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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study The rapid development in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has

made tremendous changes in the twenty-first century, as well as affected the demands of modern societies. Recognizing the impact of new technologies on the workplace and everyday life, todays educational institutions try to restructure their educational programs and classroom facilities, in order to minimize the teaching and learning technology gap between developed and the developing countries. This restructuring process requires effective diffusion of technologies into existing context in order to provide learners with knowledge of specific subject areas, to promote meaningful learning and to enhance professional productivity. Tomei,(2005). The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Ghanaian schools and African countries is generally increasing and dramatically growing. Tella and Adeyinka (2007). However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being diffused and used in high schools in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICTs are being diffused and used by teachers in Ghanaian schools. There is also an assumption that there are wide gaps in the use of ICTs between rural and urban schools. Throughout the world, many countries have introduced Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into schools via different courses of action. Their use is also underlined by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2001) as a necessity for improving quality in teaching and

learning. Technology involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities. In other words, technology can change or alter how people access, gather, analyze, present, transmit, and simulate information. The impact of technology is one of the most critical issues in education according to Webber, (2003). At the inception of the millennium, Ghanas education authorities embarked on a number of projects to introduce ICTs into the Ghanaian education set up; especially at the basic and secondary school levels. For instance, in the middle of the 1990s, educational providers realized that Ghanaian professionals could not compete on the global market for jobs, because they were limited in skill, especially in the area of Information Technology. Subsequently, the authorities incorporated the study of ICTs as part of the study of science. The government of Ghana with the collaboration of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), philanthropists and Parent-Teacher Associations built about 110 science resource centres to help the teaching of science and ICTs. However, initiators found that the various programs were disintegrated, unstructured and did not cover all the schools Nyarko, (2007) The use of information and communication technology (ICT) creates a powerful learning environment as it transforms the learning and teaching process in which students deal with knowledge in an active, self directed and constructive way. ICT is not just regarded as a tool, which can be added to or used as a replacement of existing teaching methods. ICT is seen as an important instrument to support new ways of teaching and learning. It should be used to develop students skills for cooperation, communication, problem solving and lifelong learning. However, Africa has witnessed the development of ICTs in various sectors over the last decade including education. The change from teacher-centred education system to learner centred education the world over in the past few years contributes to the use of ICTs in education.

Borrowing from the word Knowledge Driven world as conceived by Hawkins, (2004) it means that, education reform practices should focus on equal access and quality of education which should highlight the importance of change in the education sector through the use of ICTs and equipping new generations with enhanced skills to operate in the 21st century. The use of ICTs in Ghana and African countries generally is increasing and dramatically growing. Information technologies are deemed necessary for economic survival, social change and international-business competition; international governments adoption of these tools reflects an awareness of that unavoidable fact Ojo and Awuah, (1998). However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being used in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICTs are being introduced into schools in developing countries. Ojo and Awuah, (1998). Looking at the developing countries according to these authors, there is generally limited access time per month using ICTs by both the teachers and students, and even less time spent with reliable Internet access. It should be noted that availability of ICTs vis--vis access in term of ratio of teachers and students differs significantly. Despite this, the new and emerging technologies challenges the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed. While information communication technology is an important area of study in its own right, it is having a major impact across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills as stated by Fowowe, (2006). Rapid communication plus increased access to ICTs in the home, at work, and in educational establishment, could mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity in which the pace of technological change forces constant evaluation of teaching process itself.

Formerly, the term IT was used to mean ICT, the term which was synonymous with computer but as the passage of time, it covered other equipment created to enhance acquisition, storage and dissemination of information materials. Most of these equipments were initially confined to the vicinity of offices. Libraries in the course of time embraced the use of these equipments to carry out their day-to-day activities as usage was adapted to carry out some routine activities. Its functions do not end there. The current issue is the use of ICTs in the classroom by the teachers. This includes specifically the use of computers, Internet, telephone, digital camera, data, projector, and so on. As the world continues to revolve around technology, teachers need to continue incorporating these new technologies into their teaching. Meanwhile, it is observed that some studies have been conducted on uses of ICTs by teachers particularly on the issue of their professional development. Most of these studies were carried out in developed countries where the use of ICTs has come of age, and where there are resources and material to maintain them. Meanwhile the use of ICTs by teachers in Ghana is just beginning to gain popularity and researches in the area have just started emerging. The use of ICTs by teachers to teach the students is highly advantageous, UNESCO, (2004) in the sense that it enabled them to demonstrate understanding of the opportunities and implications of the uses for learning and teaching in the curriculum context; plan, implement, and manage learning and teaching in open and flexible learning environment. In the light of these therefore, more research is needed to showcase further development of ICTs use by Senior High School teachers in Ghana. The Government of Ghana has placed a strong emphasis on the role of ICT in contributing to the countrys economy. The countrys medium-term development plan captured in the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRS I&II) and the Education Strategic Plan

2003-2015 all suggest the use of ICT as a means of reaching out to the poor in Ghana Government of Ghana, (2003). In 2004 the Ghanaian Parliament passed into law Ghanas ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) policy, which is currently at various stages of implementation. Out of this policy the Ministry of Education produced an ICT in education framework document to integrate ICTs in schools. It is worth noting that the ICT in education policy for Ghana had a long gestation period. An attempt at policy development for the sector predates the national ICT policy. A committee set up by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports outlined an ICT in education policy framework and produced a document that remained untouched for a long time. The objectives of the policy were to: 1. Ensure that students have ICT literacy skills before coming out at each level of education 2. Provide guidelines for integrating ICT tools at all levels of education 3. Provide means of standardizing ICT resources for all schools 4. Facilitate training of teachers and students in ICT 5. Determine the type and level of ICT needed by schools for teaching and Promote ICT as a learning tool in the school curriculum at all levels. Government of Ghana, Ministerial ICT Policy statements, (2005). Recent studies have shown that successful implementation of educational technologies depends largely on educators, who eventually determine how they are used in the classroom as stated by Isleem, (2003) The development of teachers' positive attitudes toward ICT is a key factor for enhancing computer integration and avoiding teachers resistance to computer use. Also, it is asserts that any successful transformation in educational practice requires the

development of positive user attitude toward the new technology. Teachers attitudes toward computers have been found to bear a direct effect on their classroom use of computers. As suggested by Pelgrum, (2001) teachers are the most important agents of change on the educational work floor. Hence, any attempt to implement computers in education would need to address teachers' attitudes toward computers as a prerequite for its success. Studying teachers attitudes is particularly important in developing countries where computer technology is not usually part of the school culture. Due to its novel presence in society at large and in schools in particular, technology may not be well received by developing country teachers, Benzie (1995), indicates that many national programmes have failed partly because they did not consider the prevailing school culture. Watson (1998) warns that the mismatch between the culture of techno centric mindedness and the teachers pedagogic culture results in the alienation of the teachers from the use of technology. Hence, developing countries have the responsibility not merely to provide computers for schools, but also to foster a culture of acceptance amongst the end-users of these tools. Unless teachers develop positive attitudes toward the new machines, they may simply ignore them. The delicacy of this situation calls for an investigation of teachers attitudes which will then means that, teachers who are able to use this system of instructional strategy would be able to kindle in the hearts of the learners a desirable attitude towards information technology tools in their entire way of life. Statement of the Problem Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become indispensable tools in todays information age, making a dramatic impact on the lives of people globally. This effect is most significant in education. The computer has become a motivating tool for teaching and

learning in schools according to the World Bank (1999). While the study of teachers attitudes is in itself important, a more significant challenge is to identify the factors that may have produced these attitudes. It has been observed that integrating ICT into the teaching of most subjects is very minimal and business management as an elective subject can not be left out. These include teaching with inadequate specialised knowledge of ICT in the subject, the inability of teachers to use ICT activity oriented strategies during teaching and learning processes, inadequate supply of material resources. (Anamuah-Mensah, 1997). The obvious result of these unfortunate situations is that students are unable to explore the use of ICT and develop interest in most subjects including business management. Integrating ICT into every subject is important for the growth and development of every society and should be fun to teach especially in business management. The question therefore is: how do teachers, students and headmasters perceive ICT integration into the teaching and learning processes in Senior High Schools? The study therefore seeks to investigate the attitude of teachers, their perception and the influence of computer technology on the teaching and learning business management in Senior High Schools in Accra Metro schools. Purpose of Study The objective of the study is therefore to investigate into the kind of attitudes and perceptions that teachers have toward the use of ICT in teaching and learning processes. This study sought to find out whether computer attributes, cultural perceptions, computer competence, computer access and teachers personal characteristics actually affect business management teachers attitudes towards ICT usage in teaching and learning.

