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Plant Constituents Actions Indications Pharmacology/Toxicity

Fever with moist skin (can be dry), strong pulse, flushed Dec BP and HR with long term use
Short painful cough/hack that lasts for weeks Fresh plant more potent than dry
#1 herb for PLEURISY Galitoxin can irritate mucous mem
Glucosides (asclepidine, Expectorant (cathartic with
Asclepias tuberosa Patchy infiltrates or linear pattern on radiograph V high doses --> resp paralysis
asclepione) higher dose)
(Pleurisy root) <motion (as clip to chair) OD: N/V, GI upset, D, anorexia, death
Resins (galitoxin) Anti-tussive
Inflammation of serious membranes of thoracic cavity Tx: Emesis, gastric lavage, cathartics, hydration and
PNS stimulator
Usually unilateral electrolyte replacement
Wants to hold chest CI: preg. uterine stimulant.
Aids expectoration and improves expansion of lungs (lung pump!)
Dyspnea, pale face, cyanotic lips, anxious, soft small irregular Alkaloids: inc depth and rate of respiration - use only for
Aspidosperma quebracho Alkaloids (aspidosamine, compressible pulse, palpitations with cough short term
(Quebracho = breaking the quebrachine) Chronic heart and lung disease Resinous alkaloids: antimicrobial and aids expectoration,
axe) Tannins Cardiac asthma, emphysema (tripod position) leads to mucosal irritation
Hemoptysis with TB Tannins: inc HR and BP
Low vitality

What a SPAZZ - laryngeal/bronchial/arterial spasm

Expectorant Dry irritating, persistant cough (spasmodic, explosive, expulsive)
Inc heart rate and elasticity
Glycosides (napthoquinone) Sedative (cough) Dryness worse at night
Drosera rotundifolia Glycosides appear to work on microbes that cause
Essential oils (small amount) Anti-spasmodic Patient hoarse, children anxious
(Sundew) periodontal disease
Flavonoids Anti-tussive Cough assoc with measles, whooping cough, TB, bronchitis, dry
Immune System - Cough

High doses darken urine

Spasmolytic asthma
Arteriosclerosis, angina, chest pain

Used for weight loss (appetite supression)

Max dose in canada is 24mg/day
Relaxes bronchi smooth muscles and vasoconstricts skin
Used in TCM to treat asthma for > 5000 years
Arial Parts: Diaphoretic and ab viscera
Acute asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, emphysema (helps break
Arial: Alkaloids (ephedrine- Stimulant Increases BP, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-pyretic
up spasms)
diuretic) Astringent Dilates pupils
Ephedra sinica Spasmodic conditions of the bronchi
Phytosterols Decongestant OD: N/V, sweat, vertigo, tremors, insomnia, palpitations,
(Ma Huang) Stimulates SNS
Root: ephedrine, tannin, Expectorant convulsions, hypertensive crisis
Root used for sweat and diarrhea
saponin, flavone, oil Diuretic Tx: emesis, GI lavage, charcoal. Palpitations: B-blocker,
Root: Diaphoretic siezures: diazepam, V tach: Lidocaine, HT crisis:
Phentolamin or Nitroprusside
CI: MAO inhibitor (can lead to HT crisis). Yin deficiency,
anorexia, insomnia, preg, lactation, suicidal disposition

Eczema’s such as poison oak and ivy, dry irritated tissues such
as dermatitis - resins decrease pruritis and dec spread of irritation
Chronic cough with abundant secretions – throat may be dry, but
Eriodictyon californicum Resins Sialogogue and Carminative
lungs are wet, pneumonia, phthisis (difficult to expectorate, sputum Essential oil - eriodictyol - irritates mucous membranes
(Yerba Santa) Flavonoids (eriodictyol) (aids in digestion)
is deep)
Bitter tonic
Anorexia, impaired digestion, emanciation
Soothes dry, irritating persistent cough

Expectorant Cold extremities with cold perspiration, perspiration during chills Bug repellant
Anti-periodic Sense of weight and coldness in intestines Inhibits mast cell degranulation and cyt p450
Volatile oils (eucalyptol) Anti-septic/disinfectant Yellow mucopurulent discharges OD: dec BP, cold, pale, gastroenteritis, death
Eucalyptus globules
Flavonoids (quercitin) Anti-bacterial Wet asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, mycoplasma, malaria, Gleet Tx: nux-vomica (causing emesis), beladonna (slows
Rubifacient Externally for aching joints, sprains, congestion. Lymph congestion peristalsis), monitor 24 hr creatinine
Febrifuge and bruises. CI: hypotension, inflamed KI or GI tract
Flu with deep muscle and bone pain along the rib cage; feels bones
are broken - bone pain due to influenza
Essential oil (tremerol) SOB and hard full pulse (like a bone)
Febrifuge Polysacc are immune stimulatory (inc phagocytosis)
Flavonoids (quercitin, Cough with measles, asthma, hoarseness, common cold
Emetic (high doses) Essential oil tremerol - drying dec concentration
Eupatorium perfoliatum eupatorin) Persistent embarrassed cough, chest pain and dyspnea, severe or
Anti-periodic OD: N/V, anorexia, thirst, constipation, muscle tremors,
(boneset) Terpenoids (sesquiterpene periodic fever, muscle spasm, swollen, moist skin
Stomachic (bitter) rapid shallow resp, coma, death
lactones) Turbid urine, inc frequency
Bacteriostatic Tx: GI lavage, saline cathartic, electrolytes
Bitter glucosides Alcoholism (to stimulate digestion)
Intermittent headache (digestion related), GI/musc spasm
Tertiary syph - bone pain

