MECH4552 Major Design Project: The Development of an Air Data System

Student Names: William Le (41412295) Jordan Palmer (41416145) Daniel Wilcox (41450000) Course Code: MECH 4552 Supervisor: Dr. Peter Jacobs Submission Date: 29 October 2010

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Dual Major)

UQ Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology

Abstract
The aim of this project is to design and manufacture an air data system for the Zuni Rocket, capable of recording flight characteristics such as Mach number, altitude and angle of attack (pitch and yaw). The air data system is designed to be a 5-hole pressure probe which operates in supersonic flow conditions. It incorporates a central transducer recording the stagnation pressure on the nose of the cone and four transducers, located around the base, measuring the static pressures. The project was approached from three different aspects; the design and data acquisition, the CFD and the calibration process. In terms of the design, a conical nose piece made from mild steel was manufactured. As required, it had four base holes which were connected to MPX5700AP model transducers. Additionally it had a central hole which interfaced with a P51-300-G-B-I36-4.5V-R transducer. Furthermore, the supporting components to the air data system were also designed and manufactured. The final assembly consisted of the nose cone, an electrical strip board unit with supports, a new payload case and payload window cover. The assembly was designed to meet the requirements of the mentioned air data system while still being mechanically sound during the aggressive flight conditions. Extensive computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted to model the flow conditions over the conical nose cone. The results were used to compare and calibrate our experimental data. This data was obtained during a live flight experiment conducted at Woomera launch range. An in depth calibration process was established to model the five collected pressure values and convert them into the desirable flight characteristics. As expected the rocket reached a maximum altitude of approximately 5200m. Furthermore, the process yielded a maximum Mach number of about Mach 3. Finally, the rocket was found to be pitching and yawing between ±3°. This data could be used to estimate the coning rate of the rocket which was calculated to be 2Hz.

Table of Contents

1 Contents
2 Scope of Project ...............................................................................................................................1 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 Instrumentation and Nose Cone Design ...................................................................................1 Computational Fluid Dynamics ...............................................................................................1 Pressure Probe Calibration .......................................................................................................2

Literature Review .............................................................................................................................3 3.1 Pressure Probes........................................................................................................................3 4 hole (Cobra Probe): .......................................................................................................3 5 hole pressure probes: ....................................................................................................4

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.3

Response Time: ........................................................................................................................5 Computational Fluid Dynamics ...............................................................................................6 Experimental Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic Results .................................6

3.3.1 3.4 4

Calibration ................................................................................................................................9

Background Theory ....................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Supersonic Flow and Shock Relations .................................................................................. 12 Types of Shocks ............................................................................................................ 12 Calculating Maximum Angle ........................................................................................ 14 Shock Relation Equations ............................................................................................. 14 Calculating Pressures for Yaw and Pitch Angles .......................................................... 18 Stagnation Temperature and Pressure ........................................................................... 19

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Multi-hole Pressure Probe and Pitot-Static Tubes ................................................................ 19 Turbulence Effects over Cone ............................................................................................... 20 Reflection of Pressure Waves ............................................................................................... 21 Computational Fluid Dynamics Usage in the Calibration of Pressure Probes ...................... 22 Reducing the Computation Time .................................................................................. 23 Separating Velocity Components .................................................................................. 23 Similarities in Pitch and Yaw Pressures ........................................................................ 23 Roll ................................................................................................................................ 24

4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.6 4.7

Bolt Calculations ................................................................................................................... 25 Calibration ............................................................................................................................. 27 Determination of Mach Number ................................................................................... 27 Determination of Flow Angles ...................................................................................... 29 Correction Factor........................................................................................................... 30

4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3

4.7.4 4.7.5 5 6

Probe Calibration Matrix ............................................................................................... 30 Determination of Altitude ............................................................................................. 31

Assumptions .................................................................................................................................. 33 Limitations .................................................................................................................................... 33 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Zuni ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Manufacturing ....................................................................................................................... 33 Assembly ............................................................................................................................... 34 CFD Simulations ................................................................................................................... 34

7

Previously Designed Components................................................................................................. 35 7.1 Data Acquisition.................................................................................................................... 35 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 35 Modifications ................................................................................................................ 36 Mode Switch ................................................................................................................. 37

7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 8

Separation Module ................................................................................................................ 38

Detailed Design ............................................................................................................................. 39 8.1 8.2 Design Requirements ............................................................................................................ 39 Preliminary Design ................................................................................................................ 39 Nose Cone ..................................................................................................................... 39 Pressure Transducers .................................................................................................... 40

8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3

Final Design .......................................................................................................................... 40 Nose Cone ..................................................................................................................... 40 Pressure Transducer Selection....................................................................................... 43 Strip Board and Interface .............................................................................................. 45 Payload Case and Window ............................................................................................ 48 Manufacturing Processes............................................................................................... 50 Bolt Design .................................................................................................................... 51 Nosecone to Payload case bolts..................................................................................... 51

8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.3.6 8.3.7 8.4

Calibration Code Design ....................................................................................................... 53 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 53 Importing Data .............................................................................................................. 55 Obtaining Initial Values ................................................................................................ 55 Mach Number ................................................................................................................ 56 Total and Dynamic Pressure ......................................................................................... 58 Determination of Flow Angles ...................................................................................... 60

8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 8.4.6 9

Procedure....................................................................................................................................... 64

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

Trans Calibration of Transducers .......................................................................................... 64 Assembly ............................................................................................................................... 64 Woomera Launch .................................................................................................................. 67 Computational Fluid Dynamics Procedure ........................................................................... 70 Geometry ....................................................................................................................... 70 Meshing ......................................................................................................................... 72 Pre-CFX ........................................................................................................................ 74 Solver ............................................................................................................................ 78 CFX-Post ....................................................................................................................... 78

9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.4.5 9.5 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

Code Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 79 Results ....................................................................................................................................... 83 Pressure Transducer Calibration ........................................................................................... 83 Theoretical Results ................................................................................................................ 84 Raw Data from Launch ......................................................................................................... 86 CFD Results .......................................................................................................................... 91 Meshing ......................................................................................................................... 91 Testing ........................................................................................................................... 91 Data ............................................................................................................................... 92

10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.5

Final Results from Code........................................................................................................ 98 Flight Angles ................................................................................................................. 98 Flight Mach Number ................................................................................................... 100

10.5.1 10.5.2 11 11.1 11.2

Discussion ............................................................................................................................... 100 CFD Compared to Theoretical ............................................................................................ 100 Flight Angles ....................................................................................................................... 102 Angle of Yaw .............................................................................................................. 103 Angle of Pitch.............................................................................................................. 104 Mach Number .............................................................................................................. 105

11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.3 11.4

Altitude ................................................................................................................................ 106 Error Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 107 CFD ............................................................................................................................. 107 Calibration ................................................................................................................... 109

11.4.1 11.4.2 12 13 14 14.1

Conclusion............................................................................................................................... 112 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 114 Appendix ................................................................................................................................. 117 Appendix A– Engineering Drawings .................................................................................... 117

.2 14................................................................14.................................................................................................................................... 202 Appendix F– Pressure Calibration graphical results ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 237 Assembly . 242 14................................... 239 Recovery ..................................................... 236 Explosive material .................1.......................................................................................... 235 Protrusions ........................6 14........................................................2 14............................................................................................................................................................8 Assembly ......................10 APPENDIX I – CFD RESULTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 138 Appendix D– NACA1135 Charts....4 14.................. 119 Payload Case Window .................................................................... 236 Flammable material ....................................................4 14......................................................................... 117 Nose Cone ..............................................................................................................1................................................................................................................................ 122 Appendix B– Code ...........8....................................2 14................................... 237 Calculated Coefficient of Drag.................................................................................................................... 247 ..............................5 14............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 240 Personnel.................................................7 14......6 14........................................................... ...........1...1 14............ 120 Strip Board Support Plate ........................ 234 Payload weight ...............................................................................................................................................................5 14................................................................ 236 Other hazardous material ..............................1............. 123 Appendix C – ASRI Payload Guide ........... 240 Procedures to be conducted during the launch sequence ........................................................................................... 194 Appendix D– Correction Factors ........................................................................................... 235 Living material ............................................................................................................................................... 232 Description of Conical Nose Piece: ........ 209 SSI Technology P51-300-G-A-I36-4............................................ 121 Strip Board Support Ring .................................. 197 Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices .................................................. 209 Freescale MPX5700AP..............................8............1................................................................................................................ 118 Payload Case..................................................... 207 Appendix G– Transducer Data Sheets ..9 Appendix H– Payload Description...... 237 Preparation..................... 236 Chemical material ................................................................................ 231 Description of Air Data System: ........ 232 Description of the Data Acquisition Module: ................3 14......................................................................... 215 14.......................1 14.........................................5OV-R ........................................1...... 230 Appendix D payload information document template ....... 238 Pre-launch ........................................................................................................3 14........................................

..................................11 14................. 252 APPENDIX L – CALIBRATED DATA ....................................... 252 ....................................................................................................12 14...................................13 APPENDIX J – RAW DATA ....... 252 APPENDIX K – APPENDED LIST OF CFD RESULTS ..14...........

......................4 Figure 3: 5-hole pressure probe (Porro 2010)................................... 47 Figure 36: Flexible hosing in boiling water .. 20 Figure 14: Cavitation Effect (Stanford University........................................................................................................................ 49 Figure 39: Breakwire adaptor.......................5 Figure 5: Variation of the settling time as a function of the length of the connecting tube.............5 Figure 6: The AIAA method for the validation of a particular CFD solver ....................... 2008)..................................................................................... 39 Figure 24: Preliminary design of nose cone .......................................................................... 52 ........................................ 41 Figure 26: Manufactured nose cone sitting on top of payload case ...................................................................... for different internal diameters (Bajsić.. 2010) ...................................................................................................... 49 Figure 38: Payload case cover ....... 46 Figure 34: The strip board assembly showing the support ring holding down the vero board to the support plate ............... 45 Figure 32: Redundant back plate designed to support the original strip board .................................................... 32 Figure 21: F-Box data acquisition module (Lara 2007).................................................................................................................. 18 Figure 13: A Pitot-Static Tube (eFunda......... 17 Figure 12: Conditions for calculating surface pressure (NACA1135) ..................................................................................3 Figure 2: Cobra Probe (Chen..................................... 29 Figure 19: Example of Probe Calibration Matrix ................................................................................................................................................................................... et al 2007) ............................................................... (White........ J et al 2000) .............................................. 14 Figure 10: How the velocity profile changes as it passes through an oblique shock............................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 15: Roll Data vs....... 10 Figure 8: Figure showing the difference between Oblique shocks on the Left and Bow shocks on the Right...................... 28 Figure 18: Variation of Mach Number With Respect to Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure ........................ (White.........................................................4 Figure 4: Devices for measuring angles of attack (allstar 2008) ................. 42 Figure 29: SSI Technology..................................................................................................... 40 Figure 25: Comparing the section cut of the initial design to the final design .......... 2008) ........ 2008) ... 36 Figure 23: Separation Module................................................................................. Pressure Coefficient for different Pitch Angles (NACA TN3967) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Figure 37: Original payload case (left) and the new payload case(right).................................... 36 Figure 22: Channel Configuration ..................................8 Figure 7: Neural Network Calibration Method .................................. (White.......... 50 Figure 40: Forces acting on the nose cone.......................................................................... 15 Figure 11: Plot used to calculate the value for oblique shocks....................................................................................................................List of Figures Figure 1: 5-hole Pressure Probe on Ares-X Rocket (Space Fellowship 2009)............ 42 Figure 28: Image showing the internal section of the forward facing cavity......................................................................................... 31 Figure 20: US Standard Atmosphere Model ............................................................................................ Shows the bolt position and configuration of a section cut ................................................ 27 Figure 17: Effect of Pitch on Total Pressure ...................................... 13 Figure 9: The Definition of Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (White....................................... 47 Figure 35: Electrical insulation on the support ring ad support plate ...................................................... P51-300-G-B-I36-4.......................................................................................................... 45 Figure 31: Picture from bottom of nose cone showing redundant bolt holes ......................................5V-R .. 2000) .............................................. 44 Figure 30: Freescale MPX5700AP................................................. 25 Figure 16: Angles of Pitch and Yaw ........................................................................................................... 2008) .................................. 46 Figure 33: Hole cut in the middle of the board to allow cables to reach the DAQ module ............................................................ 41 Figure 27: Inside of nose cone showing the protruding copper tubing ...

.................P5) (M<1).... Time ................................................................................................................................................................................... 75 Figure 66: Inlet and Outlet Arrows for No Angles of Pitch or Yaw .......................................... 67 Figure 56: Payload attached to parachute tube......................... Yaw Angle (P3............................................................... 79 Figure 69: Probe Layout ................................................................................................... 77 Figure 67: Inlet and Outlet Arrows For When There is Pitch or Yaw ....... 69 Figure 58: Measuring centre of gravity .............................................. 66 Figure 54: Payload assembly before the payload case is attached......................................................Figure 41: Overview of Calibration Process ............. 101 ............................................. Change of Yaw Angle (P3... 80 Figure 70: P1 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch ........ 59 Figure 47: Total Pressure Ratio vs....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 Figure 46: Total Pressure Ratio vs.............................................................................................. Mach Number (M<1) .............. 65 Figure 53: Assembled DAQ module......... 68 Figure 57: Find the centre of gravity .......................................................................................................................................................... 98 Figure 83: Angle of Pitch vs...................5V-R screwed into the nose cone................................................................................... 60 Figure 48: Ratio of Dynamic Pressure to Total Pressure vs................................ 72 Figure 62: Geometry Imported into Meshing Application ................ Mach Number (M>1) .......................................................... 54 Figure 42: Determination of Coefficients of Pitch and Yaw ............ The sixth transducer measuring the atmospheric pressure. 69 Figure 59: Bounding Box Created in ANSYS Geometry ................................................................ 60 Figure 49: Flow Diagram Describing Interpolation of Probe Calibration Matrix...................................................... 99 Figure 85: Mach Number vs... 94 Figure 79: Change in Pressure vs............................... 96 Figure 80: Change in Pressure vs....................... 90 Figure 78: Change in P1 Pressure with Mach Number ......... Mach Number ... Time .......... 66 Figure 55: Separation module . 73 Figure 64: Inflation Layers Shown Around the Probe ....... 74 Figure 65: How the Set-Up of the Default Domain for CFX-Pre is Set Out............................... 88 Figure 74: P5 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch ....................................................... 87 Figure 71: P2 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch ............................................................................................... 56 Figure 43: Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure vs.......................................................................... 89 Figure 76: Transverse Accelerometer Results ...................................................... Time ................ Change in Yaw (P2) (M<1) .......................................................... 61 Figure 50: 951-300-G-B-I36-4......................................................................................................................................... 57 Figure 44: Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure vs..................... 78 Figure 68: Visualisation Effect Created by CFX-Post Showing the Mach Number Distribution ...................... can also be seen to be glued to the top of the board ...................................................................................................................................... 71 Figure 60: Cone Cut Out of Bounding Box .................................................................................................................... 58 Figure 45: Comparison of CFD data to Rational Approximation ........................................ Mach Number (M<1).... Change in Yaw (P2) (M>1) ........... 99 Figure 84: Angle of Yaw vs............. 73 Figure 63: Meshed with Basic Settings........................................... 65 Figure 52: Processor board and Battery configuration ................P5) (M>1)............................................................ 71 Figure 61: Smoothed Circular Area Corresponding to Pressure Transducers.......... 87 Figure 72: P3 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch ........................ 90 Figure 77: Axial Accelerometer Results...................... 97 Figure 82: Change in Normalised Pressures vs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 89 Figure 75: Atmospheric Transducer Change in Pressure over Time during Launch .................................................................................. 100 Figure 86: Comparison of Theoretical and CFD Results for Stagnation Pressure ....................................................................................... 96 Figure 81: Change of Normalised Pressure vs........... 88 Figure 73: P4 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch .......................................... 64 Figure 51: One hose connected and hot glued to the nose cone ................................. Mach Number (M>1)....................

.............................................................................................................................................................. 104 Figure 90: Average Angle Of Pitch vs..................... Legend........................................................................................................................ 107 Figure 93: Altitude using Static Pressure ... 105 Figure 91: Averaged Mach Number vs.................................. Time .................................................................................................................................. Risk Analysis Matrix ......................................... 244 Table 18-4........................Figure 87: Comparison of Theoretical and CFD Results for the Pressures on the Surface of the Cone ......... 236 Table 18-1........................................................................ 103 Figure 89: Averaged Angle of Yaw vs............................... 243 Table 18-2................................. Time ...................................................................... Time . 244 Table 18-3...... Qualitative Measures of Likelihood ......... 244 Table 18-5 Risk analysis matrix .................................................................................................................. 107 Figure 15-1 Payload protrusions diagram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 Figure 92: Altitude Using Atmospheric Pressure ......................................................... 102 Figure 88: Rocket Initial Position............................................................................................................. Qualitative Measures of Consequences .......... 246 ..................................

.............................................................. 76 Table 10: Payload Conditions in CFX-Pre . 83 Table 12: Theoretical Stagnation Pressures for Varying Mach Numbers .... 86 Table 14: Mesh Results for CFD ..................................................................................................................................... 93 Table 18: Percent Difference in Pressure Values Compared to Yaw = 0°................. 26 Table 2: Properties of Carbon Steel Bolts (Euler 2003) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 53 Table 7: Inlet Conditions in CFX-Pre .............................................................. 91 Table 15: Test Data Using Different Pitch and Yaw Angles ........................................................................................................................ 38 Table 5: Highest expected pressures for transducer locations .................................. 111 Table 22: Actual Calibration Process Error ............................ 92 Table 17: Linear Setup for CFD Results .......................... 76 Table 8: Outlet Conditions in CFX-Pre ........... 110 Table 21: Approximation Error .................... 43 Table 6: Bolt selection for each interfacing component .......................................... for Change in Yaw Angle.... 26 Table 3: Determined channels for each transducer ................................................................................ Pitch and Yaw Angles Kept at 0° ....................................... Pitch Angle Kept at 0° ............................... 92 Table 16: Raw CFD Data Obtained From CFX For P1................... 77 Table 11: Pressure Transducer Calibration ... 108 Table 20: Initial (Theoretical) Calibration Process Error ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Table 13: Theoretical Surface Pressures Calculated Using NACA Report 1135 ..................................................................................................................................................... 37 Table 4: Mode switch set up for varying tasks .............................................................................................................................. 111 ........................................................................ 95 Table 19: Error Percentage in CFD Compared to Theory ...........................................................................................List of Tables Table 1: Bolt Calculations (RoyMech 2008) ........................................................................................ 76 Table 9: Payload Conditions in CFX-Pre ...........................................................................

The end product needs be a fully assembled payload from the supplied separation module (payload/parachute separation interfacing plate) and up. This essentially means the designed payload will be a pressure probe customised for the Zuni rocket. The CFD language used is CFX. 2. This is to be done over the conventional wind tunnel test and calibration.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) section of the project involves the use of a CFD language to simulate the flight of the payload at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. Furthermore. useable data should be obtained from an in-flight experiment conducted at the Woomera launch range.e. The pressure transducers used in-flight must be able to operate between the expected pressure ranges. one central transducer recording the total pressure and a determined amount of transducers around the base to measure the static pressure on the cone surface. as a benchmark for success. They must also be able to interface with the nose cone either by screwing into the nose cone or via some sort of hosing. Some major parameters that must be determined from the Zuni test flight include the rocket’s angle of attack (Pitch and Yaw angle). The conventional wind tunnel testing and calibration process involves simulating real flow effects for short periods of times. In order to have an 1 . design by Franco Mario Rabines Lara. 2. mass and materials should be determined The nose cone must be able to incorporate pressure transducers located at various positions. the design must be able to use the Data Acquisition module named the F-Box. This includes the nose cone as well as the supporting components (i. The nose cone’s semi-vertex angle. This DAQ module will sit inside a payload case attached to the nose cone. altitude and Mach number. However due to the hundreds of combinations that must be performed.2 Scope of Project The Air Data System that will be designed must be able to measure the overall flight parameters of a Zuni rocket during the supersonic period of flight using a series of pressure transducers. The use of CFD allows for quick and easy estimations of possible pressure readings at the rockets expected flight conditions. transducers and payload casing). the nose cone needs to be modified into a pressure probe. The project can be divided into three major sections.1 Instrumentation and Nose Cone Design In terms of the design. which is part of the simulation software ANSYS. Furthermore. the wind tunnel testing is too time consuming.

Some other considerations include a detailed risk analysis of the cone and payload manufacturing and further detailing the risks involved during the launching process. This involves reducing the amount of approximations and assumptions made by the solver. Mach number and altitude. 2. CFD simulations and calibration software to be ready prior to launch. working calibration software and the data must be presented in a clear and concise format. This is important so the solver does not over or under estimate the results which are to be used as a comparison to real world data. This process will take the voltage readings from the pressure transducers and convert them into the rockets angle of attack. To have a successful and accurate model. Furthermore a strict time line must be followed in order for all manufacturing.3 Pressure Probe Calibration The calibration section utilises both the recorded data from the instrumentation and the CFD sections in order to obtain useful data that can represent the flight attitude of the Zuni rocket. 2 .effective CFD model the simulation is to be set up as realistically as possible. the calibration process must include a detailed error analysis.

These usually determine in flight characteristics such as Mach number. the five-hole and cylindrical probes” (Hodson). is a pressure probe. static drains. airspeed indicators. secondary static sources. These components consist of. Rather a modified pitot tube consisting of multiple pressure transducers is used. “common of the pressure sensitive direction probes are the cobra. An example of pressure probes being used in aerospace applications is NASA’s Ares-X rocket. It is common for aircraft. A simple pitot tube by itself is insufficient to measure the angle of attack (flow angularity). pressure probes can be found in many forms. It has a triangular shaped head as “it is relatively easy to manufacture. a simplified instrument for measuring flow speeds and more importantly flow angularity. Figure 1: 5-hole Pressure Probe on Ares-X Rocket (Space Fellowship 2009) As outlined by the Cambridge engineering department.1 4 hole (Cobra Probe): The 4 hole pressure probe is a simpler. altimeters and vertical speed indicator. altitude and angle of attack. However. It’s a large 5 hole pressure probe designed to record the mach number. The most. accurate location of the side holes is less critical because of the absence of steep pressure gradients over most of the flat area in which the hole is located 3 .1 Pressure Probes Almost all aircraft utilise some form of pitot-static system. altitude and velocity.1.3 Literature Review 3. pitot lines. the wedge. static lines. 3. static vents. pitot tubes. smaller design that reduces any redundant information being collected (less pressures need to be calculated). particularly commercial and light-wing aircraft to utilise up to ten components to make up a pitot-static system (Gavin Gillett).

the static pressure and the flow angularity. 1981) Figure 2: Cobra Probe (Chen. These require shock tunnel calibration before any practical application. I.and the positive location of flow separation at the junctions of the flat surfaces insures minimal sensitivity to Reynolds number” (Shepard. However. frequency response. the probes can be used to calculate the stagnation pressure.C. pressure hole size and geometry. However. They are also quite expensive and can price around US$1200. “when designing a pneumatic probe that is to be used in flow measurements. 4 . the axial-symmetric design allows for a more simplistic calibration process. the local Mach and Reynolds numbers and the relative scale of the phenomena under investigation must be addressed” (Porro 2010) Five hole angularity pressure probes are manufactured by some companies such as Aerolab. the effects of blockage.2 5 hole pressure probes: The 5 hole pressure probe has more pressure calculations involved in the calibration technique than the 4-hole pressure probe. Figure 3: 5-hole pressure probe (Porro 2010) In either case. J et al 2000) 3.1.