.Research Questions In order to achieve the stated objective, the study is going to be guided by the following research questions: 1. What are the attitudes of business management teachers in Senior High School toward the use of ICT in teaching? 2. Which ICT resources (software, instructional tools and materials) do business management teachers use? 3. What is the teachers perception about the level of computer competence? 4. What are the barriers business management teachers faces during technology usage in the teaching-learning process? 5. What are the factors hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT? Significance of the Study The results of this study are significant since it brings to the notice of stake holders (government, managers of education, headmasters, teachers and students) how ICT is being integrated in teaching and learning processes. Also, it would enable school heads know whether business students and teachers benefit from ICT usage in terms of resources, equipment, electricity, and can use it effectively in their daily learning processes Additionally, it would provide the Greater Accra Metropolitan Director of education the necessary opportunity to facilitate the provision of infrastructure such as ICT resource centres in the various schools, and if not adequate for students and teachers to use, the necessary provision would be made. It would

overall check whether the various action plans for achieving ICT4AD policy for every school and teachers is being implemented, and also serve as an input for government ICT policy.

Delimitation The scope of this study was limited to one hundred (100) business management teachers, selected from thirty Public and Private Senior High School across the eleven sub- metro schools in the Accra Metropolitan Area. The study was focused on attitude of business management teachers towards the use of ICT and did not cover teachers in other subjects areas. Also other sections of the Ghanaian educational systems, such as Junior High School and Colleges of Education were not considered. Findings conclusions and recommendations were not extended beyond the population. Limitations A wider coverage of Ghana could not be studied; due to huge financial constraints therefore not all senior high schools in Accra were selected. The researcher use convenience sampling in selecting the study, which cannot scientifically be used as generalisation of the total population because it would not be representative enough. Operational definitions of Terms Information Communication Technology: The term information and communication technology covers a broad range of technologies introduced across the world. In this study, ICT is limited to digital technologies which include salient features such as multimedia, interactivity, simulation networking, e-learning methodologies and the use of computer hardware, its accessories software programs. Attitude: Someones opinions or feelings about something as used in this research.

Computer Attitudes: Is the degree of favour or disfavour with which high school teachers evaluate the presence and use of ICT in Ghanaian education. Computer Literacy: The ability to read and use computer. In this study, computer literacy is referring to someone having a knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses. Senior High School Teachers: Teachers who teach in secondary schools be it private or public. Organization of the rest of the Study. This study is organized into five chapters: Chapter one is made up of introduction, which comprises background of study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, research questions, and significance of the study, delimitations, limitations, and operational definitions of terms. Chapter Two provides a review of the relevant literature on the attitude of teachers towards the use of ICT in senior high schools. Chapter Three focuses on the research methodology, and design, as well as a description of the site of research. Chapter Four describes the results and discussion obtained and Chapter Five is summary, conclusions and recommendations for further the study.

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction In this section, a review of work of several authors concerning attitudes and perceptions related to the study. Theories and authors opinions are looked at. Here the researcher will focus on these sub topics:

1.

ICT in education and for education

2. Teachers attitudes and beliefs in ICT usage 3. National ICT Policy 4. Factors that hinder ICTs integration in schools 5. The Theoretical framework

Technology involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities. In other words, technology can change or alter how people access, gather, analyze, present, transmit, and simulate information See, (1994). The impact of technology is one of the most critical issues in education. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) creates a powerful learning environment and it transforms the learning and teaching process in which students deal with knowledge in an active, self directed and constructive way Volman and VanEck, (2001). ICT is not just regarded as a tool, which can be added to or used as a replacement of existing teaching methods. ICT is seen as an important instrument to support new ways of teaching and learning. It should be used to develop students

skills for cooperation, communication, problem solving and lifelong learning. (Plomp, Ten Brummelhuis, & Rapmund, 1996) ICT in Education and for Education The idea that teaching and learning can successfully take place through the application of electronic communication facilities between teachers and students is one which had generated, sometimes, hope and dismay and at other times, excitement and fear. Hope that many more learners can be reached at a more convenient pace that had erstwhile been the case, dismay that the infrastructures necessary for deploying an effective ICT platform is lacking in low-income countries like Ghana and Africa as a whole. However, the use of information and communication technologies in the education process has been divided into two broad categories: ICTs for education connote the development of information and communications technology specifically for teaching/learning purposes, while the ICTs in Education involves the adoption of general components of information and communication technologies in the teaching learning process Olakulehin, (2007) Generally, however, the educational relevance of computers and other components of information technology cannot be overemphasized. Reference can be made to the period when skinner applied programmed instructions to teaching machines, through Brunners experiment with computers in instruction, to the current wave of information transmission and exchange via the worldwide web; we have seen different applications of ICTs in enhancing cognitive development. Almost all subjects ranging from mathematics (the most structured) to music (the least structured) can be learnt with the help of computers. Olakulehin (2007) emphasized that pedagogic application of ICTs, involves effective learning with the aide of computers and other information technologies, serving the purpose of learning aids, which plays complementary roles

in teaching or learning situations, rather than supplements to the teacher, instructor, or facilitator. Computer is regarded as add-on rather than a replacing device. The pedagogic uses of the computer necessitate the development, among teachers as well as students, of skills and attitude related to effective use of information and communications technologies. Aside of literacy, ICTs also facilitates learning to programme, learning in subject areas and learning at home on ones own, and these necessitate the use of new methods like modelling, simulation, use of data bases, guided discovery, closed-word exploration etc. The implications in terms of changes in the teaching strategy, instructional content, role of the teachers and context of the curricula are obvious as well as inevitable. Pedagogy through the application of information and communications technologies has the advantage of heightening the motivation; helping recall previous learning; providing new instructional stimuli; activating the learners response; providing systematic and steady feedback; facilitate appropriate practice; sequencing learning appropriately; and providing a viable source of information for enhanced learning. Teachers who use this system of instructional strategy would be able to kindle in the hearts of the learners a desirable attitude towards information technology tools in their entire way of life. Using up-to-date hardware and software resources is a key feature to diffusion of technology Gulbahar, (2005). In recent years, most of the schools are equipped with different kinds of technological infrastructure and electronic resources available. For instance one Australian school has reported that this school has provided personal notebook computers and their own web spaces, email access and workspace for all staff and students from Year five (5) onwards. Video conferencing is available and the school has established its own intranet, placing all its resources on-line. These are accessible via radio connections from school and home. In

this college the use of radio is seen as an innovation that has completely changed the nature of teaching and learning. Also, Richardson (2000) reported that many teachers integrated technology into their teaching and learning process in this school. This awareness appeared when they saw the potential of on-line lessons and the possibility of creating shared, net-based teaching materials. Therefore, hardware, software and network infrastructure must be available to integrate ICT in education. Appropriate resourcing and flexible, forward-looking planning, linked closely to what teachers actually want and need at any given stage, will be essential. Teachers Attitudes and belief in ICT Usage This sub-topic reviews attitudes and factors that influence teachers decisions to use ICT in the classroom and highlights models for integrating technology into our every day teaching and learning process. This paper is aimed at educators and policymakers who would like to learn from the research and experiences of others. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this paper would be useful to these people in making wise decision in relation to their technology investment. As a classroom tool, the computer has captured the attention of the education community. This versatile instrument can store, manipulate, and retrieve information, and it has the capability not only of engaging students in instructional activities to increase their learning, but of helping them to solve complex problems to enhance their cognitive skills Jonassen and Reeves, (1996). Generally, three objectives are distinguished for the use of ICT in education (Plomp et al., 1996); the use of ICT as object of study, the use of ICT as aspect of a discipline or profession; and the use of ICT as medium for teaching and learning. The use of ICT in education as object refers to learning about ICT, which enables students to use ICT in their daily life. The

