯1 δ 2 ψ µ = i ¯1 ρα 2 2 − ¯2 ρα 1 ∂α X µ = i¯1 ρα 2 ∂α X µ . [δ 1 . while the new object Gα appears to be a generator of the supersymmetries. They are removed upon imposition of the superconformal gauge. In fact.

e. it appears that two components of the Majorana fermion are left. To analyze the algebra of contraints in more detail it is convenient to use the world-sheet light-cone coordinates σ ± . i. ∂− T++ = ∂+ T−− = 0 .and rightmoving ﬁelds on the world-sheet.are constraints on the dynamics of our system. These conservation laws lead to existence of inﬁnite number of conserved charges. while the other components are T++ = T−− 1 i ∂+ X∂+ X + ψ+ ∂+ ψ+ . Using the action we ﬁnd Tαβ = 1 1 i¯ i¯ ∂α X µ ∂β Xµ − ηαβ ∂γ Xµ ∂ γ X µ + ψρα ∂β ψµ + ψρβ ∂α ψµ 2 4 4 4 1 β Gα = ρ ρα ψ µ ∂β Xµ 4 ρα Gα = 0 . 2 2 i 1 = ∂− X∂− X + ψ− ∂− ψ− . In the light-cone coordinates the action becomes S= 1 2π d2 σ ∂+ X∂− X + i(ψ+ ∂− ψ+ + ψ− ∂+ ψ− ) . 2 1 G− = ψ− ∂− X . The components of the stress-tensor T+− = 0 = T−+ . This. ∂ α Tαβ = 0 . α This equation is an analog of Tα = 0. Solving equations of motion for fermions we get µ µ ψ+ = ψ+ (σ + ) . Equations of motion are ∂+ ∂− X µ = 0 . Finally. ∂ α Gα = 0 . by using equations of motion one can show that the stress tensor and the supercurrent are conserved Note that Gα is ρ-traceless. 2 2 1 ψ+ ∂+ X . µ µ ∂ − ψ+ = ∂+ ψ− = 0 . – 105 – . µ µ ψ− = ψ− (σ − ) . 2 The components of the supercurrent are G+ = The conservation laws look in the light-cone coordinates as ∂− G+ = ∂+ G− = 0 .

Universally. (NS. The boundary conditions for the two components of the supersymmetry parameter should be chosen in such a way as to make the variation δX µ = i¯ψ µ periodic. R) dσ ± (σ ± )G± (σ. where θ = 0 in the R-sector and θ = 1/2 in the NS sector. Boundary conditions for ψ+ and ψ− can be chosen independently. – 106 – . NS) . (R. NS) . to make this term vanishing one has to impose the following condition ψ+ δψ+ − ψ− δψ− (σ) − ψ+ δψ+ − ψ− δψ− (σ + 2π) = 0 . Since the fermions ψ+ and ψ− are independent this equation implies that ψ+ (σ) = ±ψ+ (σ + 2π) . which gives in total four possibilities (R. The following terminology is standard • Periodic boundary conditions in σ are called Ramond boundary conditions and they are denoted by the letter “R”. ψ− (σ) = ±ψ− (σ + 2π) .5 Boundary conditions Varying the action to derive the equations of motion we will get the following boundary term dσ∂σ ψ+ δψ+ − ψ− δψ− . τ ) .Now we note that in addition to the conserved charges generated by the stress tensor: Qξ ± = dσ ξ ± (σ ± )T±± (σ. R) . (NS. • Anti-periodic boundary conditions in σ are called Nevew-Schwarz boundary conditions and they are denoted by the letter “NS”. For the case of closed string. τ ) we will have the conserved charges generated by the supercurrent G±= 6. all fermionic quantities on the world-sheet have the following boundary conditions ψ(σ + 2π) = e2πiθ ψ(σ) .

G+ (σ )} = −2π 3 G+ (σ )∂ + ∂ G+ (σ ) δ(σ − σ ) . τ ) = ψ− (0. T++ (σ )} = −2π 2T++ (σ )∂ + ∂ T++ (σ ) δ(σ − σ ) . If we assume that ψ+ = αψ− at the end point of string. G+ (σ )} = −iπT++ (σ)δ(σ − σ ) .R) and (NS.6 Superconformal algebra In order to compute the Poisson bracket between the components of the stress tensor and the supercurrent we need the fundamental Poisson bracket for the fermions. For the open string case we have that ψ+ δψ+ − ψ− δψ− must vanish at σ = 0 and σ = π. then on the other hand of the string we have two possibilities ψ+ (π. The action of the supercurrent on the bosonic and fermionic ﬁelds generate supersymmetry transformations (bosonic ﬁeld transforms into fermionic one and vice-versa): µ {G+ (σ). τ ) = −ψ− (π. 2 {G+ (σ). µ {G+ (σ). X µ (σ )} = −π ψ+ (σ)δ(σ − σ ) . ψ µ (σ )} = −iπ ∂+ X+ (σ)δ(σ − σ ) – 107 – . while the states in the NS sector are the space-time bosons.NS) sectors are space-time bosons while (R. then (α2 − 1)ψ− δψ− = 0 which allows for α = ±1. ψ+ (σ )} = −2πiδ(σ − σ )η µν µ ν {ψ− (σ). at each end of the string we should have ψ+ = ±ψ− .As we will see the states in the R sector give the space-time fermions.NS) and (NS. τ ) as it is a matter of convention. Thus. Here N = 1 refers to the fact that supersymmetry transformations are performed with the help of one Majorana spinor. The Dirac action leads to the following bracket µ ν {ψ+ (σ).R) are fermions. τ ) 6. τ ) = ψ− (π. (Neveu − Schwarz) . {T++ (σ). ψ− (σ )} = −2πiδ(σ − σ )η µν . We can always agree to choose ψ+ (0. Using these brackets together with brackets between the bosonic ﬁelds one ﬁnd the following Poisson algebra of the constraints {T++ (σ). This further gives that (R. This is the so-called N = 1 superconfomal algebra in 2dim. (Ramond) . τ ) ψ+ (π.

Therefore. 2 α−n br+n . These generators generate the classical super-Virasoro algebra {Lm . 2 {Gr . r r∈Z+θ 1 2 ψ− (σ. Quantum fermionic string Canonical quantization is again performed by substituting the Poisson bracket for the (anti)-commutator: { . r s ¯µ . – 108 – . Notice that the supercurrent G− satisﬁes the same boundary condition as the fermion ψ− . τ ) = where θ = 0 in the R-sector and θ = algebra of oscillators in the NS-sector. ¯ν } = −iη µν δr+s . the anti-commutators for the i quantum fermionic ﬁelds are µ ν {ψ+ (σ). Gr } = −i m − n Gm+r . τ ) = r∈Z+θ ¯µ e−ir(τ +σ) . Consider closed strings. bν } = −iη µν δr+s . Ln } = −i(m − n)Lm+n .One can also check that the world-sheet fermion transforms under conformal transformations as the conformal ﬁeld with weigh 1/2. ψ− (σ )} = 2πδ(σ − σ )η µν . −r r 1 2π 2π 0 (¯µ )† = ¯µ . br bµ e−ir(τ −σ) . {br bs {bµ . we obtain the Poisson {bµ . Substituting the mode expansion we get Lm = Gr = n∈Z 1 2 α−n αm+n + n∈Z 1 2 r+ r m b−r bm+r . 1 {Lm . }pb → 1 [ . Using the mode expansion ψ+ (σ. ]. br b−r 1 π 2π 0 Introducing the modes of the stress tensor and the supercurrent Lm = dσe−imσ T−− . 7. Gm = dσe−irσ G− . b r s The reality of the Majorana spinor implies that (bµ )† = bµ . ¯ν } = 0 . Gs } = −2iLr+s . ψ+ (σ )} = 2πδ(σ − σ )η µν µ ν {ψ− (σ).

