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Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain (Napali)
This is the Napali language translation of the public education booklet. This
translation was made for IBRO by:
Aastha Dhungana, BSc in Nursing,
Assistant Lecturer, Chitwan Academy
for Technical Education, Chitwan,
Nepal
Laxmi Ghimire, M.B.B.S.,
Tribhuvan University Teaching
Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal
Abhi Narayan Bhandari, MA,
SOS Herman Gmeiner Higher
Secondary School, Bharatpur,
Chitwan, Nepal

The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) commissioned the booklet for the
purposes of teaching young people in the UK about the brain and
neuroscience, the science of the brain. The booklet contains short
explanatory chapters on different subjects written by experts in each topic.
The original booklet was published in 2004.
In 2005, the International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) purchased
the copyright of the booklet. We have commissioned members of our
organisation to translate the booklet in multiple languages.
We hope that you will use these translations for the purpose of improving
public understanding and awareness of the brain and the importance of brain
research. IBRO and the BNA are happy for you to make printed copies of
these PDF files. However this should not be done for profit. For more
information, please read the additional information that is appended at the
end of the booklet.

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To order additional copies: Online ordering: www.bna.org.uk/publications
Postal: The British Neuroscience Association, c/o: The Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool L68 3GE Telephone: 44 (0) 151 794
4943/5449 Fax: 44 (0) 794 5516/5517

cltl/Qm k| l t dufpgsf] nfluM www.bna.org.uk/publications
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efusf] ultzLntfsf] lgoGq0f s6]{S;sf] afofF efun] ub{5 . -/
o;sf] pN6f] x'G5 ._ o;}u/L, z/L/sf] afo“f efun], bfo“f
x]ld:km]o/nfO{ ;+j]bs ;+s]t k7fpF5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu afofF
sfgsf] cfjfh, d'Votof bflxg] s6]{S;df k'U5 . tyflk dl:tissf]
b'O{ j6f lx:;fn] 5'§} sfd ub}{gg\ . lsgeg] bfofF / afofF ;]/]a|n
s6]{S; Ps 7"nf] kmfOa/ 6«]S6n] hf]l8Psf] x'G5, h;nfO{ sk;{
Sofnf];d elgG5 .
:j}lR5s ultljlwx¿, efiff, af0fL, / pRr sfo{x¿ h:t} ;f]Rg' /
ofb ug'{ h:tf sfdsf nflu ;]/]a|n s6]{S;sf] cfjZostf k5{ . oL
dWo] cg]s sfo{ dl:tissf] b'a} efun] ug{ ;S5 t/ oL dWo] s]xL
sfo{ a[xt\¿kdf s'g} Ps jf csf]{ x]ld:km]o/n] u/]sf] kfOG5 . of]
pRr sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt If]qx¿ h:t} jf0fL -h'g w]/}h;f] dflg;df
afo“f x]ld:km]o/df ePsf] kfOG5 ._ kQf nufOPsf] 5 . oBlk, cem}
w]/} hfGg afFsL 5, ljz]iftM s]xL cfZro{rlst ug]{ vfnsf d'2f
h:t} r]tgf . To;}n] ;]/]a|n s6]{S;sf] sfo{sf] cWoog :gfo'lj1fg
cg';Gwfgsf nflu ;jf{lws /f]rs / ;lqmo If]q dWo] Ps xf] .

;]/]a|n x]ld:km]o/
;]/]a]nd
a|]g l:6d

y]n]d; / xfOkf]y]n]d;
b]vfOPsf] dl:tissf]
dl:tissf] laraf6
sfl6Psf] efu
y]n]d;
xfOkf]y]n]d;

a];n Uof; lnof / sk{;
Sofnf];d b]vfOPsf]
dl:tissf] laraf6
sfl6Psf] efu
;]/]a|n x]ld:km]o/
sk{; Sofnf];d

a];n Uof+ulnof

cfw'lgs :gfo'lj1fgsf] lktf,
/fdf]gL sfhfn jif{ !*() df
cfˆÇgf] ;"IdbzL{ oGqdf

sfhfnåf/f lnOPsf] Go'/f]g /
To;sf] 8]g8«fO6sf] tl:j/

sfhfn4f/f agfOPsf]
Go'/f]gsf] ljlzi6 lrq
logLx? ;]/]a]ndsf x'g\ .

