Actions Diaphoretic Expectorant (cathartic with higher dose) Anti-tussive PNS stimulator

Asclepias tuberosa (Pleurisy root)

Glucosides (asclepidine, asclepione) Resins (galitoxin)

Indications Fever with moist skin (can be dry), strong pulse, flushed Short painful cough/hack that lasts for weeks #1 herb for PLEURISY Patchy infiltrates or linear pattern on radiograph <motion (as clip to chair) Inflammation of serious membranes of thoracic cavity Usually unilateral Wants to hold chest Aids expectoration and improves expansion of lungs (lung pump!) Dyspnea, pale face, cyanotic lips, anxious, soft small irregular compressible pulse, palpitations with cough Chronic heart and lung disease Cardiac asthma, emphysema (tripod position) Hemoptysis with TB Low vitality What a SPAZZ - laryngeal/bronchial/arterial spasm Dry irritating, persistant cough (spasmodic, explosive, expulsive) Dryness worse at night Patient hoarse, children anxious Cough assoc with measles, whooping cough, TB, bronchitis, dry asthma Arteriosclerosis, angina, chest pain

Pharmacology/Toxicity Dec BP and HR with long term use Fresh plant more potent than dry Galitoxin can irritate mucous mem V high doses --> resp paralysis OD: N/V, GI upset, D, anorexia, death Tx: Emesis, gastric lavage, cathartics, hydration and electrolyte replacement CI: preg. uterine stimulant. Alkaloids: inc depth and rate of respiration - use only for short term Resinous alkaloids: antimicrobial and aids expectoration, leads to mucosal irritation Tannins: inc HR and BP

Aspidosperma quebracho Alkaloids (aspidosamine, (Quebracho = breaking the quebrachine) axe) Tannins

Expectorant Anti-tussive Anti-periodic Anti-microbial

Immune System - Cough

Drosera rotundifolia (Sundew)

Expectorant Glycosides (napthoquinone) Sedative (cough) Essential oils (small amount) Anti-spasmodic Flavonoids Anti-tussive Spasmolytic

Inc heart rate and elasticity Glycosides appear to work on microbes that cause periodontal disease High doses darken urine

Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang)

Arial: Alkaloids (ephedrinediuretic) Phytosterols Root: ephedrine, tannin, saponin, flavone, oil

Arial Parts: Diaphoretic Stimulant Astringent Decongestant Expectorant Diuretic Root: Diaphoretic

Used in TCM to treat asthma for > 5000 years Acute asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, emphysema (helps break up spasms) Spasmodic conditions of the bronchi Stimulates SNS Root used for sweat and diarrhea

Used for weight loss (appetite supression) Max dose in canada is 24mg/day Relaxes bronchi smooth muscles and vasoconstricts skin and ab viscera Increases BP, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-pyretic Dilates pupils OD: N/V, sweat, vertigo, tremors, insomnia, palpitations, convulsions, hypertensive crisis Tx: emesis, GI lavage, charcoal. Palpitations: B-blocker, siezures: diazepam, V tach: Lidocaine, HT crisis: Phentolamin or Nitroprusside CI: MAO inhibitor (can lead to HT crisis). Yin deficiency, anorexia, insomnia, preg, lactation, suicidal disposition

Eriodictyon californicum Resins (Yerba Santa) Flavonoids (eriodictyol)

Expectorant Sialogogue and Carminative (aids in digestion) Bitter tonic

Eczema’s such as poison oak and ivy, dry irritated tissues such as dermatitis - resins decrease pruritis and dec spread of irritation Chronic cough with abundant secretions – throat may be dry, but lungs are wet, pneumonia, phthisis (difficult to expectorate, sputum Essential oil - eriodictyol - irritates mucous membranes is deep) Anorexia, impaired digestion, emanciation Soothes dry, irritating persistent cough Cold extremities with cold perspiration, perspiration during chills Sense of weight and coldness in intestines Yellow mucopurulent discharges Wet asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, mycoplasma, malaria, Gleet Externally for aching joints, sprains, congestion. Lymph congestion and bruises. Flu with deep muscle and bone pain along the rib cage; feels bones are broken - bone pain due to influenza SOB and hard full pulse (like a bone) Cough with measles, asthma, hoarseness, common cold Persistent embarrassed cough, chest pain and dyspnea, severe or periodic fever, muscle spasm, swollen, moist skin Turbid urine, inc frequency Alcoholism (to stimulate digestion) Intermittent headache (digestion related), GI/musc spasm Tertiary syph - bone pain Bug repellant Inhibits mast cell degranulation and cyt p450 OD: dec BP, cold, pale, gastroenteritis, death Tx: nux-vomica (causing emesis), beladonna (slows peristalsis), monitor 24 hr creatinine CI: hypotension, inflamed KI or GI tract

Eucalyptus globules

Volatile oils (eucalyptol) Flavonoids (quercitin)

Expectorant Anti-periodic Anti-septic/disinfectant Anti-bacterial Rubifacient Febrifuge

Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)

Essential oil (tremerol) Flavonoids (quercitin, eupatorin) Terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones) Bitter glucosides

