The Human Body Systems

(Zoology Lecture)

Circulatory System – The Circle of Blood
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The circulatory or cardiovascular system is the blood circulation with heart, arteries and veins. It is made up of the vessels and the muscles that help and control the flow of the blood around the body. This process is called circulation. The main parts of the system are the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. As blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and goes into the aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full of oxygen. This is important for the cells in the brain and the body to do their work. The oxygen rich blood travels throughout the body in its system of arteries into the smallest arterioles. On its way back to the heart, the blood travels through a system of veins. As it reaches the lungs, the carbon dioxide (a waste product) is removed from the blood and replace with fresh oxygen that we have inhaled through the lungs. FUNCTIONS OF THE SYSTEM The circulatory system plays an important role in many of the body's processes including respiration, nutrition, and the removal of wastes and poisons. In respiration it delivers oxygen to the body's cells and removes carbon dioxide from them. In nutrition, it carries digested food substances to the cells. Nutrients from food enter the
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Circulatory System – The Circle of Blood

bloodstream by passing through the walls of the small intestine into the capillaries. The blood then carries most of the nutrients to the liver, where some of these are extracted and stored for release back into the blood as and when the body needs them. Other nutrients are converted by the liver into substances which are required in the production of energy, enzymes, and new building materials for the body. Hormones, which affect or control the activities of various organs and tissues, are produced by the endocrine glands – including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and sex glands – and they too are transported by the blood through the body.

TYPES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Open Circulatory System. The Open Circulatory System is a system in which fluid (called hemolymph) in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph. Muscular movements by the animal during locomotion can facilitate hemolymph movement, but diverting flow from one area to another is limited. When the heart relaxes, blood is drawn back toward the heart through openended pores (ostia). Close Circulatory System. The cardiovascular systems of humans are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels. In contrast, oxygen and nutrients diffuse across the blood vessel layers and enters interstitial fluid, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the target cells, and carbon dioxide and wastes in the opposite direction. The other component of the circulatory system, the lymphatic system, is not closed. The heart is located more towards the left side of the body because it is accompanying the lungs. MAIN COMPONENTS Blood Vessels. There are three major types of blood vessels: arteries that carry blood from the heart; veins that return blood to the heart; and capillaries – extremely tiny vessels connecting the arteries and the veins. When blood is pumped out of the heart into the arteries it is forced out at high pressure by contractions of the muscular ventricles. Arteries therefore require strong walls to

withstand the pressure of the blood flowing through them. They have elastic tissue in their walls that can stretch and recoil with the force of the blood. Artery walls also contain muscle and this determines the amount of blood that can flow through them, and the blood pressure. Heart. The heart is actually two separate pumps. The left side pumps blood to the body (systemic circulation) and the right side pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation). Each side has an atrium and a ventricle. They do not work on their own, but together as a team. The body's blood is circulated through the heart more than 1,000 times per day. Between five and six thousand quarts of blood are pumped each day. Your heart is about the same size as your fist.

The job of the heart is to pump blood around your body. Its muscles contract and squeeze out blood. The lefthand side pumps blood from the lungs to the rest of your body. The right-hand side pumps stale blood from your body back to your lungs for a fresh supply of oxygen. Blood. Blood is thicker than water and has a little bit salty taste. In an adults body there is 10.6 pints of blood

Circulatory System – The Circle of Blood
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circulating around. In their blood there is billions of living blood cells floating in a liquid called plasma. If you took a small sample of this blood and poured it into a test tube and then put it in a machine called a centrifuge, you would be able to see the layers of this blood. This machine spins the blood around so fast that it separates the red blood cells, from the white blood cells, from the platelets. The red blood cells sink to the bottom because they are the heavier, more solid parts, but the plasma remains at the top because it is lighter. The plasma is 95% water and the other 5% is made up of dissolved substances including salts.

In addition to feeding and nourishing the body, the circulatory system also helps to dispose of waste products and poisons which would prove harmful if allowed to accumulate. Carbon dioxide, produced by the body's cells as they respire, diffuses through the walls of the capillaries into the blood. The blood containing carbon dioxide is returned via the heart to the lungs and passed out of the body on expiration. In processing food, the liver removes ammonia and other wastes, together with various poisons that enter the body through the digestive system. These are converted into water-soluble substances, which are carried by the blood to the kidneys. The kidneys then filter out these wastes and expel them from the body in urine. TEMPERATURE CONTROL As well as the heat produced generally by cells during respiration, some parts of the body, such as the liver and muscles, produce heat in the course of their activities. This heat is transported by the blood to warm other parts of the body. As the temperature of the body rises, the flow of blood into vessels in the skin increases as a result of small arteries expanding, and excess heat is conveyed to the surface where it is lost. When the temperature of the body drops the flow of blood to the skin is restricted. Thus, the circulatory system acts as a natural thermostat allowing the body to maintain an optimum and stable temperature.

Human blood has two parts, liquid (plasma) and cells. Plasma contains dissolved gasses, nutrients, wastes, salts, and proteins. Cells are red blood cells which are biconcave disks filled with hemoglobin and continuously produced in the red marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, and ends of the long bones; and white blood cells or leukocytes are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. WASTE DISPOSAL

Digestive System – The Food Processor
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The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes food. In order to use the food we eat, our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules that it can process; it also has to excrete waste. Most of the digestive organs (like the stomach and intestines) are tube-like and contain the food as it makes its way through the body. The digestive system is essentially a long, twisting tube that runs from the mouth to the anus, plus a few other organs (like the liver and pancreas) that produce or store digestive chemicals. system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS The start of the process: the mouth. The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes (these enzymes are produced by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules). On the way to the stomach: the esophagus. After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. This muscle movement gives us the

ability to eat or drink even when we're upside-down. In the stomach. The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that churns the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme. In the small intestine. After being in the stomach, food enters the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. It then enters the jejunum and then the ileum (the final part of the small intestine). In

the small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.
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In the large intestine. After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are

Digestive System – The Food Processor
removed from the food. Many microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the large intestine help in the digestion process. The first part of the large intestine is called the cecum (the appendix is connected to the cecum). Food then travels upward in the ascending colon. The food travels across the abdomen in the transverse colon, goes back down the other side of the body in the descending colon, and then through the sigmoid colon. The end of the process. Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM GLOSSARY Anus. The opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the body. Appendix. A small sac located on the cecum. Ascending colon. The part of the large intestine that run upwards; it is located after the cecum. Bile. A digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine. Cecum. The first part of the large intestine; the appendix is connected to the cecum. Chyme. Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. Chyme goes on to the small intestine for further digestion. Descending colon. The part of the large intestine that run downwards after the transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon. Duodenum. The first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum. Epiglottis. The flap at the back of the tongue that keeps chewed food from going down the windpipe to the lungs. When you swallow, the epiglottis automatically closes. When you breathe, the epiglottis opens so that air can go in and out of the windpipe. Esophagus. The long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. Gall bladder. A small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine. Ileum. The last part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins. Jejunum. The long, coiled mid-section of the small intestine; it is between the duodenum and the ileum. Liver. A large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which

breaks down fats) and some blood proteins. Mouth. The first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food). Pancreas. An enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the
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intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine. Peristalsis. Rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down.

Digestive System – The Food Processor
Rectum. The lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are excreted. Salivary glands. Glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules. Sigmoid colon. The part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum. Stomach. A sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes. Transverse colon. The part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen.

Endocrine System – The Communicator
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Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, it influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes. In general, the endocrine system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system. But even though the nervous system and endocrine system are separate systems, they often work together to help the body function properly. The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Many different hormones move through the bloodstream, but each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells.

MAJOR GLANDS A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system include the: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal glands, pineal body, and reproductive glands (which include the ovaries and testes). Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the

brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. Pituitary. Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary (pronounced: puhtoo-uh-ter-ee) gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland"
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because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. The production and secretion of pituitary hormones can be influenced by factors such as emotions and changes in the seasons. To accomplish this, the hypothalamus provides information sensed by the brain (such as environmental temperature, light exposure patterns, and feelings) to the pituitary. The tiny pituitary is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the

Endocrine System – The Communicator
posterior lobe. The ANTERIOR LOBE regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. The anterior lobe produces hormones such as: Growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals; Prolactin, which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding; Thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones; Corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones. The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. In addition, the pituitary secretes hormones that signal the reproductive organs to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women. The POSTERIOR LOBE of the pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone, which helps control the balance of water in the body. The posterior lobe also produces oxytocin, which triggers the contractions of the uterus in a woman having a baby. Thyroid. The thyroid, located in the front part of the lower neck, is shaped like a bow tie or butterfly and produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. The production and release of thyroid hormones is controlled by thyrotropin, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. The more thyroid hormone there is in a person's bloodstream, the faster chemical reactions occur in the body. Parathyroids. Attached to the thyroid are four tiny glands that function together called the parathyroids. They release parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin, which is produced in the thyroid. Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function: The OUTER PART, the

adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the
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body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The

Endocrine System – The Communicator
INNER PART, the adrenal medulla, produces catecholamines, such as epinephrine. Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress. Pineal. The pineal body, also called the pineal gland, is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate when you sleep at night and when you wake in the morning. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in the regulation of a girl's menstrual cycle. These hormones also play a role in pregnancy. The pancreas is also part of the body's hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it produces and secretes digestive enzymes. The pancreas produces two important hormones, insulin and glucagon. They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy.

Reproductive Glands. The GONADS are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone.