Only the generator L0 is ambiguous doe to the undetermined normal ordering constant. 2 d 2 ω {Gr . Analogously. L−1 the generator G0 one generates the whole inﬁnite-dimensional algebra. 2 α−n br+n . Gs } = 2Lr+s + r − δr+s . Indeed. in particular. b0 The super-Virasoro generators are again deﬁned as normal ordered expressions Lm = Gr = n∈Z 1 2 : α−n αm+n : + n∈Z 1 2 r+ r m : b−r bm+r : . In the R-sector just adding to the generators L1 . they form the Cliﬀord algebra {bµ .Anti-commutators of the modes are {bµ . 2 2 Here ω = 0 for the R-sector and ω = 1 for the NS-sector.and NS-algebras are very diﬀerent. in the bosonic modes α0 and α0 correspond to the center of ¯µ mass momentum of the string. Still 0 0 2 the R. r s We again see that we can split oscillators into creation and annihilation operators according to the sign of their index. in the NS-sector the ﬁve generators L1 . bν } = η µν δr+s . – 109 – . For instance. 8 1 [Lm . L−1 . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + m(m2 − 2ω)δm+n . one can see that if one shifts d LR → LR + 16 then both algebras have formally the same structure with ω = 1 . the modes with r = 0 which occur in the Ramond sector only require µ special care. Ignoring this constant for the moment we obtain the following answer for the quantum super-Virasoro algebra d [Lm . Both the R. namely • Oscillators with r > 0 are annihilation operators . G−1/2 form a closed superalgebra known as OSp(1|2). G1/2 . L0 . bµ and ¯µ are distinguished from all the b0 0 other modes. Indeed. • Oscillators with r < 0 are creation operators . However. bν } = η µν 0 0 and analogously for ¯µ . L0 . The linear term can be changed by shifting the L0 generator. Gr ] = m − n Gm+r .and NS2 algebras formally agree except the linear terms in anomalies.

We will not go into discussion of the covariant quantization but will just state that consistency of the quantum theory will impose the following restrictions on the constant a of the normal ordering ambiguity (for the Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors) and the dimension d of the target space-time: aNS = 1 . d = 10 . 0 2 Here Γµ are the usual Γ-matrices of the d-dimensional Minkowski space and they satisfy the Cliﬀord algebra {Γµ . In the R-sector the ground state is degenerate and since bµ form 0 the Cliﬀord algebra the ground state is a spinor of the Lorentz group SO(d − 1. These states are degenerate. the bµ act on it as the usual Γ-matrices 0 1 bµ |a = √ (Γµ )ab |b . quantum fermionic string chooses to live in a ten-dimensional world. bµ with n. On the 0 µ other hand. This means that in the NS-sector the ground state is unique and it has Lorentz spin zero. where ∞ N (α) = α−m αm . 1). 0 0 i. all other oscillators αn . If we will write the Ramond ground state as |a . The level number operator is 0 N = N (α) + N (b) . M 2 ] = 0. Here the dependence on the center of mass momentum is suppressed.The oscillator ground state is deﬁned in both sectors as µ αm |0 = bµ |0 = 0 . r > 0 . The same result follows from the condition of non-anomalous Lorentz algebra in the light-cone gauge. Γν } = 2η µν . r < 0 increase α M 2 by 2n and 2r units r respectively. the states |0 and bµ |0 have the same mass. In the Ramond sector one also has the zero mode bµ . Note that the zero mode in the Ramond sector does not contribute to the number operator! This leads to the fact the mass operator commutes with bµ : [bµ .e. Instead of d = 26 found for bosonic string. – 110 – . where a is a SO(d − 1. r m. Indeed. m=1 ∞ N (b) = r∈Z+θ>0 rb−r br . while in the R-sector they are all fermions. 2 aR = 0 . d) spinor index. all creation operators have vector Lorentz index and by this reason they cannot convert a space-time boson into a space-time fermion or vice versa. This explains why in the NS-sector all the states are space-time bosons.

In terms of oscillators the previous equations read − αm = √ 1 i i : αn αm−n : + + 2α p 2 αi bi . b− = r α p+ q r−q q r m − r : bi bi r m−r : −2aδm 2 For the case of closed strings these expressions must be supplemented by the analogous ones for the left-moving modes. 2 The mass operator is 2 2 M 2 = MR + ML . where this time ψ ± refer to the target-space light-cone components 1 ψ ± = √ (ψ 0 ± ψ d−1 ) . Here we also include a normal ordering constant a which is a = 1 in the NS sector and a = 0 in the R sector. However.1 Light-cone quantization and superstring spectrum As we have established imposition of the superconformal gauge does not completely remove the gauge (unphysical) degrees of freedom. After this gauge choice r is done we can solve the super-Virasoro constraints and ﬁnd the longitudinal modes 1 (remember that T = 2πα ) ∂± X − = 1 i i (∂± X i )2 + iψ± ∂± ψ± α p+ 2 − ψ± = ψ i ∂± X i . where 2 α MR = 2 n>0 i i α−n αn + r>0 rbi bi − a −r r – 111 – . 2 This is equivalent to putting to zero the modes b+ for all r. the local supersymmetry transformations obeying the equations ∂+ − = ∂− + =0 are still left over. These transformations can be used in order to completely eliminate the fermionic ﬁeld ψ + . In order to remove the remaining unphysical degrees of freedom one can try to ﬁx the light-cone gauge. similar to as was done for bosonic string. We can also ﬁx X + = α p+ τ in our fermionic theory and this choice will completely remove the reparametrization invariance. The superconformal transformations which do not destroy the superconformal gauge choice are left.7. α p+ ± This shows that only the transversal components X i and ψ i are physical degrees of freedom.

5. −r r α mass2 rep of SO(8) −1 2 0 |0 bi |0 −1/2 8v little (−1)F rep of little group group NS − sector SO(9) −1 1 SO(8) +1 8v +1 2 i α−1 |0 . For the case of open string we have 2 α MR = n>0 i i α−n αn + r>0 rbi bi − a . bi |a −1 8c +56c −1 128 Tab. 8v bi bj |0 −1/2 −1/2 28 SO(9) −1 36 bi bj bk |0 −1/2 −1/2 −1/2 56v +1 SO(9) 84 + 44 +1 R − sector +1 i α−1 bj |0 −1/2 1+28+35v . 8c +56c −1 8c b i |a −1 ˙ 8s +56s +1 SO(9) 128 +1 i ˙ α−1 |a 8s +56s .2 and similar for ML . – 112 – . bi |0 −3/2 8v |a 8s +1 SO(8) 8s 0 |a ˙ 8c i α−1 |a . The lowest levels of the open fermionic string spectrum.

Indeed. In ten dimensions it is possible to impose both Majorana and Weyl conditions20 which reduce the number of independent components 64 to 2×2 = 16. it has 32 complex or 64 real components.In the closed string case we have in addition the condition of level-matching which requires that for physical states 2 2 ML = MR . For Minkowski space. we give expressions for the light-cone action Sl.1) b−r br r(bi bi + ¯i ¯i ) − 2a . On shell the number of components is further reduced by two because the Dirac equation Γµ ∂µ ψ relates half of the components to the other half (which satisﬁes the Klein-Gordon equation). p = d − 1. the little Lorentz group for massive states.c = and the Hamiltonian H = (pi )2 + n>0 i i ¯i ¯i (α−n αn + α−n αn ) + r>0 1 8π ¯ ˙ d2 σ (X i )2 − (X i )2 − 2iψ i ρa ∂α ψ i (7. p = d. for the groups SO(p. • NS-sector. At the next level one has the states 2 i α−1 |0 and bi bj |0 with α M 2 = 1 . The 8 remaining components can be viewed as the components of the Majorana-Weyl spinor of SO(8). q = 0. the spinor of SO(8) should have (2 2 complex components)/(Majorana × Weyl) = 32/4 = 8 In general. they are comprise an antisymmetric representation of 2 SO(9). R and NS. this gives d = 2 + 2n and for Euclidean space. The ﬁrst excited state is bi |0 with α M 2 = 1 − a. 1). Since the little Lorentz group for massless states in d-dimensions is SO(d − 2) this state must be massless which gives the normal ordering constant to be a = 1 . The number of these bosonic states −1/2 −1/2 2 is 8 + 28 = 36 = 9×8 . this gives d = 2n. the latter being the little Lorentz group for massless states in d = 10. −1/2 2 where the critical dimension d = 10. q) the Majorana and Weyl conditions can be simultaneously imposed if and only if p − q = 0 mod 8. The Ramond ground state is a spinor of SO(9. • R-sector.e. We ﬁrst discuss the right-moving part which (up to a mass rescaling by 2) is equivalent to the spectrum of open fermionic string. i. −r r Note that every sector. Let us now analyze the closed string spectrum. The dimension d of the Dirac spinor in d = 10 is 2 2 = 25 = 32. The ground state is the oscillator vacuum |0 with α M 2 = −a. q = −1. 20 8 – 113 – . This is a vector of SO(d − 2). has its own Hamiltonian. Finally.