Febrifuge Emetic (high doses) Anti-periodic Stomachic (bitter) Bacteriostatic

Polysacc are immune stimulatory (inc phagocytosis) Essential oil tremerol - drying dec concentration OD: N/V, anorexia, thirst, constipation, muscle tremors, rapid shallow resp, coma, death Tx: GI lavage, saline cathartic, electrolytes

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Glechoma hederaceae (Creeping Charlie)

Amino acids Flavonoids Steroids Terpenoids (ursolic acid) Volatile oils

Expectorant GI and Mental Stimulant

Lead colic Headache with cough Deep lung cough with pectoral pain Dry asthma with cough Hypochondrial pain and distension Phlegm can be heard but cannot be coughed out Non-productive/dry cough Cough with cyanosis, dyspnea, arrhythmias Asthma, walking pneumonia External for skin ulcers, burns, rashes, herpes zoster, poison oak GI catarrh where mucous --> congestion and poor digestion Sore throat assoc with cold and flu - gargle Tea for bronchitis and wet asthma External for bruises, trauma, ulcers - not as good as Grindelia. Soothing for eczema and psoriasis. Chronic wet cough (especially in elderly) with substernal pain, influenza, wet humid asthma, profuse secretions Teasing, persistent wet cough Female with thick catarrhal leukorrhea (douche) Anorexia & sluggish liver (hepatic torpor) Ab atonia, relief by flatus, dyspepsia, weak digestive process Vermifuge Sensation of suffocation, feeling of heaviness (like someone is sitting on chest - angina/neuralgia), short laboured breathing (dyspnea); bronchial mucous; tachycardia Rigid os & rheumatism Acute asthma Smoker’s cough - decreases nicotine cravings; croup, pneumonia, bronchitis (spasm) Hypertension d/t over-stimulation Smooth muscle spasm Chronic larynx and bronchial mucous mem irritation Cough and cold with chronic catarrh, generally chilly Asthma with copious amounts of mucous that is hard to expectorate - can hear but non-productive Dyspepsia Laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, smoker's cough with catarrh Fever with URTI (common cold, sinusitis, hay fever, laryngitis) Bronchial catarrh assoc with poor digestion Deep hoarse voice Rheumatism (topical resins), ulcerations (EO probably antimicrobial) Nephritis

Ursolic acid: anti-viral (good for EBV), inhibits tumors Essential oil irritates mucus mem in high doses Tx: flush with water CI: essential oil: GI and oral ulcers, sensitive skin, dermatitis

Grindelia robusta (Gum plant) Immune System - Cough

Resin (grendolin) Alkaloids (grendaline) EO (barenol, pinene) High in selenium

Expectorant Anti-spasmodic Sialagogue Respiratory stimulant Diuretic Vulnerary Cardiac tonic Carminative Dypeptic Vulnerary Expectorant (weak)

Dec HR - do not use in bradycardic patients Se and Mg overdose Caution with chronic renal disease (resins)

Hyssopus officinalis (Hyssop)

Glycosides (diosmine) Volatile oils (limonen, Bpinene - both monoterpenes) Resins Tannins

Muscle relaxant for Gi spasms (IBS) Caution with GI bleeding and spongy KI due to volatile oils

Inula helenium (elecampagne)

Volatile oils (sesquiterpene lactones, helenin, inula) CHO Terpenoids

Anti-tussive Mild diaphoretic

Immunostimulant Sesqiterpene lactones - inh many cell lines (e.g. M. tuberculae) Volatile oils irritate mucous membranes

Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco)

Expectorant Emetic (only large doses) Alkaloids (piperidine Sialigogue toxicity) Stimulant - SNS and PNS Bitter glycosides (lobelacrin) Dec CO2 threshold to inc resp Cathartic Diuretic

Increases resistance to diptheria Alkaloids - lower doses stim nicotinic receptors, in higher doses they supress - (Stimulant to PNS in low doses and SNS in high doses) OD: esophageal burning, N/V, stupor, tremor, pinpoint pupils, rapid pulse, sinus arrhythmia, death Tx: GI lavage, emesis CI: Heart problems, pregnancy

Marrubium vulgare (Hoarhound)

Diterpenes (marrubin) Essential oils Vitamin C

Stimulant Tonic Expectorant Diuretic and purgative and high doses

Volatile oils used for IBS Marubin - expectorant and inc bile flow Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive Caution: high doses diuretic, v high doses purgative. CI preg: may stim uterus

Populus balsamifera (Balm of gilead)

Resin/oleoresin (salicin) Mucilage Volatile oil Caullophylloid

Expectorant Anti-pyretic Anti-rheumatic Bitter tonic

Caullophyloid: anti-coagulant Salicin only activated if right microflora is present, action via COX-1 inhibition CI: allergy to poplar pollen, salicylates Prunasin aids with digestion Prunasin can be made into cyanide OD: difficult respiration, spasms, stupor, vocal cord paralysis, twitching, convulsions, coma, death Tx: IV diazepam (seizures), GI lavage, B12 counteracts cyanide CI: preg - cyanide is teratogenic Sesquiterpines - inti-inflammatory (inh lipoxygenase, down regulates LT synthesis) Migraine prophylaxis Prevents SI ulcers, dec seasonal rhinitis Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: unsaturated are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic. No studies on saturated.