use of ICT as aspect refers to the development of ICT skills for professional or vocational purposes. The use of ICT as medium focuses on the use of ICT for the enhancement of the teaching and learning process Drent and Meelissen, (2007). It is a fact that teachers are at the centre of curriculum change and they control the teaching and learning process. Therefore, they must be able to prepare young people for the knowledge society in which the competency to use ICT to acquire and process information is very important (Plomp et al., 1996). Teachers attitudes have been found to be major predictors of the use of new technologies in instructional settings Almusalam, (2001). The successful use of technology in the classroom depends to a large extent on the teachers attitudes toward these tools Lawton and Gerschner, (1982). Thus, an attitude plays an important role in determining people reactions to situations. A review of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of attitudes. Allport (1935) defined it as a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individuals response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Other researchers define attitude as a positive or negative emotional reaction toward a specific situation. Moreover, Fishbein (1967) defined attitude as a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way. Attitudes are key factors in whether teachers accept computer as a teaching tool in their teaching practices. In fact, it has been suggested that attitudes towards computers affect teachers use of computers in the classroom and the likelihood of their benefiting from training (Kluever, Lam, Hoffman, Green & Swearinges, 1994). Positive attitudes often encourage less technologically capable teachers to learn the skills necessary for the implementation of technology-based activities in the classroom. Harrison and Rainer (1992) found that participants with negative computer attitudes were less

skilled in computer use and were therefore less likely to accept and adapt to technology than those with positive attitudes. They concluded that changing individuals negative attitudes is essential for increasing their computer skills. Therefore, if teachers want to successfully use technology in their classes, they need to possess positive attitude to use technology. Such attitude is developed when teachers are sufficiently comfortable with technology and are knowledgeable on its use. Recent studies have shown that the successful implementation of educational technologies depend largely on the attitudes of educators, who eventually determine how they are used in the classroom. Bullock (2004) found that teachers attitudes are a major enabling or disabling factor in the adoption of technology. Similarly, Kersaint, Horton, Stohl, and Garofalo (2003) found that teachers who have positive attitudes toward technology feel more comfortable with using it and usually incorporate it into their teaching. It is widely accepted that unless teachers develop positive attitudes toward ICT, they will not use them in their teaching practice. In fact, Woodrow (1992) asserts that any successful transformation in educational practice requires the development of positive attitude towards ICT is a key factor not only for enhancing computer integration but also for avoiding teachers resistance to computer use. Drent and Meelissen (2007) conducted a study about factors which stimulate or limit the innovative use of ICT by teacher educators in the Netherlands. The study used questionnaires for 210 teachers and interviews for 4 of those teachers who had responded. Their findings showed that several factors such as a studentoriented pedagogical approach, a positive ICT attitude, computer experience, and personal entrepreneurship of the teacher educator have a direct positive influence on the innovative use of ICT by the teacher. Also, comparison between these factors in predicting computer use identified that attitude toward computer contributed more in explaining ICT use by teachers. In addition, educational theorists and researchers have realized that an

important factor in the implementation of computers is users acceptance, which is in turn influenced by their attitudes towards these media Koohang, (1989). However Watson (1998) warns against the severance of the innovation from the classroom teacher and the idea that the teacher is an empty vessel into which this externally defined innovation must be poured (p. 191). Teachers attitudes have been found to be a major predictor of the use of new technologies in instructional settings (Abas, 1995b; Blankenship, 1998; Isleem, 2003). Also, Christensen (1998) states that teachers attitudes toward computers affect not only their own computer experiences, but also the experiences of the students they teach. In fact, it has been suggested that attitudes towards computers affect teachers use of computers in the classroom and the likelihood of their benefiting from training. Kluever et al. (1994). Positive attitudes often encourage less technologically capable teachers to learn the skills necessary for the implementation of technology-based activities in the classroom. The teacher is influenced by the social interaction with teacher and learning materials, classroom thermal conditions and psychological disposition of student may have impact on their views and on their attitudes. ICT is the key to success and survival of organisation in a highly competitive environment, the benefits of the internet as aid to learning, teaching and training may not be fully realised due to poor acceptance by users. This is why many people jump rightly on to the information super highway while others step back or remain non-participants of the revolution. Many authors have studied different aspect of the phenomenon from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This helps to understand how individuals attitudes affect the use of ICT and provides a strong causal argument regarding the observed relationship. Gibson, Ivancevich and Donelly (1991) defines attitudes as positive or negative feeling or mental state of readiness, learned and organised through experience exerts specific influence

on the persons response to people, objects and situations Thus attitude is the way in which a person feels about and is disposed towards certain objects. The integration of information and communication technologies can help revitalize teachers and students. This can help to improve and develop the quality of education by providing curricular support in difficult subject areas. To achieve these objectives, teachers need to be involved in collaborative projects and development of intervention change strategies, which would include teaching partnerships with ICT as a tool. Teachers attitudes are major predictors of the use of new technologies in instructional settings. Teachers attitudes toward ICT shape not only their own ICT experiences, but also the experiences of the students they teach. According to Zhao and Cziko (2001) three conditions are necessary for teachers to introduce ICT into their classrooms: teachers should believe in the effectiveness of technology, teachers should believe that the use of technology will not cause any disturbances, and finally teachers should believe that they have control over technology (p. 27). Demetriadis et al. (2003) reached similar conclusions in their research study: Training efforts are generally welcomed by teachers but consistent support and extensive training is necessary in order for them to consider themselves able to integrate ICT in their teaching methodologies According to Rogers (1995) one of the major factors affecting peoples attitudes toward a new technology is related to the features of the technology itself. National ICT Policy The Government of the Republic of Ghana is committed to pursuing an ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) vision. This is aimed at improving the quality of life of the people of Ghana by significantly enriching their social, economic and cultural well-being through the rapid development and modernization of the economy and society. This would involve the use of information and communication technologies as the main engine for

accelerated and sustainable economic and social development. Government is committed to pursuing a number of key strategies towards the achievement goals of Ghanas development agenda: (I) Transforming Ghana into an information and knowledge-driven ICT literate nation, as well as facilitating training of teachers and students in ICT.(II) Promoting the deployment and exploitation of information, knowledge and technology within the economy and society as key drivers for socio-economic development. (III) Modernizing Ghanas educational system using ICTs to improve and expand access to education, training and research resources and facilities, as well as to improve the quality of education and training and make the educational system responsive to the needs and requirements of the economy and society with specific reference to the development of information and knowledge-based economy and society.

Having review relevant literature on this study, the focus still remains to examine the teachers use of ICT from a sector of population of Ghanaian senior high school on business management teachers where study of this nature has just begin to emerge. However a well-

planned, ongoing professional development programme that is tied to the school's curriculum goals, designed with built-in evaluation, and sustained by adequate financial and staff support is essential if teachers are to use technology appropriately to promote learning for all students in the classroom. Technology is, and should be, a tool the means to an end, not the end itself. Technology can be used for inquiry, communication, construction, and expression. Any ideal learning environment should satisfy students or the learners curiosity by presenting them with new things to be curious about. It should engage them in exploring, thinking, reading, writing, researching, inventing, problem solving, and experiencing the world.

Thus, the basis for learning would be what John Dewey (1943) identified nearly a century ago as the greatest educational resource--the natural impulses to inquire or to find out things; to use language and thereby to enter into the social world; to build or make things; and to express ones feelings and ideas. Dewey saw these impulses, rather than the traditional disciplines, as the foundation for the curriculum. The educational challenge is to nurture these impulses for lifelong learning. Factors That Hinder the Integration of ICT in Schools There are many factors identified as hindrances to the integration of ICTs in Senior High Schools. Pelgrum (2001) presents a list of ten such factors that impede ICT integration in schools. Out of the ten, we identified four major ones, namely; personal ideas about the contribution that technology can make to the processes of teaching and learning and classroom management; Teachers lack of knowledge and skills; insufficient number of computers and ICT infrastructure; and difficulty in integrating ICTs instruction in classrooms. In related a study, Ely (1999) similarly distinguishes three major conditions, relevant to ICT integration in classrooms, these are: dissatisfaction with the status quo, existence of knowledge and skills, and availability of resources. The two categories identify, more or less, the same issues: Elys existence of knowledge and skills relates to Pelgrums factor relating to teachers lack knowledge and skills. Also Elys availability of resources is similar to Pelgrums insufficient number of computers and ICT infrastructure. The problem of teachers confidence in their ICT competence as a major factor for integrating technology in teaching is reported in other studies as well. Mooij & Smeets (2001) explained that if teachers are not confident in their ability or competence to handle computers, this may hinder their willingness to introduce technology in their classrooms. It is also seen that the most important reason teachers give for not using ICT is that they are not