2 Response Time: In order to achieve the most accurate results. Figure 4: Devices for measuring angles of attack (allstar 2008) 3. et al 2007) 5 . In similar experiments traducers with “nominal frequency response of 225 kHz”(Porro 2010) were used. The following graph shows the expected settling time for various set ups Figure 5: Variation of the settling time as a function of the length of the connecting tube. it was also discovered that the response time of a pressure measurement system would be influenced by a connecting tube. fast response times for the pressure transducers are to be desired. for different internal diameters (Bajsić. However. These are located on the front of the fuselage before the incoming airflow is disturbed.An alternative to the pressure probe is a common vane which acts as a small airfoil.

as well as viscous effects for analysing boundaries in high velocity profiles. It looks at the legitimacy of using CFD to model air flow in a room. as well as saving on time and money. and set up a flow around the model quite easily to analyse. Whereas to undertake a wind tunnel test. It is also able to measure miniscule values that would normally be too small to measure experimentally. the process needs to be started again with the manufacture of another model and testing. The software used can range from simple codes. This is because to accurately model an unknown flow exact values for pressures at specific velocities and angles are needed. If it is found the geometry is not satisfactory for the application it is needed for. AJ et al. great care must be taken in the modeling. or significantly under-estimate the results. The journal article “Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Two Edged Sword” (Baker. Neither of these results are ideal. These assumptions can either over-estimate the results. and can be used to help understand how a flow interacts with an environment. This can be because realistically there can be sections 6 . It states that CFD is a good visual tool. These GUI’s are most commonly used as they are able to create complex geometries. The use of CFD has increased dramatically over the past decade as a tool to optimise and analyse flow before a model is manufactured. and set up of the flow parameters. due to the many assumptions and approximations that are originally made by the solver.1 Experimental Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic Results However. This is because there are a number of assumptions the CFD code makes to be able to calculate the results more efficiently. The turbulence model is a major contributing factor for all CFD flows. 1997) talks about these issues in depth. the values obtained using CFD are not the correct values that would be found in a real life scenario. the geometry needs to be manufactured and instrumentation set up inside the tunnel. the results of the CFD calculations for the pressure probe need to be assessed for their validity and accuracy before they are used in real world applications. The main assumptions made by CFD solvers involve the turbulence models. so that the flow is modeled as realistically as possible.3. to complex programs with advanced Graphical User Interfaces (GUI). The use of CFD as an experimental tool has many advantages over conventional tests such as a wind tunnel test. 3. and then tests run. However.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the use of computational software to analyse fluid flows. This means that to use CFD effectively. This is due to being able to change geometry or flow properties quite easily using the CFD software.3.

both for the same airway. However the conclusions made for the validity of CFD results compared to experimental results can be used across any application. However Mylavarapu. This model is then analysed using CFD simulations to determine why there are problems. 7 . These papers cover a broad range of fields. with the majority of the flow laminar. and compared with experimental results. This process is shown in the Figure 6. Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging are used to create a 3D virtual model of a person’s upper airways. or where further problems could occur if the condition is exacerbated. the CFD assumes that due to the small amount of turbulence that the entire flow is turbulent. manufacturing. The CFD experiment was conducted using various CFD flow models.of local turbulence in a flow. G (et al. Oberkampf and Trucano (2002) talk about the process of experimentally validating CFD data according to the AIAA Guide in the article Verification and Validation in Computational Fluid Dynamics(2002). but use some experimental data to back up the CFD. and the aerospace industry. however. CFD is used due to the ability to easily change flow parameters and determine the effects that these have on people who have OSA. G (et al. This severely affects the quantitative results of the flow. Research papers have been written that are interested in determining the validity of CFD based on experimental data that is already possessed. with the model used both overestimating and underestimating the flow at different times. However. depending on the model. including medical. Mylavarapu. 2009) concluded that CFD could be used to analyse the flow. The comparison showed that the CFD was able to model the trend of the experimental results. 2009) investigated the use of CFD as a non-invasive method to model the human upper airways to help determine the unsteady air flow in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients. This is a significant error margin. The closest CFD result measured within 20% of the experimental results. overestimated or under-estimated the result. compared to the experimental values.

and then replicated in the CFD. to accurately analyse a flow over a model and gain quantitative results. A series of experiments are performed.Figure 6: The AIAA method for the validation of a particular CFD solver This shows the relationship between how a computational model can be used to accurately predict experimental results using the results of CFD simulations and experimental results. the flow parameters need to be carefully set with as little assumptions and approximations made as possible to ensure a reasonably accurate result. Oberkampf and Trucano also state that it needs to be acknowledged that this inference is much weaker than actual experimental result. discretisation. However. Computational Fluid Dynamics is an extremely useful tool for qualitatively analysing flows as well as determining the best possible geometry of a model before being manufactured. The results gained from CFD should also be checked with theoretical results. A general inference can then be made from these comparisons. there can be a significant error that the inference derived cannot predict. unless exactly the same CFD conditions are kept each time. This is because even though CFD relies on theoretical solutions. However this is an unlikely scenario. as well as experimental results to determine the validity of the CFD for that particular model. 8 . However. Due to this. The results from both of these are then compared and the differences assessed for a range of different experiments. This inference is then made for every simulation run using this solver. and etc. it also has other issues involving cell sizes.

This process is the simplest and evidence from other journal articles suggests that it is the most widely used method. Total Pressure before the shock can then be found: 5. A brief outline of the process is as follows: 1. 7. 2. Through the literary review two main methods of calibration emerged. The new ratio is found by the following equation: 9 . Find the ratio of the static pressure to total pressure behind the shock: a. Interpolation also leads to approximation error. interpolate the test data in order to gain an approximation for the angles of pitch. roll and yaw. the most commonly used conventional method and the relatively new Neural method. 3. The dynamic pressure before the shock is then given by: 6. In order to correct the initial assumption that the angle of attack was zero. The main advantage of this process is that it is widely used meaning that it is a refined process and there are numerous examples available. angle of pitch. Using the coefficients of pitch and yaw. 8. b. which if done numerous times in a single process could lead to significant uncertainties in the final product. Using the mach number we interpolate the tables provided by Ames Research Staff (1953) to get the total pressure ratio. some disadvantages are that it can be a slow computing process for a large set of collated pressure values. .4 Calibration The calibration of the five-hole pressure probe in supersonic conditions involves collating the recorded data from a flight and converting it into the total and dynamic pressure ahead of the shock and hence finds the flight Mach number. Assuming that angles of pitch and yaw are zero.3. Using the dynamic pressure the coefficients of pitch and yaw can be obtained: a. they are. The conventional method outlined by Centolanzi (1957) involves finding calibration curves relating to potential fluid flow theory. and the dynamic pressure ratio ⁄ 4. due to the need for large amounts of initial calibrating data and the constant interpolation of those sets of data. yaw and roll. a correction factor must be applied to the initial ratio of static and total pressure. However. we interpolate a plot determined by testing data to obtain the Mach number.

which is a computational strategy that aims to simulate the biological processes that take place in the human brain. training the program would be time consuming and accurate methods of training are relatively unknown. Some advantages of this process includes a theoretically accurate result and a quick computing time. but from previous tests it has been found to be quite accurate and unlike the conventional method. and respectively have converged The second method found was the neural method (Hui-Yuan et al. The software will slowly find a pattern in the imported values and once 'training' is complete. some disadvantages include. The code forms a good approximation for pressure calibrations by first being 'trained'. the sets of initial collated pressure values will be imported and the program will output. it is a fairly new and therefore untested method. combined they can be used as a powerful tool for approximation of arbitrary or non-linear functions such as pressure probe calibration. the code needed to run this process would be incredibly complex. it is not a slow process nor does it compound error by continuously interpolating initial data sets. In this case. However. however. ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ 9. 2003).a. this is done by simply importing a series of input and output values (Figure 7). It is a somewhat new method. the overall flight attitude and Mach number. which will lead to variable unknown errors in the final product. The process is then repeated until the values of total and dynamic pressure before the shock. it will be able to accurately output the data needed. The code is made from a series of interconnected processing elements that individually seem insignificant. Figure 7: Neural Network Calibration Method 10 .

giving a better indication of overall accuracy. it is much simpler to set up and in this case the error will be able to be quantified. 11 .Therefore. taking both methods into consideration. Although it is a slower computing process that will potentially produce larger error. the conventional method was chosen as the process that will adequately suit the needs of this project. but the complexity of writing the code. training the program and the unquantifiable final error makes the option unfeasible. The neural method would be a faster process to run and possibly more accurate.

from a speed of M>1. and T is the temperature of the flow. The speed of sound can be defined as: √ (1) Where a is the speed of sound. with the air flow curving away from its original path. At speeds higher than the speed of sound. shockwaves are formed at the front of the body. where: (2) M is the Mach number. however it sits in front of the body as a broad curved shock as shown on the right of Figure 8.1 Supersonic Flow and Shock Relations The payload design attached to the Zuni rocket will experience speeds that are much higher than the speed of sound. We use a non-dimensional term to make calculating these flow parameters much easier. as well as the Compressible Flow Relations Tables found in Fluid Mechanics (White. k is the ratio of specific heats. changing the static temperature and pressure of the flow behind the shock as well as the overall flow velocity. it is slowed down to a speed of M<1.1. The flow then expands away from the body as can be seen in Figure 8. With shocks starting to form at M=1. until it is parallel from the body. The flow properties after a shock wave for a specific Mach number can be calculated using the isentropic flow relations. a bow shock. 4. This term is the Mach number. These shockwaves have a significant effect on the properties of the flow.1. 4. or an oblique shock.4 Background Theory 4.1.1 Bow Shock A bow shock is defined as a strong shock with is not attached to the body in the flow. 12 . 2008). and V is the flow velocity. As the flow passes through the bow shock. R is the universal gas constant.1 Types of Shocks There are two main types of shockwaves that can be formed in supersonic flow.

as shown in Figure 9. As the flow expands around the corner. main difference between a bow shock and an oblique shock. with a decrease in Mach number as the flow compresses. 13 . and the flow expands as it moves over the top of the body.2 Oblique Shock An oblique shock wave is defined as a weak shock that is attached to the front of a body. other than one is attached to the than body and the other isn’t. This flow is deflected completely parallel to the surface of the body as shown above on the left in Figure 8. relative to the body that the shock is attached to. 2008) 4.1.1. sonic or subsonic depending on the incoming Mach number. the Mach number increases. ab 4. is that the flow behind an oblique shock wave can be supersonic.1. (White. This effect can happen when s the body is at an angle of pitch or yaw to the flow.1. The .Figure 8: Figure showing the difference between Oblique shocks on the Left and Bow shocks on the Right.3 Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves Meyer There is a case where there is an isentropic expansion or compression through multiple oblique shock waves as flow moves around a corner or a bend. or compresses as it moves underneath the body. It causes the flow to deflect at an angle θ.

before an attached oblique shock can no longer be formed. 2008) 4. This is because we can separate the components 14 . we need to consider the maximum Mach number that the body could experience. 2008) 4.1.2 Calculating Maximum Angle Ideally. There is a maximum angle that the flow can be deflected for a specific Mach number. (White. as shown in Figure 8.Figure 9: The Definition of Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (White.3 Shock Relation Equations To calculate the flow conditions downstream of an oblique shock we need to consider the isentropic flow relations for a normal shock. but instead forms a strong bow shock. it is required that there is an oblique shockwave formed at all Mach numbers experienced so that the flow is deflected instantly along the body. The maximum angle for a specific Mach number is defined as: / / (3) Where: (4) The values for V are obtained from the Compressible Flow Relation Tables for specific Mach numbers. To ensure that an oblique shock is formed.1.

The Mach Number Relations for the change in pressure and Mach number behind a normal shock are defined as: 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 (5) 2 (6) Where k is the ratio of specific heats for a perfect gas. however the normal component of velocity changes as it passes through the shock. 2008) From this we can see that the tangential component of velocity is constant across the shock. 15 . as shown in Figure 10. and p1 the static pressure before the shock. where p2 is the static pressure after the shock. with the Mach number after the shock. shock. to the normal and tangential components of the flow relative to the oblique shock. is the Mach number before the is the ratio of the pressures. Figure 10: How the velocity profile changes as it passes through an oblique shock. (White.of the incoming flow.

This requires the angle of the shock to be known to calculate the ratio of pressures as well as the new Mach number.4 for specific heat ratio. (11) can be determined from the following figure. for a value of 1. knowing the Mach number and angle of deflection. To find the pressure ratio.However. as shown in Figure 10. 16 . we substitute ratio equation: 1 2 1 1 (9) To determine the Mach number after the shock. an oblique shock has an angle associated with it. The normal component is related to the free-stream Mach number by: (7) sin is an arbitrary value for the angle of the shock and (8) is the deflection angle of the flow into the above pressure parallel to the body. we need to use: 1 2 1 2 And then sub this into: (10) sin This will determine the total Mach number of the flow after the shock.

where the Mach number behind the shock is greater than 1. where the Mach number behind the shock is less than 1. The dotted line in the . These tables show pressure coefficient versus the semi-vertex angle for varying Mach numbers of the cone where the pressure coefficient is. Ideally we will be looking at weak oblique shocks with less than . the point in which the oblique shock moves from a weak shock (on the left). Another way to check the pressure along the cone surface is to use Chart 6 from the NACA Report 1135 (Appendix D). (12) 17 . to a strong shock (on the right). (White. 2008) The figure above shows two possible values for graph represents for each value of .Figure 11: Plot used to calculate the value for oblique shocks.

4 Calculating Pressures for Yaw and Pitch Angles To determine the angle of deflection when there are angles of pitch and yaw. we can add. if there is a pitch angle of γ. with a deflection angle of resultant deflection angle is defined as: when there is no pitch. and larger for the top. with a smaller value for the bottom deflection angle. Figure 12: Conditions for calculating surface pressure (NACA1135) 4. Using these new values for we can determine the static pressures on the top and bottom of the body. the (13) (14) This results in a non symmetrical oblique shock wave forming about the body. For example.1. depending on the direction of the flow. if there is no yaw angle involved when there is a pitch angle. 18 . the angle of deflection to calculate those pressures not affected by the added angle.The following image indicates the necessary parameters required in order for this chart to be useable. or subtract this angle from the deflection angle. However. is normal. or vice versa.

to act as a regular pitot-static tube. the stagnation pressure behind the shock finding the value for 4. This can be calculated by However. as well as record the pressure. there are also holes. Around the edges of the tube.5 Stagnation Temperature and Pressure The stagnation temperature and pressure are also very important. 2008). The flow velocity can then be computed using the following equation: 2 (17) 19 . in designing a body to handle high speed flows. Multi-hole Pressure Probe and Pitot-Static Tubes The multi-hole pressure probe uses the above theory for shockwaves in supersonic flow. is required. which feed back to pressure sensors to measure the average static pressure of the flow. It has an opening at the front of a tube which records the stagnation pressure of a flow. The stagnation pressure can be defined as: 1 Where 1 2 (15) the stagnation is pressure before the shock and is the static pressure of the flow before the shockwave. We can also determine the stagnation temperature using the following relation: (16) is the stagnation temperature and is the static temperature.4. A pitot-static tube is used in many different fields to find the velocity of an unknown flow. As shown in Figure 13.2 / in the normal shock relation tables found in (White.1.

is the density of the flow. even for 20 . as the flow is directed away from the body shown above. due to the nature of oblique shocks. for a flow interacting with a body with an angle of pitch or yaw the flow will instantly separate into two streams based on which oblique shock is passes through. However. is the stagnation pressure and is the static Figure 13: A Pitot-Static Tube (eFunda. so the average static pressure can be obtained. However the shape is different.3 Turbulence Effects over Cone Ideally. pressure of the flow. 2010) A multi-hole pressure probe. As shown in Figure 13. acts in exactly the same way as a pitot-static tube. as it will be unable to measure the static pressure of the flow over the holes on the side. However. This is because as shown above. for supersonic flows. 4. the flow is deflected from its original path. This is because the flow is deflected parallel along the surface of the cone. a conical shaped pressure probe can be developed. This means that a conventional pitot-static tube will not be effective. which will allow the pressure probe to act exactly like a pitot-static tube. V is the velocity.

small angles of pitch and yaw. 21 . This effect usually causes a decrease in pressure as the waves interact.4 Reflection of Pressure Waves As flow enters the inlet of a duct that is blocked at one end. and a significant decrease in pressure. with the leeward side having an absence of flow. creating a cavitation behind the aerofoil as seen in Figure 14. Therefore to accurately measure the pressure on the sides of the probe. there is a build up of pressure similar to that of the stagnation point. if there is a build up of waves there can be a dramatic increase in pressure. The length of the duct is a significant contributor to the whether there are severe pressure wave reflections. This concept is much like acoustic waves interacting. 4. Figure 14: Cavitation Effect (Stanford University. This is because the longer the pressure waves spend reverberating in the closed end duct. At the front of the cone on the windward side. some of the flow does separate. there can be reflections which can affect the incoming flow. This is a similar effect as to that seen for aerofoils for increasing angle of attack. with positive and negative amplitudes interacting. however. 2000) This cavitation effect can significantly affect the results of the pressure measurements if the sensors are positioned too close to this area. the longer it is affecting the results as pressure waves are absorbed causing readings at the end of the ducts to be inaccurate. it is necessary to position the sensors a significant distance away from the effects caused by possible pitch and yaw angles.

depending on the angle or the velocity.To avoid this something can be used to break up the pressure waves down the duct. Each pressure probe has a different set of calibration data. This is done to obtain pressures at each of the pressure sensors. which. calibration of pressure probes is performed in a wind or shock tunnel. Therefore each different pressure probe needs to be calibrated individually to ensure that it is accurately modeling the unknown flow. The overall geometry and boundary conditions only need to be set up once. This process involves placing the probe into the tunnel. number of sensors. however the pressure is still able to increase through the medium so the pressure transducer is able to measure the pressures accurately. As each different combination takes time to set up. and is used as a reference for when the probe is in use. This can be a permeable medium inside the duct that will not allow for the transfer of the pressure waves. turn the wind tunnel off. CFD is able to be used to speed up this process. and start all over again. start the wind tunnel and allow the flow to reach the desired flow velocity. and simulating different flow conditions. Therefore there is a need to reduce this calibration time. It involves having to place the model inside at the exact required angle of attack. A reduction in calibration time will speed up the process between the design and implementation phase of a pressure probe. over a factor 106 combinations quite easily. as well as the number of data points observed over the ranges. or aircraft. Once the pressure sensors are reading a steady state flow. depending on the flow velocity and the angle of attack. 4. depending on the application. Using these obtained values we are able to determine the velocity and angle at which the probe is in an unknown flow. such as on a rocket. this process takes a very long time if not completely automated. depending on the range of velocities. Generally.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics Usage in the Calibration of Pressure Probes The use of CFD to calibrate the pressure probes involves determining the pressures at each pressure sensor. However this is a very time demanding process. This needs to be done for every possible scenario that the pressure probe may encounter while in use (all angles and all velocities). and angles. and positions of sensors. based on its geometry. record the data. including mean flow velocity and angle of attack. The pressure distribution about the probe can 22 . From this point the flow conditions can be easily changed. This number can become very large very quickly.

4.also be seen.5. and Velocity vector and the x-axis. 4. with the direction of the velocity vector and the x-axis. is the angle between the direction of the The velocity component in z can be calculated the same way as in y. there are some simplifications that can be made to reduce the amount of data points that need to be calculated. y. there are 4 equidistant spaced positions around the cone where the pressure is recorded.2 Separating Velocity Components The velocity of a flow can be broken up into 3 separate velocity components using the directional vectors x. and z.5. This is done by determining the difference in pressure from the leading edge in 23 . (18) (19) (20) Where V is the actual velocity of the flow. However. These velocity components are extremely important in setting up the flow conditions in CFD.1 Reducing the Computation Time Calculating a large number of data points in CFD can be extremely time consuming. This is done by using simple mathematical relations to show that a lot of the data is the same or very similar to that of other data points. The following theory explains how this can be done. The opposite transducers are used to determine either the pitch or yaw angles. For a 5-hole pressure probe. The following equations can be used to determine the velocities in the x and y directions where there is no velocity component in the z-direction. Knowing the angle of the flow it is possible to use basic trigonometry to correctly determine these velocities. Thus determining which data points can be extrapolated from others. 4.3 Similarities in Pitch and Yaw Pressures the angle between is the same value as above. and pressures can be obtained for the points where the pressure sensors are located on the probe.5.

we can correctly assume what the pressure values are. It can be assumed that the component contributes to yaw. Knowing the pressure values for both these scenarios. and value. For example. to the trailing edge. showing the effects of roll on the pressure coefficient for a Mach number of 1. 24 . Using the above trigonometric theory. the pressures stay constant at the spatial positions. If this is the case.the flow. This is because.4 Roll To calculate roll we need to look at how the pressures change on each pressure sensor. ° ° . as the payload rolls.5. and produce contributes for both cases. For a constant angle of pitch and yaw. for either pitch or yaw. P4 and P5: . 4. From this. where x is the direction of the flow. if looking at 5° pitch and 5° yaw.95. we can extrapolate to say that for calculating pitch and yaw values ranging between –γ° and γ°. P3. Figure 15 below is an extract from the NASA Technical Note 3967. Between 0° and 90°. P2. there is a curve that defines the transition between the two pressures at those points. we only need to look at between 0 and γ. the values of pressure will be rotated by 90°. ° ° . However. we can see that for the same the same value. The full list of Pressure Values for every scenario can be found in Appendix K. . if the four pressure sensors are labelled. there are 2 points in the leading edge and 2 points in the trailing edge. 90°. We can then use these results to determine what the pressure values are at every combination of pitch and yaw. 180° and 270°. as an angle of 5° pitch. the sensors oscillate between these values. we can look at 0°. as does to the pitch. This means that the transducer on the windward side would have a higher pressure than that on the leeward side. while leaving the other variable at 0°. If we consider four points of roll. however. an angle of 5° yaw will produce the same pressures over the 4 sensors around the cone.

° . ° . there is a definitive curve between each major point as defined above. It can be seen that for large pitch angles. ° . A Zuni rocket can be expected to experience forces of up to 70 times that of normal gravity. the progression from one point to the next is linear. landing and the deployment of the parachute. flight conditions can be quite demanding on the mechanical system especially during launch. Due to this we can assume that between 0° and 90°. as well as cutting back the number of CFD calculations required. 180° and 270°. . Pressure Coefficient for different Pitch Angles (NACA TN3967) Each plot is for a different pitch angle.6 Bolt Calculations As expected. 25 . However for low pitch angles. ° 4.Figure 15: Roll Data vs. 90° and 180°. as values for the four major points above can be easily defined using the data already obtained. 270° and 0° it is entirely linear. The following equations should be applied to the proposed design. the failure and design calculations for the mechanical fittings must be taken into consideration. This will make interpolating results much easier.

577*normal yield strength. Table 2: Properties of Carbon Steel Bolts (Euler 2003) Properties of carbon steel bolts Grade Description Proof Load Tensile Yield Tensile Ultimate Strength.8 medium carbon steel.8 low or medium carbon steel 225 Strength.8 Low or medium carbon 650 steel. MPa 400 420 Stress. 380 cold worked 420 520 8. MPa 240 340 low or medium carbon steel.8 low or medium carbon steel. MPa 4. 310 fully or partially annealed 5. 600 660 830 quenched and tempered 9. quenched and 26 720 900 .6 4.Table 1: Bolt Calculations (RoyMech 2008) Shear stress Compressive Stress 4F π D F Dt Plate Shear Stress F 2ct Furthermore to design for maximum shear stress the shear yield strength needs to be determined The Maximum Distortion Energy Theorem suggests that the shear yield strength = 0.

9 medium carbon steel.7 Calibration The objective of this section is to take the pressure values recorded from a Zuni rocket flight .9 alloy steel.1 Determination of Mach Number The first step in the calibration process was to find the ratio of static pressure to pitot pressure (23). The processes for finding the flight attitudes for every data point recorded over the flight were as follows: fligh Figure 16: Angles of Pitch and Yaw 4.7. the static pressure would largely . angle of pitch. are. the Mach number. The variables which will be describing the flight are. Next an assumption was made that the angles of pitch and yaw 27 . however. use the CFD data to calibrate those values and return a model of the flight attitude at supersonic speeds. Using a series of fluid flow and shock relations a good estimate of these variables can be found. averaging those values out gives a good indication of the actual static pressure and enables the value to be essentially invariant at the estimated Mach number.tempered 10. It was observed that at varying angles of pitch and yaw. angle of yaw and flight altitude (Figure 16). quenched and 970 tempered 1100 1220 4. vary across the four transducers around the base. 830 940 1040 quenched and tempered 12.

Using this initial Mach number the flow angles can be estimated. only a small correction factor will need be applied to find the 'true' Mach number.2Determination of Flow Angles.2 2 2. which will then re-estimate the Mach number and hence re-evaluate all other values. the process for doing so is described in section 4.8 0. it must be noted that the initial assumption of the flight angle equalling zero will not adversely affect the end results due to the fact that the static and pitot pressures hardly vary at the calculated Mach number.4 8 1.2 0.6 1 1. This assumption will later be corrected.6 0. This can be seen in Appendix D– Correction Factors.2 0. However. however.7.4 1.4 1. The process is continued until all values have converged.8 0.of the rocket were equal to zero. it allows for the initial determination of the Mach number by interpolating the CFD data and the ratio of static pressure to pitot pressure (Figure 18).8 0.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 angle of pitch 2 4 6 2. Effect of pitch on pitot pressure 1 0. Thus.6 1.2 Figure 17: Effect of Pitch on Total Pressure 28 . where at supersonic mach numbers there is minimal variation of ratio of total and static pressures due to pitching.4 pitot pressure ratio 0. Once the flight angles have been found a correction factor is reapplied to the ratio of static to pitot pressure. Further evidence that the flight angle has little dependence on the resulting Mach numbers can be seen in the low variance of pitot pressure due to varying speeds and pitch angles (Figure 17). This therefore provides enough evidence that Equation (23) which defines Mach number in this calibration process has little dependence on the flight angles.

Thus the total pressure ratio (25) can be found by interpolating the tables located in the NACA Report 1135 (1953). The matrix plots (4. had to be calculated.5 1 1.4. The dynamic pressure is determined by a similar method. results reported from Gracey et al. in that it utilises the polynomial relationship which exists between the Mach number and the ratio of dynamic pressure to total pressure to return the dynamic pressure ratio needed. and the dynamic pressures. Utilising across the sets of opposed transducers.7. this assumption is not detrimental to the end results. (1951).2 Determination of Flow Angles For the flight angles of a supersonic vehicle to be found.5 3 Figure 18: Variation of Mach Number With Respect to Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure 4.2 0. Furthermore. a method to complete this task can be seen in 8. initially the total pressure before the shock.05 0 0 0. The total pressure can then be calculated using the relationship seen in Equation (26). show that at any supersonic Mach number the shock relations associated with a supersonic nose cone can be related to normal shock theory.5 Mach Number 2 2. angle of attack and Mach number and therefore follows a similar process to that of the determination of the Mach number where the angle of attack is initially ignored and a correction factor will be later applied.4 Probe Calibration Matrix) generated with CFD data can then be interpolated with the coefficients of pitch and yaw at each Mach number in order to find the angles of pitch and yaw.15 Pa/Pt2 0. but as mentioned.1 0.Mach number 0. The tables were interpolated by finding a polynomial relationship that would input the Mach number and output the corresponding total pressure ratio.5 Total and Dynamic Pressure.7. 29 . ongoing from the assumption that the angle of attack is zero. the coefficients of pitch and yaw ( C and C and the pressure differences respecitely) can be calculated (Equation). The resulting dynamic pressure can then be calculated using Equation (28). The total pressure is a function of the pitot pressure.