Prunus serotina (Wild black cherry)

Petasites hybridus (Butterburr)

Chronic persistant irritating cough, chronic smoker Bronchitis, whooping cough Prunasin (source of cyanide) Anti-tussive Expectorant for profuse mucopurulent discharge Organic acids Mild sedative (specific to Heart pain due to coughing (palpitations, weak pulse, poor Tannins, resins, VO respiratory tract) circulation) Dyspnea, anorexia (due to bitters) External for wounds, ulcers, opthalmias Historically for fevers due to Yersinia pestis Smooth muscle spasm Sesquiterpenes (petasin) Anti-spasmodic (asthma, Smasmotic cough - asthma, whooping cough Flavonoids cough, migraine, urinary tract) Poor digestion with colic, obstructed bile flow Pyrrolizidine alkaloids Cholagogue Obstructed urinary flow (especially from Gleet) Menstrual colic Page 2 of 8


Immune System - Cough

Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot)

Isoquinoline alkaloids berberine, sanguinarine Organic acids (citric, malic)

Expectorant Cholegogue Sialogogue Emmenagogue Eschariotic Emetic (at high doses) Haemostatic Nervine

Tickling, dry, irritated throat & cough Burning in air passages on inspiration, anxious Red, irritated mucosa; cold extremities Stomach queasy and uneasy with nausea Ulcerous skin lesions (eschariotic) Amenorrhea (anemic and chilly, prone to headaches); vicarious menses Hepatitis A (small doses) Topical: Cervical dysplasia, anti-fungal (warts, scabies, ringworm) Snuff: Nasal polyps Cold infusion: Dyspepsia with weak irritated stomach, food sensitivity, poor appetitie, IBS Warm infusion: flatulence, HA, diaphoretic Tincture: Smasmolytic, sore throat, whooping cough Oil inhalation: asthma, lung cancer, bronchial diseae, diptheria Topical: Antiseptic, anti-microbial. Putrid pus, neuralgia, reumatic pain, dry cough Encapsulated: anti-candida Fomentation: directly on chest for cough, to warm and vasodilate

Isoquinoline alkaloids can cause gastric irritation, contact dermatitis OD: N/V/D, irregular pulse, cold extremeties, dilated pupils, glaucoma, severe HA, inc thirst, vertigo, shock, coma, death Tx: Charcoal and GI lavage, demulcent CI: preg, breast feeding Cautions: acute angle glaucoma

Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)

Resins Tannins Volatile oils - thymol

Carminative Spasmolytic Anti-tussive Expectorant Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal Vasodilator

Anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant Mosquito prophylaxis Volatile oil thymol - mucosal irritant OD: N/V, heat in stomach, perspiration then chill, stupor, death Tx: flush with water, GI lavage CI: pregnancy (b/c spasmolytic) Caution: dilute essential oils Allergic rhinitis and asthma Alkaloids toxic to some cell lines Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial Strong stimulation on adrenal glands - can produce cortisol Chewing leaf can cause nausea - this is good!

Tylophora asthmatica (Indian ipecac)

Alkaloids (tylophorine) Steroid

Emetic (large doses) Expectorant

Asthma - chew and swallow leaf (1/day)

Tussilago farfara (Coltsfoot)

Pyrolizidine alkaloids Triterpenoids, Volatile oils, Anti-tussive Bitter glucosides, Tannins, Expectorant Mucilage, Flavonoids, Organic acids

Irritated mucosal membranes with cough (all types) Spasmodic respiratory conditions: laryngitis, pharyngitis, whooping cough, asthma GI catarrh, stimulates digestion because of bitters Silicosis, chronic emphysema, scrofula HA with nasal obstruction and sinusitis. Vertigo from nasal obstruction Scoliosis related to pott's disease in TB Internal: nervous bronchial irritation with dry hoarse cough, hoarseness, < lying. Substitute for tobacco, for sore throats, asthma. Irritated GU, cancer of the GU systems External: anodyne for otitis, rheumatic joints, ulcers, tumors, tonsilitis, sore throat, mumps Flowers (steeped in oil): for otitis and asthma Tea: for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung CA Influenza with perspiration, cold Respiratory congestion, coughs Wet asthma Substitue for atropine in glaucoma or fundal disease Eclectics: antidote to mushroom poison (antagonizes muscarinic action on heart) Smoker's cough, sharp pain on coughing Aching pectorals < deep breathing/exertion/fever HA with sinusitis or hayfever, sneezing/ corrhyza with hayfever Pleurisy, acute bronchitis External: Mild burns and traumas, swelling, bruises, haemorrhoids, elarged lymph nodes and thyroid

Stronger anti-tussive than expectorant. Anti-pyretic in animal studies.