OG6/g]6 ln+s http://science.howstuffworks.com/brain.htm http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html
http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html

#

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/ PS;g
6]lG;on
PS;g kf]and
G;on
the
Action Potential
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s x'g\ of
rfns, 7'are
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g of ;fgf,
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or motor, big or small, they all
ls, logsfhave
ultljlw
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f
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k|
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x'G5 . ;du|
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/
in common that their activity issboth
and chemical.
Neurons both cooperate and compete with each other in
Jo:yfkgsf]regulating
nflu JolQmn]
;dfhdf
lg0f{
o
lng]
k|
l
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;xof]
u
/
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the overall state of the
the nervous system, rather in
u/]h:t} dl:tis
the same
k|0fffway
fnLsf]that
;du|
individuals
Joj:yfkgsf]
in a society
nflu :gfo'
cooperate
n]
'n] Pscfk;df
and
:gfo
Pscfk;df
compete in decisiondecision-making processes. Chemical signals received
;xof]u / ink|lt:kwf{
b'j} u5{g\ . 8]G8«fO6df o;sf ;Dks{df /x]sf PShf]
PShf]gaf6
the dendrites from the axons that contact them are
addgtox'or
kfKt
|fKt ePsftransformed
/f;folgs into
;s]+telectrical
x¿ ljB'
;ª\
\stdf
t] which
df kl/jt{
G5g\
\ . oL
ljBt' Losignals,
;ªs]
5gsubtract
from electrical signals from all the other synapses, thus making a
;ª\
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;fOGofK;sf
;ª\
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\
s
t
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;“
u
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of
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8
G5g
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decision about whether to pass on the signal elsewhere.
potentials
travel
synapses
x'G5g\
oL ;ª\
\st] nfO{
cGo st}then
k7fpg]
xf] down
jf xf]Oaxons
g eGg]
o klg on
5g_\ / Electrical
;ªs]
eGg]tolg0f{
the dendrites of the next neuron and the process repeats.
lnOG5 . To;kl5 ljB'tLo kf]6]lGzon PShf]gaf6 tn csf]{ :gfo'sf]
8]G8«fO6;“usf]
usf] ;fOGofK
;fOGofK;;Dd k'U5 / k'gM ox
oxL k|lqmof bf]xf]l/G5 .

The dynamic neuron

Ufltz
ltzLn :gfo'
As we cWofodf
describedj0f{ingthe
chapter,
consists
xfdLn] kl5Nnf]
u/]hlast
:t} :gfo'
df 8]Ga8«neuron
fO6\
sf]
sf]if,f
O6;\ , :gfo'
of dendrites
dendrites, a cell body
body, an axon and synaptic terminals
terminals. This
PShf]g / structure
;fOGoflK6s
6ld{gN;–;fd]
n x'G5g\ .subdivision
of] ;+/rgfn]intok|flKt,
;fOGoflK6s reflects
N; its functional
receiving,
;lDdng /integrating
k|;f/0f v08sf
¿kdf o;sf]compartments.
sfof{Tds pkljefhgnfO{
k|blz{t
and transmitting
Roughly speaking,
receives,
cell-body
u5{ . df]6the
fdf]6dendrite
L ?kdf eGg'
kbf{, 8]Gthe
8«fO6n]
k|fKt integrates
u5{, :gfo' sf]and
ifn]the
concept called polarization because the
;lDdlnt axons
u5{ / transmit
PShf]gn] -k|a;f/0f
u5{ o; wf/0ffnfO{ w|'jLs/0f elgG5 –
information they process supposedly goes in only one
lsgls h'gdirection.
;"rgfsf] logLx¿ k|jfx u5{g\, tL Ps} lbzfdf cufl8 hfG5 .
8]G8«fO6

