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Aka: transmission model because it assumes that communication is transmitted in a straightforward manner from sender to receiver. - According to this model, information is ‘sent’ by one person and subsequently ‘received’ and ‘processed’ by another. In this framework, communication is not seen as a problem; once the information has been sent out it will automatically be processed at the other end. Although widely discredited in the academic literature today, the basic schema of the linear model (sender-messagechannel-recipient) still provides the implicit underpinning of many communication initiatives.
Transactional Model - two way exchanges, simultaneous sending and receiving which necessitates audience feedback. Shows fluidity of communication at every moment. Shows that communication is relational. Two people communicate with multiple messages through what may be multiple channels and with parallel messages. As with other models, the messages may be distorted and the people may be distracted, resulting in misunderstanding that fuels and hinders the model. Example Hi there! Well hello, how are you? What are you up to, today? I'm just going to work. What about you?
The interaction communication model is a model representing how communication works when one person speaks and then the other person speaks. There is no feedback in between speaking. For example, a presidential debate. The question is asked of the president elects and that president elect answers. The person asking the question does not provide any sort of feedback for what the president elect has said.
Social and cultural variables have been widely recognized by communication researchers and other social scientists, as playing an important part in determining the way, in which people adopt new ideas and things.
The berlo’s model follows the smcr model this model is not specific to any particular communication. Berlo’s model lives a number of factors under each of the elements : Source: The source is were the message originates. Communication skills – It is the individual’s skill to communicate (ability to read, write, speak, listen etc…) Attitudes – The attitude towards the audience, subject and towards one self for e.g. for the student the attitude is to learn more and for teachers wants to help teach. Knowledge- The knowledge about the subject one is going to communicate for e.g. whatever the teacher communicates in the class about the subject so having knowledge in what you are communicating.
Note: It is not talking about the general knowledge it is all about the knowledge of the subject, so it is the familiarity of what you are communicating. Social system – The Social system includes the various aspects in society like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of society. It is were the communication takes place. For e.g. class room differs from country to country like behaviors, how we communicate etc. Note: We can communicate only to the extent that the social system allows, when we communicate take social system into account. Culture: Culture of the particular society also comes under social system.
All to this model, only if you have the above in the proper or adequate proportion v can communicate. Encoder: The sender of the message (message originates) is referred as encoder, so the source is encoding the message here. Message Content – The beginning to the end of a message comprises its content for e.g. From beginning to end whatever the class teacher speaks in the class is the content of the message. Elements – It includes various things like language, gestures, body language etc, so these are all the elements of the particular message. Content is accompanied by some elements. Treatment – It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which the message is conveyed or the way in which the message is passed on or deliver it. Note: When it is too much treatment also the communication will not happen properly. Structure- The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you structure the message into various parts. Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly arranged then the message will not get to the receiver. Code- The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it could be e.g. language, body language, gestures, music and even culture is a code. Through this you get/give the message or through which the communication takes place or being reached. Note: Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear, improper use may lead to misinterpretation.
Channel- It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The following are the five senses which we use
Hearing Seeing Touching Smelling Tasting
Whatever communication we do it is there either of these channels. Hearing: The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages, interpersonal etc. Seeing: Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message is delivered.
Touching: The sense of touch can be used as a channel to communicate for e.g. we touch and buy food, hugging etc. Smelling: Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g. perfumes, food, charred smell communicates something is burning, we can find out about which food is being cooked etc. Tasting : The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can be tasted and communication can happen.
Note: Despite not mentioning a medium we need to assume that as communication is taking place channels can be any of the 5 senses or combination. Decoder : Who receives the message and decodes it is referred to as decoder. Receiver: The receiver needs to have all the thinks like the source. This model believes that for an effective communication to take place the source and the receiver needs to be in the same level, only if the source and receiver are on the same level communication will happen or take place properly. So source and receiver should be similar For e.g. Communication skills on source side is good then the receiver should equally have good listening skills. We cannot say the entire message passed doesn’t reaches the receiver has it is because the receiver may not good in listening, so only for the effective communication the source and the receiver to be in the same level. Note: Self image differs from person to person, for communicating the person should consider the receiver. Keep the receiver in mind, speak accordingly and give them what they need. Criticism of berlo’s smcr model of communication: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. No feedback / don’t know about the effect Does not mention barriers to communication No room for noise Complex model It is a linear model of communication Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc).
Contexts of Communication
Within the domain of human interaction, there are different types of communication. Each of them occurs in a different context. Contexts are environments in which communication takes place (Adler & Rodman, 1997, p.5 ). Despite the features all share, each has its own characteristics.
Intrapersonal communication means communicating with oneself (Lash, 1995 ). It is an internal dialogue and may take place even in the presence of another individual.
Intrapersonal communication has focused on the role of the self in the communication process that individuals communicate with themselves. The process may be either intentional or unintentional.
Interpersonal Communication Small Group Communication
Interpersonal communication refers to face-to-face communication between people (Dainton & Stafford, 2000 ). Interpersonal communication is the most common communication setting. Small groups are commonly composed of a number of people who work together to achieve some common purposes. In a small group context, many more people have the potential to contribute to the group’s goals (Schultz, 1997 ). For example, in problem-solving groups, the multiple perspectives provided by the different members may prove advantageous.
Organizational communication pertains to communication within and among large, extended environments. This communication is extremely diverse in that organizational communication necessarily entails interpersonal encounters, public speaking opportunities, small group situations, and mediated experiences. Organizations, then, comprise groups that are goal directed (Daniels, Spiker & Papa, 1997, p. 45 ).
Public communication occurs when a group becomes too large for all members to contribute. Hart (2005 ) comments of a major characteristic of public communication: the unequal amount of speaking, as one person or several people deliver remarks to the remaining members. This leads to a second characteristic of public settings: limited verbal feedback.
Mass communication consists of messages that are transmitted to large audiences via broadcast and print media, such as newspaper, radio television and so on. Mass communication differs from interpersonal, small group, and public varieties in several ways (Adler & Rodman, 1997, p.7 ): - Messages are aimed at a large audience without any personal contact between sender and receiver; - Most of the messages sent via mass communication channels are developed by large organizations; - Mass communication is almost always controlled by many gatekeepers, who control the message.
Intercultural communication refers to the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimize antagonism (Gonzalez, Houston & Chen, 2004, p. 5 ). For this purposes, culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behaviors. It refers to coherent group of people whether resident wholly or partly within state territories, or existing without residence in any particular territory.
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