familiar with ICT or they feel unsure about it. Teachers claiming to follow more innovative educational practices such as use of inquiry, project-oriented work and hands-on activities, are more likely to use new technologies than those who stick to the more traditional instructional approaches. According to Mooij and Smeets (2001) school managers policy and budgetary decisions and in general the attitude of the school manager (their commitment and decisions) are expected to be relevant to the ICT innovation process The effective use of computers by teachers depends not only on their attitudes, but also on the training they have received. Teachers competence in ICT presupposes: positive attitudes to ICT, understanding of the educational potential of ICT, ability to use ICT effectively in the curriculum, ability to manage ICT use in the classroom, ability to evaluate ICT use, ability to ensure differentiation and progression and technical capability. It is also worth noting that inadequate pre-service and in-service training is another obstacle for many teachers to integrate technology in their classroom teaching. Albirini and Abdulkafi (2006). In-service training is a key factor in cultivating positive attitudes to the computer. How teachers construct and reconstruct their knowledge is a critical issue as teachers' thought processes determine largely what happens in the classroom. Teachers' pedagogical decisions and actions are closely tied up with their professional growth. Their professional knowledge might be changed by means of experience, curriculum directives and in-service training. In-service training of good quality could support the process of changing teachers' thinking and practice, recognizing that teaching is a difficult, complex and multifaceted process Wood and Bennett, (2000). In a related study Tella and Adeyinka, (2007) revealed that school-based professional development is better organized and facilitated by the ICT coordinators, who usually have

adequate training and a deeper understanding of integrating computer technologies into the school curriculum and can provide role models for teachers. However, research into in-service training has shown that what the training program has to offer all too often fails to meet the teachers' real needs Tella and Adeyinka, (2007) A decisive factor in the effective integration of computer use in the school curriculum is the provision of appropriate in-service training to the teachers, training which will show them how to use the new tools in their everyday teaching practice. Many recent research studies on the state of ICTs integration in schools also show that many institutions are failing to integrate technology into existing context. Bauer and Kenton (2005) stated in their study that although teachers were having sufficient skills, were innovative and easily overcame obstacles, they did not integrate technology consistently both as a teaching and learning tool. Without any clear cut policy, ICTs integration would be implemented based on the whims and caprices of the teacher. In his doctoral dissertation, Ottesen (2006) reveals that one fundamental problem facing ICT integration in schools is the lack of computer infrastructure. He revealed that appropriate access to technology infrastructure is another key factor in the effective technology integration process. The study reveals substantive correlation between technology access and use. Yildrim (2007) again reveals that teachers agreed that access to ICT infrastructure is one of the effective means to integrate ICT in classrooms. Together, education and employment are key building blocks of strategies to eradicate poverty. ICT is increasingly being used to improve access to education and employment opportunities. ICT has the potential to improve young peoples access to educational opportunities as well as to enhance the quality of that education through the new modes of learning they enable. Through ICT, curricula can be more easily updated, adapted, enriched and personalized to satisfy a broad range of learning

needs. Using ICTs access to a curriculum can be made available more efficiently over a wider area. Even within more traditional learning environments, ICT is changing the way classrooms operate; the integration of multimedia subject presentations, online research, changing teacherstudent dynamics, and innovative project approaches are making the learning process more interactive and participatory. UN Youth Report, (2005). Waite (2004) indicates that even though teachers show great interest and motivation to learn about the potential of ICTs, in practice, the use of ICT is relatively low and it is focused on a narrow range of applications, with word processing being the predominant use. The research reveals that the use of other ICT tools such as video conferencing, emailing and the Internet are rarely used. The study further reveals the lack of ICTs infrastructure as one of the factors for nonusage of those tools. It is also worth noting that inadequate pre-service and in-service training is another obstacle for many teachers to integrate technology in their classroom teaching. However, research into in-service training has shown that what the training program has to offer all too often fails to meet the teachers' real needs Crook, (1994). There is a large body of research in the literature that supports the same position that teachers should receive effective, timely and continuous training to promote technology in their teaching. A decisive factor in the effective integration of computer use in the school curriculum is the provision of appropriate in-service training to the teachers, training which will show them how to use the new tools in their everyday teaching practice. The teacher has an important role to play in the teaching and learning paradigm shift, with ICT facilitating the development of a higher level of cognitive skills in evaluating arguments, analyzing problems and applying what is learnt. Although teachers play an important role in the learning environment, they are often not consulted regarding changes to

teaching learning procedures. In fact, the teachers needs under changing conditions have to be continuously assessed and activities to satisfy these have to be developed. Theoretical Framework Rogers (1995) contends that the perceived attributes of an innovation are one important explanation of the rate of adoption of an innovation (p.206).Based on past research, Rogers (1995) stated that characteristic of an innovation as perceived by individual in a social system affect on the rate of adoption. Also, he identified five innovation attributes that may contribute to the adoption or acceptance of an innovation: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialibility. According to Rogers (1995), relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes. Compatibility is the extent to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experience, and needs of potential adopters. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. Observability is the extent to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. Finally, trialibity refers to the degree to which an innovation is experimented with on a limited basis (pp. 250-251). Rogers (1995) proposes that the relative advantage of an innovation, as perceived by members of a social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption (p. 250). Several studies have endorsed the positive relationship between teachers attitudes and the relative advantage of using computers (Sooknanan, 2002; Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971). Sooknanan (2002) found that relative advantage was the second most significant innovation characteristic in relation to teachers attitudes. The Technology Acceptance Model proposed by Davis (1989) points to usefulness as the main innovation factor that determines individuals attitudes and subsequent acceptance of technology. Teachers and facultys perceptions of the value of technology has

been systematically reported as a predictor of their use of computers in the classroom (Berner 2003; Hendricks, 1998; Huang, 2003). According to Rogers (1995), the perceived compatibility of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption (p.250). Some studies have also established a positive relationship between attitudes and compatibility (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971; Sooknanan, 2002). Generally, compatibility is viewed in terms of needs and beliefs (Rogers, 1995). Zaitman and Lin (1971, cited in Sooknanan, 2002) suggest that the less compatible an innovation and the more changes and adjustments it requires, the slower its acceptance. Sooknanan (2002) found that compatibility was the most significant innovation attributes in relation to computer attitudes. Teachers in his study had positive perceptions of the compatibility of computers to their curriculum goals. In addition, teachers perceive that computers are reliable and accurate, and meet their information needs (129). However, Ridgeway and Passey (1995) found that teachers were uneasy about the change that computers may bring into their teaching practices. Teacher felt threatened by computers, as they contest their values and roles. In terms of observability, Rogers (1995) contends that the perceived observability of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption (251). Sooknanan (2002) found that observability was significantly related to the teachers attitudes toward computers in Trinidad and Togo education. Most of the teachers in his study had not heard about or seen computers at work, especially as an educational tool. Hebert and Benbasat (1994, cited in Sooknanan, 2002) found that observability contributed to attitudes and simultaneously predicted the intent to use information technology. The relationship between an innovations attributes and adoption has been examined in a number of diffusion studies. For example, Albirini (2006) found that the computer attributes were significantly correlated to teachers attitudes towards computer.

Albirinis study accentuated the importance of computer attributes in the process of computer adoption in developing countries. Also, Dillon and Morris (1996) stated that innovations that offer advantages, compatibility with existing practices and beliefs, low complexity, potential triablity, and observability will have a more widespread and rapid rate of diffusion (p. 6). Therefore, if teachers perceive ICT as a beneficial tool, compatible with their current activities, easy to use and have observable outcomes, they will demonstrate positive attitudes towards ICT. Professional development of teachers sits at the heart of any successful technology and education program. Baylor and Ritchie (2002) carried out a quantitative study that looked at the factors facilitating teacher skill, teacher morale, and perceived student learning in technology-using classrooms. They found that professional development has a significant influence on how well ICT is embraced in the classroom. Also, they added that teachers training programmes often focus more on basic literacy skills and less on the integrated use of ICT in teaching. Despite the numerous plans to use technology in schools, however, teachers have received little training in this area in their teacher education programs. According to Schaffer and Richardson (2004), when technology is introduced into teacher education programs, the emphasis is often on teaching about technology instead of teaching with technology. Hence, inadequate preparation to use technology is one of the reasons that teachers do not systematically use computers in their classes. Teachers need to be given opportunities to practice using technology during their teacher training programs so that they can see ways in which technology can be used to augment their classroom activities. Teachers are more likely to integrate ICT in their courses, when professional training in the use of ICT provides them time to practice with the technology and to learn, share and collaborate with colleagues.