all the massive light-cone states can be uniquely assembled into representations of SO(9). ˙ The vector representation is 8v and the basis is |i . in addition. On the other hand.real components. If we project one of the two spinors out then there will be match of NS bosonic (8) and R fermionic (also 8) degrees of freedom. the Ramond ground state is massless. provides the space-time supersymmetry of the resulting string spectrum. Thus. Spinor representations are commonly denoted by 8s and 8c and the corresponding representation bases are depicted as |a and |a . It restores the modular invariance. This all can be achieved if one ﬁrst deﬁnes an operator ∞ G = (−1)F . Below we will use an inverse argument to motivate the GSO projection – we will show that it allows to achive a spectrum which exhibits space-time supersymmetry. for d = 10. These massless vector and the massless spinor is indeed a content of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory in ten dimensions. removes from the theory the tachyon and. One has also to get rid of tachyon which is in the NS sector. F = r= 1 2 bi bi − 1 −r r and then requires that all allowed states should have G = 1: G|Φ = |Φ . This can seen. GSO projection It turns out that fermionic string with all the states we found in the R and NS sectors is inconsistent. the massless states of the NS sector comprise a vector 8v . from the fact that the 1-loop amplitude is not modular invariant. It turns out that the group SO(8) has three inequivalent representations of dimension 8: two of them are spinor representations and another is the vector one. for instance. the little Lorentz group for massive states. In order to construct a consistent modular invariant theory one should truncate the string spectrum in a speciﬁc way. i The ﬁrst excited level consist of states α−1 |a and bi |a and their chiral part−1 ners with α M 2 = 1. This truncation is known as the GSO (Gliozzi-Scherk-Olive) projection. – 114 – . Once again. Looking at the massless states in the Ramond sector we see that one has two SO(8) spinors 8s and 8c .

– 115 – . 6.α mass2 rep of SO(8) little (−1)F (−1)F rep of little group group −1 +1 −1 +1 1 1 + 28 + 35v ¯ −2 0 (NS. The lowest levels of the closed fermionic string spectrum. R) − sector ¯i |a L × |a R b−1/2 8v 8s +1 SO(8) +1 8c + 56c 0 ¯i |a b−1/2 8v L × |a ˙ 8c R +1 −1 8s + 56s Tab. R) − sector |a 8v L × |b R +1 +1 1 + 28 + 35s 8v |a ˙ 8c L ˙ × |b R −1 SO(8) −1 1 + 28 + 35c 8c 0 |a ˙ 8c L × |b R −1 +1 8v + 56v 8s |a 8s L ˙ × |b R +1 −1 8v + 56v 8c (R. NS) − sector |0 L × |0 R SO(9) bi |0 −1/2 8v L × bj |0 −1/2 8v R SO(8) (R. NS) − sector |a 8s L × bi |0 −1/2 8v R +1 SO(8) +1 8c + 56c 0 |a ˙ 8c i L × b−1/2 |0 R 8v −1 +1 8s + 56s (NS.

If we introduce the standard Pauli matrices 0 1 1 0 0 −i i 0 1 0 0 −1 σ1 = . = iσ2 ⊗ I ⊗ σ3 . These matrices act on the 16-dimensional Majorana (i. the tachyon. in particular. In the Majorana representation these matrices Γi can be taken in the block-diagonal form as Γi = 0 γi (γ i )t 0 . σ3 = then the matrices γ i can be deﬁned as γ γ γ γ 1 3 5 7 = −iσ2 ⊗ σ2 ⊗ σ2 . these 0 0 0 operators can be represented by SO(8) γ-matrices Γi which have size 16 by 16. The fact that Γi obey the standard Gliﬀord algebra {Γi .Since a general state in the NS sector has the form iN i1 |Φ = α−n1 · · · α−nN bj1 1 · · · bjMM |0 −r −r we get G|Φ = (−1)M −1 |Φ . rM αM = i=1 2 ri − 1 2 a and for M even the sum of half-integers is always an integer α M 2 is half-integer number. Thus. all states with M even are projected out. The transversal zero modes bi form the Cliﬀord algebra {bi . Thus. This removes the tachyon and all the states with half-integer α M 2 . γ 2 4 6 8 = iI ⊗ σ1 ⊗ σ2 . = iI ⊗ σ3 ⊗ σ2 . In the Ramond sector the operator G is deﬁned as follows G = (−1)F = b1 · · · b8 (−1) 0 0 P∞ i i n=1 b−n bn . = iσ3 ⊗ σ2 ⊗ I . = iσ1 ⊗ σ2 ⊗ I . Indeed. which are precisely |a and |a : ˙ |ψ = |a |a ˙ 8s 8c .e. Γj } = 2δ ij implies that 8 × 8 real matrices γ i satisfy the following algebra γ i (γ j )t + γ j (γ i )t = 2δ ij . = iσ2 ⊗ I ⊗ σ1 . bj } = δ ij . σ2 = . = I ⊗ I ⊗ I. γ γ γ – 116 – . real) spinor whose components can be thought to combine two Weyl projections.

. ij j t i 8 The operator Γ9 = b1 · · · b0 is the chirality operator (the analog of the γ 5 -matrix 0 in 4dim. R) space−time bosons space−time fermions The GSO projection is imposed separately for the left. if we deﬁne G|a = |a and G|a = −|a . NS) . The GSO projection imposed in this way deﬁnes the so-called Type IIB superstring and its massless spectrum is – 117 – . |Φ a . We see that G anti-commutes with any mode b−n : {G. NS) . In the Ramond sector there are essentially two possibilities which lead to super¯ symmetric and tachyonic-free spectrum. Further.0 The GSO projection consists in leaving the states which have either G = 1 or G = −1. One of them is to take G = G = 1. Here we have to distinguish four diﬀerent sectors (R. In total there are 128 bosonic and 128 fermionic states. depending on their chirality. To construct the spectrum of the closed superstring we have to tensor left and 2 2 right-moving states (such that the level matching constraint ML = MR is satisﬁed) and then impose the GSO projection. The massless spectrum is Bosons : Fermions : (1) + (28) + (35)v + (1) + (28) + (35)s (8)c + (56)c + (8)c + (56)c .0 = −(−1)M (−1) P |Φ a .) and it projects out one of the two Weyl components of the Ramond ground state |ψ . a general state in the R ˙ ˙ sector is iN i1 |Φ a = α−n1 · · · α−nN bj1 1 · · · bjM M |a −m −m or |Φ We therefore ﬁnd that G|Φ G|Φ a a ˙ a ˙ iN i1 = α−n1 · · · α−nN bj1 1 · · · bjM M |a ˙ −m −m = (−1)M (−1) P i δmi . In the NS sector one keeps the states with G = (−1)F = +1 . (R. The chiral and anti-chiral representations of SO(8) are ˙ ˙ constructed then with the help of matrices γs γc ij = = 1 2 1 2 γ (γ ) − γ (γ ) (γ ) γ − (γ ) γ i t j i j t j i t . (NS. ˙ i δmi . (NS. ¯ ¯ G = (−1)F = +1 . bi } = 0 −n and. the eigenvalues of G in the Ramond sector are ±1. R) . therefore.i The matrix γ i cab be understood as carrying the matrix indices a and a: γaa .and right-moving modes.