4.4 Probe Calibration Matrix The probe calibration matrix is a plot of the variables obtained (C . Ψ) from the CFD modelling.3 Correction Factor As mentioned. in order to correct the initial assumption that flight angles were equal to zero a correction factor is introduced. with lower variance levels at high supersonic speeds. Once the correction factor is applied to the static to pitot pressure ratio. indicating that the initial error was not large. By applying this correcting factor it continuously minimises the deviation of the static to pitot pressure ratio from its actual value at the specified angle. The matrix forms a good representation of the flow fields at varying Mach numbers and provides a good reference for quickly determining the angles of pitch and yaw once the corresponding coefficients have been calculated. θ.5 Total and Dynamic Pressure. the process is repeated until the value of Mach number has converged. therefore continuously improving the solution. found by the processes outlined in 8. The probe calibration matrix was obtained by initially finding the coefficients of pitch and yaw.7. 30 . 4.7. The consistent plotting pattern is what should be expected from a CFD calibration due to the fact that computer simulations have constant ambient values. C .4. An example of the plot can be seen in Figure 19(All other plots are located in Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices. It simply measures the deviation of the ratio of static to pitot pressure at different angles to the zero angle point. As can be seen in Appendix D– Correction Factors. unlike real life testing which would have various inconsistencies due to experimental losses. the deviation due to pitching at high Mach numbers tends to be minimal. These data points were then plotted using simple plotting software. As can be seen in Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices the data points seem equidistant apart.

1 -0.2 0.5 Determination of Altitude Located inside the payload was a sixth pressure transducer which was utilised to record the atmospheric pressures as the altitude of the rocket changed over time. The resulting calibration plots and function relating ambient pressure to altitude for the US Standard (1976) model can be seen in Figure 20.7. 2010) Equation were utilised in order to calibrate the ambient pressure values to obtain flight altitude.1 0.05 0 0. the same models were applied to the calculated average static pressure.05 -0.05 0. The US standard atmosphere (1976) and the Earth Atmospheric Model (Glenn Research Centre.15 Coefficient of Pitch Figure 19: Example of Probe Calibration Matrix 4.15 0.Mach 2.1 0.15 -0. As a further comparison of the data.05 Coefficient of Yaw 0 -0.15 -0. this was simply done in order to check the accuracy of the pressure values recorded and consistency in the results.1 -0. 31 .

00649 288. (Series1) Figure 20: US Standard Atmosphere Model .29 .04 (21) 32 .08 273. Altitude) 90000 80000 70000 60000 Altitude (m) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 -10000 0 20 40 60 Pressure (kPa) 80 100 120 y = -6978ln(x) + 32471 R² = 0. 0.1 15.US Standard Atmosphere Model (Pressure vs. 101.9994 Series1 Log.

5mm (¼”) Copper Tubing outer diameter is limited to ¼” Hosing has to fit onto transducer flange (4.2 Zuni 10 kg minimum weight of the payload for attachment to the Zuni The Zuni has a radius of 130mm Manufacturing Length of drill bits capable to drill through long sections of the cone limited to greater than 200mm Minimum diameter for drill bits capable of drilling to 200mm is limited to 63. etc. Finances are to be minimized. Pressures on surface of cone are the same as pressure at the end of tubing Due to small length of tubing there is a negligible response time reading the pressure from the surface to the pressure transducer An oblique shock is created at all times when the payload is at speeds above M=1 Heat transfers and thermal expansion are neglected due to the short flight time CFD results are comparable to real world applications Data is recorded by the DAQ at a rate of 1kHz for approximately 20 seconds 6 Limitations 6. 33 .5 - Assumptions Maximum speed payload can reach is M=2. however. For a constant angle of pitch and yaw there is a linear progression between pressures at 0° and 90°. 90° and 180°. Design should avoid the need to order anything else a part from transducer (i. M=3 is used to calculate optimum angles and pressures Flight time at supersonic speeds ends between 6-10 seconds The range of pitch and yaw angles experienced are between -7° and 7° Acceleration forces can reach 70g Viscous effects are negligible when performing CFD calculations The payload will experience a roll effect. Swaglok connections).1 6. Transducers should be inexpensive.6.e.92mm) and be able to be molded to fit onto the ¼” copper tubing All designed sections must be able to be manufactured in the workshop or instrument lab.

3 - Assembly Make assembly as easy as possible while still meeting design requirements Must be able to physically connect plastic tubing to copper tubing by hand Lengths of tubing.6. need to be able to install the components into the payload case with all cables and tubing completely attached together 6.4 - CFD Simulations Restricted to using CFX within ANSYS to calculate CFD results Limited maximum number of elements in CFD Mesh due to processing power and allowable computational time - Limited time to perform excessive amount of pitch. yaw. and cables from pressure sensors are limited in length due to the space available in the payload case - Due to small space. mach combinations 34 .

The F-box was design with the following parameters [4]: • • • • • • • • • It is capable of recording analog signals for up to 10 channels (2 connected to accelerometers). 35 . Furthermore. The ability for the F-box to be reconfigured makes it a suitable acquisition module for almost any future Zuni experiment.7 Previously Designed Components 7. the data from the circular buffer is then stored in the EEPROM chip and every sample read is also stored in a round robin fashion into the memory. the device can ‘talk’ to the computer. In communication mode. The module is self powered by two 9V batteries Has the input channels readily accessible and fits inside a customised payload case. When the break-wire event occurs and the cable is unplugged. acceleration etc). Peter Jacob’s data logger The F-box was constructed specifically for the Zuni rocket and was intended to be compatible with many types of sensors (i.e. While the write-protection cable is connected.5 kg The F-box has two modalities. Has a maximum sample rate of 1Khz Has a capability of storing up to 256KB. A manual analog read of each channel can be tested to help with calibration. The I/O communication board allows for stored data to be downloaded via a serial communication protocol. • Record Mode: There are two sub settings while the device is in this mode.1 Overview The in-flight data acquisition module is Franco Lara’s F-Box (Lara 2007). the settings such as sample rate and recording time can be set. The recording time is user specified and can be between 10 to 20 seconds. pressure.1.1 Data Acquisition 7. the information that the channels are reading are stored into a circular buffer. A recording time of up to 20 seconds. Has a resolution of 10 bits. information can be stored or downloaded. This modular DAQ module is based off Dr. temperature. • Communication Mode: In this mode. Has a mass of approximately 2.

2 Modifications There were a few difficulties associated with the F-Box. the socket configuration for each of the analog channels was rearranged of as follows. there had to be six operational channels to record the signals coming from the six transducers. Firstly. Furthermore. The following table shows which channels were assigned to what transducer. Figure 22: Channel Configuration It was found that some of the channels were faulty or unable to be used for the experiment. Logically. the board. 36 . and as such it had to be converted back to the default configuration. the microchip was damaged during an installation and the power cables were found to be cut in half. Additionally.1.Figure 21: F-Box data acquisition module (Lara 2007) 7. previous years had modified F Box.

1.3 Mode Switch Power to Transducers Power to Processing Board Mode Switch Clear Memory 37 . 7.Table 3: Determined channels for each transducer Channel 2 through to 5 6 Transducer Base transducers recording static pressure Transducer located inside the payload case recording the atmospheric pressure 7 Central transducer recording the total pressure on the nose of the cone The mode switch on the I/O communications board has varying set ups depending on which task is required.

38 .Assembly the separation module connects to the payl payload tube and the parachute tube with 6 x M6 bolts. The separation plate was provided by ASRI and was unmodified for the entirety of the project.Table 4: Mode switch set up for varying tasks : Condition Set up for Communication mode: (Breakwire not connected) Connection Layout Set up to talk to the transducers: (Breakwire not connected) Set up for memory clear: (Breakwire connected) Set up to record: (Breakwire connected) Set up for live flight experiment: (Breakwire connected) 7.2 Separation Module The separation module is an interfacing plate which connects the payload case to the electronics module of the parachute tube. As seen in Appendix A . It has an internal diameter of 117mm which fits into the end of the payload case.

a forward facing cavity). 8.e. modifications had to be made in order to meet the project requirements. The nose cone was to act as a pressure probe. one at the tip of the nose (i.1 Nose Cone The initial nose cone design was based on the draft provided in the 2005 ASRI Payload guide (see Appendix C – ASRI Payload Guide). (It should be 39 . Initially their positions were to be chosen after CFD had been run. The following figure represents an artistic impression of the preliminary design. The positions of the other four transducers were to be decided upon a later date. In order for this transformation to occur. However. All designed sections must be able to be manufactured in the workshop or instrument lab. the payload had to act as a pitot-static system capable of determining flow angularity.2.2 Preliminary Design 8. As such few design requirements had to be met.Figure 23: Separation Module 8 Detailed Design 8. five holes had to be positioned around the nose cone. All sections must be easily assembled. • • • • • • Payload (From separation module and up) had to reach a minimum mass of 10kg Due to the ability to take advantage of axial symmetric qualities the air data system was decided to be a 5-hole pressure probe Pressure transducers had to be able to operate within the expected pressure ranges Heat transfers and thermal expansion would be neglected due to the short flight time. Time during supersonic flows was expected to be only about 5-6 seconds.1 Design Requirements As stated in the scope.

2. As such.e. As seen in the section Theory . 8. However.1 Nose Cone From the preliminary design.3 Final Design 8.2 Pressure Transducers Literature review suggested the need for high frequency high response pressure transducers. sizes and bluntness of tip were yet to be design and are merely artist impressions). As stated by Porro 2010.3. it was discovered that there was a minimum payload mass limit of 10kg. Firstly. The original design of a thin walled aluminium cone was significantly inadequate (3-4 kg). the nose cone underwent extensive modifications. it was estimated the manufacturing time would have at least doubled and as such to reduce the project cost a compromise was made and mild 40 .It was approximately 13cm in diameter and was initially intended to be made out of an Aluminium Alloy. pressure transducers with a nominal frequency of 225 KHz were utilized. the Honeywell 19C500PA4K) 8. the nose cone material was re evaluated and was changed to mild steel. Figure 24: Preliminary design of nose cone As you can see this was a rather simplistic conical design with a 12° semi vertex angle. consultations with the manufacturers eliminated this as an option due to the difficulties in respect to machining and working with the metal. Ideally.noted. This was considered too high and instead it was initially decided to utilise similar transducers that were used on previous test launches (i. non rusting steel (such as stainless steel grade 316) would have been optimum. the hole positions. Furthermore.

steel was chosen. The final mass of the nose cone was approximately 10 kg. The following figure demonstrates the thickness change from initial design to final design.

Figure 25: Comparing the section cut of the initial design to the final design

In terms of the actual design, the conical walls were thickened to further increase the mass of the payload. However, the internal section (hollow) had to be kept spacious enough to allow for transducer and hose assembly. The cone still maintained its 12° semi vertex angle. It had a base diameter approximately 13 cm and was 330 long. The nose cone was designed to bolt onto the DAQ payload case using 6 x M5 bolts.

Figure 26: Manufactured nose cone sitting on top of payload case

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The pressure holes were designed to be ¼” in diameter (four base holes and the forward facing cavity). This was to allow a ¼” OD copper tubing to be placed inside the four base holes. They were cut long enough to protrude into the internal hollow sect section when sitting flush with the outer surface of the cone (see Strip Board and Interface section for the purpose of the copper tubing).

Figure 27: Inside of nose cone showing the protruding copper tubing :

The forward facing cavity also had copper tubing placed inside. This copper tubing was positioned such that it was sitting flush with the central transducer. It was cut so it only extended half the length of the forward facing cavity. This was so the diameter was reduced to minimise resonance in the cavity. It also served to stop the steel wool from reaching and blocking the transducer. The steel wool also helped reduce resonance in the cavity.

Figure 28: Image showing the internal section of the forward facing cavity :

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8.3.2 Pressure Transducer Selection Three important aspects had to be considered in the selection of the pressure transducers; the operating range, the size of the transducer and whether the transducers needed to measure gauge or absolute.

The maximum expected pressures for various locations based on worst case scenarios were calculated using the appropriate theory. (See Theory – Shock Relation Equations)
Table 5: Highest expected pressures for transducer locations

Location

Measuring

Theory Used

Mach

Worst

Worst Case Pressure (kPa) 1221.8

Number Case Pressure (psi) Forward Stagnation Normal Theory Shock 3 177.2

facing cavity (Total) Pressure (central transducer) Base of Cone Static Along Surface Inside Payload the Atmospheric Pressure

Pressure Oblique Cone Theory

Shock 3

45.64

314.67

Atmospheric Model

-

14.69

101.3

Firstly, as seen in the above table worst case pressures for the forward facing transducer was expected to be about 177 psi (1221.8 kPa). In order to simplify the calibration process a transducer capable of recording 300 psi absolute was desire able. However, due to stock limitations and budget restrictions, only a transducer capable of recording gauge pressure was available. The chosen model was the SSI Technology’s P51-300-G-B-I36-4.5V-R. This transducer operates between 0 – 300 psi gauge. An additional transducer (Freescale MPX5100AP) was then needed to be placed inside the payload casing to record the ambient pressure of the atmosphere and thus absolute pressure could be deducted. Furthermore, the
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transducer needed to have the 1/8 NPT male connection port to screw into the nose cone. The cone had been designed so this transducer would be screwed into the internal section, eliminating any need for a hosing interface. Ideally this would have been perfect for all transducers as it would have eliminated extra manufacturing and assembly time and would have reduced pressure settling time; however restrictions with the project budget eliminated this as a feasible option.

Figure 29: SSI Technology. P51-300-G-B-I36-4.5V-R

In terms of the four transducers recording the static pressures around the base of the nose cone, the expected maximum pressure was calculated to be 45.64 psi (314.67 kPa). Additionally, no NPT connection was required as they were designed to be installed (soldered) into an electrical board and positioned inside the payload case. As such, a more economical transducer was selected; the Freescale MPX5700AP. This small temperature compensated, integrated Silicon pressure transducer had an operating range of 700kPa and measured the absolute pressure. Furthermore, this particular model was chosen because the diaphragm inside the transducer would be aligned perpendicular to the axis of the main acceleration. This was crucial such that the initial impulse of the rocket did not affect any of the readings. (See Appendix G-Transducer Data Sheets for both transducer data sheets).

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Figure 30: Freescale MPX5700AP

All pressure transducers had an onboard signal conditioning and amplifying chip which removed the need for any amplifiers to be installed onto the data acquisition module. 8.3.3 Strip Board and Interface The four transducers were soldered into an electrical strip board (vero board). This board was originally intended to be screwed into the nose cone as shown below.

Figure 31: Picture from bottom of nose cone showing redundant bolt holes

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These were used to reduce any noise associated with the response of the transducer. The 4 transducers were soldered into the board and compensation capacitors (100nf) were also soldered as close to the transducers as possible. The strip board was cut to size and a circular hole was cut from the middle to allow the cables from the central transducer and the four base transducers to pass through to the DAQ module. the strip board was then designed to be stationed inside the payload case. The strip board is a rather simple design.Figure 32: Redundant back plate designed to support the original strip board However. When the new MPX5700AP transducers were ordered it became impossible due to space restrictions for the strip board to be installed inside the nose cone. Rather. Figure 33: Hole cut in the middle of the board to allow cables to reach the DAQ module 46 . this configuration only applied to the originally chosen transducer model.

Figure 34: The strip board assembly showing the support ring holding down the vero board to the support plate : The support ring and strip board are both unthreaded to allow for easy assembly.The strip board rests on a metal support plate which screws into the payload case using M3. This plastic hosing had an internal diameter of 4 mm and fit nicely on the flanged onto connection of the transducer which had a maximum radius of 4. The flexible tubing had to be placed into boiling water 47 . the strip board is sandwiched between the support plate and support ring) which screws into the support plate using M3 bolts as shown below. Furthermore the base plate and ring are lined with an electrically insulative rubber so none of the electrical circuits are shorted when installed. Figure 35: Electrical insulation on the support ring ad support plate : The transducers were connected to the copper tubing inside the nose cone via a flexible hosing. The board is also held down by a support ring (i.e. Connecting it to the ¼” copper tubing was more difficult.92 mm.

and forced onto a spare piece of copper tubing. This remoulded the hosing at one end so it would now fit onto the copper tubing.

Figure 36: Flexible hosing in boiling water

8.3.4 Payload Case and Window The original payload case that was designed for the DAQ module could not be used for this particular project. Firstly, there was no way for it to connect to the nose cone or the separation module and there wasn’t any room to drill these holes either. Instead a new payload case had to be designed for this specific project. It also had to incorporate enough room to allow for the electrical strip board to sit inside. The new payload tube was based off the old design, in that it was a simple conical aluminium tube thick with the necessary holes drilled/tapped into the appropriate positions. (See Appendix A – Engineering Drawings for design and location of holes). All holes were countersunk so the bolts could sit flush on the tube to reduce drag. Furthermore, flat bolts were also determined to be impractical on the curved payload tube surface.

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Figure 37: Original payload case (left) and the new payload case(right)

Like the previous design, a small window had to be cut out of the case such that the DAQ I/O communications board could be accessed when assembled. This was necessary so the DAQ module could be armed (set to record mode) whilst on the launch pad.

Furthermore, a small window cover had to be made to protect the electronics in flights. It needed to have a hole cut out of the bottom so the breakwire could be attached. It was also lined with the electrically non conductive rubber to avoid any short circuits. This was bolted onto the case with 4 M3 countersunk bolts.

Figure 38: Payload case cover

Finally it was desirable to be able to connect the breakwire to the outside of the payload case rather than stick it directly into the DAQ module. The rapid disconnection may cause damage to the I/O communications board or may get stuck coming out of the window cover
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So a small connection (similar to that on the I/O board) was glued (using an epoxy: araldite) to the outside of the payload case. This connection was soldered to an extension which would case. be connected into the I/O board upon the assembly of the payload. The break wire would then be connected to the adaptor on the payload.

Figure 39: Breakwire adaptor

8.3.5 Manufacturing Processes
Nose Cone: The nose cone was made from a cylindrical block of mild steel with a cross

sectional diameter of 15cm. The internal sections were removed on the manual lathe and the outer shape was then shaped. Once the shape was finished the holes and threads were drilled finished or tapped. The copper tubing was cut to size and adhered in place using Loctite.

In terms of complications, the internal section was discovered to be fairly restrictive. However, this was unable to be remedied as the nose cone needed as much mass as possible. Furthermore, as it was made from mild steel, it began to rust. This was combated with a wipe down after every time it is handled. The rust can also be removed with fine sandpaper and some kerosene.

Payload Case: The payload tube was manufactured from a cylindrical piece of aluminium.

The outer diameter was already at the right dimensions, it just needed to be bored out to get it

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to the correct thickness. The design was converted to the appropriate CAD file and the holes were then produced in the CNC. Finally, the window was manually cut out.

A problem arose when trying to assemble the entire payload. The case appeared to be too tight. After an evaluation it appeared that when the window was cut out, the cylindrical case had distorted somewhat and so it had lost its perfect cylindricity. To overcome this, the internal diameter had to be rebored so the DAQ module could fit in without excessive force being required.

After the manufacturing of the payload case, a full assembly was performed. This highlighted a major interface issue with the parachute/payload module. Pre 2004 this module was assembled using M5. Because the payload case was designed using the earlier ASRI payload guides, it was manufactured with 6 M5 countersunk holes. However, it was soon discovered that the later separation modules were made with M6 holes. This meant the payload case had to be worked on again and the holes made bigger.
8.3.6 Bolt Design

Each component has to withstand different force loadings. As such the bolts should be designed accordingly for each part. 8.3.7 Nosecone to Payload case bolts Firstly, the nose cone was designed so it had a lead in edge. This was intended to lower the shear stresses being translated into the bolts. However, for the sake of implementing the worst case scenario, this lead in edge was not considered. Additionally, the friction between the case and nose cone was neglected, such that it should be assumed the shear force is carried by the bolts alone. Furthermore, an acceleration of 70g was incorporated at a launch angle of 70°. The nose cone was approximated to be 10kg.

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Figure 40: Forces acting on the nose cone. Shows the bolt position and configuration of a section cut :

Since the birth of the first design, it was intended to have 6 bolts equispaced around the base of the cone. The bolts were assumed to be of Grade 5.8 and as such had a tensile yield . strength of 420 MPa. More importantly the shear yield strength was 242.3 MPa ( y = (τ 0.577Sy). The bolts are only hand tightened so pre tensioning is not a consideration. Furthermore, for simplicity reasons we have assumed the bolts do not undergo significant tensile loading. Very small moment forces were calculated around the bolt centre. In respect to the other interfacing components (listed below), the same method for espect determining the required bolt sizes were carried out and the results were as follows.

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1 N 0. The safety factors are already included in the shear force calculations.28 N 0. the above calculations were based on absolute worst case. However. the DAQ module was manufactured with the M3 holes so the bolts had to be of this size.31 mm M3 Countersunk 6 215.Bolt Selection Table 6: Bolt selection for each interfacing component Connection Number of Shear Force Bolts Required Area Bolt Selection Nose Cone to Payload Strip Board to Payload Case DAQ Module to Payload Case Payload to Separation Module Case cover to payloads case 6 1075. indicating that it is a highly iterative process. Python. In order to calculate the high volume of equations needed to complete the process. According to the above table. 8.769 mm M6 Countersunk 4 Negligible - M3 Countersunk For manufacturing simplicity. Furthermore. the bolts connecting the DAQ module and the strip board to the payload case were selected to be M3. this is over engineered.438 mm M5 Countersunk 6 75.4 Calibration Code Design 8.48 N 4. The bolts that hold the payload window cover to the case undergo a negligible drag force due to the insignificant reference area.88mm M3 Countersunk 6 1398.12 N 5.7 Calibration would have to be carried out on every recorded data point. the entire calibration process described in 4.4. requiring thousands of calculations and repetitions. a coding language was utilised.1 Introduction As mentioned. The 53 .

Figure 41 shows a brief overview of the calibration process.completed code can be seen in Appendix B– Code. Figure 41: Overview of Calibration Process 54 .

However. Flight Data and tables from NACA Report 1135 (1953). This includes. to obtain values such as Mach number. 8. The data was initially presented in an Excel spreadsheet format and later converted into a CSV file format. various methods of interpolation had to be utilised.3 Obtaining Initial Values Figure depicts the step by step process run by the Python source code to calculate the initial variables from the flight data.4. CFD data. Most processes were completed by simply iterating through the flight data and inserting them in to the mathematical functions required.8.2 Importing Data The initial step in the coding process involved the importing of all the data needed. which was imported into python using a simple CSV importer. 55 .4. total pressure and dynamic pressure. Note that in order to save on computing time the data required for creating the probe calibration matrixes and hence the data needed to interpolate for angles of pitch and yaw was calculated prior to importing into Python.

Rational functions which are quotients of polynomials are used in this instance due to the unusual relationship that exists between the subsonic. The relationship between the two values can be seen in Figure 45.Figure 42: Determination of Coefficients of Pitch and Yaw 8. interpolation method: The following equation is a representation of rational 56 .4.4 Mach Number As mentioned. Once the static to pitot ratio of pressures was calculated. transitional and supersonic flows and static to pitot pressure ratios. The process to obtain this value is outlined in greater detail in 9.5 Code Procedure. a rational function interpolation definition was created and used in Python to estimate the Mach number. to obtain the Mach number a series of initial calculations must be carried out to calculate the needed ratio of average static to pitot pressure.

Mach Number (M>1) 57 . due to its more polynomial relationship.04 0.7493e-8.… … 1 … … … … … (22) … The need for using a rational means of approximation is due to the original function containing regions of rapid change (due to change in flows).06 0.16 0.1 0. Mach number >1 3 2.02 0. and a better approximation for supersonic flows would be an exponential relationship.18 y = 4. It must be stated however. when the two states had to be modelled by the same function.14 0.9842 Mach Number Figure 43: Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure vs.944x R² = 0. however.5 0 0 0.12 0. which simply could not be modelled by polynomial relationships.5 2 Pa/Pt2 1.5 1 0. that this particular method for approximation was not as effective for subsonic flow. rational approximation was by far the most accurate and effective method found.08 0.

1 0.5 Code Procedure.02 0.05 0. The calculation process for obtaining each of the pressure values is detailed in 9.01 0 0. To obtain the coefficients needed for 58 .5 0.5 Total and Dynamic Pressure The total and dynamic pressures are determined by the Mach number.3 0.Mach number <1 0. a series of data points needed to be interpolated in order to obtain the total and dynamic ratios needed to calculate q and P .07 0.1 0.06 0.04 0.8585x3 . In this situation the relationship between Mach number and the 2 pressure ratios was much more constant and could therefore be modelled by a polynomial function.4.4061x .7 0.5 3 CFD Data Rational Approximation Figure 45: Comparison of CFD data to Rational Approximation 8.6 0.5 Mach Number 2 2.08 0.3304x2 + 0.02 0 0 0.1. Mach Number (M<1) Mach number 0. similar to the process for obtaining Mach number.8909x4 + 1.06 0.3E-14 R² = 1 Figure 44: Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Total Pressure vs.16 0.14 Pa/Pt2 0.9 Mach Number y = -0.5 1 1.4 0.01 0 -0. However.04 Pa/Pt2 0.8 0.12 0.2 0.03 0.18 0.2 0.