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Amino acids Lead colic Ursolic acid: anti-viral (good for EBV), inhibits tumors
Flavonoids Headache with cough Essential oil irritates mucus mem in high doses
Glechoma hederaceae Expectorant
Steroids Deep lung cough with pectoral pain Tx: flush with water
(Creeping Charlie) GI and Mental Stimulant
Terpenoids (ursolic acid) Dry asthma with cough CI: essential oil: GI and oral ulcers, sensitive skin, dermatitis
Volatile oils Hypochondrial pain and distension

Phlegm can be heard but cannot be coughed out
Anti-spasmodic Dec HR - do not use in bradycardic patients
Resin (grendolin) Non-productive/dry cough
Sialagogue Se and Mg overdose
Grindelia robusta Alkaloids (grendaline) Cough with cyanosis, dyspnea, arrhythmias
Respiratory stimulant Caution with chronic renal disease (resins)
(Gum plant) EO (barenol, pinene) Asthma, walking pneumonia
High in selenium External for skin ulcers, burns, rashes, herpes zoster, poison
Cardiac tonic
Immune System - Cough

Glycosides (diosmine) GI catarrh where mucous --> congestion and poor digestion
Volatile oils (limonen, B- Sore throat assoc with cold and flu - gargle Muscle relaxant for Gi spasms (IBS)
Hyssopus officinalis Dypeptic
pinene - both monoterpenes) Tea for bronchitis and wet asthma Caution with GI bleeding and spongy KI due to volatile
(Hyssop) Vulnerary
Resins External for bruises, trauma, ulcers - not as good as Grindelia. oils
Expectorant (weak)
Tannins Soothing for eczema and psoriasis.

Chronic wet cough (especially in elderly) with substernal pain,

influenza, wet humid asthma, profuse secretions
Volatile oils (sesquiterpene
Teasing, persistent wet cough Immunostimulant
lactones, helenin, inula)
Inula helenium Anti-tussive Female with thick catarrhal leukorrhea (douche) Sesqiterpene lactones - inh many cell lines (e.g. M.
(elecampagne) Mild diaphoretic Anorexia & sluggish liver (hepatic torpor) tuberculae)
Ab atonia, relief by flatus, dyspepsia, weak digestive process Volatile oils irritate mucous membranes

Sensation of suffocation, feeling of heaviness (like someone is

sitting on chest - angina/neuralgia), short laboured breathing Increases resistance to diptheria
(dyspnea); bronchial mucous; tachycardia Alkaloids - lower doses stim nicotinic receptors, in higher
Emetic (only large doses)
Rigid os & rheumatism doses they supress - (Stimulant to PNS in low doses and
Alkaloids (piperidine - Sialigogue
Lobelia inflata Acute asthma SNS in high doses)
toxicity) Stimulant - SNS and PNS
(Indian tobacco) Smoker’s cough - decreases nicotine cravings; croup, OD: esophageal burning, N/V, stupor, tremor, pinpoint
Bitter glycosides (lobelacrin) Dec CO2 threshold to inc resp
pneumonia, bronchitis (spasm) pupils, rapid pulse, sinus arrhythmia, death
Hypertension d/t over-stimulation Tx: GI lavage, emesis
Smooth muscle spasm CI: Heart problems, pregnancy

Chronic larynx and bronchial mucous mem irritation

Stimulant Cough and cold with chronic catarrh, generally chilly Volatile oils used for IBS
Diterpenes (marrubin) Tonic Asthma with copious amounts of mucous that is hard to expectorate Marubin - expectorant and inc bile flow
Marrubium vulgare
Essential oils Expectorant - can hear but non-productive Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive
Vitamin C Diuretic and purgative and high Dyspepsia Caution: high doses diuretic, v high doses purgative.
doses Laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, smoker's CI preg: may stim uterus
cough with catarrh
Fever with URTI (common cold, sinusitis, hay fever, laryngitis)
Bronchial catarrh assoc with poor digestion
Resin/oleoresin (salicin) Expectorant Caullophyloid: anti-coagulant
Deep hoarse voice
Populus balsamifera Mucilage Anti-pyretic Salicin only activated if right microflora is present, action via
Rheumatism (topical resins), ulcerations (EO probably
(Balm of gilead) Volatile oil Anti-rheumatic COX-1 inhibition
Caullophylloid Bitter tonic CI: allergy to poplar pollen, salicylates