On the other hand, training school students to serve as technology experts may aid the integration of for technology integration but also students enthusiasm and talent prompt the process of computers into the classroom setting. (Hruskocy, C., Cennamo, K. S., Ertmer, P. A. &
Johnson, T. 2000). Hruskocy et al (2000) carried out a study on training students to become

technology experts for teachers and peers. Based on this study, ten teachers of grades one through five sent their students to the training sessions. The Strengths and limitations of the programmes were evaluated through reflection papers prepared by each member of the university team. The strengths of the programmes showed that teachers became more frequent users of technology, expressed a greater desire to learn along with their students. Teachers became more curious about their students expanding computer skills and enthusiasm and lost their reluctance to ask questions. In the end, teachers began to use their Students expertise to increase their own computer skills. Also, students skills were transferred to the classroom, and teachers became more motivated to learn to use technology and to incorporate technology in classroom activities. It can be noted from the above discussion that each of the studies reviewed had a bearing on the present work and therefore helped the current researcher to assess the situations that pertains at the study area and those that are different, regarding the changes in time, place and subjects. Summary This review of literature has extensively been discussed. The purpose of the study is to explore the reasons and factors behind teachers attitude towards the use of computer technology in the in the classroom. In order to help Business Management teachers learn more about and use technology effectively, sub-topics such as ICT in education and for education, teachers attitudes and beliefs in ICT usage, the national ICT policy, factors that hinder ICTs integration in schools

in the study have thoroughly been reviewed with supporting literatures and theoretical framework developed by researchers from different educational backgrounds. The next chapter deals with the methodology used in the study.

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter outlines the methods used in the research work. The research method and procedures used in the study are described under the following sub-headings. 1. Research Design 2. Population 3. Sampling and sampling procedures 4. Instrument 5. Data Collection Procedure 6. Data Analysis Research Design The problem under investigation required a fact-finding kind of research hence the use of the descriptive survey. The study mainly employed the descriptive sample survey approach which sought to find out the attitudes of business management teachers towards the use of ICT in the teaching and learning processes. Descriptive research is deemed most appropriate for the study because it involved collection of data in order to answer questions concerning current status of the subject matter under study. It is meant to determine and reveal the way things are. It was directed towards the determination of the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time the study was conducted. According to Gay, (1987), a survey is an attempt to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the current status of the

population, with respect to one or more variables. It is against this background that the researcher considered this design appropriate for this topic. Moreover, a descriptive research is referred to as survey research, (Airasian, 2000), which is mainly concerned with attitudes, opinions, preferences, demographics, practices, and procedure. The choice of the descriptive survey design was motivated by the fact that, it helps to present the true state of affairs of a given situation having collected data from a number of people almost responding to the same set of questions about the situation. The researcher collected information from selected respondents from the population using mainly questionnaires. This descriptive survey design gives a fair distribution of variables, and sometimes shows the value with which the data is centred. Population The study population comprised teachers in the eleven sub-metros schools under the jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Area. The Accra Metropolitan Area has a total land size of 200 square kilometres, and made up of eleven sub-metros. The target population in this study were teachers in the Accra Metropolis teaching in second cycle schools. However, the accessible population comprised one hundred (100) business management teachers from both public and private Senior High Schools in twenty-four (24) selected schools.

Sample and Sampling Procedure Wiersma (2000) defines sample as A subset of the population to which the researcher intends to generalize the results. The sample for the study comprised a total of 100 respondents.

Convenience sampling techniques was used in selecting the schools, in that, of the 45 Senior high Schools under Accra Metro, the researcher found out that twenty-four (24) Senior High Schools offered business management and this was confirmed by the various head masters in these schools visited. The Senior High Schools are not cluster as most primary schools, they are rather located far apart and scatted under the 11 sub-metros of which 24 schools were conveniently selected because of the nature of the programmes they offer, hence met the requirement of the researcher. The respondents were looked for in all these schools and the questionnaires administered to them. This was done until the required numbers for the study population was arrived. Instruments Essel, (2007) indicates that questionnaire is widely used for collecting data in educational research because it is very effective for securing formal information about procedures and conditions, for acquiring into opinions and attitudes of subjects. He further added that it is an

efficient method in the sense that many respondent can be reached within a short space of time. It is cost effective compared to using interviews schedule. Sidhu (1984) also affirms that the questionnaire is helpful in the fields of attitudes, opinions, and judgement. According to Breakwell et all. (2006) questionnaires provide data which are good enough, to qualify both to, test hypotheses and to make real world policy suggestions. Thus the use of questionnaire will help the respondents to freely express their opinions where necessary because there is no desire to please the researcher. The researcher searched the literature and used the issues raised in the background of the study to write questionnaires items that would elicit information to answer the research questions. The questionnaire was designed to be completed by the respondents themselves

because the study population was highly literate. The instrument consisted of six sections. Section A elicited the demographic information of the respondents, such as name of school, age, gender, qualification, years of teaching experience etc followed by Section B which was on business management teachers attitude towards ICT. Section C solicited information on the extent and frequency of ICT resources used by teachers in schools. Section D focused on teachers perception about the level of computer usefulness. Section E also dealt with barriers to ICT usage and the final Section F examined the factors hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT. All items in the first five sections were measured on a five-point, closed-ended Likert scale, such as 5-Strongly agree (SA), 4-Agree (A), 3-Undecided (UD), 2-Disagree (D), 1Strongly disagree (SD). A total of 93 completed questionnaires were retrieved. Pilot Study of Instruments The main objective of the pre-testing was to check whether the questions were clear enough and to improve upon the quality of the study. It was meant to identify problems that might arise during the administration of the questionnaire and also to establish the content validity and internal consistency (reliability). Cronbachs Alpha was used to determine internal consistency of the questionnaires. The participants for the pre-testing were selected from St Johns Grammar at new Achimota. The reason was that it does not fall under Accra Metro Schools and besides they offer business programmes. The results from the pilot study enabled the researcher to revise the questionnaire and remove ambiguous questions. It also helped in streamlining and reducing the number of items on the questionnaires. Questions that were found to be overloaded were made simpler and clarity of expression was also ensured. The final instruments adopted for the study are as indicated in appendices A.

Data Collection Procedure Fraenkel & Wallen (2000) indicated that the collection of data is an extremely important part of all research endeavours, for conclusions of the study, are based on what the data reveals. The researcher personally collected the data for the study. The researcher administered the questionnaires to the respondents through the help Assistant Heads in charge of academics in the selected Senior High Schools. Upon entering the schools, permission was sought from the various assistant heads in their offices, with an introduction letter from the Director of Centre for Continuing Education, University of Cape Coast (CCE), to administer the questionnaire to business management teachers in the schools. This enabled me to get most of the teachers during break time where they assembled in the staff common rooms and responded to the questionnaires. They were told that, this was strictly an academic exercise so they should respond to the questions without any reservations. Confidentiality was assured and respondents were encouraged to return the completed questionnaires to the researcher immediately. Alternatively, the researcher was to return the next day for the complete questionnaires. The action was taken to reduce the incidence of maturation. In spite of these measures, a few problems were encountered during collection of the data, some of the schools were involved in inter-schools athletics competitions outside their schools premises, some of them are day institutions where the teachers do not stay on campus which made it difficult to contact them. In all nine-three (93) completed questionnaires were retrieved. Data Analysis The data collected were the views of business management teachers from both public and private senior high schools in Accra Metropolitan Assembly were sampled for the study. The

design for the study was descriptive so descriptive statistical tool were used to analyse the data from the field. The analyses were done using the main sections of the questionnaires in relation to the research questions raised. Quantitative data were checked, edited, coded, serialised and processed with SPSS software programme. In scoring the items fashioned on the Likert scale, the items were weighted as follows; 5-Strongly agree, 4-Agree, 3-Undecided, 2-Disagree, 1-Strongly Disagree. The SPSS software helped the researcher to analyse data in, frequencies, tables and percentages of occurrences that is the univariate analysis as opined by Owen and Jones (1978). This presented a clear picture of the responses from the respondents. Summary This chapter has been devoted to the methodology used for the study. The design for the study was described and the rationale for its adoption. The population for the study that is those constituted the population to be studied, the sample size that is the part of the population that were studied. The sampling procedures, research instruments pilot study, data collecting procedures, and data analysis were used in the study. The next chapter which is the fourth dealt with the analysis and discussion of the data collected from the field to corroborate or brings new dimensions to the existing literature on the subject matter that was studied.