Excretory System – The Waste-Eliminator
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The urinary system is made-up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The nephron, an evolutionary modification of the nephridium, is the kidney's functional unit. Waste is filtered from the blood and collected as urine in each kidney. Urine leaves the kidneys by ureters, and collects in the bladder. The bladder can distend to store urine that eventually leaves through the urethra. Excretion is the removal of the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes that are removed include carbon dioxide, water, salt, urea and uric acid. All excreted wastes travel at some time in the blood. Nephron. The nephron consists of a cup-shaped capsule containing capillaries and the glomerulus, and a long renal tube. Blood flows into the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into capillaries associated with the glomerulus. Arterial pressure causes water and solutes from the blood to filter into the capsule. Fluid flows through the proximal tubule, which include the loop of Henle, and then into the distal tubule. The distal tubule empties into a collecting duct. Fluids and solutes are returned to the capillaries that surround the nephron tubule. There are several components of Nephron, these are: Glomerulus, mechanically filters blood;

Bowman's Capsule, mechanically filters blood; Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Reabsorbs 75% of the water, salts, glucose, and amino acids; Loop of Henle, Countercurrent exchange, which maintains the concentration gradient; Distal Convoluted Tubule, Tubular secretion of H ions, potassium, and certain drugs. Functions of Nephron. (a) Glomerular filtration of water and solutes from the blood; (b) tubular reabsorption of water and conserved molecules back into the

blood; and (c) tubular secretion of ions and other waste products from

surrounding capillaries into the distal tubule.

Excretory System – The Waste-Eliminator
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Nephrons filter 125 ml of body fluid per minute; filtering the entire body fluid component 16 times each day. In a 24 hour period nephrons produce 180 liters of filtrate, of which 178.5 liters are reabsorbed. The remaining 1.5 liters forms urine. Urine Production. (a) Filtration in the glomerulus and nephron capsule; (b) reabsorption in the proximal tubule; and (c) tubular secretion in the Loop of Henle. Kidney Stones. In some cases, excess wastes crystallize as kidney stones. They grow and can become a painful irritant that may require surgery or ultrasound treatments. Some stones are small enough to be forced into the urethra, others are the size of huge, massive boulders. Infection, environmental toxins such as mercury, and genetic disease can have devastating results by causing disruption of kidney function. Many kidney problems can be treated by dialysis, where a machine acts as a kidney. Kidney transplants are an alternative to dialysis. ORGANS OF EXCRETORY SYSTEM Lungs. Removal of excess carbon dioxide. Liver. Produces urea and uric acid as a by-product of the breakdown of proteins. Skin. Removal of excess water, salt, urea and uric acid.

Urinary System. Kidneys filter the blood to form urine, which is excess water, salt, urea and uric acid. THE URINARY SYSTEM Urine. The first nitrogenous waste to be formed from the breakdown of protein is ammonia, a highly toxic chemical that is quickly converted by the liver to urea and uric acid. These are less toxic than ammonia and are transported in the blood to the kidneys for excretion in urine. Urine consists of excess water, excess salt, urea and uric acid. PARTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Renal Arteries. 2 renal arteries constantly transport blood to the kidneys. Kidneys. 2 kidneys composed of millions of nephrons constantly filter about 170 to 200 litres of blood to produce about 1.5 to 2 litres of urine daily. Renal Veins. 2 renal veins return useful nutrients back into the bloodstream. Ureters. 2 ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Urinary Bladder. The urinary bladder temporarily stores urine until it is released from the body. Urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The outer end of the urethra is controlled by a circular muscle called a sphincter.

Immune System – The Defender
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The human immune system is made up of a number of interdependent cell types which collectively protect the person's body from various parasitic, fungal, bacterial and viral infections, as well as from the growth of tumor cells. The human immune system is made up of a number of interdependent cell types which collectively protect the person's body from various parasitic, fungal, bacterial and viral infections, as well as from the growth of tumor cells. A number of these cell types have specialized functions, are able to kill parasites, engulf bacteria, or kill tumor cells or viral-infected cells. Frequently, these cells are dependent upon the, 'T,' helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions which are more formally referred to as, 'Lymphokines,' 'Cytokines,' or specifically as, 'Interleukins.' An understanding of the T helper subset may assist in comprehension of the root of immune deficiencies, as well as perception of the potential avenues that the human

immune system can be modulated in the case of particular diseases. IMMUNE SYSTEM ORGANS Bone Marrow. Every cell involved in a person's immune system is initially derived from bone marrow. These cells form through a process referred to as, 'Hematopoiesis.' During hematopoiesis bone marrow derived stem cells differentiate into one of two things; either mature cells of the immune system, or precursors of cells which then migrate out of the person's bone marrow, continuing their maturation elsewhere in the body. Bone marrow produces, 'B,' cells, killer cells, immature thymocytes,

and granulocytes, as well as platelets and red blood cells. Thymus. The Thymus' function is to produce mature, 'T,' cells. Immature Tymocytes, also referred to as, 'Prothymocytes,' emerge from the person's bone marrow and move into their thymus. Through a process called,
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'Thymic Education,' these T cells which are beneficial to the person's immune system are spared while T cells that may cause a detrimental autoimmune response are removed. Mature T cells are released into the person's blood stream.

Immune System – The Defender
Spleen. A person's spleen is an immunological filter, filtering their blood. The spleen is comprised of T cells, B cells dendritic cells, macrophages, red blood cells and natural killer cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells not only capture foreign materials called, 'Antigens,' from a person's blood which passes through the spleen, they bring these antigens to the spleen itself from the person's blood stream. A person's body experiences an immune response when the macrophage or dendritic cells present the antigen to appropriate T or B cells. In a person's spleen, B cells are activated and produce great amounts of antibody. The spleen also destroys old red blood cells. Lymph Nodes. A person's lymph nodes work as an immunological filter for their bodily fluid referred to as, 'Lymph.' People have lymph nodes throughout their body. Lymph nodes are made mostly of B cells, T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. A person's lymph nodes drain fluid from the majority of their tissues. Lymph nodes filter out antigens from lymph prior to returning lymph to the person's body for circulation. In a manner much like the spleen, dendritic cells and macrophages that capture antigens present foreign materials to both B and T cells, initiating an immune response. IMMUNE SYSTEM CELLS T Cells. T Lymphocytes are commonly placed into two major subsets which are identifiably different. One of these subsets is the, 'T Helper Subset,' also referred to as the, 'CD4+ T Cell,' which is a coordinator of a person's immune regulation. The primary function of the T helper cell is augmentation of the person's immune responses through secretion of specialized factors which activate additional white blood cells in order to fight off an infection. CD8+ T Cells. CD8+ T Cells are also called T killer/suppressor cells and are important because they are involved in directly killing viral infected cells, specific tumor cells, and sometimes parasites. CD8+ T cells are important because they also down-regulate immune responses. While both types of T cells are found throughout a person's body, they are many times dependent on the lymph nodes and spleen as places where activation happens, yet are also found in other tissues in a person's body, notably the person's lungs, liver, blood and intestinal and reproductive tracts. Natural Killer Cells. Natural killer cells are also called, 'NK Cells,' and are similar to cells from the killer T cell subset. Natural killer cells work as effector cells, killing specific tumors like

lymphomas, melanomas, and viral infected cells such as herpes and cytomegalovirus infected cells. Natural killer cells kill their targets in the person's lymphoid organs; however, these cells which have been activated through secretions from CD4+ T cells will kill viral-infected targets or tumors more efficiently.

B Cells. The primary function of B cells is to produce antibodies in response to foreign proteins such as viruses, bacteria and tumor cells. Antibodies are proteins that specifically first recognize and then bind to one other particular protein which also specifically recognize and bind to one particular protein. The production of antibodies and binding to

Immune System – The Defender
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foreign substances or antigens is often critical as a means of signaling additional cells to engulf and kill, or remove a substance from the person's body. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) Leukocytes or Granulocytes. There is a group of white blood cells which is collectively referred to by medical personnel as, 'Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMN's),' or, 'Granulocytes.' Granulocytes are made of three cell types which are referred to as, 'Eosinophils,' 'Neutrophils,' and, 'Basophils.' The names for them are based on their staining characteristics with specific dyes. The cells are important because they are involved in the removal of parasites and bacteria from a person's body. These cells first engulf foreign bodies and then degrade them by using their powerful enzymes. Macrophages. Macrophages are important due to their function in the regulation of immune responses. Macrophages are many times referred to as, 'scavengers,' or, 'Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC's),' because they both pick up and ingest foreign materials, and then present these antigens to other cells in a person's immune system like B cells and T cells. The process is one of the steps

involved in initiating an immune response. Microphages that have been stimulated show increased levels of, 'Phagocytosis,' and are also secretory. Dendritic Cells. Dendritic cells also originate in a person's bone marrow, working as antigen presenting cells (APC's). Interestingly, dendritic cells are more efficient APC's than macrophages. Dendritic cells are commonly found in the structural compartment of a person's lymphoid organs, such as their spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. These cells can also be found in the person's blood stream, as well as in other tissues in their body. Science believes that these cells capture antigen, or bring it to the person's lymphoid organs, where an immune response is initiated. One of the reasons that scientists know very little about dendritic cells is because they are difficult to isolate; something that is often a prerequisite for studying the functional qualities of exact cell types. Of particular note is a recent finding that dendritic cells bind high amount of HIV and could be a reservoir of virus which is transmitted to CD4+ T cells during and activation event. IMMUNE RESPONSE

The presence of an APC, combined with a T cell or B cell, is required in order for there to be an immune response to a foreign antigen. Should an APC present an antigen on it's cell surface to a B cell, for example, the B cell is signaled to proliferate and produce antibodies. The antibodies then specifically bind to that antigen. If the antibodies bind to antigens on parasites or bacteria, it acts as a signal for macrophages or PMN's to engulf and kill
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them. One addition and important function of antibodies is to start something referred to as a, 'Complement Destruction Cascade.' When antibodies bind to bacteria or cells, serum proteins referred to as, 'Complement,' first bind to immobilized antibodies, and then destroy the bacteria through creating holes in the bacteria. Antibodies may also signal macrophages and natural killer cells to kill bacterial infected cells or viral cells.