Verbascum thapus (Mullein)

Demulcent Bio-flavonoids (hesperidin, Anti-tussive verbaside, accubin) Expectorant Essential oils, Saponins, GU sedative, anodyne Mucilage (leaf), resin Diuretic (weak action)

Smoking in excess amounts with Datura stramonium and KNO3 may cause vertigo

Immune System - Cough

Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk cabbage)

Alkaloids (duboisine/ hyocyanine) Gums, resins, tannic acid

Diaphoretic Expectorant Anti-spasmodic

Burning in the mouth and throat if overused OD of straight alkaloids: stumbling, sleepiness, dilated pupils OD of entire botanical: slurred speech, dilated pupils (impaired vision), loss of motor control, tired, loss of sphincter control, inc then dec in temperature, seizure

Pulmonaria offcinalis (Lungwort, Sticta)

Mucilage Silicic acid, silicon Minerals (K, Mg, Ca) Saponins, Tannins

Anti-tussive Expectorant Anti-rheumatic

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Immune S

Sticta pulmonaria (Lungwort)

Stictic acid

Cough with pain in shoulders, extrinsic repiratory muscles - pain to occiput - rheumatism Soft, wiry pulse Muscular pain. Pains < deep breath (soreness as if bruised) Chills, fever, night sweats of TB Cough: raspy, wheezing, dry, persistant, especially July-Aug, hayfever, summer influenza Bronchitis, laryngitis, whooping cough, croup, catarrhal asthma La grippe - hot watery mucus, thick, yellow green, bloody Internally: Uterine hemorrhage and profuse flow; pale with cold extremities. Menorrhagia and post-partum hemorrhage GI UPSET Hemoptysis URTI: patient looks pale, cold, chilly and has trouble shaking infections Externally: fungal infections, over spine for coughs, over abdomen for babies with restless colic. Children for sleeping. Excess mucous or discharge - gleet, respiratory catarrh Laryngitis, wet asthma, bronchitis, pharyngitis - conditions with profuse secretions. Mucous difficult to expectorate. Leukorrhea or amenorrhea - dragging sensation in pelvis Dyspepsia with pale tongue and halitosis Apthous stomatitis, ulcerated throat and tonsils, gingivitis and spongy gums External: gangrene ulcers, stomatitis, inflamed mucosa Dilates blood vessels: inc circulation, acts as diaphoretic Anti-microbial and anti-pyretic. Analgesic for spasmodic pain in smooth muscle Internal toxicity: N/V, KI damage, coma Tx: emesis, GI lavage, charcoal, monitor KI and LIV enzymes. External toxicity: redness, burning, dermatitis. Treat with water. Anti-inflamm, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, antitussive, expectorant Schistomosiasis - eradication Non-irritating, non-sensitizing, non-phototoxic CI: documented hypoglycemic effects, so may interfere with anti-diabetic therapy Caution on preg due to emmenagogue properties Comparable to vit E in rats Saponins cytotoxic in some CA lines, may benefit B-amyloid protein (Alzheimer's) Organic acids prevent atherosclerosis Polysaccharides are immune modulating: stimulate phagocytes and lymphocytes Terminates pregnancies

Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) Immune System - Infection

Cinnamyl acetic aldehyde and ester, eugenol Tannins, Lignans, fiber, starch

Astringent Anti-spasmodic Carminative Anti-microbial Anti-diabetic

Commiphora myrrh (Myrrh)

Resins (commiphoic acid) Gum Essential oil and bitter (cresol) Organic acids

Expectorant Anti-septic Historically for vermifuge and gangrenous ulcers

Dipsacus spp.

Alkaloids, tannins, iridoid glycosides, saponins, organiz acids, polysaccharides

Used in TCM - root is bitter, pungent & warming Used to treat infections, especially lyme disease (Borrelia) Muscle and tendon symptoms

Myrica cerifera (Bayberry)

Flavonoids (mytricitrin) Tannins, terpenoids (myticadiol), gum, resin, starch

Expectorant Sialogogue Astringent

Profuse mucous discharge with poor circulation hypersecretion Apthous stomatitis with halitosis, ulcers, foul stools Dysentry, mucoenteritis, measles, typhoid, scarlet fever, malaria, jaundice Stimulates digestion if taken before meals Stimulates blood production, nutrition in very weak (slow pulse, low temp, yellow tonge) Externally: for spongy, flabby, bleeding gums. Gargle for sore throat or scarletina. Vaginal douche for muco-leukorrhea, excess bleeding Chronic non-responding GU infections Chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, rhinitis, URTIs Purpura hemorrhage, passive hemorrhage Chronic antibiotic use in children, otitis media Fresh leaf: refrigerant, diuretic (eaten in salad) Infusion: fevers and inflammation Roasted leaf: wrapped around tumors, wens, boils to induce suppuration Fresh juice: cutaneous tumors or injected into tumors Used for treponema infections, scrofula and CA Patients with difficulty urinating (destructive tissue process)

Myricitin has choleretic, bacteriocidal and spermatocidal activity Myricadiol has mineralcorticoid activity CI: large doses may interfere with existing hypertensive, hypotensive or steroid therapy CI: preg (mineralcorticoid and carcinogenic)