Chronic persistant irritating cough, chronic smoker Prunasin aids with digestion
Bronchitis, whooping cough Prunasin can be made into cyanide
Prunasin (source of cyanide) Anti-tussive Expectorant for profuse mucopurulent discharge OD: difficult respiration, spasms, stupor, vocal cord
Prunus serotina
Organic acids Mild sedative (specific to Heart pain due to coughing (palpitations, weak pulse, poor paralysis, twitching, convulsions, coma, death
(Wild black cherry)
Tannins, resins, VO respiratory tract) circulation) Tx: IV diazepam (seizures), GI lavage, B12 counteracts
Dyspnea, anorexia (due to bitters) cyanide
External for wounds, ulcers, opthalmias CI: preg - cyanide is teratogenic
Historically for fevers due to Yersinia pestis Sesquiterpines - inti-inflammatory (inh lipoxygenase, down
Smooth muscle spasm regulates LT synthesis)
Sesquiterpenes (petasin) Anti-spasmodic (asthma,
Petasites hybridus Smasmotic cough - asthma, whooping cough Migraine prophylaxis
Flavonoids cough, migraine, urinary tract)
(Butterburr) Poor digestion with colic, obstructed bile flow Prevents SI ulcers, dec seasonal rhinitis
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids Cholagogue
Obstructed urinary flow (especially from Gleet) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: unsaturated are hepatotoxic and
Menstrual colic carcinogenic. No studies on saturated.
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Tickling, dry, irritated throat & cough
Burning in air passages on inspiration, anxious
Immune System - Cough

Red, irritated mucosa; cold extremities Isoquinoline alkaloids can cause gastric irritation, contact
Stomach queasy and uneasy with nausea dermatitis
Isoquinoline alkaloids - Ulcerous skin lesions (eschariotic) OD: N/V/D, irregular pulse, cold extremeties, dilated pupils,
Sanguinaria canadensis Emmenagogue
berberine, sanguinarine Amenorrhea (anemic and chilly, prone to headaches); vicarious glaucoma, severe HA, inc thirst, vertigo, shock, coma, death
(Bloodroot) Eschariotic
Organic acids (citric, malic) menses Tx: Charcoal and GI lavage, demulcent
Emetic (at high doses)
Hepatitis A (small doses) CI: preg, breast feeding
Topical: Cervical dysplasia, anti-fungal (warts, scabies, ringworm) Cautions: acute angle glaucoma
Snuff: Nasal polyps

Cold infusion: Dyspepsia with weak irritated stomach, food

Anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant
sensitivity, poor appetitie, IBS
Carminative Mosquito prophylaxis
Warm infusion: flatulence, HA, diaphoretic
Spasmolytic Volatile oil thymol - mucosal irritant
Resins Tincture: Smasmolytic, sore throat, whooping cough
Thymus vulgaris Anti-tussive OD: N/V, heat in stomach, perspiration then chill, stupor,
Tannins Oil inhalation: asthma, lung cancer, bronchial diseae, diptheria
(Thyme) Expectorant death
Volatile oils - thymol Topical: Antiseptic, anti-microbial. Putrid pus, neuralgia, reumatic
Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal Tx: flush with water, GI lavage
pain, dry cough
Vasodilator CI: pregnancy (b/c spasmolytic)
Encapsulated: anti-candida
Caution: dilute essential oils
Fomentation: directly on chest for cough, to warm and vasodilate

Allergic rhinitis and asthma

Alkaloids toxic to some cell lines
Tylophora asthmatica Alkaloids (tylophorine) Emetic (large doses) Asthma - chew and swallow leaf (1/day)
Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial
(Indian ipecac) Steroid Expectorant
Strong stimulation on adrenal glands - can produce cortisol
Chewing leaf can cause nausea - this is good!

Irritated mucosal membranes with cough (all types)

Spasmodic respiratory conditions: laryngitis, pharyngitis, whooping
Pyrolizidine alkaloids
cough, asthma
Triterpenoids, Volatile oils,
Tussilago farfara Anti-tussive GI catarrh, stimulates digestion because of bitters Stronger anti-tussive than expectorant. Anti-pyretic in animal
Bitter glucosides, Tannins,
(Coltsfoot) Expectorant Silicosis, chronic emphysema, scrofula studies.
Mucilage, Flavonoids,
HA with nasal obstruction and sinusitis. Vertigo from nasal
Organic acids
Scoliosis related to pott's disease in TB
Internal: nervous bronchial irritation with dry hoarse cough,
Demulcent hoarseness, < lying. Substitute for tobacco, for sore throats,
Bio-flavonoids (hesperidin,
Anti-tussive asthma. Irritated GU, cancer of the GU systems
Verbascum thapus verbaside, accubin) Smoking in excess amounts with Datura stramonium and
Expectorant External: anodyne for otitis, rheumatic joints, ulcers, tumors,
(Mullein) Essential oils, Saponins, KNO3 may cause vertigo
GU sedative, anodyne tonsilitis, sore throat, mumps
Mucilage (leaf), resin
Diuretic (weak action) Flowers (steeped in oil): for otitis and asthma
Tea: for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung CA
Influenza with perspiration, cold Burning in the mouth and throat if overused
Respiratory congestion, coughs OD of straight alkaloids: stumbling, sleepiness, dilated
Alkaloids (duboisine/ Diaphoretic
Symplocarpus foetidus Wet asthma pupils
hyocyanine) Expectorant
Immune System - Cough