8 0.2 1 Total Pressure Ratio 0.4 0.2 0. the in-built function 'numpy. Polynomial coefficients were for the total pressure ratio below and above Mach 1 and for the entire range of dynamic to total pressure ratio.0. The dynamic pressure can then be used to find the coefficients of pitch and yaw.8 1 1. Total Pressure Ratio vs.2 0 0 0.3565x3 . Mach Number (M<1) 59 . it was first checked using Microsoft Excel (plots can be seen in Figures 45.6 Mach Number 0.4 0.the polynomial interpolation. With the total pressure ratio and ratio of dynamic to total pressure obtained Equations (26) and (28) can be used to calculate the total and dynamic pressure.0239x + 0.polyfit' was used. To ensure that the polynomial model was a good fit. Mach Number < 1 1.2 y = 0.8512x2 + 0.6 0. These coefficients were then applied to a definition which was used for the interpolation and determination of both pressure ratios. 46 and 47).9991 R² = 1 Figure 46: Total Pressure Ratio vs.

4.5 1 1.35 0.4 0.9998 Mach Number Figure 48: Ratio of Dynamic Pressure to Total Pressure vs.0074x6 . 60 .5 y = -0. Figure 49 explains the method used in order to interpolate the matrix plots.1055x5 + 0.5 2 2.5 1 1. Mach Number 0.1.5 3 3.0.1.4 0.8 0.2 1 Total Pressure Ratio 0.3936x3 .5799x4 .5 4 4.15 0.1 0.25 0.45 Dynamic Pressure Ratio 0.3 0.0.0339x4 + 0.2 0 0 0.05 0 0 0.0089 R² = 0.5 4 4. Mach Number 8.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0.Total Pressure Ratio vs Mach Number > 1 1.1804x + 0. Mach Number (M>1) Ratio Dynamic Pressure to Total Pressure vs.0084 R² = 1 Mach Number Figure 47: Total Pressure Ratio vs.6 Determination of Flow Angles The process for determining flow angles involves the utilisation of the dynamic pressure to find the coefficients of pitch and yaw and the interpolation of those values within a matrix plot (Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices) for a specified Mach number.2 0.5 y = 0.5747x2 + 2.4731x3 + 1.5306x2 .2035x + 0.6 0.

A correction factor is returned because as mentioned. Ψ.Figure 49: Flow Diagram Describing Interpolation of Probe Calibration Matrix The initial step was to create an array of zeroes that would eventually house the solution variables ([θ. 61 . Correction Factor. M]).

This section of the code is a type of 'smart' code that works by referencing the previous time step in order to decide the most appropriate values for the current time step. This is simply done by comparing the sign convention of each of the 5 pressure values recorded by the transducers and the pressure readings recorded with CFD.6. the next step was to cut the list into those 2 sections (Mach number lower than the experimental values. H).( the current data point will be referenced as t) and values with a Mach number greater. simply because the interpolation is between 2 points which is logically a linear relationship. Mach. Another restriction that will further reduce the number of candidate values is created by introducing an awareness of the pitch and yaw acting in the correct plane. By introducing all of the above restrictions it reduces the list of useable values greatly. yaw and a correction factor. this initial condition was ([θ = 0. This value and the associated values (i. the process for interpolating the probe calibration matrix with the experimental data begins. As mentioned. As seen in Figure 49.e. Within the L group of data points. therefore a restriction was set that the process would only be carried out for calculated Mach numbers between 1 and 2. Mach 2.it will later be applied to correct the initial assumption of angles of attack equalling zero. the code will search for values lower than t (and vice-versa). The H list is then referenced. Therefore. The list of potential data points is then further reduced by not allowing the angles of pitch and yaw to be 3° greater than the previous step. therefore making the process more accurate. yaw and correction factor) are then appended to a list (for ease of reference. The next step was to find an initial interpolation point. The first consideration when interpolating matrix plots is the Mach number. Ψ = 0. the code uses the previous time step to decide a suitable answer for the current step. if the coefficients of pitch or yaw which determined the i value are higher than t.6.6 was chosen as the maximum boundary because the calibration data from the CFD analysis was only completed up to Mach 2. L and Mach number higher than the experimental values. which will allow for interpolation between the points to obtain. pitch. values with a Mach number below the current data point. pitch. it will be called i). Due to the restrictions the list can be summarised in 2 main parts. M = 0]). The scope of the design project is for the modelling of a supersonic flight. values are chosen depending on whether the coefficients of pitch and yaw which determined i were higher or lower than the experimental value. This means that in order for this process to work. the coefficients of pitch and yaw are sifted through until a value is found with the smallest error. A correction factor is applied to the ratio 62 . The current data that has been returned is working under the initial assumption that the pitch and yaw must equal zero. Once the initial conditions are set. an initial condition had to be set. Correction Factor = 0. A linear interpolator is used. Therefore the obtained correction factor must be utilised in order to obtain a more accurate solution.

6. the initial point would be equal to the last data point recorded from the previously opened document. Mach = Calculated]).2 Error Handling Within the code is an error handling function which simply accepts a particular error that may and continues running the model. 8. however.1. as mentioned. meaning that every time a new data file was opened. Therefore.4. the reference point would revert back to ([θ = 0. Therefore. which is used to find a new Mach number.000 data points. the overall process was running quite slowly. or possibly no results at all. The error which the code has been told to accept is “Unbound Local Error:” which indicates that the calculated values from the flight data do no match with the CFD data. 63 . M = 0]). this new Mach number will hence recalculate all other variables. The process will continue to repeat until the Mach number has converged. the code references the initial data point. in this case the tolerance was set to 0. the experimental data does not fit within the bounds of the CFD or none of the CFD data qualifies after being put through range of criteria within the code. 8. Specifically. the value returned is simply.1 Computing Time Initially the code was applied for all 20. leading to inaccurate results. 700 rows long.of static to pitot pressure. it was decided to cut the experimental data down to several shorter lists. Correction Factor = 0. Yaw = 0.6. Correction = 1.4. Ψ = 0. ([Pitch = 0. it was input into the code that each time a new document was opened. These data points will be ignored in the end results. due to the large volume of data. If this is the case. However.

Connecting the hoses: The flexible interface hoses need to be placed into boiling water and let to turn malleable for about 30 seconds.2 Assembly (Set up the separate components) 1.9 Procedure 9. In order to calibrate the sensors.5V-R screwed into the nose cone 2. The transducers were connected to the DAQ module which was connected to the computer. Each transducer could then be connected to the port via specific interfacing connections.5V-R) into the nose cone by hand. A series of negative gauge pressures for each transducer were measured and the corresponding voltage readings were appended through HyperTerminal using the ‘analog_read channel’ function. They then need to be pushed onto the ¼” copper tubing as tight as possible. a simple calibration rig was set up. The pump was connected to the port and the pressure dial measured the negative gauge pressures. this can be quite difficult and as an extra precautionary measure to reduce the risk of the hose coming 64 .1 Trans Calibration of Transducers Each transducer needs to be calibrated due to the fact that the manufacturer’s data can vary greatly from how the transducer is truly behaving. 9. Stage one of the assembly is to screw in the central transducer (951-300-G-B-I364. a pressure gauge and a vacuum/outlet port. Figure 50: 951-300-G-B-I36-4. Again due to the limited space. Do to the space restrictions a pair of pliers can be used to further tighten the transducer until as tight as possible. It consisted of a vacuum pump.

The DAQ module needs to be set up: The batteries need to be connected and the battery case needs to be screwed in. The DAQ module needs to be stacked (assembled) and the nuts need to be screwed on so that the module is tight with no rattling. Figure 52: Processor board and Battery configuration 4. For this project they were glued onto the copper tubing.off during flight they can be hot glued into place. 65 . Figure 51: One hose connected and hot glued to the nose cone 3.

At this point the strip board should be connected to the nose cone. 8. While someone holds the nosecone (remember it is fairly heavy) or stabilises it while it lays on its side on the bench. The assembly should now look like such. The connection between the hose and the transducers should be tight enough such that glue is not required. Figure 54: Payload assembly before the payload case is attached 66 . can also be seen to be glued to the top of the board 5. The central transducers cable (and the 4 base transducers if not already) needs to be passed through the central hole. 7. Now the cables need to be connected to the DAQ module. Each transducer should be placed into their correct channels (predetermined). The sixth transducer measuring the atmospheric pressure. (Connect the components to each other) 6. another person needs to bring the assembled strip board nearby.Figure 53: Assembled DAQ module. Then the four transducers need to be connected to the nose cone via the flexible hosing. The electrical strip board and the supports need to be assembled. the strip board and the support ring need to be aligned and then secured to the support plate with the flat head M3 bolts. Firstly.

The nose cone. the power bridge connections or the breakwire should not be connected at this stage. Pre Launch Sequence (Before Launch Pad) 67 . Now the payload case needs to be slowly and carefully sheaved over the DAQ module and the strip board. This requires at least two people. 10. Note: the payload window cover. That is. So estimating the correct orientation before the module and strip board are inserted into the case is essential.3 Woomera Launch The launch at the Woomera follows the procedures set out in the ASRI User Payload Guide Appendix D. The separation module (parachute/payload interface plate) should be inserted (solid side into the payload case) and the M6 bolts all tightened. The DAQ module and strip board are all connected and cannot be rotated too excessively in reference the nose cone.9. When the holes for each part can be spotted through the case two bolts should be quickly tighten by hand to ‘lock’ the parts into place. the breakwire adaptor which is glued to the payload should be connected. The actual short circuiting wire should not be attached at this time. Finally the breakwire adaptor should be inserted into the I/O communications board. Figure 55: Separation module 11. found in Appendix H. strip board and DAQ module should now connected by tightening the remaining bolts. 9. The payload should now be ready for the pre launch preparation.

The memory flag should be set to 0. Then the right power connections need to be inserted in the correct order (See DAQ Module operations sections for the correct method to wipe the memory.At this stage everything above the parachute/payload separation module should be assembled. This needs to be given to an ASRI member also. The payload must be weighed and the mass should be given to an ASRI member 4. Final memory clear of the DAQ module. 68 . Firstly the break-wire needs to be connected. The payload should now be attached to the parachute tube (prepared by ASRI) with 6 x M6 bolts. 2. If the memory isn’t cleared then the DAQ module will not record anything. Figure 56: Payload attached to parachute tube 3. 1. The payloads centre of gravity should be determined and the distance from the base of the parachute tube to the centre of gravity should be measured. It is also encouraged to connect the DAQ to a computer to check if the memory is clear. in particular it will not overwrite the existing data if this stage is not performed.

7. Pin 1 and pin 5 should be connected first. The breakwire can then be attached to a bungie chord attached to the launch stand. The payload window cover should be now bolted in ensuring the breakwire correctly fits through the designed hole. Then the power bridge should be connected. 8. 9. 69 . Then the bridge connection which fits into pin 7 should be inserted upside down. Carry the payload up to the launch pad.Figure 57: Find the centre of gravity Figure 58: Measuring centre of gravity 5. At this stage the green and red LED should be glowing steadily. When on the launch pad the DAQ module has to be set up for ‘record mode’. Firstly the breakwire needs to be connected. (On the launch pad) 6.

however. To analyse the payload geometry we need to create a bounding box that will define where the fluid will be. This is because once the geometry has been created it does not need to be modified. The solver is required to be run for every simulation. The CFD software CFX was used within the engineering simulation software ANSYS to calculate the results.9. The last three main steps are updated for every new simulation that needs to be run. only the initial flow speed conditions need to be changed for each simulation.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics Procedure Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to calculate pressure values at each of the sensors for a range of Mach numbers. Yaw and Pitch angle. This again does not need to be changed for each run. which the solver then uses to determine the flow conditions at each cell. do not need to be set up for each of the different combinations that need to be tested in CFD. 70 . The following process was used to obtain the CFD results: 9. geometry and meshing. (CFX-Post) The first two steps in the overall process.4. with the CFX-Post used to obtain the pressure readings on all five pressure transducer points. This is shown in Figure 59. • • • • • Setting up the geometry (Geometry) Creating a mesh (Mesh) Defining the boundary conditions and flow parameters before solving the process (CFX-Pre) Solving the process (Solver) Obtaining the results from CFX. This box is just an extrusion of a rectangle to create a solid box.1 Geometry 1) Firstly the geometry needs to be set up and defined in ANSYS. after the first initial set up in the CFX-Pre. as well as the roll. The mesh involves breaking the geometry defined into a number of elements. The bounding box is created as a cube with a side length that is at least 5 times the radius of the payload. CFX can be broken down into five main sections. This data is used as a comparison to the results obtained in the flight to determine the Mach number.

To do this. we need to create areas on the geometry where the holes for the pressure sensors can be found. 90°. 180° and 270°. and the holes to the pressure sensors are ignored. a simplified model of the payload is extracted from the end of the box. only the cone shape is modelled. we create a tangent plane on the inside of the cone cut-out at 0°. Figure 60: Cone Cut Out of Bounding Box 3) Once the cone shape has been extracted from the bounding box. This simplified model has the same dimensions as the payload. 71 . This can be seen in Figure 60.Figure 59: Bounding Box Created in ANSYS Geometry 2) Once the bounding box has been created. however. causing an error in the solver which creates a wall at the outlet to prevent flow entering back through the outlet boundary. This is because for supersonic flows the solver has a problem with expansion and turbulence effects caused near an outlet.

however it can still be selected.4.2 Meshing 5) Import the geometry into the mesh creator application. Each of these circles is then extruded a small distance. the geometry is complete 9. and this distance is then cut away again. 72 .On each of these planes a circle is drawn that corresponds to the holes on the side of the cone that go to the pressure transducers. Once smoothed this blends into the cone. This leaves an area that can be selected to read pressure during the post-solver phase. Figure 61: Smoothed Circular Area Corresponding to Pressure Transducers 4) Once this has been completed for all 4 holes on the side of the cone. However this area needs to be smoothed out into the rest of the cone as a small part of the area is protruding from the cut out.

Inflation layers are very helpful for correctly analysing flow near a surface. Ideally. This is beneficial for this project as 73 . due to lack of computer processing power. Inflation layers are produced in a radial direction from the cone. too many elements can cause the solver (and the meshing application) to take quite a long time to process what is happening in each element (or the original request). Figure 63: Meshed with Basic Settings 7) From this change the minimum and maximum cell and element sizes for the mesh to reduce or increase the number of elements desired. however. The number of layers as well as the size can be defined. 8) Introduce ‘Program Controlled’ Inflation layers by changing the “Automatic Tet Inflation” setting. the more elements used the more accurate the results will be. This will produce a fine mesh with a reasonable amount of elements. and the Smoothing to ‘High’.Figure 62: Geometry Imported into Meshing Application 6) Change the Mesh Sizing to ‘Fine’.

3 Pre-CFX 10) To set up the solver to be able to process supersonic flows. 9.shockwaves are being produced that can be “smeared” between cells. need to change the Fluid 1 material to “Air Ideal Gas” b. Under the Basic Settings Tab. Under the Fluid Models Tab. Figure 64: Inflation Layers Shown Around the Probe 9) Once the desired number of elements and inflation layers are set the meshing application can be closed.4. a. This can be done by editing the options in the “Default Domain” tab. need to change the Heat Transfer Option to “Total Energy” 74 . we must change the fluid and energy conditions for the overall flow. and not accurately representing the flow conditions.

a free slip wall around the outside to simulate open air. The boundary conditions are defined as follows: 75 . with an inlet. outlet. noslip wall for the payload and if not looking at pitch or yaw angles.Figure 65: How the Set-Up of the Default Domain for CFX-Pre is Set Out 11) From this the boundaries of the geometry need to be set up.

Heat Transfer Coeff 25 W/m2K Outside Temp 297 K 76 . Inlet Table 7: Inlet Conditions in CFX-Pre Boundary Type Flow Regime Option Mass Momentum Option Turbulence Heat Transfer b. Payload Table 9: Payload Conditions in CFX-Pre Boundary Type Mass and Momentum Option Wall Roughness Wall No Slip Wall Smooth Heat Transfer. Outlet Table 8: Outlet Conditions in CFX-Pre Inlet Supersonic (or subsonic) Cart.a. Vel & Pressure Intensity and Length Scale Static Temp = 297 K Boundary Type Flow Regime Option IF SUBSONIC Mass and Momentum Option Pressure Averaging Outlet Supersonic (or subsonic) Average Static Pressure (Rel =0) Average over whole outlet c.

Outlet and Wall can be changed to accommodate angled flows. Figure 66: Inlet and Outlet Arrows for No Angles of Pitch or Yaw However. with the inlet and outlet shown via arrows. Outer Wall Table 10: Payload Conditions in CFX-Pre Boundary Type Mass and Momentum Option Heat Transfer Wall Free Slip Wall Adiabatic 12) The Inlet. parts of the wall need to be set up as an inlet and an outlet as shown in Figure 67.d. The normal set up is shown in Figure 66. for angles. 77 .

The Monitors tab can be found under Output Control. as well as the Maximum Iterations under Convergence Control.5 CFX-Post 19) To obtain the pressure values for the data points. v. This is a precaution to prevent severe errors occurring in the Solver. 16) The initial conditions can also be set to be the same flow conditions as the Inlet. the flow speeds for a particular simulation can be entered under the Inlet boundary. This makes sure that the solver does not start from the previous solution which can cause the values 18) Once the solver has either reached the RMS value for each u. and w momentum as well as mass. 15) Once all this has been set up. These monitors are used to track the pressure readings as the solver progresses.Figure 67: Inlet and Outlet Arrows For When There is Pitch or Yaw 13) In the Solver Control set-up the RMS value needs to be changed to a specified limit of residual error (typically 10-6).5. trigonometry is used to enter the x and y velocities as mentioned in Section 3.4.4 Solver 17) Run the solver from initial conditions. we use the function calculator to find the pressure of an average area. 78 .4. to allow for the solver to finish.2. 9. For angles. the solver can be stopped 9. or if the pressure values on the monitor have reached a constant value. 14) ‘Monitors’ need to be created on all five of the pressure reading positions.

An example of this is shown in Figure 68.20) Contour plots can also be created for a visual representation to show how the pressure and Mach number change at the probe.5 Code Procedure Example Calibration Process (Supersonic and subsonic conditions) 1. Figure 68: Visualisation Effect Created by CFX-Post Showing the Mach Number Distribution Steps 14 to 18 are to be repeated for the range of Mach numbers and angles required. This is useful for checking the creation of oblique shocks at all the Mach numbers. 9. The initial values are taken from the DAQ module and calibrated and are represented below: 79 .

The static pressure at varying angles of pitch and yaw can be estimated by averaging the pressures from transducer 2-5. Finding Mach number 80 . Hence: (24) (23) 3. Finding ratio of static pressure to pitot pressure a. 1 4 b.Figure 69: Probe Layout 1 3: 2: 5: 4: 2.

Again interpolating the NACA 1135 tables.a. A visual representation of 81 . Initially the pitch and yaw coefficients need to be calculated. Using the CFD results Figure 18 interpolate the pressure ratio in order to find the Mach number. These are found by the pressure difference of the opposing pressure transducers. (30) b. Finding the dynamic pressure a. It assumed that that the pitch and yaw angles are equal to zero. Finding Total Pressure before shock (supersonic) a. Interpolating the tables from NACA Report 1135 (1953) using the Mach number the total pressure ratio can be found: (25) b. Finding Pitch and Yaw a. 4. For subsonic conditions 6. Using the calculated coefficients of pitch and yaw the CFD data can be interpolated to obtain the desired angles of attack. the ratio of dynamic pressure and total pressure is obtained: 1 (27) b. the functions developed were as follows: . Using the following expression the total pressure before the shock can be calculated ⁄ (26) 5. Therefore the dynamic pressure is given by: (28) 7. (29) .

Finding a factor to correct the initial assumption that the angle of attack was equal to zero a.the datails represented by the matrix plot (Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices). Using the CFD data a correction factor can be obtained by using the following function (Appendix D– Correction Factors): . Apply correction factor to the ratio of static pressure to pitot pressure and repeat process until values have converged: ⁄ (32) 82 . 8. ⁄ ⁄ (31) 9.

5 0 80 70 50 22.5 0 80 70 50 22.1 Pressure Transducer Calibration Table 11: Pressure Transducer Calibration Voltage (mV) Channel 2 144 130 104 69 39 Channel 3 145 131 105 70 41 Channel 4 144 130 104 69 40 Channel 5 144 Pressure (kPa) (absolute) 80 70 50 22.5 0 80 83 .10 Results 10.

5 0 Pressure (absolute) 104 97 94 84 74 10.3 51.3 86.3 76.131 104 70 40 Channel 6 641 548 364 112 14 Channel 7 70 50 22. as well as the Surface Pressure determined using Chart 6 from the NACA Report 1135 as outlined in SECTION. 84 .6 based on the theory found in SECTION.5 0 80 70 50 22.3 26.2 Theoretical Results 101.3 (kPa) Pressure (gauge) 0 -15 -25 -50 -75 (kPa) The following tables outline the theoretical stagnation points for Mach numbers between 0 and 2.

8 2 2.72 142579.4 1.5 284143.4 828760.2 0.7 371721.4 698657.64 90453.2 2.8 1 1.7 579079.4 2.6 Stagnation Pressure (gaugePa) 0 2864.53 53115.Table 12: Theoretical Stagnation Pressures for Varying Mach Numbers Mach Number 0 0.878 11806.71 27908.9 470076.9 207587.6 0.6 1.4 85 .2 1.4 0.

22 17869.75 116434.6 1.6 Pressure 0 2026 8104 18234 32416 50650 72936 99274 129664 164106 202600 245146 291744 342394 Surface Pressure Coefficient 0 0 0 0 0 0.16 0.71 37926.72 43655.9 129664 134394.18 0.24 125915.235 Surface Pressure 0 0 0 0 0 15954.315 0.3 Raw Data from Launch The following graphs show the Raw Data for the Pressure Transducers (converted to pressures).2 2.8 1 1.75 15134.1275 coef x dyn press 0 0 0 0 0 15954.32 122046.72 144955.2 1.2 0. as well as the accelerometer results.24 24615.8 2 2.72 43655.4 1.15 0.71 37926.Table 13: Theoretical Surface Pressures Calculated Using NACA Report 1135 Gauge Dynamic Mach 0 0.9 28364 33094. The full Raw Data List can be found in Appendix J 86 .4 2.13 0.14 0.32 20746.75 15134.32 20746.6 0.24 10.71 139226.24 24615.235 Surface Pressure 0 0 0 0 0 117254.2075 0.22 17869.4 0.9 28364 33094.22 119169.135 0.

Central Transducer 350 300 Gauge Pressure (kPa) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 70: P1 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch P2 140 120 Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 71: P2 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch 87 .P1 .

P3 160 140 Absolute Pressure (kPa) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 72: P3 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch P4 140 120 Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Time 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 73: P4 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch 88 .

Atmospheric Sensor 120 100 Absolute Pressure (kPa) 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 75: Atmospheric Transducer Change in Pressure over Time during Launch 89 .P5 140 120 Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 74: P5 Change in Pressure over Time during Launch P6 .

Transverse Accelerometer 1000 900 800 700 Voltage (mV) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Series1 Figure 76: Transverse Accelerometer Results Axial Accelerometer 1200 1000 800 Voltage (mV) 600 Series1 400 200 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 25 Figure 77: Axial Accelerometer Results 90 .

4. between 0° and 7°.6 72772 194889 Statistics Nodes Elements 10.000 elements.500.4.2M increments. ranging Mach numbers between 0 and 2.0878e-002 m 8. Mesh size used: approximately 3.77 10 0. These calculations were performed with Pitch kept at 0°.0878e-004 m 8.1756e-002 m Inflation Use Automatic Tet Inflation Program Controlled Transition Ratio Maximum Layers Growth Rate 0.10. in 1° increments.5 was correct in assuming the pitch and yaw values obtained were such that they could be used to define any combination of pitch and yaw. 10. All values of Pressure are Gauge Pressures in Pa. The angles were also ranged for Yaw exclusively.4.4 CFD Results The CFD procedure was followed according to SECTION 8.2 Testing There was an initial testing phase of the CFD to determine if the theory in Section 3. Table 15 below shows the results from the initial testing done on the final geometry design with a flow velocity of 600ms-1.6. in 0. 91 .1 Meshing Table 14: Mesh Results for CFD Sizing Parameter Relevance Center Smoothing Transition Min Size Max Face Size Max Tet Size Setting Fine High Slow 8.