Larix occidentalis (Larch)

Arabinogalactan: long branched polysacc of glactose and arabinose Trace of uronic acid Tannins Oxalic acid (binds iron-fatal) Anthroquinones

Immune stimulant

Anti-inflamm, anti-allergic, anti-complement Inc NK cell cytotixicity, inc phagocytosis OD: N/V/D, mucosal irritation, renal damage Tx: induce emesis and then give milk or water to dilute, charcoal IV Ca gluconate for tetany and hypocalcemia, maintain fluids while monitoring BUN, Ca, 24hr creatinine

Rumex acetosa (Green sorrel) Immune System - Infection

Rumex acetosella

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Immune System - Infection

Stillingia sylvatica (Queen's root)

Alkaloids (stillingine) Alcohol (sylvacrol) Gum, starch, oil

Alterative Cathartic Cholagogue Astringent

Dry, irritated, red mucous membrances Skin lesions that appear red moist and irritated Blood dyscrasia (leukemia) with weakness Paroxysmal, hoarse, croupy cough, irritating, cough of cold winter Anti-syphilitic (tertiary) - cachexia of tertiary syphilis Weak pale sick children with anemia, anoreia, GI and LIV atony, otitis, debility and weakness Historical use: daily as tea to ward off disease and "give life"; bone pain and wound healing; KI cleanser; recovery post childbirth; gonorrhea; dysentry; female urinary tract cancer Infections Female urinary tract cancer; leukemia PMS HIV/AIDS Arthritis, bursitis, rhematism Historically for disinfectant for cuts, infections, fungus, impetigo Anti-viral: use for patients refractory to Echinacea spp. Rheumatoid arthritis: jts that are < from Echniacea spp Douche intravaginally for Trichomonas vaginalis Native Americans used this for fever, GI colic and spasm, and as a hemostatic. Epilepsy. Fever and HA associated with cold or flu Throat and lung congestion, with spasm Liver dysfunction, worms, jaundice Irregular menses with dysmenorrhea Topically: leaves in rheumatism, wound healing, ulcers

Toxicity due to sylvacrol (alcohol) OD: GI burning, D/N/V, tachycardia, muscular weakness and prostration

Uncaria tomentosa/ guainensis (Cat's claw)

Alkaloids (rynchophylline, Immunostimulant hisutine)

Alkaloids inc Ig's in cancer patients Anti mutagenic, appears to need ST acid for effect Rynchophylline decreases BP, HR, cholesterol, vasodilates heart and central and peripheral BV's (inhibitis SNS) Hisutine is a diuretic, decreases bladder contractions

Usnea barbata (Old Man's Beard)

Bitter Organic acids (usnic acid, Anti-microbial: anti-bacterial, barbatic acid) anti-fungal Iridoid glycosides (verbenanine) Essential oil (limonene) Flavonoids (luteolin, scutellarin) Diaphoretic Diuretic Expectorant Anti-periodic Emmenagogue Galactogogue

Usnic acid inhibits gram + bacteria. Antidotes tetanus and diptheria toxins. Smooth muscle relaxant.

Verbena hastata (Blue vervain)

Glycosides are toxic, have an analgesic effect Verbanine: inc milk flow in lactation. Inhibits SNS nerves of heart, blood vessels, intestines, salivary glands. Promotes blood coagulation. Inc urinary output in Schistosomiasis.

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea)

Organic Acids (ceonothic) Alterative Alkaloids (integerrin) Astringent Flavonoids Hemostatic Tannins

Historically: as tea for splenitis, anemia, dysentry. GI and LIV disorders with englarged spleen and possible GI bleeding: more chronic congestion/inflammation like malaria, thalasemia, sickle cell anemia, mono, TB, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Ceanothic acids inhibit bacteria that cause gingivitis Ciprofloxatine cased hepatosplenomegaly Useful for treatment of infections, cancer with splenomegaly Spleen hypertrophy with sallow, doughy skin and expressionless face Cough, bronchitis, dry cough, weak lungs Historical: treat ulcers and nodular growths of the skin and mucous membranes (on or under the skin) Lymphatic system tonic - lymphadenitis anywhere in the body Exanthem diseases (rubella, rubeola, varicella, roseola, fifth's) Decreases BP without decreasing HR Treatment of UTI's associated with pain (anuria caused by stones, Anti-cancer for leukemia KI and BL inflammation, gonorrhea) External: psoriasis, eczema, lichen planus. Cancer nodules or scrofula. More effective/stronger than taraxacum for Liv cleansing Toxicity - oleoresin (iricin). Topically: contact irritant. Tx: soap and water. Internally: increase salivation in very high doses (known as vegetable Hg). Tx: decrease dose. OD: Oral/GI/esophageal burning, N/V/D with heat in rectum, GI colic, HA. Tx: flush with saline cathartic, emesis, GI lavage, monitor hydration and electrolytes

Immune System - Lymphatic System

Galium aparine (Cleavers)

Organic acid Iridoid glucosides (asperuloside) Tannins

Refrigerant Diuretic Anti-nodular

Iris versicolor (Blue flag)