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter presents the survey data and analysis based on the objectives set for the study and the research questions, which were outlined in chapter one. The responses from teachers were organised into tables, figures and descriptive data were used to present the findings. Demographic characteristics of respondents. This section looked at the demographic characteristics of respondents from all the selected schools. The details of the teachers respondents in each institution are illustrated in Table 1 with respect to gender.

Table 1: Cross tabulation of gender against institution Name of School Male St. Aquinas SHS Accra Girls SHS Ebenezer SHS Accra AcademySHS St Marys SHS KinbuSHS Armed Forces SHS Presbyterian boys SHS Wesley Grammar SHS La Presbyterian SHS St Margaret Mary SHS Accra SHS Christian Meth.SHS Achimota SHS Labone SHS OReilly Sen. High Extra Mural SHS Dansoman SHS Calvary Methodist SHS Ashley Comm. institute Seven Great Princess SHS Alpha Beta SHS Nat Technology college Total Data Source: (field data) 2.2% 1.1% 3.2% 8.6% 6.5% 3.2% 2.2% 2.2% 6.5% 3.2% 1.1% 3.2% 1.1% -1.1% 2.2% 1.1% 3.2% 2.2% 1.1% 6.5% 2.2% 2.2% 65.6% Gender Female -2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 1.1% 2.2% 2.2% -2.2% 1.1% -3.2% 3.2% 2.2% 2.2% 1.1% 2.2% --3.2% -1.1% 1.1% 34.4% Total 2.2% 3.3% 5.4% 10.8% 7.6% 5.4% 4.4% 2.2% 8.7% 4.3% 1.1% 6.4% 4.3% 2.2% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.2% 2.2% 4.3% 6.5% 3.3% 3.3% 100%

A total of 100 teachers participated in the study, but 93 questionnaires were retrieved of which 65.65% were male and 34.45% were female. Accra Academy had the highest number of respondents (10.8%), whiles St. Margret Mary SHS had the lowest (1.1%). The instrument was administered to teachers of 23 Senior High Schools in the Accra Metropolis. T o establish the availability and accessibility of ICT, the researcher asked whether teachers had access to computers and the internet in locations such as school and home. Table 2 represents the views of teachers. Table 2: Location of Computers and internet access Computer Access Haves School Home 98.9% 68.8% Haves not 1.1% 31.2% Haves 64.5% 19.4% Internet Access Haves not 35.5% 80.6%

The information in Table 2 indicates 98.9% of the teacher respondent had access to computer in schools and 68.8% had computers at home. The high percentage of computers in schools could be due to the fact most of these schools were in the metropolis. The scenario could be different in the rural areas. Also 64.5% of the respondents said they had internet connectivity in their schools whiles only 19.4% had internet connectivity at home. This is in agreement with the report by Gordon University Aberdeen, Scotland that teachers reported less use of the Internet. Some governments consider providing Internet connectivity in schools as being expensive and difficult to maintain. However, providing internet connectivity should not be seen as such considering the plethora of information that can be accessed by the teachers and how this could be of immense help to facilitate knowledge delivery and students learning.

Table 3: Daily Use of computers Daily use No use Less than one hour 1-4 hours 5-8 hours 9 hours and more Total Percent (%) ---45.2 39.8 15.0 ---100

On frequency of access, the result generally shows that a considerable number of respondents, access ICT for a reasonable number of hours in a day. This corroborates the report by Gray and Souter, (2004) that teachers came out positively with regards to the use of ICTs. It also confirms the assertion that availability usually determines access. If ICT is available, this will motivate the teacher to access them, than when it is not available or available but in limited quantity and quality. In the teachers Enlace program in Chile, insufficient number of computers, access to technology and time for practice have been identified as the most important obstacle in the realisation of computer-related goals in schools (Pedro H. P. et al. 2004)

Findings of the Study Research Question One: What are the attitudes of business management teachers in Senior High School toward the use of ICT in teaching? The respondent were asked to rate themselves on a five point likert scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D), strongly disagree (SD) on items provided on the attitude of business teachers towards the use of ICT in teaching. The purpose was to determine what teacher perceived they could achieve by using ICT in teaching Table 4: Business teachers attitude in Using ICT Attitude SA A N D SD

Percentage (%) ICT increases teachers productivity ICT enhances teaching and learning ICT helps make effective use of class time ICT helps to meet the varying needs of students ICT improves student learning outcome Create opportunity to introduce new teaching approaches for students ICT improves students collaboration Facilitates the implementation of educational programmes ICT improves students motivation Data Source: (field data) 58.1 22.6 4.3 4.3 10.8 54.8 26.9 4.3 4.3 9.7 54.8 26.9 2.2 7.5 8.6 60.2 23.7 -6.5 9.7 59.1 23.7 1.1 6.5 9.7 55.9 21.5 6.5 6.5 9.7 63.4 61.3 55.9 18.3 23.7 23.7 3.2 1.1 4.3 5.3 4.3 7.5 10.8 9.7 8.6

The results in table 4 shows that 63.4% and 18.3% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively to the assertion that ICT increases teachers productivity whiles 5.3% and10.8% disagree and strongly disagree respectively. On the issue of ICT enhancing teaching and learning, 61.3% strongly agree and 23.7% agree. This gives a total of 85% of the respondents who agree as against 15% who were either neutral or disagree. The trend on the rest of the items on the attitude scale was not different. It clearly shows that more teachers agree than those who disagree with all the items in the attitude scale of business management teachers attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching. This is an indicator of the fact that most of teachers who responded to the instrument accept ICT as a very productive tool in teaching and learning. Research Question Two: Which ICT resources (software, instructional tools and materials) do business management teachers use? To answer this research question, teachers were tasked to identify which application software teachers used frequently. The frequency of usage was based on daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and never. The findings have been presented in table 4 below.

Table 4: Frequency of resource usage.

Application

Daily

Weekly Monthly Quarterly Never Percentage (%)

Computers in General Word processing packages Search engines for internet Databases Spread sheets Desktop publishing Presentation software Any internet Activity Hypermedia/ Multimedia Drills/Practice tutorial Flash presentation

26.9 25.8 25.8 23.7 19.4 18.3 14.0 23.7 12.9 11.8 11.8

35.3 34.4 40.9 19.4 19.4 12.9 20.4 25.8 12.9 10.8 12.9

18.3 19.4 12.9 12.9 11.8 14.0 16.1 14.0 8.6 9.7 8.6

18.3 19.4 19.4 43.0 49.5 52.7 48.4 36.6 65.6 67.7 65.6

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 -2.2 1.1 ---1.1

The results in table 4 indicate that 26.9% of the respondents said general computer usage received the highest percentage of daily used. This was followed by word processing and search engines 25.8% each. Database and internet activities also had 23.7% each of daily usage. On the issue of weekly usage, internets search engines had the highest percent (40.9%) whiles drills/practice tutorial had the lowest percentage of usage (10.8%). All the teachers agreed that they have ever used spread sheet, internet activity, multimedia and drills/practice tutorial. Surprisingly about 1% of respondents said that they have never used a word processing package

before. It is surprising because, one of the core responsibilities of a teacher at the senior high school level is to prepare teaching and lesson notes for teaching. The easiest way of converting the hard copy of teaching notes to soft copy is to convert it to word. Again activities of word processing packages cut across most other activities of other application packages. For instances, to send an email over the internet or in preparing a flash presentation, one will still require some little word processing skills. So for a teacher to say he has been using computers but has never used the word processing package at the senior high level may not be wholly true.

Research Question Three: What is the teachers perception about the level of computer competence? This section provides data that determines the competence level of teacher use of ICT and it accessories. Ones ability to do something, to a level of satisfaction depends on ones skill including knowledge. Knowledge is the application of reasoning and it is the result of reasoned analysis of information. The ability to use ICT and it accessories is a skill that must be acquired though practice. The competence level of teachers is very essential since it is teachers who will intern pass on the skill to the students. If the teachers do not have in-depth knowledge of software programs it will be difficult to use these tools to teach their respective subject areas. Teachers lack of knowledge and skills is listed as the second most important obstacle affecting the realization of computer-related goals in schools in the teachers Enlaces program in Chile (Pedro H. P. et al., 2004). Teachers were asked to rate their level of competence on a five point likert scale of much competence (MuC), moderate competence (MoC), neutral (N), little competence (LC), no competence (NC) in the use of ICT and its accessories such as installing software, using keyboard, using printers, operating word processing package etc. The findings are illustrated in Table 5.