14 21948.4.8 42688.2 0.79 2154.1084 20. To collect the data from the CFD an Excel spreadsheet was created.1 42445.Yaw=0 Pitch=5. Yaw=0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 307200 32683 32439 32429 32450 Pitch=0.Table 15: Test Data Using Different Pitch and Yaw Angles Pitch=0.5 10.7 49385 29935 Pitch=5. For each pressure sensor there were tables of Mach vs.8 76303.84 8916.9 21442. TABLE below presents the data for the central transducer calculated by CFD.7 21771. However to determine all the CFD data originally. Pitch = 0.92 2115.5 75630 75418 75567.5 76054. Pitch and Yaw Angles Kept at 0° Mach\Yaw 0 0.9 21714.31 2172.32 9055.5 47297 18107.3 Data The resultant matrix of CFD data is a 4 dimensional matrix taking into account Mach number.8 42208.6 29999. Yaw for each different Pitch angle.15 9071. Pressure Transducer 1.31 8964. with a different sheet for each of the pressure sensors.5 21547.Yaw=5 283581 30109.3 49742.8 21842.2 21638.4 0.4 21813.7 42368. All values of Pressure are gauge pressures in Pa.7 75994.75 9100. due to the assumptions made in SECTION.5 42584.9 2162.6 47965.2 75807 92 .9 43442 42678.78 2168. Pitch and Roll.2 30.58 9034. roll was ignored as a significant factor in calculating the results. Table 16: Raw CFD Data Obtained From CFX For P1.46 8860.4 42663.94 2130.6126 285109 17817.11 9004.59 2143.6 0. Yaw=5 283201 20326. Yaw.8 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 2184.8 76245.

as well as the negative ranges of yaw angles. spaced at 90° increments moving in a clockwise direction.8 2 2. P4 and P5 are the transducers located around the sides of the cone. 90°.6 1.2 1. and can use it to determine the results for the various pitch angles.1. This data has then been appended into a list for use with comparing to the raw data obtained on launch. The initial data obtained using CFD for each of the pressure transducers can be found in Appendix I. 0°. P3.2 2.4 2. 93 .4 1. 180°. Using the basic trigonometric theory discussed in Section 3. The complete list of values for the CFD can be found in Appendix K. and P2.5 we can then extrapolate from the data obtained. The layout of the list is shown in the line below: Table 17: Linear Setup for CFD Results Mach P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Pitch Yaw Roll Where P1 is the central transducer. and 270°. The following Figure 78 shows the relationship of change in pressure as Mach number increases for a pitch and Yaw angle of 0°.6 117280 171990 241891 323200 419674 524347 637310 759141 117047 171855 240247 323073 419364 523975 637005 758381 117042 171765 240040 323147 419154 523561 635970 756978 116992 171649 239893 323189 418976 523122 635159 755962 116931 171472 239612 323035 418603 522383 634083 754312 116792 171239 239221 322668 418013 521298 632606 752521 116616 170955 238718 322252 417225 519971 630824 750625 116392 170601 238122 321527 416225 518523 628891 748432 The pressures were also obtained for the four transducers located around the base for the above case. starting with P2 at 0°. Four points of roll were considered.

Pressure Figure 78: Change in P1 Pressure with Mach Number As pitch and yaw angle changes.5 1 1. the pressure at P1 decreases as the angle is increased as seen in 94 .5 Mach Number 2 2.5 3 Pressure (Pa) Mach Number vs.Mach Number vs. Pressure 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 0.

However this change is very small compared to the original value.Table 18. The percentage difference between the initial pressure found at pitch and yaw equal to 0° and the pressure at a specific yaw angle can be seen in 95 .

96 .Table 18.

000511 0.4 1.6 0.011107 0 0.002673 0.002849 0.005063 0. Figure 79 plots the pressure changes from -7° to 7° for Mach numbers less than 1.Table 18: Percent Difference in Pressure Values Compared to Yaw = 0°.002029 0.005279 0.002976 0. With Figure 80 plotting Mach numbers above 1.001646 0.001663 0.00872 0.004188 0.002103 0.005662 0.010532 0.004367 0.8 2 2.001308 0.6 1.011495 0 0. Pitch Angle Kept at 0° Mach\Yaw 0 1 0 0.005176 0 0.000739 0.007055 0.002456 0.001987 0.002336 0.009021 0.011218 0.2 0.001499 0.018482 0.007257 0.00897 -0.4E-05 0.017347 0.00806 0 0.00564 -0.004848 0.004898 0.01792 0 -0.013606 0.007572 0 0.2.004143 0.001983 0.014137 0. for Change in Yaw Angle.020185 0.003958 0.005835 0.000393 0.009852 0.008346 0. The following plots represent the pressure distributions for the Pressure Transducers around the cone (P2-P5).004161 0.001982 0 0.01321 0 0.001239 0.010177 0.003168 0.8 1 1.4 0.024704 0.2 1.000785 0.010689 0.006018 0.022934 0.008218 0 0.002933 0.014869 0.00644 0.023049 0.031387 0 0.006361 0.000164 3.024443 0.00082 0.014107 As can be seen here the highest percentage difference is 3.003012 0.13% at a yaw angle of 7° at Mach 0.006933 0.000709 0. 97 .00974 -0.008076 0 0.028394 -0.6 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 0 0.2 2.007381 0.000479 0.002552 0.017568 0.018265 0.4 2.005815 0.00317 -0.026374 0 0.003746 0.005309 0.006155 0.003375 0.019748 0. The pressure transducers P2 and P4 are regarded as the ‘Yaw’ sensors as they record a significant change in pressure for different yaw angles.001001 0.003533 0. Both of these figures represent the pressure transducers P2 at a Pitch angle of 0°.

respectively. These figures represent the pressure transducers P3 and P5 at a pitch angle of 0°.8 Figure 79: Change in Pressure vs. Yaw Angle (P2) 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 M=1 M=1.6 Pressure (Pa) Yaw Angle (Degrees) Figure 80: Change in Pressure vs.Pressure vs. pressure increases from left to right for P4.2 M=0.8 M=2 M=2.2 M=1.4 M=2.4 M=0. The normalised pressure is calculated by dividing the value of pressure at that particular Mach number for a specific yaw 98 .6 M=0. Yaw Angle (P2) 7000 6000 5000 Pressure (Pa) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Yaw Angle (Degrees) M=0. So as pressure decreases from left to right for P2.2 M=2. and greater than 1.4 M=1. Change in Yaw (P2) (M>1) For the pressure transducer P4. Figure 81 and Figure 82 plot a normalised pressure compared to change in yaw angle (pitch = 0°) for Mach number values of less than 1.6 M=1. the values are equal and opposite. Change in Yaw (P2) (M<1) Pressure vs.

2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 M=0. P3 and P5 are regarded as the ‘Pitch’ sensors as they are able to calculate the change in pitch angle as they record a significant change in pressure as the pitch angle changes. Yaw Angle (P3.P5) (M<1) 99 .6 0.2 1 Normalised Pressure (P/P0) 0.4 0.angle by the pressure value at that Mach number for yaw and pitch angles of 0°.2 M=0. Change of Yaw Angle (P3.P5) 1. Normalised Pressure vs.8 0.4 M=0. A value of normalised pressure was used so it was possible to effectively plot a variety of Mach numbers on the single graph to show the general trend as the angle of yaw changed.8 Yaw Angle (Degrees) Figure 81: Change of Normalised Pressure vs.6 M=0.

9 0.Normalised Pressure vs. The full data outputted by the calibration code can be found in Appendix B– Code. P3 and P5 would have similar plots to Figure 79 and Figure 80. 10.8 M=2 M=2.6 0. 10. The following is the presentation of the resulting pitch angle.8 0.1 Flight Angles Using the coefficients of pitch and yaw at their specified Mach numbers.4 M=1. as the angle changes. where as either pitch or yaw angle stays constant. with one transducers pressure increasing where the other decreases.6 M=1.4 M=2. The above statement is based off the theory in Section 3. the change in pressure is symmetrical about 0°.P5) (M>1) If these graphs were plotted for change in pressure due to change in pitch angle.2 M=1. Yaw angle and Mach number.5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 M=1. Yaw Angle (P3. CFD calibration data in conjunction with the calibration processes yields the resulting variables that help explain the flight attitudes of the Zuni rocket.7 0.P5) 1.5. However. where P2 and P4 will have the same plot as Figure 81and Figure 82.2 M=2. the pressures on those transducers will change linearly with angle.5 Final Results from Code Using the raw data recorded from the DAQ module.5.1 1 Normalised Pressure (P/P0) M=1 0.6 Yaw Angle (Degrees) Figure 82: Change in Normalised Pressures vs. Yaw Angle(P3. the probe calibration matrixes were interpolated using the calibration code the resulting the angles of pitch and yaw 100 .

were returned and plotted. t (s) Figure 84: Angle of Yaw vs. Figure 83 shows the angles of pitch against the time and Figure 84 shows the angles of yaw against time over the flight of the Zuni rocket. Time 6 4 2 Angle of Yaw (deg) 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0.5 1 1. Angle of Pitch vs. Time 6 4 2 Angle of Pitch (deg) 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0. Time 101 .5 Time.5 Time. Time Angle of Yaw vs.5 2 2.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 seconds due to that being the duration of the supersonic flight. The range of data only reaches approximately 3.5 1 1. t (s) Figure 83: Angle of Pitch vs.

1 CFD Compared to Theoretical The CFD results for the stagnation pressures are extremely comparable to the theoretical values found for the same Mach numbers. Time 11 Discussion 11. These results are for Pitch and Yaw angles of 0°.5 3 3.5 2 1.5 3 Mach Number. Mach Number vs. t (s) 2 2. M 2. Time 3. A plot of the theoretical stagnation pressure and the CFD results for the stagnation pressures can be found in Figure 86.2 Flight Mach Number Using the ratio of average static pressure to pitot pressure in conjunction with the CFD data and inputting them into the calibration process returned the resulting Mach number.10.5.5 1 1.5 Figure 85: Mach Number vs.5 1 0. 102 .5 0 0 0.5 Time. Figure 85 shows the Mach number as a function of time.

5 Mach Number 2 2. Stagnation Pressure 900000 800000 Stagnation Pressure (Pa) 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 0. however as Mach number increases there are an error between the theoretical values and the CFD. However. These values have been compared to the average pressure on the surface calculated by the CFD in Figure 87.3. as the theory does not take into account real-world effects and is itself an over-approximation. The theoretical values for the surface pressures on the cone are found using the NACA 1135 charts as described in Section 3.5 3 Theoretical Values CFD Values Figure 86: Comparison of Theoretical and CFD Results for Stagnation Pressure We can see that as the values for the theoretical and CFD data are relatively the same. the CFD results for the Stagnation Pressures are quite a good representation to compare to real data. 103 . The CFD results underestimate the value of pressure as the Mach number increases compared to the theory.Mach Number vs.1.5 1 1.

The CFD results are overestimating the average surface pressure on the surface of the cone. Surface Pressure 60000 50000 Surface Pressure (Pa) 40000 30000 NACA 1135 Theory 20000 CFD Results 10000 0 0 0.1. 11.Mach Number vs. This can be due to a number of reasons.2.5 3 Figure 87: Comparison of Theoretical and CFD Results for the Pressures on the Surface of the Cone As we can see from the graph. Either the approximate values used in the NACA 1135 theory were interpolated incorrectly producing a slightly lower pressure value than the CFD results. As can be seen in Figure 88.3.5 Mach Number 2 2. with an approximately linear progression as Mach number increases. where the Stagnation Pressure is higher than the value at Mach = 1.5 1 1. However. 104 .2 Flight Angles Throughout the flight analysis (CFD and calibration) the pressure differences across P2 and P4 were defined as the change in Yaw angle6. for a Mach number of 1 there is a discrepancy with the results of the NACA 1135 theory. It is also possible that the geometry created in ANSYS could have a slightly larger angle than the design due to errors in the original set up. there is a correlation between the CFD Results and the NACA 1135 theory. This will cause a higher pressure on the surface of the cone due to the change in β value covered in 3. the rocket was initially set with P2 facing opposite of the launch rail and therefore the rocket Yaw will initially be positioned adjacent to the ground.

it can be expected that after leaving the launch rail the rocket would initially be subject to frequent resonance in the yaw direction due to the fact that the support is suddenly ‘removed’ and therefore. the rocket would need to balance its flight. instead it can be attributed to the violent nature of the launch. the data system initially records a large resonance in the angle of yaw. when taking an average of the flights overall trend. This is an indication that the rocket is rolling at approximately 2 Hz. further proving that the initial resonance is not a part of the natural flight.Figure 88: Rocket Initial Position 11. It can be seen that in the first section of the flight (>2s) there is a large amount of resonance within the data. which is a further indication that the rocket was trying to recover from the launch and the removal of the initial rail support by wobbling at a higher frequency. it seems to be reaching a peak at approximately every 0. By observing the initial position of the yaw sensors and thinking logically about the rockets balance and dynamics. Also the overall magnitude of the yaw angles is quite large. the frequency of the yawing is lessened.5 seconds. As seen in Figure 89.2. the results reflect the initial hypothesis. Furthermore. this is most likely the rocket trying to rebalance itself. 105 . It can be seen in the second half of the flight (>2s).1 Angle of Yaw As can be seen by the results.

As seen in Figure 90 the results match what was expected from theory. Time 6 4 2 Angle of Yaw (deg) 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0. a general trend can be seen. it should not experience such a large resonance in regards to frequency and magnitude when compared to the yawing angles. similar to the Yaw data. It can be seen that the data peaks tend to occur every 0. further proving that the rocket is rolling at approximately 2Hz. which is again expected. similar to that of the experimental yaw values. and hence should not experience a lot of imbalance from a loss of support.5 Time.5 1 1. although. the model is seen to have experienced an initially high frequency of pitching due to the launch. overall the magnitude of the pitching is not large compared to the yaw.2 Angle of Pitch Theoretically. by averaging the pitching values over the flight of the rocket.Angle of Yaw vs. instead it should only be caused to pitch due to the forces experienced at the launch. 106 . because the rockets’ pitching plain was parallel to the ground. Furthermore.5s. Additionally. Also. This is due to the fact that the rocket was not initially supported in the pitching plain.5 2 2. the frequency of pitching seems to settle down after the initial impact of the launch.5 3 3. Time 11. it is not as frequent as the yaw data (indicated by the relatively ‘flat’ trend) . although there are a few outlying values which could be due to errors from resonance within the pressure transducers. t (s) Figure 89: Averaged Angle of Yaw vs.2.

However. it should already be approaching Mach 2 due to the large initial impulse from the motor. this shows a clearer relationship of Mach number to time and gives strong support to the expected theoretical trend. Time 11.5 1 1. From the initial impulse the rocket should then experience a steady acceleration rate until the point where the engine pack is jettisoned which will lead to a loss in mass and another impulse.5 Time. there are some errors within the recorded values which are further discussed in 11.4.2 Calibration.3 Mach Number From the theory.5 2 2. the rocket should then begin to decelerate. The true trend of the Mach number can be seen by again averaging out the values.Angle of Pitch vs. it is expected that when the rocket leaves the launch rail. Time 6 4 2 Angle of Pitch (deg) 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0. the Mach number does follow the expected trend. t (s) Figure 90: Average Angle Of Pitch vs. Once the motor has expended its fuel source and detached from the payload.5 3 3. As seen in figure. 107 . the result should then be a small jump in velocity.2.

that the pressure sensors were working correctly.5 1 0. it is a good indication that the experimental are accurate and able to be used to form a decent model for the flight attitude. Overall as a test for the integrity of the recorded pressure data. the US standard atmospheric and the NASA atmospheric models were used to calibrate the pressures into a value for altitude. Time 3. the general consensus is that the rocket reaches an altitude of approximately 5km after 20 seconds.5 Time. As a comparison. 108 . Also. this is most likely due to errors in the calibration process.Mach Number vs.5 3 Mach Number. Although.5 11. it gives a good indication. the trend of the plot has flattened out enough to be able to safely assume that the rocket did not reach a significantly greater height. Furthermore. Although. both the US standard and the NASA atmospheric model follow similar trends showing that either model is a good estimate of the flight altitude.5 2 1. it can be seen within both plots that the initial values are at a negative.3 Altitude Using the raw data.5 1 1. there is no indication that the rocket has reached its apogee. as seen in below. M 2.5 3 3.5 0 0 0. due to the fact that both the plots for average static pressure and ambient pressure reach a similar value. Time 2 2. t (s) Figure 91: Averaged Mach Number vs. the average static pressure and ambient pressure values were used.

t (s) 5 10 15 20 25 US Standard Atmospheric Model NASA Atmospheric Model Figure 93: Altitude using Static Pressure 11. Time 6000 5000 4000 Altitude.Altitude Using Ambient Pressure Sensor vs.4. h (m) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 -1000 5 10 15 20 25 US Standard Atmospheric Model Nasa Atmospheric Model Time.1 CFD The error between the CFD results and the Theoretical results for both the stagnation pressures and the surface pressures are shown in Table 19.4 Error Analysis 11. h (m) 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 0 -2000 -3000 Time. Time 6000 5000 4000 Altitude. 109 . t (s) Figure 92: Altitude Using Atmospheric Pressure Altitude Using Average Static Pressure vs.

6 0 0. Some reasons for this were given in Section 10.4 0.836341 7.2 2. However.0559 -28.9274 -29.752712 7.5176 -39. in the Surface Pressure results between the CFD data and the theoretical data.26906 8. where an outlying pressure can cause a large discrepancy.5815 -37.4 1. 110 .432335 4.15992 7. where the positions were exactly the same for 4 points around the inside surface.15746 -25.6 0. • The values for the surface pressure were assumed to be an average of the 4 pressure positions in the CFD.8 2 2.8 1 1.Table 19: Error Percentage in CFD Compared to Theory Mach Stagnation Pressure Error (%) Surface Pressure Error (%) 0 0.1. between 19% and 40% error.912279 8. However.409621 10.2 0.717051 6.6 1.0464 -39.59728 11.47151 11. there are other possible reasons why these values have such a high error value.2 1. there are some discrepancies in the positions of these points in the geometry due to the difficulty of positioning with tangent planes.0067 -30.66815 2.718039 0 0 0 0 0 19.4 2. This means the pressures are slightly different.44232 10.4074 -33.4482 As we can see there is a significant error.

great care must be taken in creating the geometry. All of these factors can attribute to the error found above. the more time was taken to calculate each simulation. This is due to the pressure sensors constantly fluctuating to try and estimate the incoming flow pressures. Some possible reasons for the data error could be due to resonance within the pressure tubes from supersonic flow.4. as there can a slight increase of pressure as the solver continues to run. this error could have been further magnified by the large volume of the pressure holes and also. This could be due to the initial settling time of the pressure sensors. the Mach number does not follow any particular trend. Also. 11. as the error increases for these values. the calibration process returned some outlying values with that did not fit the trend of the original data. Finally. This effect may be responsible for values between M=1.• The mesh size of the final geometry was not very fine compared to the test runs. Furthermore. These values could have had the solver cut off early causing the error. in particular within the approximation methods used to interpolate the values required.2. error within the CFD data or approximation error within the calibration code.7s). To avoid this. These outlying data points could be due to a number of reasons.2 and 1. and the finer the mesh.4. This was because there was a limited amount of time to conduct all the CFD runs. 111 . the length of the tubes leading to the transducers. • The amount of time left running in the solver affects the overall pressure. within the Mach number results.2 Calibration Throughout the analysis of the data. Averaging this value will provide a good indication of the actual trend. this fluctuation of is amplified within the results. The solver should also be run for a specified time rather than until the “monitors” converge. due to the pressure sensor calibration and its strong reaction to a small change in voltage. it can be seen that the value for Mach number is continuously resonating at a high frequency.8 for the stagnation pressure. such as resonance within the pressure cavities.1 Mach Number As seen in Figure 85 the initial data points (<0. This should significantly decrease the errors between the CFD and the theory. outlying data points were removed from the plot to create a more accurate model. errors within the CFD data or errors within the calibration process. 11. These outlying data points were removed from the data sets to produce a more consistent model. which is the time taken for the pressure sensors to start recording accurate data.

Although Figure 85 shows that some values of Mach are being recorded at that those time steps. which as mentioned at a low time step is unreliable.01 ±0.e. thus outputting a smaller signal than what is expected. this transducer had to be installed with its diaphragm in the axis of the primary acceleration (i.4.5 seconds. 11. the pressure values that are returning that Mach number do not fit within the specified criteria set within the code and therefore return the generic values of [Pitch = 0.3 Altitude As seen in Figure 92 the altitude calculated from the ambient pressure values experiences a sharp dip at approximately 6. Correction = 1. Yaw = 0. it could possibly be attributed to the axis in which the transducer calculating the atmospheric values was positioned.2.4. When the diaphragm stops being influenced by a positive thrust it may elastically rebound. which involves the use of a correction factor. the diaphragm may bend with the acceleration due to thrust). Whilst it is still unclear as to why this decline occurs.6 Pitch Yaw Error ±0. This is due to the determination of pitch and yaw being reliant to the Mach number.11. Unfortunately. Due to the space restrictions within the payload casing.25˚ 112 . Calibration Error Due to the method of calibration utilised.25˚ ±0.2.2 Flight Angle Calculation As can be seen in Figure 83 and Figure 84 the initial data points (<7s) do not seem to be recording any values.5 seconds so further investigation is not possible at this stage. the analysed data does not test for past 3. From NACA Technical Note 3967 document the error was as follows: Table 20: Initial (Theoretical) Calibration Process Error Value Mach Number 1 – 2 Mach Number 2 – 2. Mach = Calculated]. the data is difficult to measure in a quantifiable form.02 ±0.

The predominant means of error within the calibration process was due to the various approximation methods used to interpolate the data.05% 0 ±0. the quantitative error for the calibration process can be approximated: ∆ ∆ ∆ (33) Table 22: Actual Calibration Process Error Value Mach Number 1 -2 Mach Number 2 -2.26° ±0.06% ±0.6 Pitch Yaw Error ±0.02% Using the following expression.26° 113 .Therefore.06% ±0. using these initial values the approximate error of the calibration code can be found. The error from these methods is presented below: Table 21: Approximation Error Method Rational Approximation Polynomial Interpolation (Total Pressure Ratios) Polynomial Interpolation (Dynamic Pressure Ratio) Error ±0.

the scope has seemed to be fulfilled with the supersonic flight of the Zuni being able to be modelled. it can be stated that the overall experiment and design project was a success. The end product indicates that this section also fulfilled its goal. These variables were Pitch. computational fluid dynamics and pressure probe calibration. yaw which can be used to model the flight. but most of the results found. Yaw and Mach number. The project was initially split into three separate sections. with all sections fulfilling their goals and acceptable results being returned. Recommendations The scope of the project has been fulfilled and the overall task has been deemed a success. CFD was seen as a good option due to the overall reduction in experimental error leading to more consistent results. One. Finally. the nose cone design and integration of pressure transducers to fulfill the goal. were expected. When observing the results from the flight. This section can also be deemed as a success for a number of reasons. instrumentation and cone design. A successful launch at Woomera was carried out and enough data was collected in order to describe the behavior of the rocket at supersonic speeds. The goal of the CFD section was to run simulations of the nose cone design at various angles of pitch and yaw whilst varying the Mach number. However. yaw and Mach number). Each of the three sections needed to work in conjunction with each other in order to reach a final goal of being able to model the Zuni rockets’ behavior over a supersonic flight. Therefore. The goal of the instrumentation and cone design was to understand the Data Acquisition module and design a system that could utilise the DAQ to record pressure values over a Zuni flight. it completed the goal by calculating the needed variables. The main components of the design were. thus providing a larger range of data that could help map out the Zuni’s flight. they are as follows: 114 . for future reference and checking the results from this project a series of other projects could be carried out. this section can be seen to have fulfilled its goal. after observing the theory. The reason for using CFD was that more data could be collected in a shorter time period. It provided a large database that helped calibrate the pressure probe and find the needed resultant variables (pitch. they were. Also.12 Conclusion To conclude. the calibration sections task was to utilise each of the previous sections (raw data and CFD) and return the Mach number and angles of pitch. not only did it return a set of results. furthermore.

these numerical anomalies were attributed to resonance within the nose cone cavities due to the supersonic flight speeds. o A possible solution to the resonance is attaching the transducer closer to the cavity whilst also decreasing their overall volume. These results could also be compared to those presented in this project. It was observed throughout the results that there were a number of outlying values. a calibration process could be created to model both supersonic and subsonic flight. 115 . research could be carried out on how to minimise or eliminate resonance. • To form a more complete model. to combat this. this could also help calculate the error within the calibration and CFD sections.• • The data presented in this project can be checked by performing wind tunnel testing.

F 2000. pp. <http://www.nasa.html> Efunda. viewed 20 October 2010. vol35: no 4. Haynes.htm? AMES Research Staff NACA 1953.edu/aero/pssi. 206-17 Earth Atmospheric Model. viewed 15 October 2010. viewed 29 October 2010. The Pitot/Static System. AJ & Kelso. Technical Note 3967 Chen. EG 1997. Ivan . B. Jože and Žagar. RM & Gordon. ‘Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Two Edged Sword’. total pressure. >http://www. pp 51-57 Centolanzi F. Instrumentation Science & Technology. EB & Roy.ausflightsim. Tomaž 2007 'Response Time of a Pressure Measurement System with a Connecting Tube'.pdf. (1957) "Characteristics of a 40° cone for measuring mach number.cfm> Euler G 2003.efunda.grc. S & Schaub. vol.J.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/atmosmet.13 Bibliography Aircraft general Knowledge. no. Metric bolt Strength. ‘Equations. NASA. tables. ‘Cobra probe measurements of mean velocities. 116 . and charts for compressible flow": National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Tables and Charts for Compressible Flow. J. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. 399 — 409 Baker.fiu. <http://www. and flow angles at supersonic speeds": National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.net/pdf/acftgenknowledgr_pitot-static_system.com/designstandards/sensors/pitot_tubes/pitot_tubes_theory. Reynolds stesss and higher-order velocity correlations in pipe flow. Kutin. Report 1135 Bajsić. D. ASHRAE Journal. 39.613 -681 Ames Research Staff (1953) "Equations.S & Fletcher. Report 1135pp. Flight Instruments – Level 3. Theory of Pitot-Static Tubes. 2010. Glenn Research Centre (2010) <http://www. 8.pp.> Allstar Network. 21.allstar. viewed 25 Oct 2010.