:gfo'sf]if

k|flKt

;lDdng

PShf]g

;fOGofK;

k|;f/0f

Ps :gfo'sf] d'Vo cjwf/0ff
Like any structure, it has to hold together. The outer
membranes of neurons, made of fatty substances, are
cytoskeleton
rods of
cGo s'g} draped
;+/rgf around
h:t} of] aPs;fy
hf]l8Psf]that
x'G5is.built
:gfo'upsf]ofaflx/L
tubular
and
filamentous
proteins
that
extend out
into G6; lemNnL,
kbf{
y
n]
ag]
s
f]
x'
G
5
.
To;nfO{
glnsfsf/
/
lkmnfd]
lemNnL lrNnf]
dendrites and axons alike. The structure is a bit like a
Filamentous_
k|f]l6gsf
58Ln]over
ldn]/theag]tubular
sf] ;fO6f]
:s]n]6gn]
g of -a frame
canvas
stretched
skeleton
Cytoskeleton_
9fs]
s
f]
xG5,
h'
g
PShf]
g
/
8]
G

f
O6;Dd
km}lnPsf]
tent. The different parts of a neuron are in constant
motion,
a
process
of
rearrangement
that
reflects
its own
x'G5 . of] ;+/rgf Ps glnsfsf/ sª\sfnsf] dfly km}lnPsf] Sofgef;
activity and that of its neighbours. The dendrites
h:tf] x'G5change
. :gfo'shape,
sf] ljleGg
efu lg/Gt/ ultzLn x'G5g\, h'g Ps k'gM
sprouting new connections and
Joj:yfsf]withdrawing
k|lqmof xf] .h;n]
cfˆ
gf] /the
cfˆgaxons
f lgs6sf]
b;f{asp5
“ .
others, and
growlqmofsnfk
new endings
8]G8«fO6n]the
cfˆgneuron
f] cfsf/struggles
abN5, o;sf]
gofFa ;+bitof]hmore
g aG5
;fy}
fgf] 6'6\5
to talk
loudly,
or k'a/bit
others.
/ ha Psmore
:gfo'softly,
n] csf]to{ :gfo'
;“u s]xL l56f] of s]xL l9nf] ;~rf/ u5{ ta

:kfOgn rfns Go"/]g

:gfo'sf]if
PShf]g

lk/fld8n sf]z

:gfo'sf]
sf]if

;]/]a]nesf] k/ls+h] sf]z

:gfo'sf]
sf]if

PShf]g

PShf]g

tLg k|sf/sf Go"/f]g

tLg k|sf/sf Go'/f]g
Inside neurons are many inner compartments.
compartments These consist of
proteins, mostly manufactured in the cell body, that are
transported along the cytoskeleton. Tiny protuberances
that
from the
spines
Go'
/f]gstick
leq y'out
k} leqL
v08x¿
v08dendrites
x'G5g\ called
. hf] k|dendritic
f]6Lgn] ag]spines.
sf] x'G5 /
These are where incoming axons make most of their
clwsf+
zsf] lgdf{Proteins
0f :gfo'stransported
f]ifdf x'G5 / ;fO6f]
n]6g - are
connections.
to the:s]spines
important for creating
and maintaining
connectivity.
cytoskeleton_
x“'b} cfjfudg
x'G5 . neuronal
8]G8«fO6af6
aflx/
These proteins are constantly turning over, being replaced
lgl:sPsf]
;fgf] ;+/rgfnfO{ 8]G8«fOl6s :kfOG;\
:kfOG;\ (dendritic
by new ones when they’ve done their job. All this activity
spines)
elgG5,
hxfF
leq
cfPsf
PShf]
gn] cfˆ(mitochondria)
gf] k|foM ;+of]hg
needs fuel and there are energy factories
inside5the
cell that keep
agfpM“
. :kfOG;df
k|jflxtit all
k|f]lworking.
6g, Go'/f]gThe
n end-points
;+of]hstfsf]of;[the
hgf
axons
also
respond
to
molecules
called
growth
factors.
These
factors
/factors
sfod are
ug{ dxŒjk"
0f{ x'G5 . oL k|f]l6g nuftf/ ablnG5 ,ha
taken up inside and then transported to the
Pp6fsf]
sfd
k"
/
f
x'
G
To;sf] :yfgdf
csf]{ cfpFof5 neuronal
. of] ;a}
cell body where they5,influence
the expression
ultljlwsf]
rflxG5 / sf]ofifleq
sf/vfgf
genes and nflu
henceOGwg
the manufacture
new pmhf{
proteins.
These
enablesthe
to grow longer x"dendrites
dfO6f]
f]lG8«oneuron
f (mitochondria)
G5 h;n] or
of] make
;a} yet
k|lqmof
other dynamic changes to its shape or function. Information,
agfO/fV5
PShf]
gsf] cGTo flow
ljGb'ton] and
a[l4 from
sf/s
c0f's
nutrients .and
messengers
thegfds
cell body
allf] the
k|time.
lt ;lqmotf b;f{p5
“ . oL sf/sx?nfO{ leq u|x0f ul/G5 /