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails

The integumentary system, formed by the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands, enwraps the body. It is the most visible organ system and one of the most complex. Diverse in both form and function—from delicate eyelashes to the thick skin of the soles— the integumentary system protects the body from the outside world and its many harmful substances. It utilizes the Sun's rays while at the same time shielding the body from their damaging effects. In addition, the system helps to regulate body temperature, serves as a minor excretory organ, and makes the
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inner body aware of its outer environment through sensory receptors. Skin. Although the skin is not often thought of as an organ, such as the heart or liver, medically it is. An organ is any part of the body formed of two or more tissues that performs a specialized function. As an organ, the skin is the largest and heaviest in the body. In an average adult, the skin covers about 21.5 square feet (2 square meters) and accounts for approximately 7 percent of body weight, or about 11 pounds (5 kilograms) in a 160-pound (73-kilogram) person. It ranges in thickness from 0.04

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails
to 0.08 inches (1 to 2 millimeters), but can measure up to 0.2 inches (6 millimeters) thick on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The skin in these areas is referred to as thick skin (skin elsewhere on the body is called thin skin). PARTS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Apocrine sweat glands, sweat glands located primarily in the armpit and genital areas. Arrector pili muscle, smooth muscle attached to a hair follicle that, when stimulated, pulls on the follicle, causing the hair shaft to stand upright. Dermal papillae, finger-like projections extending upward from the dermis containing blood capillaries, which provide nutrients for the lower layer of the epidermis; also form the characteristic ridges on the skin surface of the hands (fingerprints) and feet. Dermi , thick, inner layer of the skin. Eccrine sweat glands, body's most numerous sweat glands, which produce watery sweat to maintain normal body temperature. Epidermis, thin, outer layer of the skin. Epithelial tissue, tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body and also forms glandular organs. Integument, in animals and plants, any natural outer covering, such as skin, shell, membrane, or husk. Keratin, tough, fibrous, water-resistant protein that forms the outer layers of hair, calluses, and nails and coats the surface of the skin. Lunula, white, crescent-shaped area of the nail bed near the nail root. Melanocyte, cell found in the lower epidermis that produces the protein pigment melanin. Organ, any part of the body formed of two or more tissues that performs a specialized function. Sebaceous gland, exocrine gland in the dermis that produces sebum. Sebum, mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells secreted by sebaceous glands.

Squamous cells, cells that are flat and scalelike. Subcutaneous, tissues between the dermis and the muscles. FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. The skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts as the body’s first line of defense against infection, temperature change, and other

challenges to homeostasis. Functions include: a. Protect the body’s internal living tissues and organs b. Protect against invasion by infectious organisms c. Protect the body from dehydration d. Protect the body against abrupt changes in temperature e. Help excrete waste materials through perspiration f. Act as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold g. Protect the body against sunburns h. Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light i. Participate in temperature regulation

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails
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TWO PRINCIPAL LAYERS OF THE SKIN The skin has two principal layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the thin, outer layer, and the dermis is the thicker, inner layer. Beneath the dermis lies the subcutaneous layer or hypodermis, which is composed of adipose or fatty tissue. Although not technically part of the skin, it does anchor the skin to the underlying muscles. It also contains the major blood vessels that supply the dermis and houses many white blood cells, which destroy foreign invaders that have entered the body through breaks in the skin. Epidermis. The epidermis is made of stratified squamous epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissue covers the internal and external surfaces of the body and also forms glandular organs. Squamous cells are thin and flat like fish scales. Stratified simply means having two or more layers. In short, the epidermis is

composed of many layers of thin, flattened cells that fit closely together and are able to withstand a good deal of abuse or friction. The epidermis can be divided into four or five layers. Most important of these are the inner and outer layers. The inner or deepest cell layer is the only layer of the epidermis that receives nutrients (from the underlying dermis). The cells of this layer, called basal cells, are constantly dividing and creating new cells daily, which push the older cells toward the surface. Basal cells produce keratin, an extremely durable and waterresistant fibrous protein. Another type of cell found in the lower epidermis is the melanocyte. Melanocytes produce melanin, a protein pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black. The amount of melanin produced determines skin color, which is a hereditary characteristic. The

melanocytes of dark-skinned individuals continuously produce large amounts of melanin. Those of light-skinned individuals produce less. Freckles are the result of melanin clumping in one spot. The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of about twenty to thirty rows of tightly joined flat dead cells. All that is left in these cells is their keratin, which makes this outer layer waterproof. It takes roughly fourteen days for cells to move from the inner layer of the epidermis to the outer layer. Once part of the outer layer, the dead cells remain for another fourteen days or so before flaking off slowly and steadily. Dermis. The dermis, the second layer of skin, lies between the epidermis and the subcutaneous layer. Much thicker than
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the epidermis, the dermis contains the accessory skin structures. Hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands are all rooted in the dermis. This layer also contains blood vessels and nerve fibers. Nourished by the blood and oxygen provided by these blood vessels, the cells of the dermis are alive. Connective tissue forms the dermis. Bundles of elastic and collagen (tough fibrous protein) fibers blend into the connective tissue. These fibers provide the dermis strength and flexibility. The upper layer of the dermis has fingerlike projections that extend into the epidermis. Called dermal papillae, they contain blood capillaries that provide nutrients for the basal cells in

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails
the epidermis. On the skin surface of the hands and feet, especially on the tips of the fingers, thumbs, and toes, the dermal papillae form looped and whorled ridges. These print patterns, known as fingerprints or toeprints, increase the gripping ability of the hands and feet. Genetically determined, the patterns are unique to every individual. Fingerprints (the pattern of ridges on an individual's fingertips and thumbs formed by dermal papillae) are unique to each individual and the patterns never change. People have long known about the distinctiveness of fingerprints, but their use in identifying people did not arise until the nineteenth century. It is generally acknowledged that English scientist Francis Galton (1822– 1911) was the first person to devise a system of fingerprint identification. In the 1880s, Galton obtained the first extensive collection of fingerprints for his studies on heredity. He also established a bureau for the registration of civilians by means of fingerprints and measurements. Galton's ideas were further developed by fellow Englishman Edward R. Henry (1850–1931). In the 1890s, Henry developed a more simplified fingerprint classification system. In 1901, he established England's first fingerprint bureau, called the Fingerprint Branch, within the Scotland Yard police force. Henry's system is still used today in Great Britain and the United States. Within the dermis are sensory receptors for the senses of touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain. A specific type of receptor exists for each sensation. For pain, the receptors are free nerve endings. For the other sensations, the receptors are encapsulated nerve endings, meaning they have a cellular structure around their endings. The

number and type of sensory receptors present in a particular area of skin determines how sensitive that area is to a particular sensation. For example, fingertips have many touch receptors and are quite sensitive. The skin of the upper arm is less sensitive because it has very few touch receptors. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES The accessory structures of the integumentary system include hair, nails, and sweat and sebaceous glands. Hair. Roughly 5 million hairs cover the body of an average individual. About 100,000 of those hairs appear on the scalp. Almost every part of the body is covered by hair, except the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the sides of the fingers and toes, the lips, and certain parts of the outer genital organs.
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Each hair originates from a tiny tubelike structure called a hair follicle that extends deep into the dermis layer. Often, the follicle will project into the subcutaneous layer. Capillaries and nerves attach to the base of the follicle, providing nutrients and sensory information. Inside the base of the follicle, epithelial cells grow and divide, forming the hair bulb or enlarged hair base. Keratin, the primary component in these epithelial cells, coats and stiffens the hair as it grows upward through the follicle. The part of the hair enclosed in the follicle is called the hair root. Once the hair projects from the scalp or skin, it is called a hair shaft. The older epithelial cells forming the hair root and hair shaft die as they

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails
are pushed upward from the nutrient-rich follicle base by newly formed cells. Like the upper layers of the epidermis, the hair shaft is made of dead material, almost entirely protein. The hair shaft is divided into two layers: the cuticle or outer layer consists of a single layer of flat, overlapping cells; the cortex or inner layer is made mostly of keratin. Hair shafts differ in size, shape, and color. In the eyebrows, they are short and stiff, but on the scalp they are longer and more flexible. Elsewhere on the body they are nearly invisible. Ovalshaped hair shafts produce wavy hair. Flat or ribbonlike hair shafts produce kinky or curly hair. Perfectly round hair shafts produce straight hair. The different types of melanin—yellow, rust, brown, and black—produced by melanocytes at the follicle base combine to create the many varieties of hair color, from the palest blonde to the richest black. With age, the production of melanin decreases, and hair color turns gray. Attached to each hair follicle is a ribbon of smooth muscle called an arrector pili muscle. When stimulated, the muscle contracts and pulls on the follicle, causing the hair shaft to stand upright. Nails. Nails in humans correspond to the hooves of horses and cattle and the claws of birds and reptiles. Found on the ends of fingers and toes, nails are produced by nail follicles just as hair is produced by hair follicles. The nail root is that portion of the nail embedded in the skin, lying very near the bone of the fingertip. Here, cells produce a stronger form of keratin than is found in hair. As

new cells are formed, older cells are pushed forward, forming the nail body or the visible attached portion of the nail. The free edge is that portion of the nail that extends over the tip of the finger or toe. Healthy fingernails grow about 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) per week, slightly faster than toenails. The nail body is made of dead cells, but the nail bed (the tissue underneath the nail body) is alive. The blood vessels running through the nail bed give the otherwise transparent nail body a pink color. Near the nail root, however, these blood vessels are obscured. The resulting white crescent is called the lunula (from the Latin word luna , meaning "moon"). Sweat Glands. More than 2.5 million sweat glands are distributed over most surfaces of the human body. They are divided into two types: eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands.
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Eccrine glands, the more numerous of the two types, are found all over the body. They are especially numerous on the forehead, upper lip, palms, and soles. The glands are simply coiled tubes that originate in the dermis. A duct extends from the gland to the skin's surface, where it opens into a pore. Eccrine glands produce sweat or perspiration, a clear secretion that is 99 percent water. Some salts, traces of waste materials such as urea, and vitamin C form the remainder (the salts give sweat its characteristic salty taste). Sebaceous Gland. Sebaceous glands, also known as oil glands, are found in the dermis all over the body, except for the palms and soles. They secrete sebum, a mixture of lipids (fats), proteins, and fragments of dead fatproducing cells. The function of sebum is to prevent the drying of skin and hair. It also contains chemicals that kill bacteria present on

Integumentary System – Skin, Hair & Nails
the skin surface. While most sebaceous glands secrete sebum through ducts into hair follicles, some secrete sebum directly onto the surface of the skin. Arrector pili muscles, which contract to elevate hairs, also squeeze sebaceous glands, forcing out sebum.