Historical use: secondary syphilis Thyroid or Lymphatic enlargement GI/endocrine: bilious HA or fever with nausea <motion, vomiting, and indigestion <fatty food. HA starts in occiput --> eyes and Oleoresins (iresin, iridin) Lymphatic alterative forehead. Hepatitis with constipation, steatorrhea, jaundice. Acute Organic acid (salicylic acid) Cholegogue diarrhea/dysentry. Chronic pancreatitis especially with alpha-phytosterol, volatile oil, Laxative (with fresh root and/ or splenomegaly: blanched or pale skin (anemia), dropsy (due to gum, tannins higher doses) stones and excessive alcohol consumption) Reproductive system: uterine hypertrophy and enlarged ovary. Leukorrhea. Ulceration of cervical os (HPV). Spermatorrhea. Skin: greasy and oily. Eczema, acne, psoriasis, pigmentation

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Phytolacca americana (Poke root)

Saponins (phytolaccagenin) Lectins Formic acid, tannins, phytolaccotoxin Alkaloid (phytolaccine)

Lymphatic Anti-viral Emetic Purgative, Laxative

Historical use: diptheria Hard, indurated, painful, glandular swellings (orchitis due to mumps, mastitis, diptheria) Oral: pale mucosa, ulcerations, cough, sore throat, SOB, diptheria, difficult respiration due to extent of illnees External: conjunctivitis, mastitis, lymphadenopathy, ulcers/ hemorrhoids, blisters Deep colicky lumbar pain with unseasy sensation from KI and hips to umbilicus and genitals (tip of urethra) Chronic GB problems with low ST acid Urinary atony and decreased KI fxn leading to dropsy, dribbling with cough Cyctitis, incontinence, gonorrhea, catarrhal discharge Urine has a muddy smell and look UTI with dropsy Chronic mucous discharge: leukorrhea, icterus/itchy skin, TB HA on side of head External: throat, mouth, tongue ulcers (gargle) Frequent dysuria (irritable bladder) - pain extends to the back Chronic cystitis, incipient nephritis (early stages) Discharge with urination, gonorrhea Enlarged prostate, chronic prostatitis - often with hematuria Gravel/sediment in urine Gout, rheumatism, joint pain Europe: spring tonic to get KI working after long winter

Purgative: enhances peristalsis, may produce gastric pain and severe diarrhea in large doses Convulsive: increases resp and BP, after longer use respiration and HR decrease Diuretic: increase blood flow to KI <10 berries fatal in thildren. <2g root. OD: N/V tingling throughout body, hypotension, resp failure, plasmocytosis, death Tx: emesis, GI lavage, monitor vitals, diazepam if convulsing

GU System

Agrimonia eupatoria (Agrimony)

Volatile oils Bitters Tannins Coumarin (agrimol)

Genitourinary tonic Astringent Bitter

May cause photosensitivity and hypoglycemia Hypotensive in high doses Hypertensive in low doses

Agropyron repens (Couch grass)

Saponins (laevulose, triticin) Weak diuretic Organic acid (malic acid, Anti-irritant silicic acid) Prostatic herb and Tonic B carotene


Apis mellifica (Honey Bee)

Urethral sedative Anti-histamine Diuretic

Historical use: anuria Anuria, urethral and cystic irriation, burning, stinging pain with constant desire to urinate and little urine produced Ascites, post-scarlatina ascites Ovarian congestion, cyst with menorrhagia, amenorrhea, edema of external genitalia Anaphylaxis in acutely allergic individuals, may develop from Swollen sore throat with edema, diff swallowing repeated exposures. Urticaria, hives, injury with swelling Injuries producing swelling/stinging/burning pains Rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis - Apitherapy - allow a bee to sting one joint, increase by one bee eact visit Especially useful in autoimmune conditions Angina, dropsy Chronic urinary bladder irritation with a lot of pain, tenesmus, catarrh, cystitis Blood, mucus discharge from GU tract (gonorrhea/leukorrhea) Weight, dragging or heaviness in loins/urinary tract/ perineal area, enlarged prostate Sensation UB has lost muscle tone, sensation of a presence in prostate region GI infection: H. pylori Alkaline urine Chronic inflammation of UB and urethral mucus membranes, cystitis Urethral irritation with copious mucopurulent discharge (gleet) Uric acid crystals Acid urine, constant urgency but no relief with micturation Prostate incontinence For some people their urine will turn brown and may develop a new odor Increase anti-inflamm effect of prednisolone Inhibits cell maturation of B lymphocytes Arbutin and methylarbutin undergo enzymatic reaction in alkaline environment Avoid long term use to tannins Symptoms of long term use: GI irritation CI: pregnancy (oxytocic)

Genitourinary System

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Bearberry)

Glycosides: arbutin Flavonoid: quercitin Resins, Tannins, gallic and ellagic acids

Genitourinary sedative Renal anti-septic Not a diuretic

Barosma betulina (Buchu)

Volatile oils (diosphenol, pulegone) Glycoside (diasmon) Bioflavonoid (similar to hesperidin) Ethone, mucilage, Mn