:gfo'sf]ifdf k7fOG5 hxfF logLx¿n] Go'/f]gn lhgsf]
cleJolQmnfO{ k|efljt u5{g\ / o;} k|sf/n] gofF k|f]l6gsf] lgdf{0f
k|efljt u5{g\ . o;n] Go'/f]gnfO{ nfdf 8]G8«fO6 agfpg jf o;sf]
cfˆgf] cfsf/ of sfo{df cGo ultzLn kl/jt{g ug{ ;Ifd agfpF5
. :gfo' sf]if af6 / :gfo' sf]if;Dd x/]s ;do ;"rgf, kf]ifs tTj
/ ;Gb]zsf] cfbfg k|bfg x'G5 .

PShf]gn] gofF clGtd efu agfpF5 .
8]G8«fOl6s :kfOG; (Dendritic spines) xl/of] /·sf ;fgf
8«fOl6s x':kfOG;
(Dendritic
spines
) xl/of]aflx/
/Ësf ;fgf ;+/
;+8]/]Grgfx¿
g\ hf] Ps
Go"/f]gsf] xl/of]
8]G8«fO6af6
lgl:sPsf x'G5g\ . oxL :yfgdf ;fOGofK; ag]sf] x'G5 .

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k|fKt ug'{ / lg0f{o lng'
sf]ifsf] k|flKt ljGb'lt/, 8]G6«fO6sf] cGo sf]ifaf6 lelqPsf PShf]g;+u
lgs6
;Dks{
x'G5, logLx¿
Psthe
csf{cell,
af6 the
Ps dendrites
ld6/sf] bzf}have
F vaf}{F
On the
receiving
side of
close clt
contacts
with incoming
other8]cells,
efusf]
;"Id cGt/fnn]
5'l§Psfaxons
x'G5g\ of
. Pp6f
]G6«fO6n]each
csf]{
of which
is separated
by acyjf
miniscule
gap
of
about
20 k|fKt
efusf]
Ps
:gfo'
jf
s]
l
x
:gfo'
xhf/f}
F
:gfo'
x
?af6
;Dks{
billionths of metre. A dendrite may receive contacts
elgG5, of] lu|s
ug{
;S5one,
. of]a few,
;+ud or
:yfgnfO{
;fOGofK; -Synapse_
from
even thousands
of other neurons.
These cfPsf]
junctional
spotscy{
are
zAbaf6
xf] h;sf]
Psnamed
;fy afFsynapses,
lwg' eGg] x'from
G5 . ;]/]a|n
classical
words
that mean
“to clasp
s6]
{S;df /x]Greek
sf sf]ifdf
x'g] clwsf+
+z ;fOGofK;,
8]G6«together”.
fOl6s :kfOG;df
Most of the synapses on cells in the cerebral cortex
l:yt x'G5, hf] sdhf]/ ;+s]tsf] vf]hL ul//fv]sf ;fgf dfOqmf]kmf]g
h;/L aflx/ v8f ePsf x'G5g\ .