Muscular System –
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Movement using Muscles

The muscular system is the body's network of tissues that controls movement both of the body and within it. Walking, running, jumping: all these actions propelling the body through space are possible only because of the contraction (shortening) and relaxation of muscles. These major movements, however, are not the only ones directed by muscular activity. Muscles make it possible to stand, sit, speak, and blink. Even more, were it not for muscles, blood would not rush through blood vessels, air would not fill lungs, and food would not move through the digestive system. In short, muscles are

the machines of the body, allowing it to work. PARTS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM The muscles of the body are divided into three main types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. As their name implies, skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton and move various parts of the body. They are composed of tissue fibers that are striated or striped. The alternating bands of light and dark result from the pattern of the filaments (threadlike proteins) within each muscle cell. Skeletal muscles are called voluntary muscles because a person controls their use, such as in the flexing of an arm or the raising of a foot. There are just over 650 skeletal muscles in the whole human body. Some authorities state there are as many as 850 muscles in the body. No exact figure is
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available because scientists disagree about which ones are separate muscles and which ones are part of larger muscles. There is also some variability in muscular structure between individuals. Smooth muscles are found in the stomach and intestinal walls, in artery and vein walls, and in various hollow organs. They are called involuntary muscles because a person generally cannot consciously control them. They are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (a division of the nervous system that affects internal organs such as the heart, lungs, stomach, and liver). Unlike skeletal muscles, smooth muscles have no striations or stripes. In a vessel or organ, smooth muscles are arranged in sheets or layers. Often, there are two layers, one running circularly (around) and the other

Muscular System – Movement using Muscles
longitudinally (up and down). As the two layers alternately contract and relax, the shape of the vessel or organ changes and fluid or food is propelled along. Smooth muscles contract slowly and can remain contracted for a long period of time without tiring. Acetylcholine, neurotransmitter chemical released at the neuromuscular junction by motor neurons that translates messages from the brain to muscle fibers. Adenosine triphosphate, high-energy molecule found in every cell in the body. Aerobic metabolism, Chemical reactions that require oxygen in order to create adenosine triphosphate. Antagonist, muscle that acts in opposition to a prime mover. Cramp, prolonged muscle spasm. Fascicle, Bundle of myofibrils wrapped together by connective tissue. Lactic acid, chemical waste product created when muscle fibers break down glucose without the proper amount of oxygen Muscle tone, sustained partial contraction of certain muscle fibers in all muscles. Myofibrils, cylindrical structures lying within skeletal muscle fibers that are composed of repeating structural units called sarcomeres. Myofilament, protein filament composing the myofibrils; can be either thick (composed of myosin) or thin (composed of actin).

Neuromuscular junction, region where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a muscle fiber. Prime mover (or agonist), muscle whose contractions are chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement. Rigor mortis, rigid state of the body after death due to irreversible muscle contractions. Sarcomere, unit of contraction in a skeletal muscle fiber containing a precise arrangement of thick and thin myofilaments. Spasm, sudden, involuntary muscle contraction. Strain, slight tear in a muscle; also called a pulled muscle. Synergist, muscle that cooperates with another to produce a particular movement. Tendon, tough, white, cordlike tissue that attaches muscle to bone. STRUCTURE OF MUSCLE CELLS Each muscle is made of hundreds to thousands of individual muscle cells.

Unlike most other cells in the body, these cells are unusually shaped: they are elongated like a cylinder or a long rod. Because of their shape, muscle cells are normally referred to as muscle fibers. Whereas most cells have a single nucleus (the part of the cell that controls its activities), muscle fibers have as many as 100 or more nuclei. The nuclei are located on the surface of the fiber, just under its thin membrane. Another difference between muscle fibers and other body cells is their size. They can extend the entire length of a muscle. For example, a muscle fiber in a thigh muscle could measure 0.0004 inch (0.001 centimeter) in diameter and 12 to 16 inches (30 to 40 centimeters) in length. When a person dies, blood stops circulating through the body. The skeletal muscles (along with all other parts of the body) are deprived of

Muscular System – Movement using Muscles
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oxygen and nutrients, including ATP. Calcium ions leak out of their storage area in the membranes of muscle fibers, causing thick myofilaments to attach to and pull thin myofilaments. While the muscle fibers still have a stored supply of ATP, the heads of thick myofilaments are able to detach from the thin myofilaments. When the supply of ATP runs out, however, the heads cannot detach and the muscle fibers stay in a contracted position. The rigid state of muscle contraction that results is called rigor mortis. Depending on the person's physical condition at death, the onset of rigor mortis may vary from ten minutes to several hours after death. Facial

muscles are usually affected first, followed by other parts of the body. Rigor mortis lasts until the muscle fibers begin to decompose fifteen to twentyfive hours after death. Each muscle fiber is composed of hundreds of smaller filaments or threads called myofibrils (the prefix myocomes from the Latin word myos , meaning "muscle"). Each myofibril contains bundles of threadlike proteins or filaments called myofilaments, which can be either thick or thin. The larger thick myofilaments are made mostly of bundled molecules of the protein myosin. The thin myofilaments are composed of the protein actin. In each

myofibril, the thick and thin myofilaments are combined into thousands of units or segments that repeat over and over. These units are called sarcomeres. Thick myofilaments lie in the center of a sarcomere. Thin myofilaments are attached at either end of a sarcomere and extend toward the center, passing among the thick myofilaments. This regular arrangement of the varying myofilaments within each sarcomere produces the striated or striped appearance of each myofibril and, by extension, of muscle fibers. As are most living cells, muscle fibers are soft and fragile. Even so, they can exert tremendous power without being ripped apart. The reason is that muscles are composed of different types of tissue (like all other organs in the body). In addition, those tissues are bundled together, providing strength and support. Each myofibril is enclosed in a delicate sheath or covering made of connective tissue (tissue found everywhere in the body that connects body parts, providing support, storage,
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and protection). Numerous sheathed myofibrils are then bundled together and wrapped with thicker connective tissue to form what is called a fascicle (from the Latin word fasciculus , meaning "a bundle"). Many fascicles are then bundled together by an even tougher coat of connective tissue to form the muscle. Tendons. The layers of connective tissue that bundle the various parts of a muscle usually converge or come together at the end of the muscle to form a tough, white, cord-like tissue called a tendon. Tendons attach muscles to bone. Because they contain fibers of the tough protein collagen, tendons are much stronger than muscle tissue. The collagen fibers are arranged in a tendon in a wavy way so that it can stretch and provide additional length at the musclebone junction. As muscles are used, the tendons are able to withstand the constant pulling and tugging. Muscles are always attached at both of their ends. The end that is attached to a bone that moves when the

Muscular System – Movement using Muscles
muscle contracts is called the insertion. The other end, attached to a bone that does not move when the muscle contracts, is called the origin. It is important to note that not all muscles are attached to bones at both ends. The ends of some muscles are attached to other muscles; some are attached to the skin. MAJOR MUSCLES OF THE BODY Skeletal muscles that support the skull, backbone, and rib cage are called axial skeletal muscles. These include the muscles of the head and neck and those of the trunk. Roughly 60 percent of all skeletal muscles in the body are axial muscles. The skeletal muscles of the limbs (arms and legs) are called distal or appendicular skeletal muscles. These include the muscles of the shoulders and arms and those of the hip and legs. Muscle names are descriptive. Some muscles are named according to their location in the body. For example, the frontalis muscle overlies the frontal bone of the skull. Other muscles are named for their relative size. Terms such as maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), and longus (long) are often used as part of a muscle's name. Still

other muscles are named for their shape. The deltoid muscle is so named because it has the shape of the Greek letter delta , which is triangular-shaped. And some muscles are named for their actions. Terms such as flexor (to flex or bend in), extensor (to extend or straighten out), adductor (to draw toward a line that runs down the middle of the body), and abductor (to draw away from a line that runs down the middle of the body) are often added as part of a muscle's name. Muscles of the Head and Neck. The muscles of the face are unique: they are attached to the skull on one end and to the skin or other muscles on the other end. Muscles that are attached to the skin of the face allow people to express emotions through actions such as smiling, frowning, pouting, and kissing. As mentioned, the frontalis covers the frontal bone or forehead. The temporalis is a fan-shaped muscle overlying the temporal bone on each side of the head above the ear. The orbicularis oculi encircles each eye and helps close the eyelid. The orbicularis oris is the circular muscle around the lips. It closes and extends the lips.
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The masseter, located over the rear of the lower jaw on each side of the face, opens and closes the jaw, allowing chewing. The buccinator, running horizontally across each cheek, flattens the cheek and pulls back the corners of the mouth. The sternocleidomastoid, located on either side of the neck and extending from the clavicle or collarbone to the temporal bone on the side of the head, allows the head to rotate and the neck to flex. Muscles of the Trunk. On the front part of the trunk or torso, the pectoralis major are the large, fan-shaped muscles that cover the upper part of the chest. They flex the shoulders and pull the arms into the body. The rectus abdominis are the strap-like muscles of the abdomen, extending from the ribs to the pelvis. Better known as the stomach muscles, they flex the vertebral column or backbone and provide support for the abdomen and its many organs. The muscles making up the side walls of the abdomen are the external oblique. In addition to helping compress the abdomen, they rotate the trunk and allow it to bend sideways.