35v are on-shell degrees of freedom of the graviton. The fermionic degrees of freedom are two spin-3/2 gravitinos. antisymmetric rank three tensor (56v ). Thus. In addition one has two real scalars. which is called dilaton. 56c . The fermionic degrees of freedom comprise two spin3/2 gravitinos and two spin-1/2 fermions. – 118 – . and two spin-1/2 fermions. Gravitions and fermions are of opposite chirality.that of Type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions. this theory has N = 2 supersymmetry also but it is non-chiral. The presence of two gravitinos indicates that the corresponding theory has N = 2 supersymmetry. an antisymmetric rank two tensor (28). and the corresponding supergravity is Type IIA supergravity. There are on-shell degrees of freedom of the graviton (35v ). ¯ One can make another choice of the GSO projection by requiring that G = −G = 1. This string theory is called Type IIA. In particular. one vector 8v ) and one real scalar. This gives the following massless spectrum Bosons : Fermions : (1) + (28) + (35)v + (8)v + (56)v (8)c + (56)c + (8)s + (56)s . Since the gravitions and the fermions are of the same chirality this theory is chiral. two 28 are two anisymmetric tensor ﬁelds and 35s is a rank four antisymmetric self-dual tensor.

The last two equations can be rewritten in terms of the single equation. where pi = mq i and introduce the energy ˙ which is also know as the Hamiltonian of the system H= 1 2 p + U (q) . i. . dH 1 ∂U 1 ∂U = pi pi + q i i = m2 qi qi + q i i = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙¨ ˙ dt m ∂q m ∂q due to the Newton equations of motion. Dynamical systems of classical mechanics To motivate the basic notions of the theory of Hamiltonian dynamical systems consider a simple example. Introduce two 2n-dimensional vectors x= and 2n × 2n matrix J: J= 0 −I I 0 p q . it does not depend on time. where q = (q 1 . q) on the dynamical variables p and q. . The motion of the particle is described by the Newton equations ∂U m¨i = − i q ∂q Introduce the momentum p = (p1 . . ∂q j These are the fundamental Hamiltonian equations of motion. 2m Energy is a conserved quantity. or J ·x=− H. H= ∂H ∂pj ∂H ∂q j Then the Hamiltonian equations can be written in the form x=J· ˙ H. ˙ – 119 – . . . Let a point particle with mass m move in a potential U (q). ∂pj pj = − ˙ ∂H . pn ). Their importance lies in the fact that they are valid for arbitrary dependence of H ≡ H(p. .Appendices A.e. Having the Hamiltonian the Newton equations can be rewritten in the form qj = ˙ ∂H . . q n ) is a vector of n-dimensional space.

Thus. it is completely determined by its values on the basis elements xi : {xj . x2n ) deﬁnes a state of a system in classical mechanics. Vector x = (x1 . . qj } = δj . GH} = {F. F } dt – 120 – . G} = −{G. F } . H} and. {F. Check that the Poisson bracket satisﬁes the following conditions {F. i=1 The matrix J serves to deﬁne the so-called Poisson brackets on the space F(M ) of diﬀerentiable functions on M : n {F. H}} + {G. . ˙ A Hamiltonian system is characterized by a triple (M. {F. {. }. {G. F }} + {H. q) on phase space. pj } = 0 . G}} = 0 for arbitrary functions F. the Poisson bracket introduces on F(M ) the structure of an inﬁnitedimensional Lie algebra. . the evolution equations take the form dF = {H. The Hamiltonian equations can be now rephrased in the form xj = {H. G}(x) = ( F. J G) = J ij ∂i F ∂j G = j=1 ∂F ∂G ∂F ∂G − j . The set of all these vectors form a phase space M = {x} of the system which in the present case is just the 2n-dimensional Euclidean space with the metric (x. x} = XH . {H. {pi . therefore. H. xj } ˙ ⇔ x = {H. qj } = 0 . For any function F = F (p. i {pi .In this form the Hamiltonian equations were written for the ﬁrst time by Lagrange in 1808. } and by a Hamiltonian function H. xk } = J jk which can be written as follows {qi . . The bracket also satisﬁes the Leibnitz rule {F. a Poisson structure {. H): a phase space M . G}H + G{F. The vector ﬁeld XH is called the Hamiltonian vector ﬁeld corresponding to the Hamiltonian H. ∂pj ∂q j ∂q ∂pj Problem. y) = 2n xi y i . G.

This form is closed. The new equations for y are Hamiltonian if and only if AJAt = J ˜ and the new Hamiltonian is H(y) = H(x(y)). dt Thus. the motion of the system takes place on the subvariety of phase space deﬁned by H = E constant. J −1 y) . Thus. The term “symplectic – 121 – . R) . the phase space we consider is the symplectic manifold. dω = 0. Transformation of the phase space which satisﬁes the condition AJAt = J is called canonical.Again we conclude from here that the Hamiltonian H is a time-conserved quantity dH = {H. Imagine we make a change of variables y j = f j (xk ). H} = 0 . Then yj = ˙ ∂y j k x = Aj J km ˙ k k ∂x Aj k x mH = Aj J km k ∂y p ∂xm y pH or in the matrix form y = AJAt · ˙ yH .e. y) = (x. A non-degenerate closed two-form is called symplectic and a manifold endowed with such a form is called a symplectic manifold. In case A does not depend on x the set of all such matrices form a Lie group known as the real symplectic group Sp(2n. i. In the case under consideration the matrix J is non-degenerate so that there exist the inverse J −1 = −J which deﬁnes a skew-symmetric bilinear form ω on phase space ω(x. In the coordinates we consider it can be written in the form ω= j dpj ∧ dq j .

The geometry of the phase space which is invariant under the action of the symplectic group is called symplectic geometry. Ay) = −(Ax. i. Cj } + {{Cj . ˙ Thus.e. Accordingly. . At JAy) = −(x. H}.e. The generic situation is that the phase space is a manifold. Dynamical systems with symmetries Let g(t) will be a one-parametric group of transformations of the phase space: x → g(t)x. If one can chose the functions Ci is such a way that they form the Lie algebra of G under the Poisson bracket: k {Ci . C} . Cj }. – 122 – . then it generates the symmetry transformations which leave the Hamiltonian invariant. Cj } is an integral of motion. dt The ﬂow of any function F under the one-parameter group generated by C is then d F (g(t)x)|t=0 = dt If we take F = H. Jy) = ω(x. This group does not need to coincide with the one generated by the Hamiltonian H. from the Jacobi identity {{Ci . This is not always so. dim G. Symplectic (or canonical) transformations do not change the symplectic form ω: ω(Ax. . In the case we considered the phase space was Euclidean: M = R2n . the latter being the symmetry of the Hamiltonian. if C = {H. the symmetry transformations are realized as δF = {F. Cj }. The action of this group is called Hamiltonian if there exists a function C such that d g(t)x|t=0 = J · C . there are the integrals of motion Ci . C} = 0. H} + {{H. . C} . C} δH ≡ {H. Since Ci are integrals of motion. we get δF ≡ F· d g(t)x|t=0 = ( F. Cj } = fij Ck . Ci }. Inﬁnitezimally. Here fij are the structure constants of the Lie algebra of G. {Ci . Ci } = 0 we conclude that {{Ci . y) . if C is an integral of motion. JAy) = −(x. There could be several one-parametric groups which are one-parametric subgroups of a non-abelian Lie G. H} = 0. . J · dt C) = {F.group” was introduced by Herman Weyl. i. k then the corresponding action of G on the phase space is called Poisson. Consideration of systems with general phase spaces is very important for understanding the structure of the Hamiltonian dynamics. i = 1.