Progress In Aerospace Sciences. Journal of Fluids Engineering.edu/13. Mylavarapu.mit. Ares I-X Launch Scrub: Can You Say "Triboelectrification". I.co. viewed 25 Oct 2010. Lu W.htm> 117 . Marine Hydrodynamics. pp 1553-1559 Oberkampf.com/bolt-database/22.roymech. Technical Note 2261 Lara. 590-94 Space Fellowship 2009. vol. <http://web..R 2010.C 1981. M & Khosla. pp 209-272 Porro. vol 38. Donald E. 42. FMR 2007. University of Queensland.tripod. A. ‘Pressure Probe Designs for Dynamic Pressure Measurements in a supersonic flowfield’. ‘Data Acquisition System for Student-Designed Rocket Experiments’. 2000. ‘A Four hole Pressure Probe for Fluid Flow Measurements in Three Dimension’. <http://www.S & Gutmark.html> Shepard. vol. ‘Verification and Validation in Computational Fluid Dynamics’. Bolted Joint Design. 103. pp.html> Fan H. Stanford University. Russell and Walter R (1951) Wind tunnel investigation of a number of total pressure tubes at high angles of attack: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Xi G. ‘Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Methodology Used For Human Upper Airway Flow Simulations’ ELSEVIER. 2002. S & Mihaescu.uk/Useful_Tables/Screws/Bolted_Joint. William. TG. WL & Trucano. (2003) "An improved neural-network-based calibration method for aerodynamic pressure probes": Journal of Fluids Engineering. Colletti. E 2009. and Wang S.< http://euler9. Transactions of the ASME Gracey.021/13021_2003/Lifting%20surfaces/lectureC.417-26 RoyMech. Masters Thesis. pp. Brisbane. viewed 10 October 2010. G & Murugappan. M & Kalra..

FM.eng.com/standard-atmosphere-d_604.University of Cambridge.html> US Standard Atmosphere (1976) < http://www. < http://www-g. Pressure Probes. viewed 20 October 2010.cam. Boston 118 . Cambridge.ac. ‘Fluid Mechanics’.uk/whittle/current-research/hph/pressure-probes/pressureprobes.engineeringtoolbox. McGraw-Hill.html> White. 2008.

1 Appendix A– Engineering Drawings 14.14 Appendix 14.1 Assembly 119 .1.

14.1.2 Nose Cone 120 .

1.14.3 Payload Case 121 .

1.4 Payload Case Window 122 .14.

5 Strip Board Support Plate 123 .1.14.

6 Strip Board Support Ring 124 .14.1.

of rows num = delete points cp1 = data points in each row cpa = no. cpa): """ Imports values into list format. dp. num. of columns returns the data in a list. integer format """ 125 .String format input = filename returns the imported data """ file = open(filename. "r") filedata = file. cpl.2 Appendix B– Code ########################## Calibration.read() STRING = 1 y = list(token[STRING] for token in generate_tokens(StringIO(filedata).14.py #################################### from cStringIO import StringIO from tokenize import generate_tokens from numpy import * from math import * from pylab import * import csv p2 = 2 p3 = 3 p4 = 4 p5 = 5 pt = 1 def open_file(filename): """ Imports external data files into python . h =file name dp = no.readline) if token[STRING]) return y def create(h.

append(finallist2) return finallist def convertStr(s): """ converts integers into strings 126 .append(finallist2) return finallist1 def csv_importer(c. "rb")) for row in reader: files. len(y).reader(open(filename. filename): """ imports CSV files to complete calibration process c = column no.append(y[v]) v+=1 x.append(row) finallist = [] for i in range(len(files)): finallist2 = [] for j in range(c): finallist2.append(convertStr(x[i][j])) finallist1.y = open_file(h) x = [] v=0 for i in range(dp): newlist = [] for j in range(cpl): if v in range(num-1. num): v+= 1 else: newlist. filename = file to be imported returns the imported data in a useable format """ files = [] reader = csv.append(convertStr(files[i][j])) finallist.append(newlist) finallist1 = [] for i in range(dp): finallist2 = [] for j in range(cpa): finallist2.

s = value to be converted return converted values """ try: ret = int(s) except ValueError: ret = float(s) return ret def static_p(p2. 4.) m = fliename c = coluumn no. plist): """ find average static pressure inputs = recorded raw pressure values plist = list of recorded pressure values p1. plist): """ pt = total pressure recorded by top transducer staticpress = average static pressure plist .append(sr) return staticr def mach_x(m.list of recorded data return the Static pressure ratio.25 * (plist[i][p2] + plist[i][p3] + plist[i][p4] + plist[i][p5]) return staticp def press_r(pt. p5. returns column within file """ machx = [] for i in range (len(m)): 127 . 3. p4. 5 = corresponding pressure values returns the average static pressure """ staticp = zeros(len(plist)) for i in range (len(plist)): staticp[i] = 0. p3. staticpress. 2. pA/pt2 """ staticr = [] for i in range(len(plist)): sr = staticpress[i]/plist[i][pt] staticr. c): """import CFD x column (mach no.

macx = m[i][c] machx.) m = fliename c = coluumn no.append(macy) return machy def reference_x(M): """ M = Data file return the reference tables column 1.append(refx) return Mx def reference_x1(M): """ M = Data file return the reference tables column 1. returns column within file (ratio of static to pitot pressure """ machy = [] for i in range (len(ma)): macy = ma[i][c] machy. mach number 128 .append(macx) return machx def mach_y(ma.append(refx) return Mx def reference_x2(M): """ M = Data file returns the reference tables column 1. c): """import CFD y column (mach no. mach number """ Mx = [] for i in range (len(M)): refx = M[i][0] Mx. 100. 1): refx = M[i][0] Mx. mach number """ Mx = [] for i in range (0.

z): """ p = data file pt = total pressure after shock z = total pressure ratios 129 .append(press) return dynp def total_pressure(p. 401. pt.""" Mx = [] for i in range (100.append(refx) return Mx def reference_Msmall(M): """ M = Data file returns reference tables pressure ratio M<1 """ My1 = [] for i in range (0. 1): refx = M[i][0] Mx. 401. 100.append(refy2) return My2 def dynamic_press(M): """ M = Data File returns the reference tables.append(refy1) return My1 def reference_Mlarge(M): """ M = Data File returns reference tables pressure ratio M>1""" My2 = [] for i in range (100. 1): refy2 = M[i][2] My2. dynamic pressure ratio""" dynp = [] for i in range (len(M)): press = M[i][3] dynp. 1): refy1 = M[i][1] My1.

pt1 = pt2/(pt2/pt1)""" totalp = [] for i in range (len(p)): tot_pa = p[i][pt] tot_pb = tot_pa/z[i] totalp.append(tot_pb) return totalp def dynamic_p(z.plist[i][p3])/q1[i] return pitch def rocket_yaw(q1.returns the total pressure. z) returns dynamic pressure. z): """ 130 . ydata. plist): """ q1 = dynamic pressure plist = raw data returns coefficients of yaw """ yaw = zeros(len(plist)) for i in range (len(plist)): yaw[i] = (plist[i][p4] . plist): """ q1 = dynamic pressure plist = raw data returns coefficients of pitch """ pitch = zeros(len(plist)) for i in range (len(plist)): pitch[i] =(plist[i][p5] . totalpressure): """ z = dynamic pressure ratio total pressure = def total_pressure(p.plist[i][p2])/q1[i] return yaw def rational(xdata. q1 = (q1/pt1)pt1 """ q1 = zeros(len(z)) for i in range (len(z)): q1[i] = z[i]*totalpressure[i] return q1 def rocket_pitch(q1. pt.

xdata = list of ratios of static to pitot pressure ydata = list of Mach number z = value to be interpolated Uses rational approximation to interpolate for the mach number returns the resultant Mach number """ v = [] for j in range(len(z)): x = z[j] m = len(xdata) r = ydata.copy() rOld = zeros(m) for k in range(m - 1): for i in range(m - k - 1): if abs(x - xdata[i + k + 1]) < 1.0e-9: r[i] = ydata[ i + k + 1] else: c1 = r[i + 1] - r[i] c2 = r[i + 1] - rOld[i + 1] c3 = (x - xdata[i])/(x - xdata[i + k + 1]) r[i] = r[i + 1] + c1/(c3*(1.0 - c1/c2) - 1.0) rOld[i + 1] = r[i + 1] v.append(r[0]) return v def polyfunc(values, f): """ values = Mach number f = coefficients found from polyfit Uses the found coefficients from polyfit and the x value to find the interpolated y value returns function to calculate either interpolated value for total pressure ratio or dynamic pressure ratio""" num = len(f) y=0 for j in range(len(f)): y = y + f[j]*values**(num-(j+1)) return y def rational_2(polinter, ratio): """ polinter = mach numer ratio = data from NACA Tn 1135 reference tables Interpolates using polyfit rather then the newtons polynomial. For Case M<1 and M >= 1
131

returns interpolated value for total pressure ratio """ polinter_interpolated = [] for i in range(len(polinter)): if polinter[i] < 1.: small = polyfit(array(reference_x1(ratio)), array(reference_Msmall(ratio)), 3) intersmall = polyfunc(polinter[i], small) polinter_interpolated.append(intersmall) elif polinter[i] >= 1.: large = polyfit(array(reference_x2(ratio)), array(reference_Mlarge(ratio)), 4) interlarge = polyfunc(polinter[i], large) polinter_interpolated.append(interlarge) return polinter_interpolated def dynamic_pressure(z, ratio): """ z = mach number ratio - NACA TN 1135 tables uses polyfunc to find a good approximation of the relationship between mach number and dynamic pressure ratio returns dynamic pressure ratio""" q1 = [] for i in range (len(z)): drat = polyfit(array(reference_x(ratio)), array(dynamic_press(ratio)), 6) dratinter = polyfunc(z[i], drat) q1.append(dratinter) return q1 def lin_interp(rocket_angle, x, y): """ linear interpolater rocket_angle = value to be inerpolated x = xdata for interpolation y = ydata for interpolation returns interpolated value """ if x[0] == x[1]: answer =(y[0]+y[1])/2 else: answer = y[0] - (y[0]-y[1])*(x[0]-rocket_angle)/(x[0] - x[1]) return answer def pitch_yaw_roll(backup, step, polinter, q1, CFD_data, plist, mach, ratio, counter, solution, counterb):
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""" Using cut down CFD list to find the best values for pitch and yaw (incorporate solving definitions backup = previous data position step = 0 if first run, otherwise equals 1 polinter = Mach number q1 = dynamic pressure CFD_data = CFD data plist = raw data mach = inserts CFD data for mach number at zero pitch and yaw ratio = NACA TN 1135 tables counter = placeholder solution = solution array matrix counterb = step counter returns the solution array matrix, placeholder and step counters """ tbinterp = [] if counter == 0: backup[2] = 1. for i in range(len(polinter)): polinterold = 100. polinternew = polinter[i] if 1.0 <= polinter[i] <= 2.6: ans = find(i, q1, backup, polinter, CFD_data, plist) correction = ans[2] if correction == 1: minorsol = ans else: cn = 0 loop = 0 while abs(polinternew - polinterold) >= 0.1: polinterold = polinternew ans = answers(correction, i, ans, plist, mach, ratio, CFD_data) polinternew = ans[3] correction = ans[2] loop +=1 if loop >6: ans[3] = (polinterold+polinternew)/2. break cn+= 1 minorsol = ans solution[counterb][0] = counter
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for k in range(len(minorsol)): solution[counterb][k+1] = minorsol[k] backup[0] = solution[counterb][1] backup[1] = solution[counterb][2] backup[2] = solution[counterb][3] print minorsol, counter counterb+= 1 counter += 1 return solution, counter, counterb def find(i, q1, prev, polinter, CFD_data, plist): """ Cuts down the number of suitable CFD data points using a set of criters and eventually interpolates to acquire the initial values i = position counter q1 = dynamic pressure prev = previous step polinter =Mach number CFD_data = CFD data plist = raw data returns the initial estimated solution """ solv = zeros(4) machno = polinter[i] prev[3] = machno dummyp1 = 100. dummyy1 = 100. dummyp2 = 100. dummyy2 = 100. tbinterpnest = [] highlist = [] pitch = rocket_pitch(q1, plist)[i] yaw = rocket_yaw(q1, plist)[i] for j in range(len(CFD_data)): machcfd = CFD_data[j][0] if machcfd - machno >= 0.3: break else: if abs(machno-machcfd) <= 0.2: pitchprev = prev[0] yawprev = prev[1] if abs(CFD_data[j][1] - pitchprev) <= 3: if abs(CFD_data[j][2] - yawprev) <= 3:
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if (plist[i][2] >=0 and CFD_data[j][7]>=0) or (plist[i][2]<=0 and CFD_data[j][7]<=0): if (plist[i][3] >=0 and CFD_data[j][8]>=0) or (plist[i][3]<=0 and CFD_data[j][8]<=0): if (plist[i][4] >=0 and CFD_data[j][9]>=0) or (plist[i][4]<=0 and CFD_data[j][9]<=0): if (plist[i][5] >=0 and CFD_data[j][10]>=0) or (plist[i][5]<=0 and CFD_data[j][10]<=0): if CFD_data[j][0]<=polinter[i]: if abs(pitch - CFD_data[j][4]) <= dummyp1 and abs(yaw CFD_data[j][5]) <= dummyy1: dummyp1 = abs(pitch - CFD_data[j][4]) dummyy1 = abs(yaw - CFD_data[j][5]) value = CFD_data[j] else: highlist.append(CFD_data[j]) while True: try: pitchlowc = value[4] yawlowc = value[5] highlisty = [] for v in range(len(highlist)): if pitchlowc <= pitch: if highlist[v][4] >= pitch: highlisty.append(highlist[v]) elif pitchlowc >= pitch: if highlist[v][4] <= pitch: highlisty.append(highlist[v]) for c in range(len(highlisty)): if yawlowc <= yaw: if highlisty[c][5] >= yaw: if abs(yaw - highlist[c][5]) <= dummyy2: dummyy2 = highlisty[c][5] value2 = highlisty[c] elif yawlowc >= yaw: if highlist[v][4] <= yaw: if abs(yaw - highlisty[c][5]) <= dummyy2: dummyy2= highlisty[c][5] value2 = highlisty[c] while True: try: pcoef = []
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staticpress. i. p3.append(float(value[1])) pitchlist.append(float(value[2])) yawlist. pcoef.append(float(value[6])) correction.append(float(value2[5])) yawlist = [] yawlist.pcoef.append(float(value2[6])) correctionfactor = lin_interp(pitchinterped. yawlist) prev[0] = pitchinterped prev[1] = yawinterped correction = [] correction. p4. with the applied correction factor """ print i staticpress = static_p(p2. p5. without current correction factor applied plist = raw data values mach = CFD data for Mach number at zero pitch and yaw ratio = NACA TN 1135 tables CFD_Data = Inserted CFD data Goes through the calibration process. ans.append(float(value2[1])) pitchinterped = lin_interp(pitch. plist) pressureratio = [] 136 . mach. pitchlist.append(float(value2[4])) pitchlist = [] pitchlist.append(float(value[5])) ycoef. plist. CFD_data): """ correctionfactor = value for correcion factor i = step counter ans = previously solved solution matrix.append(float(value[4])) pcoef. ycoef.append(float(value2[2])) yawinterped = lin_interp(yaw. ratio. plist) pressureration = press_r(pt. pitchlist) ycoef = [] ycoef. correction) solv[0] = pitchinterped solv[1] = yawinterped solv[2] = correctionfactor return solv except UnboundLocalError: return prev except UnboundLocalError: return prev def answers(correctionfactor.

ratio) totalpressure = total_pressure(plist. p5.txt". otherwise equals 1 filename = file to be imported position holder counter = position holder solution = solution array matrix counterb = step counter solves for the initial values needed to get coefficients of pitch and yaw returns the solution [Pitch. counter. 4) "import reference tables" mach = create("machinsert. name): """ variable = data to be saved into text file name = name of created file creates a text file and saves documents into the file """ f = open(name. 5. pt. polinter_interpolated) q1r = dynamic_pressure(polinter. q1. 14. polinter. plist) "find avg static pressure" 137 .join(map(lambda x: str(x). 0)) .array(mach_x(mach. filename) "import raw data" ratio = create("Tables. 3. which behaves as initial data point in new test range step = 0 if first run.append(pressureration[g]/correctionfactor) polinter = rational(array(mach_y(mach. filename. CFD_data. 401. variable))) f. solution. "CFD Insert. ratio) q1 = dynamic_p(q1r. totalpressure) test2 = find(i.csv") "imports CFD data" staticpress = static_p(p2. 3. Yaw. step. 2) CFD_data = csv_importer(11. Correction Factor. plist) test2[3] = polinter[i] return test2 def save_file(variable. pressureratio) polinter_interpolated = rational_2(polinter. p3. 1)). counterb): """ init = last recorded data point in the previous solution.txt".write("\n". "w") inslist = variable f.close() def solve(init. ans. 5. Mach number] """ plist = csv_importer(6. p4.for g in range(len(pressureration)): pressureratio.

polinter_interpolated) "find total pressure. "CFD test data. "HOPE2101-2800. 1. totalpressure) "find dynamic pressure. counter. counter. q1/pt1" q1 = dynamic_p(q1r. counterb) return solution counter = 0 counterb = 0 solution = zeros([20085. solution.csv". ratio. counterb) solutionprev = [] for k in range(len(solved[counterb-1])-1): solutionprev.csv". q1.csv". counterb = solve(solutionprev. step. mach. q1 = (q1/pt1)pt1" solution = pitch_yaw_roll(init.csv".append(solved[counterb-1][k+1]) print 'solutionprev'. polinter. counterb) solutionprev = [] for k in range(len(solved[counterb-1])-1): solutionprev. solutionprev solved. counter. solved. plist) "find static pressure ratio" polinter = rational(array(mach_y(mach.pressureratio = press_r(pt. 1. counter. CFD_data. pt1 = pt2/(pt2/pt1)" q1r = dynamic_pressure(polinter. counterb = solve(backup. solution. counter. "HOPE1401-2100. counter.append(solved[counterb-1][k+1]) 138 . pressureratio) "interpolate static pressure ratio in CFD to get Mach number" polinter_interpolated = rational_2(polinter. 0)) . counterb) solutionprev = [] for k in range(len(solved[counterb-1])-1): solutionprev. counterb = solve(solutionprev. pt. ratio) "interpolate Mach number with reference tables to get pressure ratios Pt2/Pt1" totalpressure = total_pressure(plist. 1)). counterb = solve(solutionprev. staticpress. counter. solutionprev solved. plist. solved. counterb) solutionprev = [] for k in range(len(solved[counterb-1])-1): solutionprev. counter.append(solved[counterb-1][k+1]) print 'solutionprev'. 1.5]) backup = zeros(4) solved. "HOPE701-1400.array(mach_x(mach. 0. ratio) "finds dynamic pressure ratio. counter.append(solved[counterb-1][k+1]) print 'solutionprev'. solved. solutionprev solved.

csv".txt") savetxt("Solution. solved) print solved 139 .append(solved[counterb-1][k+1]) print 'solutionprev'. 1. counter. counter. counterb) solutionprev = [] for k in range(len(solved[counterb-1])-1): solutionprev. "HOPE2801-3500. solutionprev save_file(solved. "SOLUTION. solved.txt". counterb = solve(solutionprev. solutionprev solved.print 'solutionprev'.

doc Distribution: PUBLIC Copyright © ASRI 2005 140 .14.3 Appendix C – ASRI Payload Guide Australian Space Research Institute Ltd Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUGver1c.

141 .

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Australian Space Research Institute Ltd 2005 The copyright and trademarks of respective owners is acknowledged. This document remains the property of ASRI Ltd.doc COPYRIGHT AND CONDITIONS OF USE Copyright © reserved in all respects. completing and submitting a payload proposal to ASRI Ltd. no part of this document may be reproduced without the prior written consent of ASRI Ltd.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. 143 . However a license is granted to reproduce the Zuni Payload Users' Guide for the purpose of considering.

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Richard Samuel. Bruce Henderson.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.doc AMENDMENT LOG Ver. Filled in body Release for Auspace Space Endeavour Competition information General updates and addition of Appendix D Author Shaun Wilson Shaun Wilson Shaun Wilson Shaun Wilson Matthew Clark Richard Samuel Reviewer / Approver Richard Samuel Richard Samuel Richard Samuel Richard Samuel Shaun Wilson 1b 2005-04-11 Bernard Davison. 0A 0B 0C 0D 1 1a Release Date 2002-03-11 2002-03-11 2002-03-11 2002-03-11 2002-10-25 2005-02-21 Description of Change (Including Sections Affected) Created from extract of TRM Created from extract of TRM Created from extract of TRM Created from extract of TRM Updated to ZPM6. Andrew Fenton. Michael Nicholls Bernard Davison 1c 2007-02-01 Updated links to documents and reference to RMS-2002 145 . Michael O’Donnell.

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doc EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Zuni Payload Users' Guide for the Small Sounding Rocket Program is intended to provide information to payload developers on ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Zuni rocket payload hardware and systems Zuni rocket flight characteristics and environment SSRP Procedures Guidelines and ASRI requirements for payload development 147 .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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..................................................................................................................doc TABLE OF CONTENTS COPYRIGHT AND CONDITIONS OF USE .....................................................................2 MOTOR SPECIFICATION ....................................................................................11 3..................................................14 OPERATIONS ............................................................2 AMENDMENT LOG...11 3....................................................9 SSRP AND THE ZUNI ROCKET ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................3 MASS AND DISTRIBUTION ......3 HANDLING AND CONTROL ................................................................................................7 1...........................................13 4..............................5 1 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW..............................2 PAYLOAD PREPARATION.......................................................................................................................................................................................5 STRUCTURE ..................13 HANDLING AND TRANSPORT ......................13 4...........................................................................................10 2.......1 PRE FLIGHT .................................................................................7 REFERENCES ...............14 5.....................................1 INTRODUCTION................................................................3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.......................15 TABLE 6-1: PREPARATION TO LAUNCH TIME LINE ..............................................................4 INTERFACES AND MOUNTING ....................................17 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ........13 4................................................................................................................3 THERMAL .........Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c......................................................................................................................................................................2 ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................................................11 3..................................................................................7 1.....17 6................17 6................................3 PAYLOAD RESTRICTIONS ...........6 DEFINITIONS ...................................14 5.........................7 1.........................................................................................................................................................................10 2..............................18 149 2 3 4 5 6 7 ....................................................................................4 SOURCE DID ..................................................................7 1.................................................................................................................................................................................11 3............1 PURPOSE ......................................................................................................................................15 6.....11 FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT ........8 1............10 ZUNI PAYLOAD MODULE .............................................................15 6......................................................................10 2......................3 POST FLIGHT ..........2 PAYLOAD BAY DIMENSIONS ...............................................................4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ................1 OVERVIEW ...............................................................................................................................................................................4 RECOVERY .........................................................................................................2 LOADING AND VIBRATION ..............................................................................................8 1.............................7 1..................................1 PURPOSE .........................................................................2 FORMATTING AND IDENTIFICATION .......................1 FLIGHT PHASES ..........3 LAUNCH ..................14 5...................

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.........4 7......................3 PRE-LAUNCH ..2 PREPARATION ...........................................................................5 LIVING MATERIAL ..................................... 30 2..................................................... 32 3................................ 35 FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS ....... 30 2.................................................................................................................................. 31 2........RECORDED FLIGHT DATA .. 31 2................................................................................................Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.....................................................................................................................18 ARMING/DISARMING .1 DESCRIPTION OF SUBSYSTEM 1: ..................................................................................................... 19 COMMUNICATIONS ............................................................................................................... 30 2..............1 DESCRIPTION OF PAYLOAD: .................................................................................................. 28 1 2 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................8 CHEMICAL MATERIAL ..........19 HAZARDS ANALYSIS ........................... 30 2..6 PROCEDURES TO BE CONDUCTED DURING THE LAUNCH SEQUENCE ............ 37 5..............................................................................3 ASRI CONTACTS ....................................................................................................... 21 APPENDIX B .................20 8................................... 37 3 4 5 151 ....... 31 2................................................CALCULATED FLIGHT PROFILE ..............................................................................7 FLAMMABLE MATERIAL....................... 32 3........................................................................................................... 37 5.........................................2 DESCRIPTION OF SUBSYSTEM 2: ..................... 20 8............................................................................................. 36 RISKS ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................................20 8............................................................................................... 33 3.......................................5 8 ELECTRICAL-EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS (EEH) .......................................3 PAYLOAD WEIGHT . 32 3........................................5 PERSONNEL ...........29 1.........PAYLOAD INFORMATION DOCUMENT TEMPLATE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................2 RISKS ...................... 31 2.. 25 APPENDIX C ...............1 DOCUMENTATION ...............1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................9 OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIAL .....2 ASRI INVOLVEMENT ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33 3........... 29 PAYLOAD SUBSYSTEMS . 32 3.....................................................4 PROTRUSIONS ...............................................................................................................................................................................6 EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL .................................................................doc 7................... 31 PROCEDURES .......................30 2..............................................3 7..............4 RECOVERY . 27 APPENDIX D ..19 EMERGENCY .................................................................................................................1 ASSEMBLY ...............................................2 7...................................... 20 APPENDIX A – ZPM6 PAYLOAD COMPONENT DRAWIINGS ..........