(Skunk cabbage) Substitue for atropine in glaucoma or fundal disease OD of entire botanical: slurred speech, dilated pupils
Gums, resins, tannic acid Anti-spasmodic
Eclectics: antidote to mushroom poison (antagonizes muscarinic (impaired vision), loss of motor control, tired, loss of
action on heart) sphincter control, inc then dec in temperature, seizure
Smoker's cough, sharp pain on coughing
Aching pectorals < deep breathing/exertion/fever
Anti-tussive HA with sinusitis or hayfever, sneezing/ corrhyza with hayfever
Pulmonaria offcinalis Silicic acid, silicon
Expectorant Pleurisy, acute bronchitis
(Lungwort, Sticta) Minerals (K, Mg, Ca)
Anti-rheumatic External: Mild burns and traumas, swelling, bruises,
Saponins, Tannins
haemorrhoids, elarged lymph nodes and thyroid

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Immune S
Cough with pain in shoulders, extrinsic repiratory muscles - pain to
occiput - rheumatism
Soft, wiry pulse
Muscular pain. Pains < deep breath (soreness as if bruised)
Sticta pulmonaria Chills, fever, night sweats of TB
Stictic acid
(Lungwort) Cough: raspy, wheezing, dry, persistant, especially July-Aug,
hayfever, summer influenza
Bronchitis, laryngitis, whooping cough, croup, catarrhal asthma
La grippe - hot watery mucus, thick, yellow green, bloody

Internally: Uterine hemorrhage and profuse flow; pale with cold

Dilates blood vessels: inc circulation, acts as diaphoretic
extremities. Menorrhagia and post-partum hemorrhage
Anti-microbial and anti-pyretic.
Astringent GI UPSET
Cinnamyl acetic aldehyde Analgesic for spasmodic pain in smooth muscle
Anti-spasmodic Hemoptysis
Cinnamomum cassia and ester, eugenol Internal toxicity: N/V, KI damage, coma
Carminative URTI: patient looks pale, cold, chilly and has trouble shaking
(Cinnamon) Tannins, Lignans, fiber, Tx: emesis, GI lavage, charcoal, monitor KI and LIV
Anti-microbial infections
starch enzymes.
Anti-diabetic Externally: fungal infections, over spine for coughs, over abdomen
External toxicity: redness, burning, dermatitis. Treat with
for babies with restless colic. Children for sleeping.
Immune System - Infection


Excess mucous or discharge - gleet, respiratory catarrh

Laryngitis, wet asthma, bronchitis, pharyngitis - conditions with Anti-inflamm, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, antitussive,
Resins (commiphoic acid) profuse secretions. Mucous difficult to expectorate. expectorant
Gum Leukorrhea or amenorrhea - dragging sensation in pelvis Schistomosiasis - eradication
Commiphora myrrh Anti-septic
Essential oil and bitter Dyspepsia with pale tongue and halitosis Non-irritating, non-sensitizing, non-phototoxic
(Myrrh) Historically for vermifuge and
(cresol) Apthous stomatitis, ulcerated throat and tonsils, gingivitis and CI: documented hypoglycemic effects, so may interfere
gangrenous ulcers
Organic acids spongy gums with anti-diabetic therapy
External: gangrene ulcers, stomatitis, inflamed mucosa Caution on preg due to emmenagogue properties

Comparable to vit E in rats

Saponins cytotoxic in some CA lines, may benefit B-amyloid
Alkaloids, tannins, iridoid Used in TCM - root is bitter, pungent & warming protein (Alzheimer's)
Dipsacus spp. glycosides, saponins, organiz Used to treat infections, especially lyme disease (Borrelia) Organic acids prevent atherosclerosis
acids, polysaccharides Muscle and tendon symptoms Polysaccharides are immune modulating: stimulate
phagocytes and lymphocytes
Terminates pregnancies
Profuse mucous discharge with poor circulation -
Apthous stomatitis with halitosis, ulcers, foul stools
Myricitin has choleretic, bacteriocidal and spermatocidal
Dysentry, mucoenteritis, measles, typhoid, scarlet fever, malaria,
Flavonoids (mytricitrin) activity
Expectorant jaundice
Myrica cerifera Tannins, terpenoids Myricadiol has mineralcorticoid activity
Sialogogue Stimulates digestion if taken before meals
(Bayberry) (myticadiol), gum, resin, CI: large doses may interfere with existing hypertensive,
Astringent Stimulates blood production, nutrition in very weak (slow pulse,
starch hypotensive or steroid therapy
low temp, yellow tonge)
CI: preg (mineralcorticoid and carcinogenic)
Externally: for spongy, flabby, bleeding gums. Gargle for sore
throat or scarletina. Vaginal douche for muco-leukorrhea,
excess bleeding
Arabinogalactan: long
Chronic non-responding GU infections
branched polysacc of
Larix occidentalis Chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, rhinitis, URTIs Anti-inflamm, anti-allergic, anti-complement
glactose and arabinose Immune stimulant
(Larch) Purpura hemorrhage, passive hemorrhage Inc NK cell cytotixicity, inc phagocytosis
Trace of uronic acid
Chronic antibiotic use in children, otitis media
Fresh leaf: refrigerant, diuretic (eaten in salad) OD: N/V/D, mucosal irritation, renal damage
Infusion: fevers and inflammation Tx: induce emesis and then give milk or water to dilute,
Rumex acetosa Oxalic acid (binds iron-fatal)
Roasted leaf: wrapped around tumors, wens, boils to induce charcoal
(Green sorrel) Anthroquinones
suppuration IV Ca gluconate for tetany and hypocalcemia, maintain
Immune System - Infection