−∂y ) O(0)O(y) . We assume that all primary operators are orthogonal w.B.1) Here dots indicate the conformal families of other primary operators. let us show how to ﬁnd the conformal block associated to the scalar primary operator O of conformal dimension ∆O . k! (y ) O It suggests to deﬁne Λk (x. A(x)B(0)O(y) = CABO (x2 ) 1 (∆A +∆B −∆O ) 2 (y 2 ) 1 (∆B +∆O −∆A ) 2 ((x − y)2 ) 2 (∆A +∆O −∆B ) . Contribution of the entire conformal family associated to a primary operator O into the OPE is called the conformal block. . ∂y ). As an example.r. the last relation may be written as CABO C0 1 1 1 (−x · ∂y )k = 1 1 k! (y 2 ) 2 (∆B +∆O −∆A ) (y 2 ) 2 (∆A +∆O −∆B ) CABO a. C0 ∞ k=0 k=0 1 1 k Λ (x. −∂y ) 2 ∆ . 1 Plugging the OPE into the tree-point function we get A(x)B(0)O(y) = 1 (x2 ) 2 (∆A +∆B −∆O ) 1 ∞ r=0 1 r Λ (x. OPE and conformal blocks Every conformal (primary) operator enters in the Operator Product Expansion with its conformal family (descendants). Assume the Operator Product Expansion A(x)B(0) = 1 (x2 ) 1 (∆A +∆B −∆O ) 2 ∞ k=0 1 k Λ (x.t. k! (B. r! Thus. (y 2 )∆O The three-point functions are ﬁxed by conformal symmetry. to the two-point functions O(0)O(y) = CO . respectively. ∂)O(0) + . k! (y ) O Taking into account that e−x∂y is the shift operator acting as e−x∂y f (y) = f (y − x) . −∂y ) 2 ∆ . . which arises in the OPE of two scalar operators A and B of conformal dimensions ∆A and ∆B . In particular. ∂y ) = – 123 – . compatibility of the 3-point function with the OPE results into CABO 1 = 1 1 2 ) 2 (∆B +∆O −∆A ) ((y − x)2 ) 2 (∆A +∆O −∆B ) C0 (y ∞ k=0 1 k 1 Λ (x.b Qk (x. Conformal blocks are completely ﬁxed by conformal symmetry.

α2 ) = Γ(α1 + α2 ) = Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) 1 0 [k/2] dq (−ixq)k . ∂y )eipy = Qa. −ip). 2 (B.2) The explicit form of the operator Qk (x. 2 1 b = − (∆A + ∆O − ∆B ). k (p ) where Qa.5) dtt α1 −1 (1 − t) α2 −1 (−i) k m=0 2m Ck (txp)k−2m dq (xq)2m . Indeed.b (x.where the operator Qk (x. ((p − q)2 )α1 (q 2 )α2 (B.3) and similar for the others. we have (y 2 )a = 22a+d π d/2 Γ(a + d ) 1 2 Γ(−a) (2π)d e−ip·y (p2 )a+d/2 (B.b (x. ∂y ) is found by the Fourier transform. Substituting the Fourier transform of every function of y 2 one gets 1 Γ(a + d )Γ(b + d ) Γ(−a − b) 2 2 π d/2 Γ(a + b + d ) Γ(−a)Γ(−b) 2 e−ipy = dp 2 a+b+d/2 Qa.b (x.b (x. b are given by 1 a = − (∆B + ∆O − ∆A ). ((p − q)2 )a+d/2 (q 2 )b+d/2 dpdq e−ipy (−ixq)k (B. ∂y )(y 2 )a+b and a. −ip) k 1 Γ(a + d )Γ(b + d ) Γ(−a − b) 2 a+b+d/2 2 2 = d/2 (p ) d π Γ(a + b + 2 ) Γ(−a)Γ(−b) (−ixq)k dq .b (x. −ip)eipy . ∂y ) is deﬁned by the relation (y 2 )a (x · ∂y )k (y 2 )b = Qk (x. −ip) is given by the integral k Qa. k k and we have used the change of variables p → p − q. −ip) is deﬁned by k Qa. the problem is reduced to evaluation of the integral I(α1 . α2 ) = One has Γ(α1 + α2 ) 1 α1 −1 (xq)k dtt (1 − t)α2 −1 (−i)k dq Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) 0 [(q − tp)2 + t(1 − t)p2 ]α1 +α2 (xq + txp)k Γ(α1 + α2 ) 1 α1 −1 dtt (1 − t)α2 −1 (−i)k dq 2 = Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) 0 [q + t(1 − t)p2 ]α1 +α2 I(α1 .4) (p2 )a+d/2 (q 2 )b+d/2 Thus.b (x. [q 2 + t(1 − t)p2 ]α1 +α2 – 124 – . From here one gets that Qa.

δi2m−1 i2m + permutations).6) where on the r. The total number of (2m)! this permutations is 2m m! . we now need to evaluate the integral L= dq (xq)2m . under the integral one may substitute (xq)2m = xi1 ..qi2m (q 2 )m = (δi i ..xi2m qi1 . d(d + 2). m m! 4 Γ(α1 + a2 ) [k/2] × 0 dttα1 +k−2m−1 (1 − t)α2 −1 – 125 – ..s.qi2m = Now we have dq (q 2 )m π d/2 = [q 2 + h]γ Γ(d/2) h . one gets I(α1 ..(d + 2(m − 1)) 1 2 (B. 4 m! Γ(γ) dq Finally.. There appear only even powers 2m since for odd powers the internal integral is zero.. Γ(d/2) Γ(γ) Thus..(d + 2(m − 1)) 2m m! Γ(d/2) Γ(γ) (2m)! Γ(γ − m − d/2) 2 m m+d/2−γ = π d/2 m (x ) h . Thus.... [q 2 + h]γ Under the integral the symmetric product qi1 . Therefore.h. all non-trivial permutations are present.(d + 2(m − 1)) 2m m! dq 2 (q 2 )m+d/2−1 . we evaluate the integral L L= (xq)2m = [q 2 + h]γ (x2 )m (2m)! π d/2 Γ(γ − m − d/2)Γ(m + d/2) m+d/2−γ = h d(d + 2).k! 2m where Ck = (2m)!(k−2m)! . α2 ) = π 1 d/2 Γ(α1 + α2 ) C 2m (−ixp)k−2m (−1)m Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) m=0 k (2m)! Γ(α1 + α2 − m − d/2) 2 m (x ) (t(1 − t)p2 )m+d/2−α1 −α2 . q 2 +h ∞ 0 (x2 )m (q 2 )m (2m)! .... [q 2 + h]γ Performing the change of variables t = we arrive at (q 2 )m π d/2 m+d/2−γ 1 γ−m−d/2−1 dq 2 = h dtt (1 − t)m+d/2−1 γ [q + h] Γ(d/2) 0 d/2 Γ(γ − m − d/2)Γ(m + d/2) m+d/2−γ π = h ..qi2m may be substituted for qi1 . d(d + 2)...

b Q (x. the ﬁnal formula reads as π d/2 1 2m (2m)! I(α1 . −ip) one therefore ﬁnds k Qa. This is simpliﬁed to π d/2 2m (2m)! I(α1 . x∂y ) − x ∆y (−µ − a − b + 1)m m! (−a − b)2m 4 m . −ip) k 1 Γ(−a − b) 1 2m (2m)! = Ck (−ixp)k−2m − x2 p2 Γ(a + b + d/2) Γ(−a)Γ(−b) m=0 m! 4 × Γ(k − m − a)Γ(m − b) Γ(a + b + d/2 − m). – 126 – . Γ(k + d − α1 − α2 ) [k/2] m For Qa. Thus. α2 ) = Ck m (−ixp)k−2m (−x2 )m (p2 )m+d/2−α1 −α2 Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) m=0 4 m! 1 [k/2] × 0 dttk−m+d/2−α2 −1 (1 − t)m+d/2−α1 −1 Γ(α1 + α2 − m − d/2).b (x. −a − b + 2m. ∂y ) = k! k ∞ m=0 k=2m ∞ 1 (−a)m (−b)k−m 1 (x · ∂y )k−2m − x2 ∆y (−a − b)k m!(k − 2m)!(−d/2 − a − b + 1)m 4 1 − x2 ∆y 4 m ∞ k=0 m = m=0 (−a)m m!(−d/2 − a − b + 1)m (−b)k+m (x∂y )k .b Q (x.b (x. Γ(k − a − b) (−1)m (1−a)m By using the relation (a)−m = Qa. (−a − b)k+2m k! Since we ﬁnally get ∞ k=0 (−b)m (−b + m)k (−b)k+m = (−a − b)k+2m (−a − b)2m (−a − b + 2m)k 1 a. α2 ) = Ck (−ixp)k−2m − x2 p2 Γ(α1 )Γ(α2 ) m=0 m! 4 × [k/2] m (p2 )d/2−α1 −α2 Γ(k − m + d/2 − α2 )Γ(m + d/2 − α1 ) Γ(α1 + α2 − m − d/2).b (x.where we have substituted γ = α1 + α2 and h = t(1 − t)p2 . ∂y ) k 1 = (−a − b)k [k/2] m=0 it can be further simpliﬁed to give m k!(−a)m (−b)k−m 1 (x · ∂y )k−2m − x2 ∆y m!(k − 2m)!(−d/2 − a − b + 1)m 4 . ∂y ) = k! k ∞ = m=0 (−a)m (−b)m 1 1 2 1 F1 (−b + m. Further summation gives the conformal block of the scalar ﬁeld and it is performed by changing the order of the summation and the shift of the summation variable: ∞ k=0 ∞ 1 a.