Muscular System – Movement using Muscles
On the rear part of the trunk, the trapezius are the kite-shaped muscles that run from the back of the neck and upper back down to the middle of the back. They raise, lower, and adduct the shoulders. The large, flat muscles that cover the lower back are the latissimus dorsi. They adduct and rotate the arms and help extend the shoulders. Muscles of the Shoulders and Arms. The fleshy, triangular-shaped muscles that form the rounded shape of the shoulders are the deltoid. They help abduct the arm, or move it away from the middle of the body. The most familiar muscle of the upper arm is the biceps brachii Located on the front of the upper arm, the bicep makes a prominent bulge as it flexes the elbow. On the rear portion of the upper arms is the triceps brachii. Its action is just the opposite of the biceps: it extends or straightens the forearm. The muscles of the forearm, which move the bones of the hands, are thin and long. Of these many muscles, the flexor carpi bend the wrist and the flexor digitorum bend the fingers. The

muscles that have the opposite effect, extending the wrist and fingers, are the extensor carpi and the extensor digitorum. Muscles of the Hips and Legs. Muscles of the lower limbs cause movement at the hip, knee, and foot joints. These muscles are among the largest and strongest muscles in the body. Muscles on the thigh (upper portion of the leg) are especially massive and powerful since they hold the body upright against the force of gravity. The gluteus maximus are the large muscles that form most of the flesh of the buttocks. These powerful muscles help extend the hip in activities such as climbing stairs and jumping. The adductor muscles are a group of muscles that form a mass on the inside of the thighs. As their name indicates, they adduct or press the thighs together. On the front of the thigh is a group of four muscles known collectively as the quadriceps. Together, the quadriceps help powerfully extend or straighten the knee, such as when an individual kicks a soccer ball. On the

back of the thigh, a group of three muscles performs the opposite effect. Known as hamstrings, these muscles flex or bend the knee. The sartorius is long, straplike muscle that crosses the front of the thigh diagonally from the outside of the hip to the inside of the knee. Although it is not that powerful, it does lie on upper surface of the thigh and is easily seen. The sartorius helps rotate the leg so an individual can sit in a crosslegged position with the knees wide apart. On the back part of the lower leg is the calf muscle, properly known as the gastrocnemius. This diamond-shaped muscle, formed in two sections, helps extend or lower the foot, such as when an individual walks on his or her toes. The strong tendon that attaches the gastrocnemius to the heel of the foot is the well-known Achilles tendon in Greek mythology, a hero of the Trojan War who is killed by an arrow shot into his heel. The main muscle on the front part of the lower leg, the tibialis anterior, opposes the action of the gastrocnemius. It flexes and inverts or elevates the foot.

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
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The nervous system is the master controller of the body. Each thought, each emotion, each action—all result from the activity of this system. Through its many parts, the nervous system monitors conditions both within and outside the body. It then processes that information and decides how the body should respond, if at all. Finally, if a response is needed, the system sends out electrical signals that spur the body into immediate action. Although one of the smallest of the body's systems in terms

of weight, the nervous system is the most complex and versatile. PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is a collection of cells, tissues, and organs. It can be split into two separate divisions: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) acts as the command center of the body. It interprets incoming sensory

information, then sends out instructions on how the body should react. The CNS consists of two major parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS. It consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to areas in the rest of the body. Cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain while spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord. The PNS can be divided into two systems: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles. The autonomic nervous system control activities in the body that are involuntary or automatic. These include the actions of the heart, glands, and digestive organs and associated parts. The autonomic nervous system can be divided further into two subdivisions: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. These two subdivisions work against each other. The parasympathetic nervous system regulates involuntary activities that keep the body running smoothly under normal, everyday conditions. The
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sympathetic nervous system controls involuntary activities that help the body respond to stressful situations. Arachnoid, weblike middle layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Autonomic nervous system, part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the heartbeat, gland secretions, and digestion. Axon, taillike projection extending out a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body. Basal ganglia, paired masses of gray matter within the white matter of the cerebrum that help coordinate subconscious skeletal muscular movement. Brain, central controlling and coordinating organ of the nervous system. Cauda equine, spinal nerves that hang below the end of the spinal cord. Central nervous system, part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. Cerebral cortex, outermost layer of the cerebrum made entirely of gray matter. Cerebrum, largest part of the brain, involved with conscious perception,

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
voluntary actions, memory, thought, and personality. Corpus callosum, large band of neurons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Dendrites, branchlike extensions of neurons that carry impulses toward the cell body. Diencephalon, rear part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain to the cerebrum and that contains the thalamus and hypothalamus. Dura mate, outermost and toughest of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Ganglion, any collection of nerve cell bodies forming a nerve center in the peripheral nervous system. Gray matter, grayish nerve tissue of the central nervous system containing

neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons. Gyri, outward folds on the surface of the cerebral cortex. Hippocampus, structure in the limbic system necessary for the formation of long-term memory. Hypothalamus, region of the brain containing many control centers for body functions and emotions; also regulates the pituitary gland's secretions. Limbic system, group of structures in the cerebrum and diencephalon that are involved with emotional states and memory. Medulla oblongata, part of the brain located at the top end of the spinal cord that controls breathing and other involuntary functions. Meninges, membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Midbrain, part of the brain between the hypothalamus and the pons that regulates visual, auditory, and rightening reflexes. Myelin, soft, white, fatty material that forms a sheath around the axons of most neurons. Nerve, bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, cells that support and protect neurons in the central nervous system. Neuron, nerve cell.
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Neurotransmitter, chemical released by the axon of a neuron that travels across a synapse and binds to receptors on the dendrites of other neurons or body cells. Node of Ranvier, small area between Schwann cells on an axon that is unmyelinated or uncovered. Oligodendrocyte, cell that produces the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons in the central nervous system. Parasympathetic nervous system, division of the autonomic nervous system that controls involuntary activities that keep the body running smoothly under normal, everyday conditions. Peripheral nervous system, part of the nervous system consisting of the cranial and spinal nerves. Pia mater, delicate innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Pons, part of the brain connecting the medulla oblongata with the midbrain. Reflex, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus. Schwann cell, cell that forms the myelin sheath around axons of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Somatic nervous system, part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
Spinal cord, long cord of nerve tissue running through the spine or backbone that transmits impulses to and from the brain and controls some reflex actions. Sulci, shallow grooves on the surface of the cerebral cortex. Sympathetic nervous system, division of the autonomic nervous system that controls involuntary activities that help the body respond to stressful situations. Synapse, small space or gap where a nerve impulse passes between the axon of one neuron and a dendrite of the next neuron. Thalamus, part of the brain behind the hypothalamus that acts as the brain's

main relay station, sending information to the cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain. White matter, whitish nerve tissue of the central nervous system containing bundles of myelinated axons. Neurons. The cells making up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are called neurons. They are special cells capable of receiving a stimulus (nerve or electrical impulse), transmitting that stimulus throughout their length, and then delivering that stimulus to other cells next to them. The human body contains about 200 billion neurons. Almost half of them are located in the brain. A neuron consists of three main parts: the cell body, dendrites, and an axon (dendrites and axons are both referred to as nerve fibers). The cell body has most of the same structures found in typical body cells, such as a nucleus (the part of the cell that controls its activities). It is ball shaped, about 0.001 inch (0.002 centimeter) in diameter. Dendrite comes from the Greek word dendron , meaning "tree." Dendrites are hairlike threads branching off of the cell body like branches of a tree. Extensions of the cell body, they contain the same cytoplasm or cellular fluid found in the cell body. Dendrites are the points through which signals from adjacent neurons enter a particular
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neuron (the signal is then transmitted to the cell body). Since each neuron contains many dendrites, a neuron can receive signals from many other surrounding neurons. An axon is a taillike projection extending out of one end of the cell body. It ends in a cluster of branches called terminal branches or axon terminals. Axons have the opposite function of dendrites: they carry nerve impulses away from the cell body. Axons vary in length and diameter. Some (such as those in the central nervous system) are very short, no longer than 0.01 inch (0.02 centimeter). Others (such as those in the peripheral nervous system) can be 3 feet (1 meter) long. Most long axons are surrounded by a white, fatty material called myelin. The tubelike covering formed is known as a myelin sheath. It serves the same kind of function as the wrapping on a telephone line or an electrical cable. It protects the axon and prevents electrical impulses traveling through it from becoming lost. Special cells form the myelin sheath by wrapping themselves around the axons of neurons. In the CNS, the cells forming the myelin sheath are called oligodendrocytes. In the PNS, special cells known as Schwann cells form the myelin sheath. The gap or

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
indentation on an axon where one Schwann cell ends and another begins is known as a node of Ranvier. The nodes are unmyelinated (lack a myelin sheath), and the nerve or electrical impulse jumps from node to node as it passes along an axon (in unmyelinated axons, the impulse travels continuously along the axon). Scientists believe Schwann cells produce a chemical that helps regenerate or restore damaged neurons in the peripheral nervous system. For example, if surgeons are able to reattach a person's severed hand, that person may regain

some sensation and movement in that hand as neurons grow and make connections. Conversely, oligodendrocytes lack this ability. This is why an injury to the brain or spinal cord often results in some permanent loss of function. Types of Neurons. Neurons in the body may be divided into three groups: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. As their name implies, sensory neurons carry impulses or sensations from receptors to the brain or Supporting Cells. Neuroglia, or glial cells, are cells that surround neurons in the central nervous system. They do not conduct impulses, but help to support and protect neurons, combining with them to form what is known as nerve tissue. They also supply neurons with nutrients and remove their wastes. Neuroglia are abundant, accounting for some ten times the number of neurons. An example of neuroglia in the CNS are oligodendrocytes. Nerves. A nerve is a bundle of axons in the PNS. Each axon or nerve fiber is wrapped in delicate connective tissue. Groups of axons are then bound in coarser connective tissue to form bundles. Finally, many bundles are bound together (along with blood vessels to nourish the axons and Schwann cells) by even tougher connective tissue to form a nerve.

spinal cord (central nervous system). Receptors, which are located in the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, and internal organs, detect changes both inside and outside the body. Motor neurons work in the opposite direction. They carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands, causing muscles to contract and glands to secrete. Both sensory and motor neurons make up the peripheral nervous system. Interneurons work entirely within the central nervous system. They conduct impulses from sensory to motor neurons. Nerves are categorized like neurons according to the direction in which they conduct impulses. Sensory nerves, made of the axons of sensory neurons, carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord. Motor nerves, made of the axons of motor neurons, carry impulses to the muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain axons of both sensory and motor neurons. The most abundant nerves, mixed nerves can conduct impulses both to and from the central nervous system. The Brain. The human brain is a soft, shiny, grayish white, mushroom-shaped structure encased within the skull. At birth, a typical human brain weighs between 12 and 14 ounces (350 and 400 grams). By the time an average person reaches adulthood, the brain weighs about 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms). Because of greater average body size, the brains of male are generally about 10 percent larger than those of females.