Fresh juice: cutaneous tumors or injected into tumors fluids while monitoring BUN, Ca, 24hr creatinine
Used for treponema infections, scrofula and CA
Rumex acetosella
Patients with difficulty urinating (destructive tissue process)

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Immune System - Infection
Dry, irritated, red mucous membrances
Skin lesions that appear red moist and irritated
Alterative Blood dyscrasia (leukemia) with weakness
Alkaloids (stillingine) Toxicity due to sylvacrol (alcohol)
Stillingia sylvatica Cathartic Paroxysmal, hoarse, croupy cough, irritating, cough of cold
Alcohol (sylvacrol) OD: GI burning, D/N/V, tachycardia, muscular weakness
(Queen's root) Cholagogue winter
Gum, starch, oil and prostration
Astringent Anti-syphilitic (tertiary) - cachexia of tertiary syphilis
Weak pale sick children with anemia, anoreia, GI and LIV atony,
otitis, debility and weakness
Historical use: daily as tea to ward off disease and "give life"; bone
Alkaloids inc Ig's in cancer patients
pain and wound healing; KI cleanser; recovery post childbirth;
Anti mutagenic, appears to need ST acid for effect
gonorrhea; dysentry; female urinary tract cancer
Uncaria tomentosa/ Rynchophylline decreases BP, HR, cholesterol,
Alkaloids (rynchophylline, Infections
guainensis Immunostimulant vasodilates heart and central and peripheral BV's (inhibitis
hisutine) Female urinary tract cancer; leukemia
(Cat's claw) SNS)
Hisutine is a diuretic, decreases bladder contractions
Arthritis, bursitis, rhematism
Historically for disinfectant for cuts, infections, fungus, impetigo
Usnea barbata Organic acids (usnic acid, Anti-viral: use for patients refractory to Echinacea spp. Usnic acid inhibits gram + bacteria. Antidotes tetanus and
Anti-microbial: anti-bacterial,
(Old Man's Beard) barbatic acid) Rheumatoid arthritis: jts that are < from Echniacea spp diptheria toxins. Smooth muscle relaxant.
Douche intravaginally for Trichomonas vaginalis
Native Americans used this for fever, GI colic and spasm, and as a
Iridoid glycosides hemostatic. Epilepsy. Glycosides are toxic, have an analgesic effect
(verbenanine) Fever and HA associated with cold or flu Verbanine: inc milk flow in lactation. Inhibits SNS
Verbena hastata Expectorant
Essential oil (limonene) Throat and lung congestion, with spasm nerves of heart, blood vessels, intestines, salivary glands.
(Blue vervain) Anti-periodic
Flavonoids (luteolin, Liver dysfunction, worms, jaundice Promotes blood coagulation. Inc urinary output in
scutellarin) Irregular menses with dysmenorrhea Schistosomiasis.
Topically: leaves in rheumatism, wound healing, ulcers

Historically: as tea for splenitis, anemia, dysentry.

GI and LIV disorders with englarged spleen and possible GI
Organic Acids (ceonothic) bleeding: more chronic congestion/inflammation like malaria,
Ceanothus americanus Alkaloids (integerrin) thalasemia, sickle cell anemia, mono, TB, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Ceanothic acids inhibit bacteria that cause gingivitis
(New Jersey Tea) Flavonoids Ciprofloxatine cased hepatosplenomegaly Useful for treatment of infections, cancer with splenomegaly
Tannins Spleen hypertrophy with sallow, doughy skin and expressionless
Cough, bronchitis, dry cough, weak lungs

Historical: treat ulcers and nodular growths of the skin and

mucous membranes (on or under the skin)
Organic acid Lymphatic system tonic - lymphadenitis anywhere in the body
Immune System - Lymphatic System

Galium aparine Iridoid glucosides Exanthem diseases (rubella, rubeola, varicella, roseola, fifth's) Decreases BP without decreasing HR
(Cleavers) (asperuloside) Treatment of UTI's associated with pain (anuria caused by stones, Anti-cancer for leukemia
Tannins KI and BL inflammation, gonorrhea)
External: psoriasis, eczema, lichen planus. Cancer nodules or
Historical use: secondary syphilis
Thyroid or Lymphatic enlargement More effective/stronger than taraxacum for Liv cleansing
GI/endocrine: bilious HA or fever with nausea <motion, vomiting, Toxicity - oleoresin (iricin).
and indigestion <fatty food. HA starts in occiput --> eyes and Topically: contact irritant. Tx: soap and water.
Oleoresins (iresin, iridin) Lymphatic alterative
forehead. Hepatitis with constipation, steatorrhea, jaundice. Acute Internally: increase salivation in very high doses (known as
Iris versicolor Organic acid (salicylic acid) Cholegogue
diarrhea/dysentry. Chronic pancreatitis especially with vegetable Hg). Tx: decrease dose.
(Blue flag) alpha-phytosterol, volatile oil, Laxative (with fresh root and/ or
splenomegaly: blanched or pale skin (anemia), dropsy (due to OD: Oral/GI/esophageal burning, N/V/D with heat in
gum, tannins higher doses)
stones and excessive alcohol consumption) rectum, GI colic, HA.
Reproductive system: uterine hypertrophy and enlarged ovary. Tx: flush with saline cathartic, emesis, GI lavage, monitor
Leukorrhea. Ulceration of cervical os (HPV). Spermatorrhea. hydration and electrolytes
Skin: greasy and oily. Eczema, acne, psoriasis, pigmentation