1−x We further notice that ∂2 ∂x2 ∞ ∞ x = q=1 q=2 q q(q − 1)x q−2 1 = 2 x 1 q x − 2 x q=2 2 q ∞ 1 qx = 2 x q=2 q ∞ 1 q x − 2 x q=1 2 q ∞ ∞ qxq .where 1 F1 is a degenerate hypergeometric function: ∞ 1 F1 (α. q=1 Thus. n! ∂xn ∞ ∞ ∞ ℘(x) = n=1 Sn x = n=1 q=1 n q x = q=1 2 n q 2 n=q x = q=1 n q 2 xq .7) C. so that Sn = For x < 1 we have ∞ ∞ n 1 ∂ n℘ |x=0 . 1 3 2 x2 + x = − + . we obtain the generating function ℘(x) = Finally we compute 1 ∂n℘ 1 = n! ∂xn n! 3 · 4 · · · (n + 2) 4 · 5 · · · (n + 3) 2 · 3 · · · (n + 1) −3 +2 (1 − x)n+2 (1 − x)n+3 (1 − x)n+4 . x) = k=0 (α)k xk . Useful formulae In discussion of the central charge of the Virasoro algebra we encounter the sum n Sn = q=1 q2 . 4 2 3 (1 − x) (1 − x) (1 − x) (1 − x)4 The last formula results into 3 1 1 Sn = (n + 1) 1 − (n + 2) + (n + 2)(n + 3) = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) . therefore. The method is based on considering the generating function ∞ ℘(x) = n=1 Sn xn . (β)k k! (B. 2 3 6 – 127 – . Here we present a general method of computing this and similar sums. ∞ q 2 xq = x2 q=1 ∂2 x 1 ∂ x x2 + x + 2 = ∂x2 1 − x x ∂x 1 − x (1 − x)3 and. β.

. . The image of the geodesic through a point x in the Riemann normal coordinates is just a straight line. 1 2 Plugging this into the geodesic equation one ﬁnds 1 1 xi (t) = xi + ξ i t − Γi 1 j2 (x)ξ j1 ξ j2 t2 − Γi 1 j2 j3 (x)ξ j1 ξ j2 ξ j3 t3 − · · · . The coordinates ξ i are called Riemann normal coordinates. We can therefore take ξ i as the new coordinate system on our manifold. We assume that these points are closed so there is a unique geodesic connecting them. m. The geodesic equation is xi + Γi (x)xj xk = 0 . the point xi + δxi is parameterized by the tangent vector ξ i .D. j j j lj j j Here all the quantities are evaluated at xi . How metric will look in the new coordinate system? Upon changing the coordinates form xi to ξ i the metric transforms in the standard way gij (ξ) = We have ∂(xk + δxk ) ∂(xl + δxl ) gkl (x + δx) ∂ξ i ∂ξ j ∂(xk + δxk ) k = δi − Γk ξ j + · · · ij ∂ξ i – 128 – . j 2 3! j where Γi 1 j2 j3 = ∂j1 Γi 2 j3 − Γl 1 j2 Γi 3 − Γl 1 j2 Γi 3 l . . The solution xi (t) can be chosen so that xi (0) ≡ xi and xi (1) = xi + δxi . At t = 1 we have xi (1) = xi + δxi so that 1 1 xi + δxi = xi + ξ i − Γi 1 j2 (x)ξ j1 ξ j2 − Γi 1 j2 j3 (x)ξ j1 ξ j2 ξ j3 − · · · j 2 3! j Hence. 1 = 1. Then equation for the geodesic can be solved ˙ perturbatively by assuming the following expansion xi (t) = xi + ci t + ci t2 + · · · . . ¨ ˙ ˙ jk Let us consider two points p and q with coordinates xi and xi + δxi respectively. A parameter t on the geodesic can be chosen proportional to the length of the arc connecting these two points (the natural parameter). The tangent vector to the geodesic at t = 0 is deﬁned by ξ i = xi (0). Riemann normal coordinates Consider a Riemannian manifold M of dimension n with coordinates xi . Now we are parameterizing the points of the curved manifold with tangent vectors. They are used to deﬁne a map of an open neighbourhood U of the zero-vector 0 ∈ Tx M to the manifold M: expx : U ∈ Tx M → M which is well-deﬁned diﬀeomorphism of U on its image.

1) It is important to realize that the coordinates ξ k depend on x because they deﬁne the tangent vector to the manifold at the point x. In the case of the minimal connection (connection compatible with the metric) we have Dk gij = 0. in the Riemann normal coordinates we have Γk q (ξ) = O(ξ) p In the Riemann normal coordinate system die to the vanishing of Γk at ξ = 0 the pq ¨ geodesic equation takes a form of the free motion λ = 0. This. – 129 – . in other words. Expanding the r.1) is covariant under general coordinate transformations x → x because it includes the tensorial quantities only. Extending this calculation to higher orders in ξ one ﬁnds 1 1 gij (ξ) = gij (x) − Rik1 jk2 ξ k1 ξ k2 − Dk1 Rik2 jk3 ξ k1 ξ k2 ξ k3 + · · · 3 3! Also we recall the transformation property of the Christoﬀel connection Γk q (ξ) = p ∂xp ∂xq ∂xk ∂ 2 xk Γk + p q ∂xk pq ∂xp ∂x q ∂x ∂x . Under reparametrizations of x → x the object ξ k (x) transforms as a vector! The expansion (D.s. of the last equation in ξ i it is easy to see that expansion does not contain the constant piece because the constant terms in the bracket cancel against each other. where xi ≡ φi and x i ≡ φi + π i . the expansion of the metric start from the quadratic order in ξ i . at the linearized level we ﬁnd that k gij (ξ) = δi − Γk ξ n in l δj − Γl ξ m jm = gkl (x) + ∂k gij ξ k + · · · gkl (φ) + ∂p gkl ξ p + · · · = gij (x) + ∂n gij − Γk gkj − Γk gki ξ n + · · · jn in Dn gij We see that gij (ξ) = gij (x) + Dk gij (x)ξ k + · · · (D.h. This is coordinate system corresponds to the rest frame of a freely falling observer.and also 1 gkl (x + δx) = gkl xi + ξ i − Γi 1 j2 ξ j1 ξ j2 + · · · 2 j Thus.

What must you impose in order to have a stationary action? • Construct the momentum function P . • Analyze the boundary terms. 0) and (L. Do this for both boundary conditions. • Consider a string in equilibrium on the x-axis between (0. What do you conclude? • Fourier transform the x-coordinate and solve the eom. 0) and suppose that the inﬁnitesimal parts of the string can move only in the ydirection. Derive the Lagrangian with µ the mass density and T the string tension. • Calculate the time derivative of the momentum (consider the boundary conditions). The Polyakov string. Prove that equations of motion for the ﬁelds X imply conservation of the two-dimensional stress-energy tensor µ µ Tµν = 0 Exercise 4. Non-relativistic string. How reparametrization invariance can be used to bring the equation ˙ )X µ − (X )2 X µ ˙ ˙ )X µ − (X)2 X µ ˙ ˙ ∂ (XX + ∂ (XX = 0. Exercise 2. Show that Tαβ = 0 implies that the end points of the open string move with the speed of light. Exercises Exercise 1. – 130 – . • Derive the equation of motion from this Lagrangian and keep explicit attention to the boundary conditions. Exercise 5. Show that the Hessian matrix associated to the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian ˙ has for each σ two zero eigenvalues corresponding to X µ and X µ . ∂τ ∂σ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (XX )2 − X 2 X 2 (XX )2 − X 2 X 2 to the simplest form? Exercise 3.E.