oLare;Dks{
ljGb'donf :gfo'
f sf]lzsfsf
lar that
x'g] ;Dks{
nfO{out like
located
the s
dendritic
spines
stick
little microphones
searching
signals.
;fOGoflK6s
k|;f/0f elgG5
/ o;dfforPsfaint
/f;folgs
k|lqmof
Communication between nerve cells at these contact
;fd]
n x'G5 h;sf] xfdL cl3Nnf] cWofodf j0f{g ug]{5f}F . ha
points is referred to as synaptic transmission and it
8]involves
G6«fO6n] s'
} Ps ;"rgfk|
jfxs k|that
fKt u5{
hf] o;nfO{
k7fpg]
a gchemical
process
we, will
describe
in
the gnext
dendrite
one of
PShf]
/ k|fChapter.
Kt ug]{ 8]]GWhen
8«fO6sf]the
aLrsf]
cGt/fnreceives
x'Fb} x'TofOPsf]
messengers
has been
across
x'the
G5, chemical
ta k|fKt ug]
{ 8]G8«fOl6s that
:kfOgleq
;–;fgffired
ljB'lto
wf/f
the gap separating it from the sending axon,
k|miniature
jflxt x'G5g\electrical
. k|foM o:tf
k|
j
fx
sf]
i
fleq
cfpg]
u5{
g
\
h;nfO{
currents are set up inside the
pQ]
hgf (excitation)
elgG5These
cyjf are
logLx¿
sf]ifaf6
receiving
dendritic spine.
usually
currents
that come
into x'the
cell, called
excitation,
or they
aflx/lt/
k|
j
flxt
g
;S5g\
h;nfO{
OlGxla;g
-inhibition_
may be currents that move out of the cell, called
elgG5
. oL All
;a} these
kf]h]l6epositive
/ g]u]l6eand
ljB'negative
tLo t/+u waves
8]G8«fO6df
inhibition.
of
;+current
lrt x'G5g\
/
logLx¿
:gfo'
s
f]
i
flt/
km}
l
nG5g\
.
are accumulated in the dendrites and they

The action-potential
PS;g kf]6]lG;on
G;on
To communicate from one neuron to another, the
Ps :gfo'
af6 csf]
;Futo;Dks{
agfpgsf]
nflu,axon.
:gfo' ;+s]tn]
neuronal
signal
has{ :gfo'
first
travel
along the
How;j{
dok|yneurons
d PShf]gdo
df this?
ofqf ug'{k5{ . :gfo'n] of] sfd s;/L u5{<

o;sf] pQ/ ef}lts tyf /f;folgs k|j0ftfdf lglxt pmhf+{nfO{ sjr

The answer hinges on harnessing energy locked in
k|bfg and
ug'{ /chemical
oL zlQmnfO{
;Ifd ?kn]andPscoupling
;fy ldnfpg'
df lge{/ u5{ .
physical
gradients,
together
these
efficient
way.
The axons
of neurons
:gfo'forces
sf] PShf]ingan
n] ljB'
tLo :kGbg
;~rf/
u5{, h;nfO{
PS;g kf]6]lG;on
G;on
transmit
pulses called action potentials.
elgG5 electrical
.

These travel along nerve fibres rather like a wave
travelling down a skipping rope. This works because
of] tn
dfly membrane
ul//x]sf] 8f]contains
/Ldf k|jflxt
t/· h;/L :gfo'
the
axonal
ion-channels,
that/];f÷tGt'
;u+;open
Fu} ofqf
5g\ . too;n]
ul//fV5
lsgeg] PShf]gn lemNnLdf
can
andub{close
let sfd
through
electrically
charged
ions. -ion
SomeChannels_
channels let/x]through
cfog RofgN;
sf] x'G5, sodium
hf] ljB'tLo ?kdf rfh{
ions (Na+), while others let through potassium ions
ePsf cfognfO{ jf/kf/ ug{ lbgsf nflu vf]lng] / aGb x'g ;S5 . s]xL
(K+). When channels open, the Na+ or K+ ions flow
Rofgnn]
;f]l8odchemical
cfognfO{ and
jf/kf/
x'g lbG5gradients,
eg] c?n] kf]in6fl;od
down
opposing
electrical
and
out ofjf/kf/
the cell,
in response
electrical
cfognfO{
x'g lbG5
. ha oLtoRofgn
v'N5g\ ha ;f]l8odn] of
+ of the membrane.
depolarisation

kf]6fl;od -k _ cfog tnlt/, /f;folgs / laB't\ k|j0ftfsf] lj?4,
lemNnLsf] ljB't w'|jLs/0fsf] k|To'Q/df sf]ifsf] aflx/ / leq k|jflxt
x'G5g\ .