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Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.org. ASRI project documents are saved under the document number with the version number appended to the file name as (for example) ‘–ver2D’. there are no restrictions on release of this document. All information contained herein remains copyright ASRI.asri. 1.org.1 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW PURPOSE The purpose of this Zuni Payload Users' Guide (PUG) is to clearly state the requirements that payloads intended for launch on ASRI's sounding rockets must satisfy and to assist payload developers to meet those requirements.au. This number combination is shown on the cover page and in the header as the automatically updated FileName field. 1. although the Project Manager or document creator might restrict release of drafts until formally reviewed. Changes at each version are to be recorded in the Amendment Log.asri.3 HANDLING AND CONTROL Unless assigned a CONTROLLED distribution control. that is. 153 . ASRI project documents are formatted with the styles defined in the applicable template or DID. Small Sounding Rocket Program project documents are stored in the Small Sounding Rocket Program Virtual Project Office (VPO) at www.2 FORMATTING AND IDENTIFICATION To ensure uniformity of appearance. ASRI project documents are assigned document numbers and version numbers in accordance with the ASRI Project System scheme described at www. The document title is entered in Document Properties – Summary – Title and the project title is entered in Document Properties – Summary – Subject. Hardcopies are not amendment controlled and thus should not be used for normative reference.doc 1 1.au and the draft developed by Richard Samuel in early 2001.org.asri.au.org. Distribution of this document is PUBLIC. ASRI project documents are to be titled in accordance with the ASRI Project System scheme described at www.4 SOURCE DID This Zuni Payload Users' Guide for the Small Sounding Rocket Program was created from generic ASRI Project System document template available at www. 1.au.asri.

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1.5

STRUCTURE
This Zuni Payload Users' Guide is structured as follows: Document overview SSRP and the Zuni Payload Module Flight environment and Transport Operations Safety Requirements Communications Self-explanatory An introduction into the ASRI small sounding rockets program and the Zuni rocket Payload bay physical properties Zuni flight characteristics Handling Handling of payload experiments An introduction to SSRP launch trial operations and procedures ASRI requirements for safe design practices Payload development documentation and communications with ASRI

1.6

DEFINITIONS

1.6.1 Internal Definitions
Terms and abbreviations used in this document are defined below: AAC APM APSO ATM CLO DID Program ASRI Area Controller ASRI SSRP Payload manager ASRI Preparation and Safety Officer ASRI SSRP Trials Manager Commonwealth Liaison Officer Data Item Description An enduring management structure encompassing an ongoing series of time-limited activities, usually projects, conducted around a common theme, such as launch vehicles or satellites. Virtual Project Office – a sub-domain of the ASRI web site at to www.asri.org.au where project documentation is stored.
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1.6.2 External Definitions
Further definitions are contained in higher-level project documents (if any) and the ASRI Glossary of Terms.

1.6.3 Precedence of Definitions
Should there be a conflict in definitions, the following order of precedence applies: 1. ASRI-SSRP-SOP – SSRP Safety and Operations Plan (Distribution LIMITED) 2. Section 1.6.1 of this document 3. ASRI Glossary of Terms http://www.asri.org.au/library/asri-glossary-of-terms

1.7

REFERENCES
The documents listed below become part of this Zuni Payload Users' Guide to the extent referenced herein: • ASRI Glossary of Terms http://www.asri.org.au/library/asri-glossary-of-terms • • • ASRI-SSRP-SOP – SSRP Safety and Operations Plan (Distribution LIMITED) ASRI Safety Regulations Range Safety Manual (RMS-2002) for Godard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) June 28, 2002 WFF Safety Office Suborbital and Special Orbital Projects Directorate ASRI SSRP Payload Users Guide Appendix D http://www.asri.org.au/SSRP/ASRI-SSRP-PUG-Appendix-D-ver2a.doc ASRI reference documents are available at www.asri.org.au.

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2 MOTOR SPECIFICATION Nomenclature: Propellant Grain: Grain Mass: Mass of Motor: Hazard Division (HD): Hazard Classification Code (HCC): UN Number: Package details: Filled package mass: Rocket Motor (ZUNI) Mk16 Mod 0. 159 . must be analysed and documented to the satisfaction of the ASRI SSRP Trials Manager prior to scheduling. nor represent a hazard to personnel or property. starred central perforation 15 kg 26.5 kg 2. Changes to the external configuration of the vehicle are prohibited and any protrusions or modification to the exterior of the payload module. or contravene ethical guidelines such as in the carriage of live animals.3 C 0281 1 Motor per Wooden Box 44. 2.7 Kg 1.doc 2 2.3 PAYLOAD RESTRICTIONS There are few limitations on the type of payloads which can be flown but they must not exceed mass and available dimensions. even such as a window.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.1 SSRP AND THE ZUNI ROCKET PURPOSE To provide Australian educational institutions from primary schools to universities with a high-acceleration rocket payload launch service at very low cost. extruded. 1 & 2 Double base N8.

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The lower section includes the separation module and parachute recovery system that returns the module safely to the ground. Figure 3-1: ZPM6 3.doc 3 3. Centre of mass must be at or forward of the dimensional centroid of the entire module.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. which should consist of: A. Fastened directly the payload adapter plate at the aft end of the payload bay via 3 M8 threaded rods that may be used to secure a single module to the base plate.3 MASS AND DISTRIBUTION The maximum allowable payload mass is 22kg. See drawing of ZPM6-4 for mounting plate dimensions in Appendix A. The payload must fit completely within these dimensions. Appendix A 161 .1 ZUNI PAYLOAD MODULE INTRODUCTION The standard Zuni Payload Module. or Figure 3-2: Shelves Supported by Struts B. 3.4 INTERFACES AND MOUNTING The preferred payload mounting arrangements are based on experience gained in preparing previous payloads for launch. ZPM6 carries the experiment being flowing in the payload upper section half of the module. or to mount a series of shelves supported by struts.2 PAYLOAD BAY DIMENSIONS The standard payload module internal bay is 500mm length and 117mm internal diameter. See drawing of ZPM6-3. 3. By supporting the payload within high-density foam cut the correct internal dimensions of the payload bay.

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doc Foam Packaging/Insulation Experiment Figure 3-3: Experiment Supported in Foam 163 .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.doc 4 4.2 seconds Maximum Velocity: Mach 2 Maximum axial deceleration after burnout: 10g for 4 seconds Maximum rotation rate: 4 Hz Maximum axial deceleration at main parachute deployment: -50 g Descent Velocity: 8-10 m/s depending on payload mass Axial load at landing: -20 g instantaneous impact See Appendix B and C for flight profile using modelling and previously recorded flight data. In the case of a sealed payload. frictional heating is considered insignificant.2 ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ LOADING AND VIBRATION Maximum axial acceleration at lift-off: 70 g for 1. 4.3 THERMAL As the payload will spend a very short time supersonic. the ambient 165 .1 FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT FLIGHT PHASES Separation was timed to occur at 50 seconds into the flight Burnout occurs after ~ 1.5 seconds Parachute deployment timed to occur at 60 seconds Payload landing at ~ 5 minutes Figure 4-1 Zuni Flight Phases 4.

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167 .doc ambient conditions should be considered.66kg/m3 5 5. Hence the payload can spend up to 24 hours on the range before it is retrieved. 5.1 HANDLING AND TRANSPORT PRE FLIGHT Payload experiments will be delivered to the launch area by road and will be handled in horizontal.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. At maximum altitude (6000m) standard atmospherics conditions are: ƒ ƒ ƒ Temperature: 249K Pressure: 47kPa Density: 0. If necessary the payload should be packaged in such a way at to protect it from these conditions. ASRI personnel will perform final integration of the payload module with the motor. Payloads should be packaged as necessary to protect against dust and vibration.2 ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY Assembly requiring the use of large or electrical equipment may be conducted at the launch site with the prior permission of ASRI Launch personnel. Temperature ranges between -5° and +50° an d the possibility of C C precipitation should be considered. vertical and inverted configurations. In most cases the payload can be returned to the experimenter immediately after retrieval. If hazardous materials are to be used in the payload they must be removed and transported separately. 5.3 POST FLIGHT Recovery of the payload modules will take place at the conclusion of the launch program and while the remaining daylight permits a search.

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activation and flight readiness shall occur as follows: Time before launch 30 minutes Procedure Integrate payload to motor. On Saturday. Once the launches are complete. Proceedings are typically completed by the evening of the launch day. Non-essential personnel then return to the observation area and launch operations commence.doc 6 6. Experimenter 169 . Personnel and hardware involved typically arrive in Woomera on the Friday. the payloads are integrated with the payload modules and final checks of the pyrotechnics are performed.1 OPERATIONS OVERVIEW Scheduled launch trails are held over the long weekends in June and October.2 PAYLOAD PREPARATION Final preparation of the payloads will be completed on the morning of the launch.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. Payload integration. Personnel ASRI Warning Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher 20 minutes Place rocket with payload onto launch rail ASRI 15 minutes Experimenters may add an automatic launch hold here to initiate/check experiments/photos. At this time the experimenter may complete final checks and initiate the payload. Experimenters must return to the observation area unless express permission to remain at the launch site has been granted by the ATM. a search party heads out onto the range to locate the payload modules. ASRI personnel head to LA9 to prepare the launch area and the Zuni payload modules. 6. This involves checking and final approval of the payload experiments by the APM and integration of the payloads into the Zuni payload modules. On the Sunday morning.

ASRI 5 minutes Experimenters may Experimenter/ASRI Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Last saved on 1 February 2007 Distribution: PUBLIC Page 15 of 38 170 .10 minutes Arming of ASRI recovery electronics.

Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher 171 .doc add a launch hold here to initiate experiments.

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No part of the payload or rocket may be moved or touched without 173 . 6. Nominal launch Personnel allowed to leave bunker after "ROUND GONE" called by AAC over the radio.doc 5 minutes All non essential personnel to retreat to bunker All non essential 5 minutes Connection of motor to launch circuit.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. ASRI (APSO) 4 minutes All personnel to enter launch bunker All 4 minutes Enter radio launch sequence/test launch circuit. 0 T plus 10 seconds ASRI (APSO) followed by all TABLE 6-1: PREPARATION TO LAUNCH TIME LINE 6. ASRI (ATM) / ASRI (APSO) 3 minutes Experimenters may add a launch hold here to remotely initiate experiments. No personnel permitted to leave bunker.3 LAUNCH Launch will occur after commencement of Hazardous Operations as declared by the ATM. details must be given to the APM and experimenters should be present. If special procedures are required for the recovery of the payload. Radio launch sequence continue. No personnel permitted to leave bunker. Experimenters 2 minutes ASRI (ATM) Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Payload RF Transmitters SHALL NOT be operated whilst personnel are on the launcher Transmitters may be activated here by remote only. interested personnel may proceed to LA9 under the supervision of the AAC for the formation of recovery search groups.4 RECOVERY After the completion of all Hazardous Operations.

Last saved on 1 February 2007 Distribution: PUBLIC Page 17 of 38 174 .approval from the APM and the experimenter.

The United Kingdom (UK) use a broader term relating to all radiation (RADHAZ) whether these hazards relate to ordnance. The system shall be designed to be “FAIL SAFE” and the basic design rule that the failure of either intercept must not result in transmitter activation shall apply. 7.1 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTION Payloads must meet specific ASRI safety requirements. Additional information is contained in the Range Safety Manual (RMS-2002) for Godard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) June 28. Any payload that must emit EMR during a pre-launch test and whilst the payload is assembled to a modified (igniter circuit) ZUNI rocket motor or to the standard 3 Inch (Sighter) rocket motor. The design requirements of ASRI Safety Regulations Section Four – Hazardous Systems shall be observed.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c. 175 . In addition to the EEH arising from the use of radar. 2002 WFF Safety Office Suborbital and Special Orbital Projects Directorate. This document can be located on the web at a number of locations. inadvertent initiation of Electro-Explosive Devices (EED) may be caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects or electromagnetic interference (EMI) from nearby circuits.2 ELECTRICAL-EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS (EEH) The term EEH is used when discussing hazards to electrically initiated explosive devices and systems. Payloads must not emit EMR under the conditions specified in Table 6-1. This section applies only to the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and does not consider the precautions to be taken with regard to static electricity or lightning. Citizens Band (CB) and High Frequency transceivers. or that is in the proximity thereof. These factors will ensure safe handling and flight as well as facilitating efficient final launch preparations.doc 7 7. must be capable of being activated and deactivated remotely and be designed and manufactured to include a minium of two physical intercepts in the activation mechanism. mobile phones and payload telemetry or other transmitters or transceivers. personnel or fuel. The first intercept is to be included as part of the payload and the second intercept is to be operated remotely. The equivalent United States Navy (USN) term is Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO): the United States Army and United States Air Force refer to Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) hazards.

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177 . 7.3 ARMING/DISARMING Any electronics in the experiment should include a system for easy arming and disarming with some visible or audible status indication. 7. This facilitates final launch preparation.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.5 HAZARDS ANALYSIS A hazards analysis of the payload. must detail the failure mode for each component and the consequences of such a failure.4 EMERGENCY The design must consider shutdown and disassembly procedure in emergency situations. if deemed necessary by the ASRI SSRP Trials Manager.doc 7.

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doc 8 8.1 COMMUNICATIONS DOCUMENTATION The payload information document template located in Appendix D must be completed and submitted to ASRI at least 30 days prior to launch.org. compatibility with the payload module and in other aspect of design.2 ASRI INVOLVEMENT Details should be communicated to ASRI personnel during the design phase for approval and to receive the benefit of ASRI’s experience to avoid design changes down the line.asri. 8. 8.Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.3 ASRI CONTACTS Members of the ASRI SSRP team can be contacted via the SSRP section of the ASRI website http://www.au/SSRP 179 . ASRI can provide assistance for compliance with safety requirements.

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Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.doc APPENDIX A – ZPM6 PAYLOAD COMPONENT DRAWIINGS 181 .

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Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.doc 183 .

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doc 185 .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.doc 188 .

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CALCULATED FLIGHT PROFILE 190 .doc APPENDIX B .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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doc 192 .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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RECORDED FLIGHT DATA Altitude Acceleration Sun Sensor Flight Phase Seconds 194 .doc APPENDIX C .Small Sounding Rocket Program Zuni Payload Users' Guide ASRI-SSRP-PUG-ver1c.

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14.4 Appendix D– NACA1135 Charts 196 .

197 .

198 .

2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 199 2 4 6 8 Pressure Ratio .8 0.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 Pressure Ratio Mach 1.Pitch Angle vs.8 0. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.5 Appendix D– Correction Factors Mach 1 .4 0.2 1 0.4 0.2 1 0.2 .6 0.6 0. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.14.Pitch Angle vs.

Pitch Angle vs.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 Mach 1.04 1.94 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 200 2 4 6 8 .Mach 1.Pitch Angle vs.2 1 Pressure Ratio 0.4 0.6 0.6 .1 1.02 1 0.06 1.8 0. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.08 Pressure Ratio 1. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.12 1.98 0.4 .96 0.14 1.

6 0.8 0.Pitch Angle vs.Pitch Angle vs.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 201 .Mach 1. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 Mach 2 .6 0.4 1.2 1 Pressure Ratio 0.4 0.8 .4 0.2 1 Pressure Ratio 0.8 0. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.

8 0.6 0.2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 202 .2 1 Pressure Ratio 0.1 1.Mach 2.Pitch Angle vs.4 1.95 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 Pressure Ratio Mach 2.Pitch Angle vs.4 0.25 1.4 .2 1. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.2 .15 1. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.05 1 0.

2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Pitch Angle 2 4 6 8 Drawing 6 203 .6 .4 1.6 0.2 1 Pressure Ratio 0.Mach 2.Pitch Angle vs.4 0.8 0. Ratio of Average Static Pressure to Pitot Pressure 1.

2 0.2 0.05 0.25 -0.05 0.6 Appendix E– Probe Calibration Matrices Mach 1 0.2 -0.14.-7) -0.15 0.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.25 Coefficient of Pitch 204 .7) 0.05 -0.15 0 0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.-7) Mach 1.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.1 (7.2 0.-7) -0.2 0.05 0 -0.15 0.2 -0.25 -0.25 (-7.1 0.2 0.1 -0.15 0 0.05 -0.15 -0.1 -0.-7) -0.25 Coefficient of Pitch (7.1 (7.1 -0.25 (-7.25 (-7.05 -0.15 0.05 0 -0.7) 0.15 0.1 0.2 (7.05 -0.25 (-7.

2 Coefficient of Pitch Mach 1.2 -0.05 -0.15 0 0.15 0.4 0.Mach 1.1 -0.7) 0.15 0.1 0.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.7) 0.05 0.1 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 -0.15 0.-7) (7.15 -0.05 0.-7) (7.1 (7.-7) -0.2 (-7.15 0 0.05 -0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.2 (-7.2 (-7.05 -0.2 Coefficient of Pitch 205 .05 0 -0.05 0 -0.6 0.1 (7.-7) -0.15 0.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.2 (-7.

1 (7.15 0.2 (-7.1 0.-7) -0.05 -0.15 -0.05 0 -0.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.-7) (7.8 0.2 -0.2 Coefficient of Pitch (7.15 0 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.2 (-7.7) Coefficient of Yaw 0.2 Coefficient of Pitch Mach 2 0.1 0.15 0.2 (-7.2 -0.Mach 1.05 -0.05 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 (7.-7) 206 .05 -0.05 0.7) 0.-7) -0.7) 0.15 0.15 0.2 (-7.15 -0.1 0 0.1 -0.15 -0.

1 0.15 -0.-7) -0.15 -0.05 0 0.2 (-7.1 (-7.1 (7.1 0.1 0.1 (-7.1 -0.7) 0.05 0 0.4 0.05 -0.-7) -0.05 -0.7) 0.15 (7.-7) Mach 2.05 Coefficient of Yaw 0 -0.05 0.1 -0.7) 0.05 Coefficient of Yaw 0 -0.15 (-7.15 -0.-7) 207 .15 Coefficient of Pitch (7.Mach 2.7) 0.15 Coefficient of Pitch (7.15 -0.05 0.

1 (7.1 0.7) 0.15 -0.Mach 2.05 0.-7) 208 .1 (-7.-7) -0.05 0 0.05 -0.15 -0.05 Coefficient of Yaw 0 -0.1 -0.15 Coefficient of Pitch (7.6 0.15 (-7.7) 0.

P (kPa) 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 Voltage.7726x . V (mV) 150 200 y = 0. V (mV) 150 200 y = 0.749 R² = 0.013 R² = 0. V (mV) 150 200 y = 0.522 R² = 0.9999 209 .7666x .14. P (kPa) 60 40 20 0 -20 0 50 100 Voltage.30.31.9999 Channel 4 100 Pressure.30.7726x .7 Appendix F– Pressure Calibration graphical results Channel 2 100 80 Pressure.9999 Channel 3 100 Pressure. P (kPa) 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 Voltage.

006 R² = 0.9998 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Voltage.9857 Voltage. P (kPa) -20 0 -40 -60 -80 -100 Voltage.1218x + 3.95 R² = 0.Channel 5 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 Pressure.9992 80 100 120 210 . V (mV) 20 40 60 y = 2. V (mV) Channel 6 100 Pressure. P (kPa) y = 0.5272x . V (mV) Channel 7 20 0 Pressure.261.5947 R² = 0.31.772x . P (kPa) 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 y = 0.

8.1 Freescale MPX5700AP 211 .14.8 Appendix G– Transducer Data Sheets 14.

212 .

213 .

214 .

215 .

216 .

2% Full Scale for 3 PSI to 10 PSI Pressure Ranges: 3 PSI to 5. Standard and custom options available for OEM 217 . absolute.5% Full Scale for 75 PSI to 5000 PSI o +/.2 SSI Technology P51-300-G-A-I36-4.30V input) Temperature Range: -40° to 105° C C Maximum Flexibility: Custom ASIC provides signal conditioning for calibration and temperature compensation. sealed and gage pressure sensors are for both harsh and benign media with superior accuracy over an operating temperature of -40° to 105° C C.1% Full Scale for 15 PSI to 60 PSI o +/.5 Volt output (with 5V input) o 0.14.0.30V input) o 4 – 20 mA output (with 8 .8.5 – 4. industrial and co m me rci al ap plic ati on s.000 PSI Electronics: o 0.000 PSI and are well suited for a variety of automotive.5 – 4.5OV-R SSI Technologies – Application Note PS-AN2 Pro du ct De scr ipti on The MediaSensor™ (P51) family of bulk micro-machined. robust sensors measure pressures from 3 PSI to 5. Product Features Superb Accuracy: o +/. These compact.5 Volt output with overvoltage protection (with 5V input) o 1-5 Volt non output (with 8 .

Page 1 200. 25. 200. 2000. 400. 200. 30. Flow. 3000 and 5000 PSIS Absolute: 15. Fuel Cells. 1000. Agriculture. 150. Spraying Systems. 100. 300. 130. 2000. 750. 75. 750. 5. 120. Hydrogen Storage Call us at 1. Robust Package: All laser-welded stainless steel design for optimal media isolation in compact size Chemical Compatibilities: Any gas or liquid compa Typical Applications: Refrigeration. Pumps. 30. 500. Robotics. 100. 1000. Hydraulics. 500. 50. Pneumatics. and 3000 PSIA Measurement Technology In general. Compressors.10.com SSI TECHNOLOGIES. INC. pressure measurement technology 218 .4320 or visi t our Website: http://ssitechnologies. 300. Process Control. 1500. WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www.com Standard Full Scale Pressure Ranges Gage: 3.ssitechnologies. 15. Court Street Janesville. 225. 65. Controls Division 2643 W. 150. 100. 50. 1500. 250. 75.q u a n t i t i e s Excellent price/performance ratio MediaSensor™ Family of Pressure Sensors with integrated signal conditioning Compact.888 477. 60. 250 and 300 PSIG Sealed: 50.

Gauge MediaSensors™ are calibrated to have 0. One leg of the bridge measures the input pressures port. The MediaSensor™ family of pressure transducers and transmitters use piezoresistive technology for its sensor signal processing to measure pressure. The MediaSensor™ takes the two voltage output ports of the Wheatstone bridge and amplifies Sealed th 1) 0.5 Vdc. The MediaSensor™ family comes in a choice of three pressure sensing type conventions: sealed). 1 Vdc. MediaSensors™ are calibrated to have 0. When pressure is applied. the resistivity of the strain gauges changes proportional to the pressure applied.5 Vdc. Controls Division 2643 W. The other leg of the bridge is connected to the reference port the input pressure port is compared to.5 Volt ratiometric output (transducer) 2) 0. or 4 mA respectively at 0 P S I A . WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www. A micro-machined stainless steel convoluted diaphragm with a silicon crystal semiconductor is used. Court Street Janesville. 2009 SSI Technologies Inc. Gauge MediaSensors™ measure pressure relative to ambient room vented (open) pressure through a port that is to the atmosphere.5 PSI absolute. location or other ambient conditions such as weather. or 4 mA respectively at 0 PSIG. INC. Sealed MediaSensors™ are calibrated to 14. or 4 mA respectively at 14.5 – 4.translates force from an induced pressure into an electrical quantity. Strain gauges (resistive elements) in the silicon crystal are used in a Wheatstone Bridge circuit.5Vdc.5 – 4. Absolute MediaSensors™ are calibrated to have 0. Sealed MediaSensors™ measure pressure relative to a port that is connected to a sealed perfect vacuum chamber. There are two different gauge pressure conventions – Vented Gauge and Sealed Gauge. absolute. 1 Vdc. 1 Vdc. The connection to this reference port determines the pressure sensing convention used.ssitechnologies.5 PSIA. All Rights Reserved Revision 3 219 . gauge (vented or Absolute MediaSensors™ measure pressure relative to perfect Vacuum pressure (0 PSI) which remains unchanged regardless of temperature.com Pa ge 2 Copyright January 12.5 V ratiometric output with Overvoltage protection (transducer) 3) 1 – 5 volt output (transducer) 4) 4 – 20 mA output (transmitters) SSI TECHNOLOGIES. Since a single silicon crystal is used it has a low mechanical hysteresis with good linearity.

RoHS 220 .

which can sometimes crack under severe cold transient environments.Ratiometric outputs vary as a ratio of the supply voltage. however an offset voltage (due to resistance differences) may still exist. The span will shift with temperature to a final stabilized value as it warms up. Controls Division 2643 W. The MediaSensor™ pressure transducer uses an additional 316L stainless steel convoluted diaphragm with a protective non-silicone oil to protect the sensitive silicon sensing element from the harsh media and environmental conditions. The 316L stainless steel diaphragm not only provides for optimal water and chemical media isolation for the silicon crystal sensing element but can handle cold temperature transients without sustaining damage. There is virtually no error MediaSensor™ Features All to Compensations the compensation circuitry is internal the MediaSensor™ pressure transducer.com 221 . 2) Span Calibration The resistance of silicon gauges is temperature dependent.ssitechnologies. Silicon is a brittle crystalline material. SSI TECHNOLOGIES. INC. No external from voltage drop introduced from the wire compensation modules are needed. During manufacturing the Wheatstone Bridge to electromag resistive elements are closely matched and compensated. SSI MediaSensor™ compensates for this offset over operating temperature range (refer to Table 1). resistance when sending the signal as a current. Transmitters are very suitable in applications that use long cables. WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www. They are also less sensitive 1) Zero balancing (Null Offset) Calibration Some piezoresistive pressure transducers use only an unprotected silicon sensing element. SSI MediaSensor™ compensates for this span variation over operating temperature range. the oil does not gel and acts as a buffer for the silicon sensing element from the extreme temperature transients found in certain applications such as refrigeration. Under cold transient conditions and within our operating temperature range. Court Street Janesville.