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
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Although brain size varies considerably among humans, there is no correlation or link between brain size and intelligence. The human brain is composed of up to one trillion nerve cells. One

hundred billion of these are neurons, and the remainder are the supporting neuroglia. The brain consists of gray and white matter. Gray matter is nerve tissue in the CNS composed of neuron cell

bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons; white matter is nerve tissue in the CNS composed chiefly of bundles of myelinated axons. The brain is protected by the skull and by three membranes called the meninges. The outermost membrane is known as the dura mater, the middle as the arachnoid, and the innermost as the pia mater. Also protecting the brain is cerebrospinal fluid, a liquid that circulates between the arachnoid. The Brain Stem. The brain stem is the stalk of the brain and is a continuation of the spinal cord. It consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The medulla oblongata is actually a portion of the spinal cord that extends into the brain. All messages that are transmitted between the brain and spinal cord pass through the medulla. Nerves on the right side of the medulla cross to the left side of the brain, and those on the left cross to the right. The result of this arrangement is that each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body. Three vital centers in the medulla control heartbeat, rate of breathing, and diameter of the blood vessels. Centers that help coordinate swallowing, vomiting, hiccuping, coughing, sneezing, and other basic functions of life are also located in the medulla. A region within the medulla helps to maintain the conscious state. The pons (from the Latin word meaning "bridge") conducts messages between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain, and between the different parts of the brain.
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The midbrain conveys impulses from the hypothalamus to the pons and spinal cord. It also contains visual and audio reflex centers involving the movement of the eyeballs and head. Twelve pair of cranial nerves originate in the underside of the brain, mostly from the brain stem. They leave the skull through openings and extend as peripheral nerves to their destinations. Cranial nerves bring information to the brain from regions in the face, head, and neck. For example, the olfactory nerve transmits messages about smell from the nose and the optic nerve transmits visual information from the eyes. The only exception is the vagus nerve (vagus comes from the Latin word meaning "wandering"). It is the lone cranial nerve that serves other areas of the body. The vagus nerve branches extensively to the larynx, heart, lungs, stomach, and intestines. Among other functions, it helps promote digestive activity and regulate heart activity. The Diecephalon. The diencephalon lies above the brain stem, and includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is an important relay station for sensory information coming to the cerebral cortex from other parts of the brain. The thalamus also interprets sensations of pain, pressure, temperature, and touch, and is concerned with some of our emotions and memory. It receives information from the outside environment in the form of sound, smell, and taste.

Nervous System – Brain and Nerves
The Cerebrum. The cerebrum makes up about 80 percent of the brain's weight. It lies above the diencephalon. The cerebrum's outer layer, the cerebral cortex, is made entirely of gray matter (white matter makes up the inner portion

of the cerebrum). The tissue of the cerebral cortex is about 0.08 to 0.16 inch (2 to 4 millimeters) thick. The cerebral cortex is folded extensively. The folds are called convolutions or gyri, and the shallow grooves between the folds are sulci. Deeper grooves, which are less numerous, are called fissures. The folds greatly increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex—it would have a surface area of about 5 square feet (1.5 square meters) if spread out—and thus the total number of nerve cell bodies it contains. The Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located below the cerebrum and behind the brain stem, and is shaped like a butterfly. The "wings" are the cerebellar hemispheres, and each consists of lobes that have distinct grooves or fissures. The cerebellum controls the actions of the muscular system needed for movement, balance, and posture. All motor activity in the body depends on the cerebellum.

The Limbic System. The limbic system is a horseshoe-shaped area of the brain located along the border between the cerebrum and diencephalon. Key structures of the limbic system include the almond-shaped amygdala and the sea horse-shaped hippocampus. The limbic system is concerned with emotional states (such as rage, fear, and sexual arousal) and memory. The hippocampus, in particular, plays a vital role in learning and long-term memory. The Spinal Cord. The spinal cord, a glistening white rope, is a continuation of the brain stem. It transmits impulses to and from the brain and controls some reflex actions. On average, the spinal cord measures about 18 inches (45 centimeters) in length and about 0.5 inch (14 centimeters) in width. It weighs about 1.25 ounces (35 grams).

Respiratory System – Breathing
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Breathing, controlled by the respiratory system, is a continuous process of which a person is normally unaware. If breathing stops, however, a person becomes acutely aware of the fact. An individual can go days without food and water and hours without sleep, but only five or six minutes without air. Anything beyond that would be fatal. The trillions of cells in the body need a constant and generous amount of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. As they use that oxygen, they give off carbon dioxide as a waste product. It is the role of the respiration system, working in conjunction with the cardiovascular system, to supply the oxygen and dispose of the carbon dioxide. Main Function. The main function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen for the body's cells and remove the carbon dioxide they produce. Oxygen is the most important energy source for the cells. They need it for cellular respiration: the process by which the simple sugar glucose is oxidized (combined with oxygen) to form the
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energy-rich compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Glucose is produced in cells by the breakdown of more complex carbohydrates, including starch, cellulose, and complex sugars such as sucrose (cane or beet sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). ATP is the compound used by all cells to carry out their ordinary functions: growth, the production of new cell parts and chemicals, and the movement of compounds through cells and the body as a whole. PARTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Breathing describes the process of inhaling and exhaling air. The exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between living cells and the environment is a process known as respiration. The respiratory system, which controls breathing and respiration, consists of the respiratory tract and the lungs. The respiratory tract cleans, warms, and moistens air on its way to the lungs. The tract can be divided into an upper and a lower part. The upper part consists of the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), larynx, and upper part of the trachea (windpipe). The lower part consists of the lower part of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs (which contain bronchioles and alveoli). The nose and nasal cavity. The nose

Respiratory System – Breathing

is the only external part of the respiratory system. It is made of bone and cartilage (tough connective tissue) and is covered with skin. The two openings to the outside, called nostrils, allow air to enter or leave the body during breathing. The nostrils are lined with coarse hairs that prevent large particles such as dust, insects, and sand from entering. The nostrils open into a large cavity, the nasal cavity. This cavity is divided into right and left cavities by a thin plate of bone and cartilage called the nasal septum. The hard portion of the palate forms the floor of the entire nasal cavity, separating it from the mouth or oral cavity below. Three flat, spongy folds or plates project toward the nasal septum from the sides of the nasal cavity. These plates, called nasal conchae, help to slow down the passage of air, causing it to swirl in the nasal cavity. Alveoli, air sacs of the lungs. Breathing, process of inhaling and exhaling air. Bronchi, largest branch of the bronchial tree between the trachea and bronchioles. Bronchial tree, entire system of air passageways within the lungs formed by the branching of bronchial tubes. Bronchioles, smallest of the air passageways within the lungs. Epiglottis, flaplike piece of tissue at the top of the larynx that covers its opening when swallowing is occurring. Esophagus, muscular tube connecting the pharynx and stomach. Exhalation, also known as expiration, the movement of air out of the lungs. Glottis, opening of the larynx between the vocal cords.

Hemoglobin, iron-containing protein pigment in red blood cells that can combine with oxygen and carbon dioxide. Inhalation, also known as inspiration, the movement of air into the lungs. Larynx, organ between the pharynx and trachea that contains the vocal cords. Lungs, paired breathing organs. Nasal cavity, air cavity in the skull through which air passes from the nostrils to the upper part of the pharynx. Nasal conchae, flat, spongy plates that project toward the nasal septum from the sides of the nasal cavity. Nasal septum, vertical plate made of bone and cartilage that divides the nasal cavity. Nose, part of the human face that contains the nostrils and organs of smell and forms the beginning of the respiratory tract. Nostril, either of the two external openings of the nose. Paranasal sinuses, air-filled chambers in the bones of the skull that open into the nasal cavity. Pharynx, short, muscular tube extending from the mouth and nasal cavities to the trachea and esophagus. Pleura, membrane sac covering and protecting each lung. Pulmonary surfactant, oily substance secreted by the alveoli to prevent their walls from sticking together. Respiration, exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between living cells and the environment. Trachea. Also known as the windpipe, the respiratory tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi. The nasal cavity is lined by mucous membrane containing microscopic hairlike structures called cilia. The cells of the membrane produce