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Purgative: enhances peristalsis, may produce gastric pain
and severe diarrhea in large doses
Historical use: diptheria
Convulsive: increases resp and BP, after longer use
Saponins (phytolaccagenin) Hard, indurated, painful, glandular swellings (orchitis due to
Lymphatic respiration and HR decrease
Lectins mumps, mastitis, diptheria)
Phytolacca americana Anti-viral Diuretic: increase blood flow to KI
Formic acid, tannins, Oral: pale mucosa, ulcerations, cough, sore throat, SOB,
(Poke root) Emetic <10 berries fatal in thildren. <2g root.
phytolaccotoxin diptheria, difficult respiration due to extent of illnees
Purgative, Laxative OD: N/V tingling throughout body, hypotension, resp failure,
Alkaloid (phytolaccine) External: conjunctivitis, mastitis, lymphadenopathy, ulcers/
plasmocytosis, death
hemorrhoids, blisters
Tx: emesis, GI lavage, monitor vitals, diazepam if
Deep colicky lumbar pain with unseasy sensation from KI and
hips to umbilicus and genitals (tip of urethra)
Chronic GB problems with low ST acid
Urinary atony and decreased KI fxn leading to dropsy, dribbling
GU System

Volatile oils
Genitourinary tonic with cough May cause photosensitivity and hypoglycemia
Agrimonia eupatoria Bitters
Astringent Cyctitis, incontinence, gonorrhea, catarrhal discharge Hypotensive in high doses
(Agrimony) Tannins
Bitter Urine has a muddy smell and look Hypertensive in low doses
Coumarin (agrimol)
UTI with dropsy
Chronic mucous discharge: leukorrhea, icterus/itchy skin, TB
HA on side of head
External: throat, mouth, tongue ulcers (gargle)
Frequent dysuria (irritable bladder) - pain extends to the back
Chronic cystitis, incipient nephritis (early stages)
Saponins (laevulose, triticin)
Weak diuretic Discharge with urination, gonorrhea
Agropyron repens Organic acid (malic acid,
Anti-irritant Enlarged prostate, chronic prostatitis - often with hematuria Non-toxic
(Couch grass) silicic acid)
Prostatic herb and Tonic Gravel/sediment in urine
B carotene
Gout, rheumatism, joint pain
Europe: spring tonic to get KI working after long winter
Historical use: anuria
Anuria, urethral and cystic irriation, burning, stinging pain with
constant desire to urinate and little urine produced
Ascites, post-scarlatina ascites
Ovarian congestion, cyst with menorrhagia, amenorrhea, edema of
Urethral sedative external genitalia
Apis mellifica Anaphylaxis in acutely allergic individuals, may develop from
Anti-histamine Swollen sore throat with edema, diff swallowing
(Honey Bee) repeated exposures.
Diuretic Urticaria, hives, injury with swelling
Injuries producing swelling/stinging/burning pains
Rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis - Apitherapy - allow a bee to
sting one joint, increase by one bee eact visit
Especially useful in autoimmune conditions
Angina, dropsy
Chronic urinary bladder irritation with a lot of pain, tenesmus,
catarrh, cystitis Increase anti-inflamm effect of prednisolone
Blood, mucus discharge from GU tract (gonorrhea/leukorrhea) Inhibits cell maturation of B lymphocytes
Genitourinary System

Glycosides: arbutin Genitourinary sedative

Weight, dragging or heaviness in loins/urinary tract/ perineal Arbutin and methylarbutin undergo enzymatic reaction in
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Flavonoid: quercitin Renal anti-septic
area, enlarged prostate alkaline environment
(Bearberry) Resins, Tannins, gallic and Not a diuretic
Sensation UB has lost muscle tone, sensation of a presence in Avoid long term use to tannins
ellagic acids
prostate region Symptoms of long term use: GI irritation
GI infection: H. pylori CI: pregnancy (oxytocic)
Alkaline urine
Chronic inflammation of UB and urethral mucus membranes,
Volatile oils (diosphenol, cystitis
Volatile oil diosphenol: may darken urine with brownish
pulegone) Urethral irritation with copious mucopurulent discharge (gleet)
Renal anti-septic precipitate, may cause change in urine odor
Barosma betulina Glycoside (diasmon) Uric acid crystals
Diuretic (weak action) OD: Gastroenteritis, strangury/spasm
(Buchu) Bioflavonoid (similar to Acid urine, constant urgency but no relief with micturation
Carminative Volatile oil - pulegone: uterine stimulation and mucosal
hesperidin) Prostate incontinence
irritation in mice, therefore caution in pregnancy
Ethone, mucilage, Mn For some people their urine will turn brown and may develop a
new odor