2009 SSI Technologies Inc. All Rights Reserved Revision 3 RoHS 222 .Copyright January 12.

Connect the Return Lead (White) to the + terminal of the current measuring device Connect the – terminal of the current measuring device to the – terminal of the supply voltage. INC. 2) Connect the Ground Lead (Black) and the – terminal of the supply voltage to – input of your equipment. 3) voltage measurement Connect the Vout Lead (White) to the + input of your voltage measurement equipment. U.F. Court Street Janesville.U.Typical Connections MediaSensor™ 4 -20mA Output connections: The following torque limits should be used when mounting the MediaSensor™ pressure port. 2) Straight Thread w/O-Ring: High Pressure PSI) All others with out Port types T. Y NPTF Thread: 120 in lb 2 T. SSI TECHNOLOGIES. 1) Connect the Power Lead (Red) to the + terminal of the supply voltage. (Turns From Finger Tight) 150 in lb (> 750 Recommended Torque 300 in lb 3) MediaSensor™ Voltage Output connections: 1) Connect the Power Lead (Red) to the + terminal of the supply voltage. Y Parts with Ports T. WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www.F. Controls Division 2643 W.T.com 223 .ssitechnologies.

All Rights Reserved Revision 3 RoHS 224 .Copyright January 12. 2009 SSI Technologies Inc.

Deutsch. 12”.5 to 4. 24”.Return Integral Harness Transmitter (4 to 20 mA) Wire Color Red Powe r White Vout Black Grou nd Integral Harness Transducer(1 to 5 Vdc or 0. SSI will work with the customer to meet their needs with custom options for large volumes orders. 36” and 72”). and increased accuracy). special pressure ranges. In addition. special fittings & connectors. The Harness can be constructed of either PVC Jacketed 18 or 24 AWG Wire. (I. M12 and Mini DIN)..P a c k a g i n g MediaSensor™ is readily available in a large selection of standard packaging options.5Vdc) W i r e C o l o r 225 . operating temperature. MediaSensor ™ offers an integral harness with 6 standard lengths and four standard readily available connectors (Packard.e. 18”.Power White .. Red . Integral Harness (Standard lengths of 6”.

INC.ssitechnologies. Controls Division 2643 W. All Rights Reserved Revision 3 RoHS 226 . 2009 SSI Technologies Inc.SSI TECHNOLOGIES. Court Street Janesville. WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www.com Pa ge 5 Copyright January 12.

5Vdc) SSI TECHNOLOGIES. INC. Court Street Janesville.com 6 Copyright January 12. 2009 SSI Technologies Inc.Vout Packard Connector Transmitter (4 to 20 mA) Packard Connector Transducer (1 to 5 Vdc or 0.5 to 4.Standard Connector Options Pin 1 .Return Pin 1 .Ground 3 . WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 www.Power 2 .Ground 3 .Not Used 3 .Not Used 3 .Power 2 .5 to 4.Return Pin 1 . All Rights Reserved Revision 3 227 . Controls Division 2643 W.5Vdc) Pin 1 .ssitechnologies.Vout Deutsch Connector Transmitter (4 to 20 mA) Deutsch Connector Transducer (1 to 5 Vdc or 0.Power 2 .Power 2 .

RoHS 228 .

WI 53548-5011 Phone: (608)758-1500 Fax: (608) 758-2491 229 .SSI Pin 1 .Power 2 .Ground 3 – Vout 4 – Not Used M12 Connector Transmitter (4 to 20 mA) M12 Connector Transducer (1 to 5 Vdc or 0.ssitechnologies.5Vdc) Pin 1 . Controls Division 2643 W.Return 3 – Not Used 4 – Not Used Pin 1 .Vout 3 – Ground 4 – Not Used DIN 43650 Transmitter Connector DIN 43650 Transducer Connector www.Return 3 – Not Used 4 – Not Used Pin 1 .Power 2 .com SSI TECHNOLOGIES.5 to 4.Power 2 .Power 2 . INC. Court Street Janesville.

All Rights Reserved Revision 3 RoHS 230 .Copyright January 12. 2009 SSI Technologies Inc.

ssitechnologies.4774320 Last saved on 29 October 2010 Distribution: PUBLIC Page 231 of 263 .com for a more information and a listing of all the series of pressure sensors in the MediaSensor™ family or call SSI toll-free at 1.888.Standard Packaging Options Integral Harness with 22mm Hex 5/8” Hex Harness Construction: PVC Jacketed 18 or 24 AWG Wire Integral Harness with Please visit our website at http://www.

.9 Appendix H– Payload Description. The following file was what was sent. It was used so they could see what our payload was and what it did.14. The following is the payload description that was sent to ASRI as a prelaunch briefing. It is based off the ASRI payload guide as seen in Appendix C.

Version 1.0 AIR DATA SYSTEM Payload description.APPENDIX D PAYLOAD INFORMATION DOCUMENT TEMPLATE ASRI-SSRP-PUG-Appendix-D-2008. Preparation and Launch procedures For launch in 10/10 prepared by Surname WILCOX PALMER Given names Daniel Jordan Organisation UQ UQ Address Phone number .doc Save as ASRI-SSRP-PUG-Appendix-D-Air Data System.

The conical nose piece will be made out of low carbon steel. as well as act as the nose cone for the Zuni Rocket. Description of Air Data System: The purpose of the payload is to determine the flight characteristics of the Zuni rocket. The payload will continue recording until the memory in the Data Acquisition Module is full (approx 10 seconds). From this. 1 measuring the pressure at the tip. With no moving parts. The following diagram shows the Conical Nose Piece. The design is very simple. This will be achieved via a trip wire which will be pulled at launch. with the other 4 measuring the pressure along the sides of the cone. or computer controlled systems. Payload subsystems • • Conical Nose Piece Data Acquisition Module Description of Conical Nose Piece: The Conical Nose Piece is designed to house the pressure transducers used. These will be soldered into an electrical board that is bolted onto the inside of the cone. Introduction This document lists the components and sets out the procedures to be followed and identifies the hazards during the launch of the Air Data System test flight.4kg.LE William UQ List of contact details of all individuals that have any management or executive involvement in this particular project. due to the weight requirements set by ASRI. pitch and roll angles as well as the speed of the Zuni Rocket. There are five pressure transducers located inside the cone. with a weight of approx 10. The payload will replace the nose cone provided on the Zuni rocket with a similar nose cone which houses five pressure transducers to measure the pressure around the cone. . The payload will start recording data from the moment the rocket is launched. with the transducers connected to the outside via plastic and copper tubing. From this we can accurately determine the yaw. we can determine a trajectory and flight pattern of the rocket which can be potentially used for future projects where this data is important. It covers the duties and procedures to be followed to ensure the safety and health of ASRI personnel involved with the launch and other personnel that might be involved with the launch procedure. There are 2 9V batteries located in the Data Acquisition Module that provide the power to the system.

.

held securely in the base of the module. The housing is made of aluminium. . There is a trip wire attached to the module that will be pulled at launch to start the recording of data. and weighs approximately 1kg total. The module being used is the same module that has flown previously on Zuni Rocket flights to record data.Description of the Data Acquisition Module: The Data Acquisition Module is used to record the data received by the pressure transducers. The dimensions of the Data Acquisition Module has an outer diameter of 127mm and a height of about 110mm. The Data Acquisition Module is powered by two 9V batteries. The Data Acquisition Module is to be bolted into an existing payload casing using 6 M3 bolts. The following diagram shows The Data Acquisition Module.

4 kg Protrusions Does the payload have any protrusions? No .The Full Assembly of the System is shown below: Payload weight The payload weighs: 11.

Figure 14-1 Payload protrusions diagram Living material Does the payload contain any living material? If yes is ethical clearance documentation attached? No No Explosive material Does the payload contain any explosive material? If yes is appropriate clearance documentation attached? No No Flammable material Does the payload contain any flammable material? If yes is appropriate clearance documentation attached? No No Chemical material Does the payload contain any chemical material? If yes is appropriate clearance documentation attached? No No .

This copper tubing will be glued into position with a strong adhesive.Other hazardous material Does the payload contain any other hazardous material? If yes is appropriate clearance documentation attached? No No Calculated Coefficient of Drag Coefficient of drag must be calculated to assist in recovery calculations for parachute deployment of your payload. (WARNING: The pressure transducers will not be connected to the flexible hosing at this time so. Assembly Before the payload is transported to the launch site. The stripboard design and the required wiring will be completed before transporting the payload to the launch site. Calculated Coefficient of Drag…~ 0. the nose cone and the data acquisition will be assembled such that the pre-launch preparation stage is minimal. Payload subsystem 2: Data Acquisition Module. the transducers will be connected to the surface of the nose cone via a flexible hose and rigid copper tubing. The flexible hosing will be sleeved onto the copper tubing and clamped into place. The pressure transducers will be positioned inside the internal cavity of the nose cone. Furthermore. They will be arranged on a strip board and soldered into place. It will remain attached to copper tubing (and therefore the nosecone) for the remainder of the project. the support backing plate which will take the loads such that the strip board does not fracture during the flight will be manufactured and screwed into place. . The overhang on the surface side of the nose cone will be filed down and shaped such that it sits flush with the natural shape and curvature of the cone. Payload subsystem 1: Conical Nose Piece As stated in the description. the backing plate will need to be removed pre-launch and the hosing attached.32 at Re ≥ 104 Procedures Use warnings where and if required.

Preparation Preparation procedures are carried out inside the bunker at the launch site. other than ensuring that everything is correctly attached after transportation. the washers and nylon separators assembled and the backing plate will be screwed firmly. This requires the backing plate and the strip plate to be unscrewed. Articles required PPE minimum: Hat Long sleeve tops Long pants Covered shoes Gloves (riggers/safety) Eye protection Extra: Screwdriver set Spanner Set or Shifting Spanner 4 x 9V Batteries Power bridge connections Break wire Laptop Hose Tie Payload Subsystem 1: Conical Nose Piece Pre launch. For transportation the DAQ module will be assembled without the batteries. Payload Subsystem 2: Data Acquisition Module Pre launch. There is very little that needs to be done inside the bunker. The strip board will then be put into place. and the electronics components are working correctly. The hosing will be attached and then secured with tubing tie. The DAQ module will undergo a final test to ensure it is functioning . the 9 volt batteries will be installed and the DAQ module will be put inside the DAQ module casing and secured. the amplifier for the central transducer will be installed onto the F-box module and the gain will be set appropriately. Before transportation however. the pressure transducers must be connected to the flexible hosing.The DAQ module is self assembling and not a complicated process.

The LED’s on the I/O board have to also be checked one last time. The signals from the transducers will be held in a buffer but not stored to memory. Also it is important that the central transducer be connected to the correct connection that has the amplifier. At this time. 2.) Finally the nosecone must be screwed into the DAQ module casing with 6 x M5 screws. Photographs will also need to be taken at this point of the payload attached to the Zuni Rocket. with the trip wire attached to a stationary point on the ground to be disconnected at launch. The procedures for the launch pad are minimal. Conical Nose Piece There is nothing that needs to be done with the conical nose piece other than make sure it is securely attached to the Data Acquisition Module and the Payload Tube. The break wire will be inserted during the preparation stages but there will need to be something attached to the break wire before launch to ensure the break wire is removed when the motor is ignited. 210. 1. Measure CG before motor integration. One person must hold the nose cone while the other carefully connects the transducers to the DAQ module. the Data Acquisition Module will be in a state ready to record data (Sampling Mode). At this stage with the break wire attached The following LEDs should be performing the following: . The system needs to be attached and bolted to the rocket. Ensure no sudden jolts of the nose cone are made to reduce the risk of the cables breaking or detaching from the strip board. Data Acquisition Module Before launch. The Data Acquisition Module also needs to have a final check to make sure it is in the correct state for launch. The power connection bridges will be put into the correct positions and the breakwire will be inserted. the pressure transducer connections (attached to transducers inside the nose cone) will be carefully attached to the appropriate connections on the DAQ module.9 mm Pre-launch Pre-launch procedures are carried out on the launch pad.as intended. (WARNING: This will require more than one person. Measure Centre of Gravity from nose tip prior to motor integration for ATM to record on your flight records sheet.

the system needs to be unbolted from the parachute casing and transported from the landing site back to the bunker. Articles required. Pre-launch and Recovery procedures. 3. Jordan Le. The electrical system recording data will have run its course and will be in standby mode at the time of recovery. Daniel Palmer. Recovery Recovery procedures are carried out on the range. 1. Shifting Spanner to disconnect from parachute tube. Name Wilcox. William Required for procedure All Procedures All Procedures Assembly. 2. Remove bolts connecting payload and parachute tube. Pre-Launch Do persons required to be located at the launch site during launch operations have personal liability insurance? No Is a copy of the personal liability insurance attached? No . Preparation. Transport payload back to base Personnel The following personnel if any are involved in the Assembly. Preparation. The recovery of the Payload is very simple. however should not be necessary. The following steps are required for payload recovery 1. Locate the payload 2.• Yellow – Save – Off • Green – Active – Flashes Slowly • Red – Ready – Glows Steadily The Data Acquisition Module is then bolted to the Payload/Parachute Module interface. A screw driver may be needed.

contractors and all Commonwealth. grievances and the like howsoever arising including but not limited to negligence. . demands. 4. and their instrumentalities from all present and future claims. 2. A copy of this disclaimer is included below for your convenience. You hereby release. members. those you are responsible for or your/their property. it’s officers. you covenant agree warrant and represent as follows:1. 5. employees. servants. statute (to the extent capable of limitation) strict liability or otherwise. To the maximum extent legally permissible ASRI shall not bear any responsibility or liability of any nature or form whatsoever to the intent that your attendance for all purposes is a purely private enterprise of your own. 3. discharge and forever hold harmless ASRI.NOTICE: All persons in attendance will have to sign a disclaimer before they are allowed to enter any ASRI facility. tort.READ CAREFULLY In consideration for ASRI permitting you access. You will not seek recourse for anything that might happen to you. liabilities. contract. supporters. WARNING – IMPORTANT LEGAL DISCLAIMER . State and Territory governments. agents. You understand that the activities of Australian Space Research Institute Limited ACN 051 850 563 ("ASRI") are potentially hazardous to you and your property and in attending and/or participating you do so entirely at your own risk voluntarily assumed. You are satisfied as to the adequacy of your own insurance and will rely soley on the same.

leading to a useless flight. leading to a useless flight. DAQ module does not record data. Time before launch 15 minutes Procedure Make sure system is set up correctly. Take photographs for future reference No more procedures need to be conducted. Useless flight. 5 minutes 3 minutes Failure Mode Analysis Failures may occur during pre-launch. launch or flight. Incorrect data recorded or no data recorded at all. No more procedures need to be conducted. useless . All phases prior to launch Mode of Failure DAQ module fault Likely Outcome Data not recorded during flight.Procedures to be conducted during the launch sequence The following procedures are to be conducted in line with the launch sequence as detailed in Table 61 of the Zuni Payload Users' Guide. Pressure Transducer fault Kill switch prematurely disconnected Accidental dropping of payload During Flight Mode of Failure Bolts Shear under stress Pressure Transducers fail Batteries Disconnect from DAQ module Likely Outcome Payload will be destroyed Data is not recorded. useless recordings to begin with. possible flight cancellation. The following section must describe these failure modes and the likely outcomes that may occur. and the DAQ module is ready to record and the trip wire is secure and in place. Payload damage. Data is recorded prematurely.

thus protective footwear should be worn at all times when working with or around the payload and more than one person should be involved in moving the payload. useless flight Risks Analysis General Give a description of the risks that this payload could potentially pose and how the risk can be mitigated to an acceptable level of safety.flight DAQ module fails DAQ module does not record data. Level A Descriptor Almost certain Description The event is expected to occur in most circumstances The event will probably occur in most circumstances The event should occur at some time The event could occur at some time The event may occur only in exceptional circumstances B C D E Likely Moderate Unlikely Rare Table 14-2. Qualitative Measures of Likelihood Level 1 2 Descriptor Catastrophic Major Description Death / Payload destroyed Extensive injuries / Extensive offsite repairs required to payload Medical treatment required off site / remedial offsite repairs required to payload 3 Moderate . 4-2 and 4-3 quantify the risks as in Table 4-4 and enter them into Table 4-5. Risks Referring to Tables 4-1. For example if the payload is heavy then there is a risk that it could be dropped.

Qualitative Measures of Consequences Likelihood Consequences 5 4 S S M L L 3 H S S M M 2 H H H S S 1 H H H H S Legend: H S M L High risk Significant risk Moderate risk Low risk A B C D E S M L L L Table 14-4. Legend Table 14-5. Risk Analysis Matrix .4 Minor First Aid treatment on site / remedial onsite repairs required to payload No injuries / no effect on payload 5 Insignificant Table 14-3.

(D. Environmental Hazards Sunburn A 3 H Ensure that suitable clothing and hats are used at all times.4) L Yes 3. dizziness. Payload is dropped or falls off bench Damage to personnel D 3 M Ensure that a suitable number of personnel are present when moving the payload (E.Risk Analysis Matrix for Air Data System Hazard Description Likelihood Consequence Control Risk Level Residual risk after control Acceptable Event 1.4) L Yes 2.4) L Yes Payload is dropped during handling C 4 Minor damage to the payload. Hazards associated with the serviceability of the payload Payload falls off a bench or table C 4 M Minor damage to the payload.4) L Yes . (D. lasting irritation. thirst. Differing severities Ensure sufficient liquids are consumed. Ensure that suitable payload restraining equipment is used at all times. elevated temperature (D. M Ensure that a suitable number of personnel are present when moving the payload (D. Hazards to personnel caused by payload.4) L Yes Redness of skin. B 3 S Dehydration Headaches.

Table 14-6 Risk analysis matrix .

58 21813.042 1372.0659 -47.0855 1112.8 0 0 119.9 9055.2 2.31 9100.26 4 0 31.6 0.176 170.4 76245.6 1.192 1385.2 0.2 1.4 2.938 6 0 -6.8 76303.97825 21.8 117280 171990 240891 323200 419674 524347 637310 759141 1 0 2172.7 75807 116792 171239 239221 322668 418013 521298 632606 752521 6 0 2130.695 2 0 74.5 42445.624 736.7 42688.439 95.1947 175.8 43442 75567.10 P1 Mach\Yaw 0 0.8 2 2.75 8860.6 APPENDIX I – CFD RESULTS 0 0 2184.9 42368.29 3143.4 1.834 1768.4 42678.5 75418 116392 170601 238122 321527 416225 518523 628891 748432 P2 Mach\Yaw 0 0.2 0.593 535.7 116992 171649 239893 323189 418976 523122 635159 755962 4 0 2154.78 9071.873 2609.8 117047 171855 240247 323073 419364 523975 637005 758381 2 0 2168.59 9004.15 21948.2 42584.84 21638.8399 345.14 21442.46 21547.9005 7.8 1 1.94 8964.462 261.39 1 0 90.9 42208.8 75630 116616 170955 238718 322252 417225 519971 630824 750625 7 0 2115.28365 316.66 533.4 0.79 9034.5 76054.4 0.2 116931 171472 239612 323035 418603 522383 634083 754312 5 0 2143.599 2174.39 5 0 11.915 7 0 -24.1 75994.91 3 0 52.6 0.914 353.92 8916.756 996.9 42663.5 117042 171765 240040 323147 419154 523561 635970 756978 3 0 2162.11 21771.31 21714.158 947.32 21842.902 644.313 .14.5449 416.

8 11774.4 16804.9 13643.73 12546.13 23155.1 32569.1 32180 35696.1 20271.3 16956.9 21141.7 31768.2 26431.1 40077.2 2.5 31421.2 1.23 19058.4 2.53 44018.1 1.2 25297.6 39973.5 24615.1 7030.1 14520.6 31137.3 37868.4 20974.6 25976.5 28664.1 29170.53 39541.2 26003.2 20983 23004.6 18467.8 12898.3 18983.4 29346.5 43684.2 36025 40024 44971.5 23495.9 19547.5 26250.3 24173.73 34227.2 13105.1 8085.5 15753.5 18428.1 .93 56074.1 23611.7 54703.2 48630.81 12420.8 36001.1 10172.9 36090.18 49325.8 32485.1 6324 11078.5 50315.6 44511.33 28529.4 1.8 28621.6 1.7 62470.8 2 2.3 8307.38 11138.7 18304 22162.6 13000.5 28123.

6 25255.7 48927.5 5 0 225.683 852.2 3 0 76.873 2609.35 33841.873 2609.13 23155.52 2986.6 1.6 0.2 2 0 87.75 47159.828 1878.2175 855.55 34220.249 1319.4 0.1 38705.8 2 2.04 6234.85 21389.5 39170.35 16130.9 3 0 170.7 19491.24 2413.6 0.9 5 0 50.05 35848.95 14459.73 34227.38 1 0 92.53 39541.544 741.624 1121.45 23967.2 31152.5449 416.29 3143.8 32953.7 22386.23 19058.62 2572.4 43719.95 22453.2 0.47055 154.15 39411.81 13255 4 0 197.1 7 0 9.2 28229.192 1087.8 27110.63 14935.95 43960.78 13778.16267 76.215 9407.5449 416.892 1626.8755 1067.35 55539.78 4099.648 2140.85 16078.6 44107.2 0.75 32174.488 1211.66 533.5 33515.3085 2276.0855 1112.4 0.18 49325.1 42841 48271.215 10342.8 51578.6 0 0 90.6 53279.15 8729.24 314.4 2.226 7928.4 38055.7 4 0 66.72 507.2 43529.794 849.15 18246.55 22708.98 4610.0855 1112.35 22067.219 400.95 45629.8 40568.35 10132.8 1 1.8 1 0 0 90.40995 423.23 1 0 119.7 49468.378 978.42245 282.95 28071.11 2455.P3 Mach\Yaw 0 0.25 27710.695 12898.65 56074.3 56158.931 698.15 6 0 31.1 29825.935 11688.57 16397 7 0 285.5 26301.03 17383 .68 5132.93 56074.695 12898.2 2.573 635.35 P4 Mach\Yaw 0 0.3 37125.05 15324.97 15434 6 0 255.063 1705.15 16247.55 49314.53 44018.5 2 0 144.05 54541.897 968.4 41896.85 15947.192 1385.2 1.6 16463.51855 248.5035 2026.46325 364.33 28529.65 3600.01 12010.96 2695.65 20573.39 13000.4 1.2 38841.34 5678.65 49448.

3 91644.9 64697.4 41299.7 62470.2 52699.4 100146 28855.53 44018.3 37868.4 2.6 1.7 53632.5 60250.4 1.2 2.4 23752.9 48068.13 23155.9 34299.9 70679.7 86992.9 32229 41760 52321.5 48560.2 44614.1 26389.4 57492.1 83616.1 83708.2 48630.8 2 2.1 73218.18 49325.9 21735 28274 36292.5 30165.6 19058.73 34227.6 31137.9 73048.38 18428.93 56074.2 1.7 36570 47531.2 44861.8 108865 .6 67796 77063.5 60436 69065.4 66553 75994.8 56220.53 39541.1.8 62497.6 59011.8 94561.33 28529.8 20103.9 38976.6 27166.5 25425.5 33695.5 79803.5 43684.5 24615.7 54703.

0855 1112.35 33841.05 54541.P5 Mach\Yaw 0 0.16267 76.95 43960.8 51578.15 19491.2 38841.35 16130.53 39541.7 49468.5449 416.4 1.3085 2276.794 849.05 35848.73 34227.62 2572.24 314.2175 855.1 42841 48271.935 11688.75 32174.85 15947.35 .4 41896.15 8729.40995 423.8 1 1.42245 282.4 43719.85 16078.6 44107.95 28071.219 400.18 49325.2 1.93 56074.3 56158.4 0.2 31152.35 10132.95 45629.55 49314.53 44018.55 34220.9 5 0 50.75 47159.65 56074.25 27710.01 12010.3 37125.8 2 2.45 23967.35 55539.4 2.55 22708.6 16463.873 2609.23 19058.38 1 0 92.5 33515.15 16247.46325 364.931 698.378 978.1 29825.95 22453.35 22067.11 2455.5 26301.72 507.15 39411.51855 248.2 2 0 87.7 48927.7 14.215 10342.6 1.5 39170.4 38055.95 15324.7 22386.5035 2026.8755 1067.249 1319.33 28529.459.15 6 0 31.624 1121.6 0.47055 154.1 38705.65 20573.2 28229.6 0 0 90.65 49448.8 27110.695 12898.2 0.2 43529.05 7 0 9.226 7928.2 2.1 18246.6 53279.8 40568.215 9407.8 32953.2 3 0 76.85 21389.13 23155.6 25255.7 4 0 66.063 1705.

11 APPENDIX J – RAW DATA FOUND ON ELECTRONIC COPY IN EXCEL FILE 14.14.12 14.13 APPENDIX K – APPENDED LIST OF CFD RESULTS APPENDIX L – CALIBRATED DATA FOUND ON ELECTRONIC COPY IN EXCEL FILE FOUND ON ELECTRONIC COPY IN EXCEL FILE .

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