Respiratory System – Breathing
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mucus, a thick, gooey liquid. As the nasal conchae cause air to swirl in the nasal cavity, the mucus moistens the air and traps any bacteria or particles of air pollution. The cilia wave back and forth in rhythmic movement, and pieces of mucus with their trapped particles are swept along to the throat. The mucus is then either spat out or (more often) swallowed. Any bacteria present in the swallowed mucus is destroyed by the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of the stomach. Air is not only moistened in the nasal cavity but warmed, as well. A rich network of thin-walled capillaries permeates the mucus membrane (especially the uppermost concha), and the incoming air is warmed as it passes over the vessels. When air finally reaches the lungs, it is similar to the warm, damp air found in the tropics. The bones that surround the nasal cavity contain hollow spaces known as paranasal sinuses. The sinuses are also lined with mucous membrane containing cilia. The mucus produced in the sinuses drains into the nasal cavity. The main functions of the sinuses are to lighten the skull and to provide resonance (sound quality) for the voice. The pharynx. The pharynx or throat is a short, muscular tube extending about 5 inches (12.7 centimeters) from the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and trachea. It serves two separate systems: the digestive system (by allowing the passage of solid food and liquids) and the respiratory system (by allowing the passage of air). The larynx. The larynx, commonly called the voice box, forms the upper part of the trachea. The larynx is made

of nine pieces of cartilage connected by ligaments. The largest of these cartilages is the shield-shaped thyroid cartilage, which may protrude at the front of the neck, forming the so-called Adam's apple. The upper cartilage is the epiglottis, a flaplike piece of tissue. During swallowing, the larynx rises up and the epiglottis folds down to cover the glottis, or the larynx's opening. This prevents food or liquids from passing into the lower respiratory tract. Mucous membrane lines the larynx. A pair of elastic folds in that lining form the vocal cords. During silent breathing, the vocal cords lie against the walls of the larynx. During speech, the cords are stretched across the opening of the larynx and air that passes through causes them to vibrate, generating sound waves. Various muscles produce tension on the cords, making them tighter (shorter) or looser (longer). The tighter the tension, the higher the pitch of the sound produced. Since men's larynges tend to be larger than women's, their vocal cords tend to be thicker and longer. The male voice thus tends to be lower in pitch. The trachea. The trachea is a tough, flexible tube about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter and 4.5 inches (11.4 centimeters) in length. Located in front of the esophagus, it is the principal tube that carries air to and from the lungs. Elastic fibers in the tracheal walls allow the trachea to expand and contract during breathing, while the cartilage rings prevent it from collapsing. Mucous membrane containing cilia lines the trachea. The mucus produced by the membrane traps dust particles and other debris. The cilia move continuously in a

direction opposite that of the incoming air, helping propel the mucus away from
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the lungs to the throat where it can be swallowed or spat out.

Respiratory System – Breathing
The bronchi. The trachea divides behind the sternum (breastbone) to form a right and left branch called primary bronchi (singular: bronchus). Each bronchus passes into a lung—the right bronchus into the right lung and the left bronchus into the left lung. The right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than the left. As a result, accidentally inhaled objects (such as pieces of food) most often enter the right primary bronchus. By the time incoming air reaches the primary bronchi, it is warm, moistened, and cleansed of most particles or other impurities. The lungs. The lungs are two broad, cone-shaped organs located on either side of the heart in the thoracic or chest cavity. They extend from the collarbones to the diaphragm, a membrane of muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The base of each lung rests directly on the diaphragm. The rib cage forms a wall around the lungs, protecting them. At birth, the lungs are pale pink in color. As people age, their lungs grow darker. The inhaling of dirt and other particles increases this aging process, even scarring the delicate tissue of the lungs. Each lung is divided into lobes separated by deep grooves or fissures. The right lung, which is larger, is divided into three lobes. The left lung is divided into only two lobes. Combined, the two soft and spongy lungs weigh about 2.5 pounds (1.1 kilograms). A membrane sac, called the pleura, surrounds and protects each lung. One layer of the pleura attaches to the wall of the thoracic cavity; the other layer encloses the lung. A fluid (pleural fluid) between the two membrane layers reduces friction and allows smooth movement of a lung during breathing. After the bronchi enter the lungs, they subdivide repeatedly into smaller and smaller bronchi or branches. Eventually they form thousands of tiny branches called bronchioles, which have a diameter of about 0.02 inch (0.5 millimeter). This branching network of bronchial tubes within the lungs is called the bronchial tree. The bronchioles branch to form even smaller passageways that open into clusters of cup-shaped air sacs called alveoli (singular: alveolus). The average person has a total of about 700 million alveoli (which resemble clusters of grapes) in his or her lungs. These provide an enormous surface arearoughly the size of a tennis court—for gas exchange. A network of capillaries surrounds each alveolus. As blood passes through these vessels and air fills the alveoli, the exchange of gases takes place: oxygen passes from the alveoli into the capillaries while carbon dioxide passes from the capillaries into the alveoli. The membranes of the alveoli are extremely delicate and thin to allow the gases to pass easily through them. The inner lining of those membranes is coated with a thin layer of tissue fluid (a gas must be dissolved in a liquid in order to enter or leave a cell). To prevent the walls of the alveoli from sticking

together (like the inside walls of a wet plastic bag), cells in the alveoli also produce an oily secretion, called pulmonary surfactant, that mixes with
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the tissue fluid (pulmonary refers to anything relating to or affecting the lungs).

Skeletal System – Body Framework
The word skeleton comes from the Greek word skeletos , meaning "dried up." The parts of the skeletal system—the bones and other structures that make up the joints of the skeleton—are anything but dried up. Strong yet light, the skeletal system is made of living material, with networks of blood vessels running throughout. The system protects body organs, supports the body, and provides attachment points for muscles to enable body movement. All bones act as storage sites for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, and certain bones also produce blood cells. PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Because the bones making up the human skeleton are inside the body, the skeleton is called an endoskeleton ( endo means "within"). In animals that have an external skeleton, such as the crab, the skeleton is called an exoskeleton ( exo means "outside"). Exoskeletons restrict the movement of an organism and must be shed periodically in order for that organism to grow. Endoskeletons allow for freer movement and grow along with an organism. All humans are born with over 300 bones. As an individual ages, certain bones (such as those in the skull and lower spine) fuse or join together, thereby reducing the number. By the

time an individual reaches adulthood, the number of bones in the body totals about 206. Structure of Bone. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being renewed throughout life. Three types of bone cells take part in this process: osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts ( osteon is the Greek word meaning "bone"). Osteoblasts are the principal bone-building cells. They produce hard calcium compounds and flexible collagen (a fibrous protein), which

combined form the nonliving part of bone called the bone matrix. The matrix makes bone strong, hard, and slightly elastic. In the process of forming the bone matrix, osteoblasts become trapped in it. Once they are trapped, they
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develop into osteocytes or mature bone cells. Osteocytes help maintain the hard bone tissue by removing and replacing the calcium compounds in the matrix. In mature adults (whose bones are no longer growing), osteocytes are the most

Skeletal System – Body Framework
numerous bone cells. Finally, osteoclasts are the bone-destroying cells. They break down bone matrix, releasing calcium and phosphate ions into the blood (this is important when blood calcium levels drop below normal). Appendicular skeleton, portion of the skeleton consisting of the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle, and the bones of the arms and legs. Axial skeleton, portion of the skeleton consisting of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. Bursa, sac filled with synovial fluid that decreases friction between a tendon and a bone. Diaphysis, shaft of a long bone containing a narrow canal filled with yellow bone marrow. Epiphysis, end of a long bone. Fontanels, also known as soft spots, fibrous connective tissue between flat bones in the developing cranium. Joint, area where adjacent bones meet or articulate. Ligament, fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone. Ossification, process of bone formation. Osteoblasts, principal bone-building cells. Osteoclasts, large cells that break down bone matrix. Osteocytes, mature bone cells. Periosteum, dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints. Synovial membrane, connective tissue membrane that lines joint cavities and secretes synovial fluid. Tendon, tough, white, cordlike tissue that attaches muscle to bone. FOUR TYPES OF BONES According to Shape Four types are recognized based on shape. These are long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones are found in the extremities: the arms, legs, hands, and feet (but not the wrists or ankles). As their name indicates, long bones have a long central shaft with knobby end portions. The shaft is called the diaphysis and each end is called the epiphysis. Short bones, which are cubeshaped, are found in confined spaces such as the wrist and ankle. Flat bones are thin and wide, providing surfaces for muscle attachment and protection for underlying organs. The ribs, shoulder blades, sternum (breastbone), pelvis (hips), and most of the bones of the skull are consider flat bones. Irregular bones are those that do not fit into the first three categories. Vertebrae (bones of the spinal column) and facial bones are types of irregular bones. Short, flat, and irregular bones are all made of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. The cavities of the spongy bone in these bones are filled with red bone marrow,

which is the loose connective tissue that produces blood cells in certain bones. In adults, red blood cells, five types of white blood cells, and platelets are formed in the red bone marrow of portions of the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and pelvis.

AXIAL SKELETON The Skull. The skull consists of two sets of bones: cranial bones and facial bones. In addition to protecting the brain, these bones protect and support the organs responsible for sight, hearing, smell, and taste.

Skeletal System – Body Framework
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The eight bones of the cranium (the part of the skull that encloses the brain) are thin and flat. Interlocking at their joints, they are immovable. The frontal bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets. The two parietal bones form the sides and upper portion of the cranium. Lying underneath the parietal bones are the two temporal bones. The occipital bone forms the back of the cranium. Vertebral Column. The skull rests atop the vertebral column, which encloses the spinal cord. Also called the spine or backbone, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord and helps to support the weight of the body, transmitting that weight to the lower limbs. It also provides attachment sites for the ribs as well as the muscles that move the trunk (main part of the body). The individual bones making up the column are collectively called vertebrae. A single bone is called a vertebra. The Rib Cage. Twelve pairs of ribs extend forward from the thoracic vertebrae. Most of the ribs (the first seven pairs) attach in the front of the body by cartilage called costal cartilage to the long, flat sternum or breastbone. These ribs are called true ribs. The next five pair of ribs are called false ribs. The first three pair of false ribs do not attach directly to the sternum, but to the costal

cartilage of the seventh pair of ribs. The lower two pair of ribs of false ribs, also called floating ribs, do not attach to the sternum at all. APPENDICULAR SKELETON The Pectoral Girdle. Forming a loose attachment with the sternum is the pectoral girdle, or shoulder. Each shoulder is formed by two bones: the scapula or shoulder blade and the clavicle or collar bone. The large triangular-shaped scapula anchors some of the muscles that move the upper arm. The S-shaped clavicle is small and light and relatively fragile. Each clavicle acts as a brace for its corresponding scapula, preventing the shoulder from coming too far forward. The major advantage to the loose attachment of the pectoral girdle is that it allows for a wide range of shoulder motions and greater overall freedom of movement. The Arms. Each arm or upper limb contains thirty bones. The upper arm contains only one bone, the humerus, which extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint. At the elbow joint, the humerus articulates or connects with the two bones of the forearm, the radius and the ulna. When the arm is held out and palm faces upward, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other; the radius is on the thumb side and the ulna is on the

little finger side. When the arm is turned over and the palm faces downward, the radius crosses on top of the ulna to form an X. The Pelvic Girdle. Unlike the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle is strong and dense. It consists of two large coxal or hip bones. Each coxal bone, left and right, consists of three fused bones—the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. The
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ilium is the flared, upper portion of a hip. Each ilium attaches at the rear to the sacrum, connecting the pelvic girdle to the vertebral column. The ischium is the ring-shaped lower part on which a person sits, and the pubis is the most forward portion at the bottom of a hip. These three bones generally have fused together by the time an individual reaches adolescence.