t. t) = e ~ S(q. ∂t ∂q i p2 2m + V (q) and deﬁne This is of course related to Dirac’s idea that the phase of the wave function is proportional to the classical action. Show that the Gauss-Bonnet term √ 1 χ= d2 σ hR 4π is topological. Exercise 8. t). Show that ∂S = p(t) . Show that the schr¨dinger equation approximately holds for ψ. ∂q where p(t) is the conjugate momentum of q at time t. t0 ) and (q.t0 ) . t0 ) be the action of the classical path between (q0 . Show that the Weyl invariance implies the tracelessness of the stressenergy tensor Tαβ . Suppose that H(q. Take into account that in 2dim the Ricci tensor is proportional to Ricci scalar and also √ 1 δ( hR) ∼ Rαβ − hαβ R δhαβ . – 131 – . 2 Exercise 9.Exercise 6.q0 . t. Show that the Polyakov action is invariant under reparametrizations δX µ = ξ α ∂α X µ δhαβ = α ξβ + β ξα √ √ δ( h) = ∂α (ξ α h) Exercise 7.e. p) = ψ(q. q0 . −i ψ + O( ) . Let S(q. ). ∂t ∂q where H is the Hamiltonian. i. o i ∂ ∂ψ = H q. it vanishes under smooth variations of the world-sheet metric hαβ . Show that ∂S ∂S = −H(q.

have the following Poisson brackets {C1 (σ). T++ (σ )} = 1 ∂σ T++ (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2T++ (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) .e. C1 (σ )} = 4T 2 ∂σ C2 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 8T 2 C2 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . • Deﬁne the linear combinations T++ = T−− 1 (C1 + 2T C2 ) = 8T 2 1 = (C1 − 2T C2 ) = 8T 2 1 (Pµ + T Xµ )2 . C1 (σ )} = ∂σ C1 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C1 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . Exercise 11. τ ) . 8T 2 1 (Pµ − T Xµ )2 . Compute the Poisson brackets of the constraints Lm . T−− (σ )} = − ∂σ T−− (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2T−− (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . + − ¯ Lm = 2T 0 2π ¯ Show that for any integer m the generators Lm and Lm are time-independent. {C2 (σ). ¯ Exercise 12. 2T 1 {T−− (σ). Lm . the ﬁrst or the second class? Exercise 13. i. 2T {T++ (σ). For the closed string case deﬁne 2π Lm = 2T 0 dσ eimσ T−− (σ. What kind of constraints they are. C2 (σ )} = ∂σ C2 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C2 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . C2 (σ )} = ∂σ C1 (σ)δ(σ − σ ) + 2C1 (σ)∂σ δ(σ − σ ) . {C1 (σ). • Show that the constraints C1 = Pµ P µ + T 2 Xµ X µ . 8T 2 C2 = Pµ X µ and show that their Poisson algebra is {T++ (σ). τ ) dσ eimσ T++ (σ. It is known in curved space-time that we can transform the metric locally in the neighborhood of a point xµ = 0 to the following form gµν (x) = ηµν − – 132 – .Exercise 10. {C2 (σ). T−− (σ )} = 0 .

– 133 – . Count the number of remaining degrees of freedom and show that it equals 1 2 2 d (d −1). Exercise 14. Consider solution of the closed string equations of motion µ µ X µ (σ. by counting degrees of freedom.this are Riemann normal coordinates. αn ) by using the fundamental Poisson brackets of X µ (σ). pµ . Suppose we have a coordinate system x with metric expanded around 0. x x x ˜ 2 We want to transform this using a coordinate transformation x → x = x(˜) to ˜ x Riemann normal coordinates. Solve equation of motion X µ = 0 for the case of open string (take into account the open string boundary conditions). where d is the dimension. For arbitrary dimension there are not enough degrees of freedom to put ∂σ ∂ρ gµν to zero. Show that after we have done this there µ 1 are 2 d(d − 1) remaining degrees of freedom left for ∂xν . αn . Exercise 15. ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂ xν ˜ 2 ∂ xν ∂ xσ ˜ ˜ 6 ∂ xν ∂ xσ ∂ xρ ˜ ˜ ˜ 1 R xσ xρ . This is precisely the number of independent components of the Riemann 12 tensor. P µ (σ) variables. 1 gµν (˜) = gµν (0) + ∂σ gµν (0)˜σ + ∂σ ∂ρ gµν (0)˜σ xρ . τ ) = XL (τ + σ) + XR (τ − σ) where 1 pµ i µ XR (τ − σ) = xµ + (τ − σ) + √ 2 4πT 4πT p i 1 µ (τ + σ) + √ XL (τ + σ) = xµ + 2 4πT 4πT µ n=0 1 µ −in(τ −σ) α e n n 1 µ −in(τ +σ) α e ¯ n n n=0 µ ¯µ Derive the Poisson algebra of the variables (xµ . 3 µσνρ We can use the ﬁrst term to bring g to η. So that the deviation of g from the ﬂat metric η is only second order in x (this is a coordinate system of an observer in free fall). ∂x ˜ Where do these remaining degrees of freedom correspond to? Show that we can bring ∂σ gµν to zero using the second term of the transformation. We expand the coordinate transformation to third order (zeroth order is zero) xµ = ∂xµ ν 1 ∂xµ ν σ 1 ∂xµ x + ˜ x x + ˜ ˜ xν xσ xρ .

¯ Exercise 17. – 134 – . ¯ Lf = 0 2π dσ f (σ + )T++ . • Show that this solution satisﬁes the Virasoro constraints and open string boundary conditions. i = 3. P ν } = 0 {P µ . Prove that that (closed) string has an inﬁnite set of integrals of motion: for any function f the quantities 2π Lf = 0 dσf (σ − )T−− . Exercise 20. Exercise 19. Obtain an expression for the Virasoro generators Lm and Lm in terms of string oscillators. Consider an open string solution 0 ≤ σ ≤ π: X 0 = t = Lτ X 1 = L cos σ cos τ . Poincare group By using the Poisson brackets between the generators of the {P µ . are conserved. X 2 = L cos σ sin τ . • Show that J = α M 2 . J ρσ } = η µρ J νσ + η νσ J µρ − η νρ J µσ − η µσ J νρ show that for a certain choice of a function f the following expression J2 = 1 Jαβ J αβ + f (P 2 )Pα J αλ P β Jβλ . • Compute the mass of string. X i = 0. . Show that the operators Dn = −ieinθ dθ obey the Virasoro algebra. . J ρσ } = η µσ P ρ − η µρ P σ {J µν . d Exercise 18.Exercise 16. d − 1 . . . 2 P 2 ≡ Pµ P µ . • Compute the angular momentum J ≡ J12 of string. where α = 1 2πT is called a slope of the Regge trajectory.

P and J . By using the ﬁrst-order formalism and imposing the light-cone gauge for the open string case • Solve the Virasoro constraints. xi . J . (Hint. J j− } . Find the corresponding f . Exercise 26. pi . Ln ] = (m − n)Lm+n + A(m)δm+n – 135 – . g)|2 ≤ (f . For the closed string case in the light-cone gauge compute the Poisson brackets between the zero mode variables p+ . Rewrite the Poisson algebra of the Poincar´ generators in terms of e ± i i± ij +− light-cone coordinates P . Proof the fulﬁlment of the Poisson algebra relations between the generators {J i+ . The full answer is given in the lecture notes. p− . Exercise 21*. Exercise 28. Exercise 24.is an invariant of the Poincare group. Show how the conformal gauge Hamiltonian turns into the light-cone Hamiltonian upon substitution the light-cone gauge conditions and the Virasoro constraints. Show that for any open classical string solution the following inequality holds √ J ≡ J2 ≤ α M2 . Make the computation in the static gauge X 0 = t = τ and use the Schwarz ¯ ¯ inequality |(f . J j+ } and {J i+ . Show that the generators of the angular momentum commute with the Virasoso generators {Lm . • Find the open string light-cone Hamiltonian. Exercise 25. f )(¯.) Exercise 22. Exercise 23. J . g) which holds for any two complex functions f and g g. Exercise 27. J µν } = 0 . Show that Virasoro constraints Tαβ = 0 which we have found in the conformal gauge can be directly solved in the light-cone gauge without using the ﬁrst-order formalism. The Virasoro algebra relation takes the form [Lm . x− .