spread down to the cell body. If they don’t add up to
very much activity, the currents soon die down and
olb
oL clt w]/} g} ;lqmo ePgg\ eg] ljB'tLo k|jfx rfF8} g}
nothing further happens. However, if the currents
;dfKt
5g\a /value
cufl8that
s]xcrosses
L klg x'Fb}ga threshold,
ha ls olb the
ljB'lto
add upx'Gto
k|neuron
jfx cltwill
g} w]send
/} a9La message
eP/ Ps :t/af6
dfly p7]
eg], Ps
on to other
neurons.

:gfo'n] cGo :gfo' ;Gb]z k7fpF5 .

So a neuron is kind of miniature calculator –
constantly adding and subtracting. What it adds and
ctM
:gfo' Psarek|sthe
f/sf]messages
clt ;fgf] itSofns'
n]6/ xf]from
– h;n]
subtracts
receives
other
neurons.
synapses
others
nuftf/
hf]8Some
g\ ] / 36fpg]
u5{ produce
. o;n] hf]excitation,
8 / 36fp ug]
{ eg]sf]
inhibition.
these
of
;Gb]
zsf] xf] h'How
g o;n]
cGosignals
:gfo'af6constitute
k|fKt u5{ .the
s]xbasis
L

sensation, thought and movement depends very
;fOGofK;sf]
pQ]hnetwork
gf k}bf u/fpF
5 eg] s]the
xLn]neurons
OlGxla;gare
. oL
much on the
in which
;+embedded.
s]tn] ;+j]bgf, ljrf/ / ultljlwsf] cfwf/ s;/L agfpF5 eGg]
s'/f, :gfo' l:yt ePsf ;~hfndf w]/} xb;Dd lge{/ x'G5 .