Skeletal System – Body Framework
The Legs. Each leg or lower limb is similar in form to an arm or upper limb. Each leg (composed of the thigh, lower leg, and foot) also contains thirty bones. The thigh contains only one bone, the femur, which extends from the hip joint to the knee joint. The bones of the lower limbs are thicker and stronger than the bones of the upper limbs. In fact, the femur is the longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body. As it runs down the upper part of the leg, the femur slants inward. This helps bring the knees in line with the body's center of gravity. Ligaments and tendons. Two types of dense connective or fibrous tissue are attached to bones—ligaments and tendons. Ligaments fasten bone to bone at joints, wrapping around the joints to hold the bones together. By doing so, they make joints more stable. Depending on their location in the body, they can be shaped like a thick strap, a rope, or a flat ribbon or bandage. Because they are bundles containing elastic fibers as well as collagen fibers, ligaments can stretch to a certain degree.

Reproductive System – Sex Organs
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The reproductive system makes life possible. An individual does not need the system to survive, but the human race does. Without the reproductive system, babies would not be born to grow into adults to give birth to more babies. The human cycle would end. All living things on the planet reproduce more of their own kind, and they do so in one of two ways. Some organisms reproduce by splitting in half or by growing buds that eventually turn into copies of the original organism. This method, in which a single organism reproduces itself, is called asexual reproduction. The reproductive method whereby a male and female of a particular species interact and exchange genetic material to create offspring is called sexual reproduction. Humans reproduce by this latter method. PARTS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male and female reproductive systems form the halves that come together to create new human life. Each system is composed of primary and accessory reproductive organs. In both, the primary sex organs

are called gonads. These gonads produce reproductive or sex cells called gametes; they also secrete sex hormones. Despite their joint purpose to produce offspring, the two systems are quite different in structure and function. THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male reproductive system. The primary organs in the male reproductive system are the testes. Their main function is to produce male gametes or sperm, which fertilize ova or female eggs (they also produce the male hormone testosterone). The reproductive ducts—epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra—carry sperm from the testes to the exterior of the body. Accessory glands—seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands—produce secretions that combine with sperm to create semen. The male genitalia (external sex organs) are the scrotum and penis. Testes. The testes are two small, eggshaped structures suspended in the scrotum, a loose sac of skin that hangs outside the pelvic cavity between the upper thighs. In a male fetus, the testes

develop near the kidneys, then descend into the scrotum just before birth. Each testis measures about 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) long and 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) wide. Internally, a testis is subdivided into many lobes. Each lobe contains one to four tightly coiled tubes, called seminiferous tubules, in which sperm is produced. The combined length of all the seminiferous tubules in a testis equals about 0.5 mile (0.8 kilometer). Mature sperm cells are the smallest cells in the body. Each
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tadpolelike sperm cell consists of three regions: the head, middle piece, and flagellum. The helmetlike head contains the male genetic material essential for reproduction. On the tip of the head is the acrosome, which contains enzymes to break down the membrane of an ovum so fertilization can occur. The middle piece contains a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a high-energy molecule found in every cell in the body. The sperm cell uses the ATP to power its flagellum, the long whiplike tail, to move the cell along.

Reproductive System – Sex Organs
Epididymis. The epididymis is a tube about 20 feet (6 meters) in length. Tightly coiled on the posterior or back side of each testis, each epididymis takes up very little room. As sperm cells move through this tube, they absorb nutrients and become mature or fully developed, a process that takes about two weeks. The walls of the epididymis are made of smooth muscle cells, which helps propel sperms cells into the ductus deferens. Ductus Deferens. The ductus deferens, also called the vas deferens, extends from each epididymis upward over the top of the bladder, then down its back side. The paired ducts measure between 16 and 18 inches (40 and 45 centimeters) in length. Their smooth muscular walls move the sperm along through peristaltic contractions, or a series of wavelike muscular contractions that move material in one direction through a hollow organ. Ejaculatory Duct. The ejaculatory duct is a short passageway that is formed by the union of a ductus deferens and the duct of a seminal vesicle. Each ejaculatory duct measures just under 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in length. Both ejaculatory ducts empty sperm (from the ductus deferens) and fluid (from the seminal vesicle) into the single urethra. Urethra. The urethra extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis, a distance of 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 centimeters). In males, the urethra serves both the reproductive and urinary systems. It transports sperm (with its fluid) and urine to the body exterior, but never both at the same time. When sperm enters the urethra from the ejaculatory ducts, a sphincter or ring of muscle at the junction of the bladder and urethra closes, keeping urine in the bladder (and also preventing sperm from entering the bladder). Accessory Glands and Semen. The three accessory glands produce secretions that combine with sperm to create a whitish, somewhat sticky mixture called semen. Those secretions (the fluid part of semen) are known collectively as seminal fluid. Ejaculation is the sudden ejection of semen from the penis. A typical ejaculation releases between 0.07 and 0.17 ounce (2 and 5

milliliters) of semen. Although as many as 400 to 600 million sperm are contained in a typical ejaculation, they make up only about 1 percent of the volume of the semen because of their extremely small size. The seminal vesicles are the first accessory glands to add secretions to sperm. Located at the base of the bladder, their ducts join with the paired ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory ducts. Their thick, yellowish secretion, which makes up about 60 percent of the seminal fluid, contains high amounts of fructose (sugar), vitamin C, and other substances. The secretion helps nourish
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and activate the sperm as its passes through the reproductive tract. Male Genitalia. The scrotum and penis are the male genitalia that hang outside the body. As stated earlier, the scrotum is a loose sac of skin that hangs outside the pelvic cavity between the upper thighs. It is divided into two compartments, each holding a testis. The scrotum holds the testes away from the body since normal body temperature is too warm for sperm to be produced. The temperature inside the scrotum is a few degrees cooler than inside the rest of the body. If the external temperature becomes very cold,

Reproductive System – Sex Organs
muscles in the scrotum pull the testes closer to the body, maintaining the proper temperature for sperm production. The penis is a tubular organ that surrounds the latter part of the urethra. It serves two purposes: to conduct urine outside the body and to deliver semen into the female reproductive tract. The two main parts of the penis are the glans (enlarged tip) and shaft (body). A fold of skin called the prepuce or foreskin covers the glans. It is common practice in certain cultures and religions to remove the foreskin surgically soon after birth, a procedure called a circumcision. The shaft contains three masses or columns of erectile tissue. Normally, this spongy tissue is not filled with much blood. During sexual arousal, however, blood flow to the tissue increases. The penis, engorged with blood, becomes longer, wider, and rigid. This event, called an erection, allows the penis to enter the female vagina and deliver semen to the female's reproductive tract. THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The reproductive system in females is more complex than that in males. The system produces female gametes, called ova or eggs, and provides a protective space for an ovum to be fertilized and to develop until birth. The primary organs in this system are the ovaries. The accessory organs include the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the vagina, the genitalia, and the mammary glands. Ovaries. The ovaries are two almondshaped structures measuring about 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) in length. They are located on each side of the pelvis, one at the end of each fallopian tube. Ligaments attach the Fallopian Tubes. The fallopian tubes, also called uterine tubes, connect the ovaries to the uterus. Each fallopian tube is about 4 inches (10 centimeters) in length and extremely narrow. The end of the tube that attaches to an ovary has

fingerlike projections called fimbriae that partially surround the ovary. The inner surfaces of the tubes are carpeted with cilia, microscopic hairlike structures projecting in from the inner lining. Uterus. The uterus, or womb, is a hollow, muscular chamber shaped like an upside-down pear. An average uterus measures about 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) in length and 2 inches (5 centimeters) in width. It weighs approximately between 1 and 1.4 ounces (30 and 40 grams). The uterus lies in the pelvis between the urinary bladder and rectum and is anchored in place by various ligaments.

Vagina. The vagina is a muscular tube extending from the uterus to the genitalia. It lies parallel to the rectum. The vagina serves as a exit for menstrual fluids, receives the penis during intercourse, and forms the birth canal through which the fetus passes at the end of pregnancy. Normally, it measures about 4 inches (10 centimeters) in length, but to accommodate all of its activities, its length and width vary widely. Female Genitalia. In females, the external sex organs are collectively called the vulva. The parts making up the vulva include the mons pubis, labia

Reproductive System – Sex Organs
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majora and minora, clitoris, and greater vestibular glands. The mons pubis is the prominent fatty bulge at the top of the vulva. Beginning at puberty, this area is covered with pubic hair. Running down from the mons pubis are two haircovered skin folds or flaps called the labia majora. They enclose two delicate, hair-free skin folds called the labia minora. The area within the labia minora, referred to as the vestibule, contains the openings of the urethra (through which urine passes) and the vagina.

Mammary Glands. Mammary glands are found in the breasts of both women and men. However, they normally function only in women. Mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system (skin). Although not directly involved in the reproduction process, mammary glands play an important role in providing nourishment for a newborn baby and their activities are controlled by hormones of the reproductive system. For these reasons, they are considered accessory reproductive organs.