Renal anti-septic Diuretic (weak action) Carminative

Volatile oil diosphenol: may darken urine with brownish precipitate, may cause change in urine odor OD: Gastroenteritis, strangury/spasm Volatile oil - pulegone: uterine stimulation and mucosal irritation in mice, therefore caution in pregnancy

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Chimaphila umbellate (Pipsissewa)

Glycoside (arbutin) Organic acids (ursolic acid) Methyl salicylate Tannin

Genitourinary anti-septic Kidney tonic

Irritation in the GU tract Alkaline urine Catarrh of the bladder with offensive urine, mucus in urine, mucupurulent urine, hematuria, burning dysuria Chronic protatic irritation, prostatitis with discharge, gonorrhea Scrofula associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy, with prostatic/urinary tract symptoms Internal: Dropsy and supression of urination with dysuria, irritation of UB. Dropsy of legs, <after menopause. Hematauria due to gravel/stones. Nocturnal enuresis, chronic UTIs, gleet, Connective tissue weakness (hair, nails); tendon and ligament problems External: Sitz bath for female pelvis spasm, muscle tone changes in pelvis (PMS). Chilbains (frostbie with tingling, burning, irritation, itching, chapping, damp cold exposure). Arthritis (RA/OA), limb fracture. Weak tendons and ligaments, flat arches, eczema, neruodermatitis. Post thrombotic swelling. Dissolves renal calculi Edema/dropsy from renal insufficiency, post scarlatina dropsy Dysuria with frequency, pain and weight from thighs to bladder, milky urine, mucus urine Hematuria from prostatitis Incontinence from BL irritation in children and in pregnancy Gout, rhematism Chronic cough, chronic catarrh, asthma, whooping cough Aids in the passage of stones Pain of passing kidney calculus/gravel Acute nephritis Chronic gleet Urethral mucus irritation, especially in post menopausal females Hepatic pain or irritation Irritated bronchi (soothes mucous membranes)

Arbutin: undergoes enzymatic reaction in alkaline environment (kidneys) to become hydroquinone and glucose Contact dermatitis from volatile oils in fresh plant leaves Thiaminase: causes B1 deficiency - caution for long term use Aconitic acid (highest in fresh plant) Chronic deficiency: Beri-beri (wet is CHF, edema. Dry is neurological) Tx: GI lavage, emesis, charcoal CI: hypertension, CV conditions because it may increase potassium excretion, in vitro it has increased platelet coagulation Caution CV drugs

Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)

Saponins Silica Aconitic/equisetic acid, salicilic acid, mucilage

Diuretic Astringent

Eupatorium purpureum (Gravel root)

Oleoresins (euparin, eupurpurin)

Diuretic Anti-lithic

Euparin: diuretic, anti-lithic

Glucoside (hydrangin) Hydrangea arborescens Acids (sulphuric, phosphoric) Renal sedative (Seven barks) Saponins Litholithic Mucilage

Does not dissolve stones but eases the irritation they cause on passing OD: vertigo, oppression of chest Tx: Decrease dose or stop use altogether, can also give white salts or crystals Volatile oils (thujone) Acute symptoms: catharsis Chronic symptoms: Albuminuria, nephrosis with hematuria, oliguria, personality changes, convulsions Tx: Discontinue use, fluids, monitor electrolytes CI: pregnancy, lactation Caution with weak kidneys Oil antimicrobial for UTIs and may stimulate hepatic regenration Apiol: causes spasms in SI OD: sense of body heat, vertigo, headache, tinnitus, visual change, scintillation (light flashes), N/V/D, urticaria, swollen liver with icterus Tx: discontinue use, GI lavage, monitor fluids CI: preg (causes spasms), duodenal ulcers and crohns

Juniperus communis (Juniper) Genitourinary System

Volatile oils (pinene, cadinene, camphene) Sesquiterpene lactones (thujone)

Renal atonia with catarrh/mucus - increases GFR Diuretic Irritation of UB due to gleet, cystitis, pyelonephritis Bacteriostatic Gout, arthritis with many neurological, muscle, and tendon sx Anti-septic Dropsy post scarlatina Other: urinary sedative, digestive Ascites in chilren aid (due to bitter) Gargle for cough, sore throat, colds; a gentle expectorant Cutting pain Dropsy, post-scarlatina dropsy Anuria, urinary retention Gonorrhea Diuretic for obesity, edema, dropsy, inc BP, night sweats from consumption, TB Amenorrhea due to ovarian inactivity, secondary amenorrhea Carminative for gas/colic External for lice, insect bites/stings, englarged glands: lymph, thyroid, breasts Difficult, scanty dark urine due to acute/chronic nephritis Albuminuria, anuria, urinary obstruction: increases KI function therefore decreases albumin output (does not dilute it; may be due to flavonoids) Anuria/oligura in hemorrhagic nephritis Flatulence, vomiting, due to stomach cramps/nausea Convalescence after cholera, dysentry, diarrhea (aids in gastric function) Respiratory expectorant for bronchitis and catarrh Amenorrhea