Table 5: Levels of competence of teachers in the use of ICT and accessories Competence Level NC LC N Percentage (%) Install new software on a computer Use a printer Use a computer keyboard Operate a word processing programme Operate a presentation programme Use the internet for communication Solve simple problems in operating computers Use computers for grade keeping Create and organise computer files and folders Select and evaluate educational software 40.9 12.9 8.6 21.5 16.1 26.9 15.1 3.2 33.3 21.5 30.1 20.4 15.1 14.0 20.4 21.5 19.4 11.8 24.7 22.6 12.9 16.1 7.5 37.6 25.8 16.1 15.1 8.6 35.5 24.7 17.2 7.5 7.5 24.7 14.0 16.1 5.4 2.2 1.1 24.7 29.0 39.8 28.0 47.3 35.5 35.5 16.1 4.3 20.4 23.7 MoC MuC

The results in table 5 show that 40.9% of the teachers indicated they had no competence in the selection and evaluation of educational software whiles 30.1% of the teachers had no competence in the use of computer for grade keeping. One of the fundamental duties of teacher is to evaluate the performance of his students based on the task given them. The outcomes of these evaluations are usually recorded in tabular form. Electronically spreadsheet could be a great assert, since it could allow easy manipulation of scores. So if 30.1% of teachers have no competence in using computers for grade keeping it should be a worrying development. Selection and evaluation of educational software is very essential for any teacher who interns to use educational courseware in teaching. The teacher should be able to identify educational coursewares which will suite which lesson presentation. Yet as much as 40.9% of teachers say they have no competence in selection and use of educational software. This finding is similar to (JISC, 2004) in their study on developing maturity in learning technology reveal that teachers expertise and lack of knowledge to evaluate the use and role of ICT in teaching as the two prominent factors hindering teachers confidence in using ICT for teaching and learning. Table 5 also indicates 45.3% and 35.5% of much competence in computer keyboard and word processing package usage respectively. Teachers competence in internet communication, in solving simple problems with computer operations and in operating presentation programmes as indicated in table 5 is not anything to write home about. From the above information, one can conclude that Business management teachers competence levels in the use of ICT are low. The teachers in particular needs to be knowledgeable in advance computer application software to be able to integrate ICT into their lesson which they very much lack.

Clearly then, if we were to go by the theory of Gregoire et al, (1996) in John and Sutherland (2004), that the benefits to students of using new technology is greatly dependent, at least for a moment, on the technological skill of the teacher and the teachers attitude to the presence of the technology in teaching, then we may conclude to some extend that students are not really benefiting from the new technology in schools. The temptation here is to say that if the teacher is not technologically inclined then the benefit of ICT to students is minimal. Research Question four: What are the barriers business management teachers faces during technology usage in the teaching and learning process? The act of integrating ICT into teaching and learning is a complex process and one that may encounter a number of difficulties. These difficulties are also known as barriers (Schoepp, 2005). A barrier may be defined as any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective (WordNet, 1997). To elicit business management teachers views on barriers they face whiles using technology, teacher were tasked to rate themselves on a five point likert scale of strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD). The findings are illustrated in the table 6 below.

Table 6: Barriers teachers face in using technology Barriers to ICT Usage SA A

SD

Percentage (%) Use of ICT is not friendly High cost involved in the acquisition of ICT technologies Lack of teachers technical knowledge to prepare material based on technology Insufficient time to prepare material based on technology Inadequate interest in the use of ICT Low economic status of pupil Poor location/ physical distance of ICT facilities from pupils Inadequate technical experts to repair equipment Implementation of policy to ensure use of ICTs Inadequate I CT infrastructure in schools 58.1 18.3 7.5 5.4 10.8 55.9 16.1 7.5 8.6 11.8 58.1 15.1 8.6 4.3 14.0 49.5 52.7 54.8 22.6 24.7 17.2 5.4 6.5 7.5 14.0 6.5 8.6 8.6 9.7 11.8 51.6 23.7 7.5 7.5 9.7 55.9 20.4 7.5 6.5 9.7 32.3 49.5 10.8 28.0 4.3 6.5 11.8 6.5 40.9 9.7

The results in table 6 shows that management teachers strongly agree that inadequate technical expertise to repair equipments (58.1%) and inadequate ICT infrastructure in schools (58.1%) is the highest obstacle to technology integration in teaching and learning. The report by Gordon University Aberdeen (2004) that teachers were reasonably confident in their use of ICT but felt that they needed much more in the way of technical expertise and professional development to maximise their use (ICT) support the present findings. Pelgrun (2001) has it that, in the view of primary and secondary teachers, one of the top barriers to ICT integration in education was lack of technical assistance. Again Husing (2007) found that in European schools there are some infrastructure barriers such as broadband access no being available. Furthermore, Lack of teachers technical knowledge to prepare material based on technology and Implementation of policy to ensure use of ICTs were considered to be second highest barrier in the integration of technology in teaching and learning. This finding is supported by a research in Australia, Newhouse (2002) found that many teachers lacked the knowledge and skills to use computers and were not enthusiastic about the changes and integration of supplementary learning associated with bring computers into their teaching practices. Current research has shown that the level this barrier differs from country to country. In the developing countries, research reported that teachers lack of technological competence is the barrier to their acceptance and adoption of ICT (Pelgrum, 2001). In Syria for example lack of technological competence has been cited as the main barriers.(Albirini, 2006). Likewise in Saudi Arabia, lack of ICT skills is a serious obstacle to the integration of technologies into science education (Al-Alwani, 2005)

Research Question five: What are the factors hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT? To elicit views of business management teachers on their readiness and confidence in using ICT, Teachers were asked rate themselves on a five point likert confidence scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD). The findings are illustrated in table 7.

Table 7: Factors hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT Factors SA A N D SD

Percentage (%) Teachers lack of expertise with ICT Lack of confidence in using ICT Insufficient Knowledge of appropriate software Insufficient knowledge of how to use ICT equipment Lack of knowledge of how to evaluate ICT use 40.9 37.6 3.2 11.8 6.5 44.1 35.5 1.1 11.8 7.5 45.2 39.7 38.7 36.6 41.9 41.9 1.1 3.2 -8.6 8.8 10.8 8.6 6.5 8.6

The results in table 7 indicates that most teachers agree (45.2+36.6=81.8%) that lack of expertise is the greatest factor hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT in

teaching and learning. This findings is support by (Marshall et al, 2003) who reported similarly that teacher continue to identify lack of time as a barrier to technology, this could be interpreted to mean teacher have not have time to acquire the necessary skill in the use technology in teaching. Previous surveys of academic staff attitudes to the use of technology have repeatedly identified time and absence of skill and knowledge as significant barriers to technology adoption. Lack of expertise is not only a barrier but it also acts an influence to other barriers. For example, a teacher may prepare a lesson to be presented using ICT facilities but may fail to operate the equipment during the lesson thereby causing him some embarrassment in front of his students. Becta (2004) concluded one of their studies with the statement: many teachers who do not consider themselves to be well skilled in using ICT feel anxious about using it in front of a class of children who perhaps know more that they do (P. 7) Also lack of confidence (81.6%) is the second most important factor hindering ICT use in the classroom as presented in table 7. Several researchers indicate that one barrier that prevents teachers from using ICT in their teaching is lack of confidence. Dawes (2001) sees this as a contextual factor which can act as a barrier. According to Becta (2004), much of the research proposes that this is a major barrier to the uptake of ICT by teachers in the classroom. In Bectas survey of practitioners (2004), the issue of lack of confidence was the area that attracted most responses from those that took part. Some studies have investigated the reason for teachers lack of confidence with the use of ICT. For example, Beggs (2000) asserted that teachers fear of failure caused a lack of confidence. On the other hand, Balankat et al (2006) found that limitations in teachers ICT knowledge makes them feel anxious about using ICT in the classroom and thus not confident to use it in their teaching.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study was concerned with teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in teaching business management in the Senior High School in Accra Metropolitan Area. The focus was to establish the attitudes of teachers and the level of usage of the ICT in teaching and learning in our senior high schools. Questionnaires were administered to 100 respondents who provided for the study. Charts, percentages and tables were used to present the findings of the study. The issues explored included the demographic characteristics of respondents; teachers attitude toward ICT use; the types of resources and applications use by the study; barriers and perceptions face by teachers in the study and what really hinders readiness and confidence of teacher in the usage of ICT.