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Irritation in the GU tract
Glycoside (arbutin) Alkaline urine
Arbutin: undergoes enzymatic reaction in alkaline
Organic acids (ursolic Catarrh of the bladder with offensive urine, mucus in urine,
Chimaphila umbellate Genitourinary anti-septic environment (kidneys) to become hydroquinone and glucose
acid) mucupurulent urine, hematuria, burning dysuria
(Pipsissewa) Kidney tonic Contact dermatitis from volatile oils in fresh plant
Methyl salicylate Chronic protatic irritation, prostatitis with discharge, gonorrhea
Tannin Scrofula associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy, with
prostatic/urinary tract symptoms
Thiaminase: causes B1 deficiency - caution for long
Internal: Dropsy and supression of urination with dysuria, irritation
term use
of UB. Dropsy of legs, <after menopause. Hematauria due to
Aconitic acid (highest in fresh plant)
gravel/stones. Nocturnal enuresis, chronic UTIs, gleet, Connective
Saponins Chronic deficiency: Beri-beri (wet is CHF, edema. Dry is
tissue weakness (hair, nails); tendon and ligament problems
Equisetum arvense Silica Diuretic neurological)
External: Sitz bath for female pelvis spasm, muscle tone
(Horsetail) Aconitic/equisetic acid, Astringent Tx: GI lavage, emesis, charcoal
changes in pelvis (PMS). Chilbains (frostbie with tingling, burning,
salicilic acid, mucilage CI: hypertension, CV conditions because it may
irritation, itching, chapping, damp cold exposure). Arthritis (RA/OA),
increase potassium excretion, in vitro it has increased
limb fracture. Weak tendons and ligaments, flat arches, eczema,
platelet coagulation
neruodermatitis. Post thrombotic swelling.
Caution CV drugs
Dissolves renal calculi
Edema/dropsy from renal insufficiency, post scarlatina dropsy
Dysuria with frequency, pain and weight from thighs to bladder,
Eupatorium purpureum Oleoresins (euparin, Diuretic milky urine, mucus urine
Euparin: diuretic, anti-lithic
(Gravel root) eupurpurin) Anti-lithic Hematuria from prostatitis
Incontinence from BL irritation in children and in pregnancy
Gout, rhematism
Chronic cough, chronic catarrh, asthma, whooping cough
Aids in the passage of stones
Pain of passing kidney calculus/gravel Does not dissolve stones but eases the irritation they cause
Glucoside (hydrangin)
Acute nephritis on passing
Hydrangea arborescens Acids (sulphuric, phosphoric) Renal sedative
Chronic gleet OD: vertigo, oppression of chest
(Seven barks) Saponins Litholithic
Urethral mucus irritation, especially in post menopausal females Tx: Decrease dose or stop use altogether, can also give
Hepatic pain or irritation white salts or crystals
Irritated bronchi (soothes mucous membranes)

Renal atonia with catarrh/mucus - increases GFR Volatile oils (thujone)

Diuretic Irritation of UB due to gleet, cystitis, pyelonephritis Acute symptoms: catharsis
Volatile oils (pinene,
Bacteriostatic Gout, arthritis with many neurological, muscle, and tendon sx Chronic symptoms: Albuminuria, nephrosis with
Juniperus communis cadinene, camphene)
Anti-septic Dropsy post scarlatina hematuria, oliguria, personality changes, convulsions
(Juniper) Sesquiterpene lactones
Other: urinary sedative, digestive Ascites in chilren Tx: Discontinue use, fluids, monitor electrolytes
aid (due to bitter) Gargle for cough, sore throat, colds; a gentle expectorant CI: pregnancy, lactation
Genitourinary System

Cutting pain Caution with weak kidneys

Dropsy, post-scarlatina dropsy

Oil antimicrobial for UTIs and may stimulate hepatic
Anuria, urinary retention
Diuretic Gonorrhea
Parsley oil Apiol: causes spasms in SI
Carminitive Diuretic for obesity, edema, dropsy, inc BP, night sweats from
Petroselinum sativum Volatile oil (apiol) OD: sense of body heat, vertigo, headache, tinnitus, visual
Nutrient vitamin A, C: Ca, Fe consumption, TB
(Parsley) Fatty oil change, scintillation (light flashes), N/V/D, urticaria, swollen
Emmenagogue (high doses) Amenorrhea due to ovarian inactivity, secondary amenorrhea
Vit A, C, Ca, Iron liver with icterus
Anti-microbial Carminative for gas/colic
Tx: discontinue use, GI lavage, monitor fluids
External for lice, insect bites/stings, englarged glands: lymph,
CI: preg (causes spasms), duodenal ulcers and crohns
thyroid, breasts
Difficult, scanty dark urine due to acute/chronic nephritis
Albuminuria, anuria, urinary obstruction: increases KI function
therefore decreases albumin output (does not dilute it; may be due
"Goldenrod rust" - coleosporin solidagenesis - avoid if
Volatile oil (pinene, Diuretic to flavonoids)
dark mold spots on leaves - can cause abortion,
Solidago odora candinene) Renal tonic Anuria/oligura in hemorrhagic nephritis
emanciate, or kill animals
(Goldenrod) Saponins Carminitive Flatulence, vomiting, due to stomach cramps/nausea
Volatile oils toxic in large doses
Flavonoids Expectorant Convalescence after cholera, dysentry, diarrhea (aids in gastric
Tx: cease or avoid use
Respiratory expectorant for bronchitis and catarrh