Show that (m − n)A(k) + (n − k)A(m) + (k − m)A(n) = 0. • Consider the last equation with k = 1. π] and vanishing derivative at σ = 0. • Use the Virasoro algebra to show that if a state is annihilated by L1 and L2 then it is annihilated by all Ln with n ≥ 1. Consider open string.where A(m) is a function of m. • Consider the Virasoro generators L0 . for constants α and β. σ ∈ [0. τ )] = iη µν δ(σ − σ ) . τ ). • Use the last equation to show that A(m) = αm and A(m) = βm3 . P ν (σ . • That does the antisymmetry requirement on a Lie algebra tells you about A(m)? What is A(0)? • Consider the Jacobi identity for the generators Lm . – 136 – . The aim of this exercise is to ﬁnd the constraints on A(m) that follow from the condition that the relations above deﬁne the Lie algebra. π] . Write out the relevant commutators. Show that A(1) and A(2) determine all A(n) Exercise 29. π can be expanded as ∞ f (σ) = n=0 An cos nσ . The fundamental commutation relation is [X µ (σ. Do these operators form a subalgebra of the Virasoro algebra? Is there a central term here? Exercise 30. • Show that consistency with the oscillator expansion implies that 1 δ(σ − σ ) = π ∞ cos nσ cos nσ n=−∞ • Why the fundamental commutation relation compatible with open string boundary conditions? • Prove this representation for the δ-function by using the fact that any function f (σ) with σ ∈ [0. Ln and Lk with m+n+k = 0. L1 and L−1 . yield consistent central extensions.

Compute the open string propagator X(τ. Using the previous exercise show that for any ﬁxed state all but a ﬁnite number of positively moded Virasoro operators automatically annihilate the state without imposing any conditions. show that any state |Φ with the number eigenvalue N ≥ 0 automatically satisﬁes Ln |Φ = 0 for n > N. Exercise 33. j− ] =? Exercise 32. τ3 )V (k2 . Compute in the light-cone gauge the commutator of the orbital momenta [ i− .µ are always nonnegative. Exercise 34. Show that in the quantum theory the eigenvalues of the covariant number operator ∞ N= n=1 µ α−n αn. Exercise 35. σ)X(τ . σ)X(τ . τ1 )|0 – 137 – .Exercise 31. σ ) : . τ2 )V (k1 . Compute the two-point correlation function of the tachyon vertex operators 0|V (k2 . τ2 )V (k1 . σ ) = T X(τ. σ ) − : X(τ. More precisely. Compute the three-point correlation function of the tachyon vertex operators 0|V (k3 . Show that the vertex operator of the open string V (k. τ ) = e √1 πT P∞ n=1 µ kµ α−n einτ n eikµ (x µ µ+ p πT τ) e − √1 P∞ πT n=1 µ kµ αn −inτ e n V− V0 V+ is the conformal operator with the conformal dimension ∆ = α k 2 . Exercise 36. σ)X(τ . τ1 )|0 Exercise 37.

σ ) is the vertex operator of tachyon. τ4 )V (k3 . τ2 )V (k1 . Show that the stress-tensor for the ghost ﬁelds implies the following expression for the ghost Virasoro generators of the closed string ∞ Lgh m = (m − n) : bm+n c−n : n=−∞ ∞ ¯ Lgh = m (m − n) : ¯m+n c−n : b ¯ n=−∞ – 138 – . τ3 )V (k2 . Exercise 41. σ) ∂− X µ (τ . dηη = 1 for any ηi and ηi . . Let us deﬁne the integration rules as ¯ dη = 0 . Exercise 42. τ1 )|0 n Exercise 40. η ¯ Exercise 44. Find the singular terms of the OPE T−− (τ.Exercise 38. . σ ) . Show that for any n × n matrix M the following formula is valid ¯ detM = Here η M η ≡ ηi Mij ηj . τ . ¯ ¯ dηd¯ eηM η . where V (k. τ . Find the singular terms of the OPE n T−− (τ. . Verify that ∂− X µ is a conformal operator. Suppose that there are i = 1. Find the corresponding conformal dimension. σ) T−− (τ . . Compute the three-point correlation function of the tachyon vertex operators 0|V (k4 . σ ) . Find the singular terms of the OPE T−− (τ. σ ) . σ) V (k. Exercise 43. n grassman (anticommuting) variables ηi and ηi .

z (¯)) ¯ z ∂z ∂z ¯ Find how a primary ﬁeld transforms under inﬁnitezimal conformal transformations φ → φ + δξ. z ) = ¯ ¯ φ(z (z). Consider conformal transformations z → z = f (z).ξ φ. z ) → φ (z.Exercise 45. Show that the following operator product of the stress tensor T (z)T (w) = 2T (w) ∂T (w) c/2 + + + regular terms 4 2 (z − w) (z − w) (z − w) corresponds to the following transformation law c δξ T (z) = ∂ 3 ξ(z) + 2∂ξ(z)T (z) + ξ(z)∂T (z) 12 – 139 – . Using the previous exercise together with the Cauchy-Riemann formula dz f (z) f (n−1) (w) = n (n − 1)! Cw 2πi (z − w) show that any conformal ﬁeld must have the following R-ordered operator product with T (z): hφ(w) ∂φ(w) T (z)φ(w) = + + regular terms 2 (z − w) (z − w) Exercise 49. Exercise 48. By deﬁnition. ¯ Exercise 46. where z = z + ξ(z). primary ﬁelds are the ﬁelds which transform as tensors under conformal transformations ∂z h ∂ z h ¯ ¯ φ(z. Show that conformal ﬁelds of weight h have the following mode expansion φ(z) = z −n−h φn . n∈integer Exercise 47. In the radial quantization products of ﬁelds is deﬁned by putting them in the radial order. φ(w)] can be written in the form δξ φ(w) = Cw dz ξ(z)T (z)φ(w) 2πi Here Cw is a small contour in a complex plane around point z. Using the radial order prescription show that the conformal transformation δξ φ(w) = [Tξ .

Show that a general transformation λ1 → dλ1 + cλ2 . Under ﬁnite transformations z → f (z) the stress tensor transforms as T (z) → T (z) = (∂f )2 T (f (z)) + Here D(f )z = c D(f )z 12 3 ∂f (z)∂ 3 f (z) − 2 (∂ 2 f (z))2 (∂f )2 az+b cz+d is the Schwarzian derivative. Exercise 52. m ∈ Z with the condition ad − bc = 1 preserves the area of the parallelogram. 1 δ ψ µ = ρα ∂α X µ 2 1 ¯ δ ψ µ = − ¯ρα ∂α X µ 2 – 140 – . Mg=1 = − 2πi 3 Exercise 53. λ2 → bλ1 + aλ2 n. is invariant under supersymmetry transformations w δ X µ = i¯ψ µ . S: τ →− 1 τ applied to the fundamental region of the modular group 1 1 ≤ Reτ ≤ 0. Show that τ = i and τ = e transformations respectively. Verify that the action S=− 1 8π ¯ d2 σ ∂α X µ ∂ α Xµ + 2iψ µ ρα ∂α ψµ . Consider a parallelogram on the complex plane determined by the following identiﬁcation z ≡ z + nλ1 + mλ2 . |τ |2 > 1 2 2 generate the whole upper-half plane. |τ |2 ≥ 1 ∪ 0 < Reτ < . Show that the modular transformations T : τ → τ + 1. Exercise 51.Exercise 50. Show that if f (z) = then D(f )z = 0. are the ﬁxed points of S and ST Exercise 54.

If in the previous exercise the parameter is constant then we deal with global supersymmetry transformations. – 141 – . Using the Noether method derive the currents corresponding to the Poincar´ symmetry for the fermionic string. Express the corresponding Noether e charges via oscillators for both Neveuw-Schwarz and Ramond sectors. Express the spin connection ω via vielbein e by using the condition of vanishing of the torsion a Tαβ = Dα ea − Dβ ea = 0 . Derive the Noether current which corresponds to this global symmetry of the action. δ2 ] =? . β α Exercise 57. Exercise 55. Exercise 56*. Exercise 58. Derive the on-shell algebra of supersymmetry transformations [δ1 .provided the parameter satisﬁes the following equation ρβ ρα ∂β = 0 .