PS;g kf]6]lG;on

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kf]6]lG;onsf]
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ldln;]
]G8leqdf
gofF ;Gt'
ng :yflkt x'G5
within a millisecond. In a trice, the transmembrane voltage
. Ps If0fd}
lemNnLkf/sf]
ef]
N
6]
h
!))
ldnL
ef]
N
6
k'
U
5
. of] lemNnL
switches by about 100 mV. It flips from an inside membrane
leqsf] ef]voltage
N6]heGbf
cufl8
a9\5, h'(about
g g]u]l6e
-nueu
ldnL
that
is negative
-70 mV)
to one–&)
that
is ef]N6_
positive
+30 mV).
b]lv lnP/
kf]h]l6e(about
-nueu
±#)This
ldnLswitch
ef]N6_opens
;Ddsf]K+ channels,
x'G5 . of]
triggering a pulse of potassium ions to flow out of the cell,
leGgtfn]almost
kf]6fl;od
-K+_Rofgn
vf]Nions
5 /that
o;n]flowed
kf]6fl;od
cfogsf]
as rapidly
as the Na+
inwards,
and Ps
:kGbgnfO{thissf]inifaf6
lgSng
f]T;flxt potential
u5{ . of] to
sfo{swing
;f]l8od
turnaflx/
causes
the k|membrane
back
again
original
on the
The
cfog leq
cfpFtobfits
hlQs}
zL3|negative
tfk"j{s x'Gvalue
5, h;n]
ubf{inside.
lemNnLsf]
potential
is over
less g]time
than
to .
leqkl§s]actionf kf]6]lG;onn]
o;sf]
cfÇg}within
k|f/lDes
u]l6e
dfgit x'takes
g hfG5
flick a domestic light switch on and immediately off again.
PS;g kf]Remarkably
6]lG;onsf]fewsfd,
lah'nLaQLsf]
vf]Nbf
?Gt} aGb
ions3/df
traverse
the cell l:jr
membrane
to /dot'this,
and
ubf{ nfUg]the
eGbfconcentrations
sd ;dod} ;dfKt
G5 K+.ions
of] sfd
ug{theljlrqtfk"
j{sdos]xL
of Na+ x'and
within
cytoplasm
change
significantly
duringkan
However,
cfogn] not
sf]lzsf
lemNnLsf]
k/fudg÷cg'
|:y action
u5{g\ /potential.
;fO6f]Knfhddf
in the long run, these ions are kept in balance by ion pumps
/x]sf ;f]whose
l8od job
(Na+)
kf]6out
]+lzod
-K+_sodium
cfogsf]
tf,happens
Ps PS;gin
is to /bale
excess
ions.cfb|
This
kf]6]lG;on
gLo that
?kdfa ablnGg
kl5 ofuP/,
oL boat
much/xbf
the pNn]
samevway
small leak. inoBlk
the hull
a sailing
be coped
baling
out h;sf]
water with
bucket, ;f]
without
cfognfO{cancfog
kDkn]
;Gt'by
ngdf
/fV5,
sfo{ acltl/Qm
l8od
kDk with
the overall
ability
of the
hullPp6f
to withstand
thegbLdf
cfognfO{impairing
aflx/
ÇofSg'
xf]
.
of]
k|
l
qmof
h:t}
pbfx/0f
5–
pressure of the water upon which the boat floats.
t}l//x]sf] Ps 8'·fsf] tNnf] efudf Pp6f ;fgf] Kjfn 5 / ToxfFaf6
an electrical
event,8'u
albeit
a complex
el/Psf] The
kfgLaction
Pp6f potential
aflN6gn] isaflx/
kmflnG5, h;n]
+fsf] tNnf]
efusf]
one. Nerve fibres behave like electrical conductors (although
kfgLsf] bafj
;x]
/
t}
l
/g
;Sg]
Ifdtfdf
s'
g
}
sdL
NofpF
b
g
}
.
they are much less efficient than insulated wires), and so an

cg';Gwfg ;fWotf

dfly b]lvPsf :gfo' tGt' -a}hgL /u+n] PShf]gnfO{ hgfpF5_,
Rjfg s]lzsf -/ftf]_ df u'6'd'l6Psf] x'G5 h;n] jl/kl/af6 :gfo'df
cfpg] ljB'tLo k|]if0fsf] O;'+n];g u5{ .oL /u+ k|ltbLlKtzLn /;fog
x'g\ h;n] Ps gofF klxNofOPsf] k|f]l6g sDKn]S;nfO{ bzf{pF5 .
of] k|f]l6g sDKn]S; l5Gg leGg ePsf] v08df Ps jf+lzs /f]u
nfU5 h;n] ubf{ dfz+k]zL zlQmlxg x'G5 .

action potential generated at one point creates another

active
PS;g kf]gradient
6]lG;on ofPsvoltage
ljB'tLobetween
36gf xf]the
, oBlk
of] and
cltresting
hl6n x'membranes
G5 .
it.SIn
way, the
actively
:gfo' tGt'adjacent
n] ljB'tLoto On]
6«f]8this
sf] ¿kdf
sfdaction
u5{ .potential
-oBlk of]is OG;'
n]6]8 propelled in a wave of depolarisation that spreads from one
insulated_
cltfibre
sdto;Ifd
x'G5 ._ / To;}n] Ps laGb'df
end oftf/
the eGbf
nerve
the other.
pTkGg ePsf]
PS;g
kf]
6
l
]
G;onn]
o;sf]
lgs6:y ;lqmo / lj>fd
An analogy that might help you think about the conduction of
cj:yfdfaction
/x]sf] potentials
lemNnLsf aLr
ef]
N
6]
h
sf]
k|j0ftfsf]
;[hagffirework
u5{ .
is the movementcGo
of energy
along
o;k|sf/sparkler
PS;g kf]after
6]lG;on
it is
w'|jlitLs/0fsf]
at one t/+
end.
udfThe;lqmotfsf
first ignition
;fy cufl8
rapid
local csf]
sparks
of activity
to
a9\5 hf]triggers
:gfo' tGt'very
sf] Ps
5]paf6
{ 5]p;Dd
km}lnG5(equivalent
.
the ions flowing in and out of the axon at the location of the
action potential), but the overall progression of the
PS;g kf]sparkling
6]lG;onsf]wave
;+jfxgsf
af/]much
ljrf/
tkfO{n
fO{ marvellous
Ps ;dfg
spreads
moreug{
slowly.
The
of nerve
very brief
period
pbfx/0fn]feature
d2t ug{
;S5, fibres
h;cg'is?kthat
PS;gafter
kf]6a]lG;onsf]
;+jfxg
eg]ofsf]
the refractory
the
spent
membrane
period
k6sfdf silence
cfuf]sf](the
lemNsf
Ps 5]pdfperiod)
hnfO;s]
kl5,
To;sf]
Ps 5]paf6
explosive capability, readying the axon
csf]{ 5]precovers
;Dd hfg]forits
pmhf{
f] ultzLntf
h:t} xf] . klxnf]k6s k|Hjng
membrane
thesnext
action potential.