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Urinary incontinence, senile dribbling
Enuresis in children due to infection or irritation
Alpha-thujone (volatile oil) - irritant to CNS, HT stimulant
Volatile oils (thujone, alpha- GU catarrh, gonorrhea
OD: GI irritant, convulsions (cerebral lesions), hypotension,
thujone, pinene) Diuretic Chronic prostatitis
Thuja occidentalis coma, death
Prinipicrin (bitter glycoside GU anti-septic Fever, cough, bronchitis (aids expectoration)
(Yellow cedar) Tx: emesis, GI lavage, cathartic, monitor heart, establish
similar to quercetin) Emmenagogue External for: anal fissures, anal/rectal prolapse, warts,
respiration, seizures (IV diazepam)
Tannins condylomata, syphilic chancre, leukorrhea, gonorrhea, trachoma,
CI: pregnancy (abortifacient)
gangrene, ulcers, bed sores, malignant growth, Bronchitis,
diptheria, coup
Irritations of GU mucus membranes
Chronic cystitis, renal catarrh and mucus in urine
Essential oils (cineol, cymol,
Respiratory system: mucus, hypersecretion with cough from
Turnera aphrodisiaca irritation
Arbutin Urinary nervine
(Damiana) Impotence or frigidity associated with sexual nervousness,
Hydrocyanic glycoside
anxiety, depression, neurosis, excess sex or age
Bitters, tannins, resins
Irritation and burning in urinary tract or in colds and coughs when
the person has lots of mucus; as if drowing in the mucus

Uterine hemorrhage Formic acid: causes stinging and raised red irritation of the
Anti-hemorrhagic Poor milk production skin. Tx: avoid contact, water
Urtica urens
Formic acid Astringent Painful burning with cystitis CI: pregnancy - uterine contraction
(Dwarf stinging nettle)
Galactogogue Nettle juice: increases urine excretion Caution with diuretic meds so as not to exacerbate diuresis
Myocardial insufficiency to decrease load on heart Anti-dote: rumex spp, platago major

Excess mucous discharge: chronic cystitis, diarrhea/dysentry,

Genitourinary System

Symptom relief for BPH. Inhibits SHBG, inhibits prostate cell

gastric secretions with emesis/eructations, colonic mucous
metabolism and growth
discharge. Infant cholera.
Anti-inflammatory: decreses number of cytokines,
Astringent BPH (nocturia, dysuria, urinary retention - root preferred)
decreases acute phase proteins, asthma
Galactagogue Nutritive: anemia, recovery from chronic illness
Urtica dioica Formic acid (and lots of other Better than placebo for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
Diuretic Decreased capillary fragility
(Stinging nettle) stuff!) MI, decreases BP, CNS depressant in high doses
Rubefacient Gout and rheumatism
Toxicity: contact dermatitis from formic acid. Tx: avoid
Counter-irritant (fresh herb) Deficient lactation in nursing mothers
contact and flush with water. Rumex spp to antidote and
Post traumatic swellings
cool skin.
External: rubifacient for eczema, neuraliga and rhematic pain:
Caution in preg.
lumbago, sciatica, tendonitis, sprain. Warts. Alopecia.

Dysuria - burning and cutting at close of urination

Inhibits E. coli from adhering to urinary tract cells -
Bitter glucosides (oxyoccin - Nagging tenderness in bladder and urethra; chronic cystitis
fructose inhibits adhesion and slows replication; lectins may
similar to arbutin) Urinary anti-septic Cloudy and bloody urine (+ leukocytes, nitrates)
Vaccinium macrocarpon attach to bacterial wall and cause lysis; proanthrocyanidins
Organic acids Anti-inflammatory Post menopausal women
(Cranberry) are antiox and maybe anti-carcinogenic
Anthrocyanins Prophylactic Gargles for tonsilitis, sore throat, scarlatina
Some efficacy in bladder CA
Fructose Topical: poultice for boils on nose, acne, and resistant
Non toxic
ulcerations, swollen cervical glands, malg ulcers, erisipelas

UT inflammation/irritation (UB/urethral tract), Chronic cystitis, Slight diuretic effect caused by NaCl secretion: may
Diuretic anura, gonorrhea. Bladder symptoms in children effect BP (hypotensive due to diuresis)
Zea mays Volatile oils
GU sedative (for spasm and Renal calculi, gravel, phosphate and uric acid crystals Decrease blood glucose - rabbits
(Corn silk) Organic acids, sugars, gums
irritation) Dropsy of KI or HT origin, tonic to circulatory system (heart and Increase secretion of bile
peripheral blood vessels) Increased platelet counts and PT

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