Petroselinum sativum (Parsley)

Parsley oil Volatile oil (apiol) Fatty oil Vit A, C, Ca, Iron

Diuretic Carminitive Nutrient vitamin A, C: Ca, Fe Emmenagogue (high doses) Anti-microbial

Solidago odora (Goldenrod)

Volatile oil (pinene, candinene) Saponins Flavonoids

Diuretic Renal tonic Carminitive Expectorant

"Goldenrod rust" - coleosporin solidagenesis - avoid if dark mold spots on leaves - can cause abortion, emanciate, or kill animals Volatile oils toxic in large doses Tx: cease or avoid use

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Thuja occidentalis (Yellow cedar)

Volatile oils (thujone, alphathujone, pinene) Diuretic Prinipicrin (bitter glycoside GU anti-septic similar to quercetin) Emmenagogue Tannins

Urinary incontinence, senile dribbling Enuresis in children due to infection or irritation GU catarrh, gonorrhea Chronic prostatitis Fever, cough, bronchitis (aids expectoration) External for: anal fissures, anal/rectal prolapse, warts, condylomata, syphilic chancre, leukorrhea, gonorrhea, trachoma, gangrene, ulcers, bed sores, malignant growth, Bronchitis, diptheria, coup Irritations of GU mucus membranes Chronic cystitis, renal catarrh and mucus in urine Respiratory system: mucus, hypersecretion with cough from irritation Impotence or frigidity associated with sexual nervousness, anxiety, depression, neurosis, excess sex or age Irritation and burning in urinary tract or in colds and coughs when the person has lots of mucus; as if drowing in the mucus Uterine hemorrhage Poor milk production Painful burning with cystitis Nettle juice: increases urine excretion Myocardial insufficiency to decrease load on heart Excess mucous discharge: chronic cystitis, diarrhea/dysentry, gastric secretions with emesis/eructations, colonic mucous discharge. Infant cholera. BPH (nocturia, dysuria, urinary retention - root preferred) Nutritive: anemia, recovery from chronic illness Decreased capillary fragility Gout and rheumatism Deficient lactation in nursing mothers Post traumatic swellings External: rubifacient for eczema, neuraliga and rhematic pain: lumbago, sciatica, tendonitis, sprain. Warts. Alopecia. Dysuria - burning and cutting at close of urination Nagging tenderness in bladder and urethra; chronic cystitis Cloudy and bloody urine (+ leukocytes, nitrates) Post menopausal women Gargles for tonsilitis, sore throat, scarlatina Topical: poultice for boils on nose, acne, and resistant ulcerations, swollen cervical glands, malg ulcers, erisipelas UT inflammation/irritation (UB/urethral tract), Chronic cystitis, anura, gonorrhea. Bladder symptoms in children Renal calculi, gravel, phosphate and uric acid crystals Dropsy of KI or HT origin, tonic to circulatory system (heart and peripheral blood vessels)

Alpha-thujone (volatile oil) - irritant to CNS, HT stimulant OD: GI irritant, convulsions (cerebral lesions), hypotension, coma, death Tx: emesis, GI lavage, cathartic, monitor heart, establish respiration, seizures (IV diazepam) CI: pregnancy (abortifacient)

Turnera aphrodisiaca (Damiana)

Essential oils (cineol, cymol, pinene) Urinary nervine Arbutin Hydrocyanic glycoside Bitters, tannins, resins

Urtica urens (Dwarf stinging nettle)

Formic acid

Anti-hemorrhagic Astringent Galactogogue

Formic acid: causes stinging and raised red irritation of the skin. Tx: avoid contact, water CI: pregnancy - uterine contraction Caution with diuretic meds so as not to exacerbate diuresis Anti-dote: rumex spp, platago major Symptom relief for BPH. Inhibits SHBG, inhibits prostate cell metabolism and growth Anti-inflammatory: decreses number of cytokines, decreases acute phase proteins, asthma Better than placebo for allergic rhinitis (hay fever) MI, decreases BP, CNS depressant in high doses Toxicity: contact dermatitis from formic acid. Tx: avoid contact and flush with water. Rumex spp to antidote and cool skin. Caution in preg. Inhibits E. coli from adhering to urinary tract cells fructose inhibits adhesion and slows replication; lectins may attach to bacterial wall and cause lysis; proanthrocyanidins are antiox and maybe anti-carcinogenic Some efficacy in bladder CA Non toxic Slight diuretic effect caused by NaCl secretion: may effect BP (hypotensive due to diuresis) Decrease blood glucose - rabbits Increase secretion of bile Increased platelet counts and PT

Genitourinary System

Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle)

Astringent Galactagogue Formic acid (and lots of other Diuretic stuff!) Rubefacient Counter-irritant (fresh herb)

Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)

Bitter glucosides (oxyoccin similar to arbutin) Urinary anti-septic Organic acids Anti-inflammatory Anthrocyanins Prophylactic Fructose

Zea mays (Corn silk)

Diuretic Volatile oils GU sedative (for spasm and Organic acids, sugars, gums irritation)

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