Summary of Research Findings

On the attitude of teachers towards the use of ICT, it was found that most business management teachers have positive attitude to computer use.The successful use of technology in the classroom depends to a large extent on the teachers attitudes toward these tools. Positive attitudes often encourage less technologically capable teachers to learn the skills necessary for the implementation of technology-based activities in the classroom. Also the study shows that participants with negative computer attitudes were less skilled in computer use and were therefore less likely to accept and adapt to technology than those with positive attitudes. On a personal level, most of the participants underscored the importance of ICT for self-development; ICT is a means for increasing ones knowledge and a window for getting in touch with the world.

It was gathered from the study on teachers perception about the level of computer competence were low, It could be deduce that teachers lack of knowledge and skills can be the
most inhibiting obstacle to the use of computers in schools and especially in teaching business management. The teacher has an important role to play in the teaching/learning analyzing problems and applying what is learnt. Staff development should be collaboratively created, based on subject areas and school needs. It must therefore prepare teachers to use technology effectively in their teaching. Teachers

noted several existing obstacles which prevented the effective use of computers and other ICTs in teaching and learning in the selected Senior High School for the study. Also Management teachers strongly agree that the highest obstacle to technology integration in teaching and learning is inadequate technical expertise to repair equipments and inadequate ICT infrastructure in schools. There was also an issue with what was perceived as a limitation on teachers who were allowed to use the computers after school hours only, especially those who do not have their personal ones.

On the frequency of ICT resources used by teachers it was found that most management teachers generally use computers most for internet and search engines. Although teachers have expressed the desire to increase their knowledge of how to use ICTs for their lessons, they do not have the knowledge, and therefore lack the confidence to do so, others have never use computers or any application. In order to achieve sufficient competence in using ICT effectively in education, the teacher needs professional and technical support. Self-training is also very important to increase competence and improve ICT use, through the resources such as user guides, CD ROMs and IT equipment for self training at home.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that business management teachers hold positive attitudes toward ICT in education, and have strong desire for integration of ICT into the teaching of business management, but barriers such as lack of confidence, lack of competence and accessibility have been found to be critical components for technology integration in schools. ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time and technical support need to be provided for business management teachers. No one component in itself is sufficient to produce good teaching. However, the presence of all components increases the likelihood of excellent integration of ICT learning and teaching opportunities. The findings of this study may be specific to Business Management teachers in Accra Metro schools, but their implications are significant to other educators as well. Recommendations The following recommendations are therefore made as a result of this study the:

1. The results of the study revealed that Business Management teachers have a positive attitude towards educational technologies therefore heads of Senior High Schools should allow teachers in the various schools to have access to internet.

2. Since positive attitudes toward ICT usually foretell future computer use, policy-makers can make use of teachers positive attitudes toward ICT to better prepare them for incorporating ICT in their teaching practices.

4. The introduction of ICT into education requires equal innovativeness in other aspects of education. Ghana Education Service and Curriculum Planners should provide additional planning time for teachers to experiment with new ICT-based approaches. This may be attained by reducing the teaching load for the teachers.

5. If decision-makers want to involve teachers in the process of technology integration. Professional training (both in service and pre-service), workshops, seminars should be provided in order to help or aid teachers experimenting with ICT before being able to use it in their classrooms. 6. There is the need also to provide technical support to schools in terms of installation and maintenance of ICT infrastructure 7. The Ministry of Education and Ghana Education Service should provide an extensive network of skilled technicians to maintain the equipment and support, schools, administrators, teachers, and students its quest of ICTs integration. Areas for Further Research For further studies, researcher are encouraged to attempt to cover more schools in Accra as well as other municipalities and also attempt to conduct an observational study on the attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT in teaching business management.

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

QUESTIONAIRE ON TEACHERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF ICT IN TEACHING BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

This study is to help the researcher find out the attitudes of Business Management teachers towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning processes. You are kindly requested to respond to the items as objectively as possible. The information you give will be treated as confidential. Thank you.

SECTION A DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

PLEASE TICK APPROPRIATE RESPONSE

1. Name of School .. 2. Sex 3. Age male [ ] 21 - 30 years 31 - 40 years 41 - 50 years 51 - 60 years female [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

4. Qualification;

Diploma [ ]

Bachelors degree [ ]

Masters degree and above[ ]

5. Teaching experience

1 5 years

] ] ] ]

6 10 years [ 11 15 years [ 16 20 years [

6. Do you have a personal computer? 7. If yes, how long have you owned it? 8. Does your school have computers?

Yes [ ] [ ] years Yes [ ]

No [ ]

No [ ] No [ ] ]

9. Do you have internet connection at home? 10. Does your school have internet connection?

Yes [ ] Yes [

11. How long do you use the computer each day?

No usage Less than one hour 1 4 hours 5 8 hours 9 hours Or More

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ [ ] ]

SECTION B

Business Management teachers attitudes towards ICT Indicate the extent to which you agree to the following statements. Statement Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1

ICT increases teachers productivity ICT enhances teaching and learning. ICT helps make effective use of class time. ICT helps to meet the varying needs of students. ICT improve students learning outcome. Create opportunities to introduce new teaching approaches for students ICT improves students collaboration.

Facilitate the implementation of educational programmes ICT improves students motivation.

SECTION C ICT resources use by business management teachers Indicate the extent to which ICT resources are used in your school work Application Daily 5 Computers in general Word processing packages Search engines for internet Databases Spreadsheets Desktop publishing Presentation software Any Internet activity Hypermedia/ Multimedia Drills/ Practice tutorials Flash presentations Weekly 4 Monthly 3 1 or 2 times a year 2 Never 1

SECTION D Teachers perception of their level of computer competence. Indicate the extent of your level of competence in ICT usage Statement No Little Neutral Competence competence 5 4 3 Moderate Much Competence Competence 2 1

Install new software on a computer Use a printer Use a computer keyboard

Operate a word processing program Operate a presentation program Use the Internet for communication Solve simple problems in operating computers Use computers for grade keeping. Create and organize computer files and folders Select and evaluate educational software.

SECTION E Barriers to ICT usage Indicate the extent to which you perceive statement below pose as a barrier to use of ICT. Barriers to ICT Usage Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree Strongly Disagree 2 1

Use of ICT is not friendly High cost involved in the acquisition of ICT technologies Lack of teachers technical knowledge to prepare materials based on technology

Insufficient time to prepare materials

based on technology Inadequate interest in the use of ICTs Low economic status of pupils Poor location/ physical distance of ICT facilities from pupils Inadequate technical experts to repair equipment Implementation of policy to ensure use of ICTs Inadequate ICT infrastructure in schools

SECTION F

Factors hindering teachers readiness and confidence in using ICT? Indicate the extent to which the statements below hinder teachers readiness and confidence. Factors Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1

Teachers lack of expertise with ICT

Lack of confidence in using ICT Insufficient knowledge of appropriate software.

Insufficient knowledge of how to use ICT equipment.

Lack of knowledge of, and how to evaluate ICT use.

APPENDIX B ACCRA METRO EDUCATION OFFICE LIST OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS

NAME OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LOCATION

ST THOMAS AQUINAS SHS ACCRA GIRLS SHS EBENEZER SHS ACCRA ACADEMY ST MARYS SHS KINBU TECH ARMED FORCES TECH PRESBYTERIAN SHS WESLEY GRAMMAR SHS LA PRESBY SHS ST MARGARET MARY SHS ACCRA HIGH SHS KENESHIE TECH SHS CHRISTIAN METHODIST SHS ACHIMOTA SHS LABONE SHS OREILLY SHS EXTRA MURAL ACADEMY DANSOMAN SHS TECH CALVARY METH.VOC.INSTITUTE ASHLEYS COMMERCIAL INSTITUTE SEVEN GREAT PRINCESS SHS ALPHA BETA SHS NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE

CANTOMMENT MAAMOBI DANSOMAN KANESHIE KORLE-BU TUDU BURMA CAMP OSU DANSOMAN LA DANSOMAN NORTH RIDGE KANESHIE NEW WEIJA ACHIMOTA LABONE ADABRAKA DANSOMAN DANSOMAN ADABRAKA KANESHIE DANSOMAN DANSOMAN ABOSSEY OKAI

APPENDIX C A MAP OF GREATER ACCRA