ePkl5 pQm 7fpFdf ultljlw Psbd} l56f] ;'? x'G5 -h'g PS;g
Much of this has been known for 50 years based on
kf]6]lG;onsf]
:yndf PS;gdf lelqg] / aflxl/g] cfogsf] ;dt'No x'G5
wonderful experiments conducted using the very large
._ t/ lemNsfsf]
sf] cufl8
g] ;du|
cToGt ;'sea:t x'G5 .
neurons t/ª\
and utheir
axonsa9\
that
existult
in certain
large
of these
:gfo' tGt'creatures.
sf] Ps cb\eThe
t' ljz]
iftfsize
of] 5
ls df}gaxons
/xg] enabled
Ps cjlw scientists
to place
tiny electrodes
inside
measure
l/k|mofS6/L
cjlw_
pQm lemNnLn]
cfZgf] lj:kmf]
6gtoIfdtf
k'gM k|fKt
cjlw kl5
the changing electrical voltages. Nowadays, a modern
u5{ h;n]electrical
PSzg lemNnLnfO{
csf]
{
PS;g
kf]
6
l
]
G;onsf]
nflu
tof/
recording technique called patchpatch-clamping is u/]/
/fV5 . enabling neuroscientists to study the movement of ions

through individual ion-channels in all sorts of neurons,
accurate
w]and
/} s'so/f make
%) very
jif{ cl3b]
lv yfxfmeasurements
ePsf 5g\ h'ofg these
s]xL ;d'+b|L hLjdf
currents in brains much more like our own.

o;af/]
kfOg] cToGt 7"nf :gfo' / ltgsf PShf]gnfO{ lnP/ ul/Psf cfZro{hgs
Insulating
cg';Gwfgdf
lglxt the
5g\ axons
oL PShf]gsf ljzfn cfsf/n] j}1flgsnfO{ o;sf]
In many
action-potentials
leq ;–;fgf
On]axons,
S6«f]8 /fv]
/ ljB'tLo ef]N6]move
hdf along
cfpg] reasonably
kl/jt{g ljB'well,
t\ but
not very fast. In others, action potentials really do skip
clen]vgalong
oGqsnf
Kofr
Kofr SNoflDkª (Patch-clamping)sf]
the nerve. This happens because long stretches of the
dfWodaf6
:gfo'
j}
1
flgsx?around
;a}k|sf/sf
df cnu–cnu
cfog made
axon are wrapped
with a:gfo'
fatty,
insulating blanket,
Rofgnsfoutlardf
ultsf]
;dy{ 5g\called
./ To;}
n] oLs
of thecfogsf
stretched
outcWoog
glial cellug{
membranes,
a myelin
k|jfxsf] xfd|f] dl:tiss} ;/x, cToGt z'4 dfkg x'g] u/]sf] 5 .

New
is telling
about
that/make
gofFresearch
cg';+Gwfgn]
xfdLnfO{uspQm
k|f]lthe
6gsf]proteins
af/]df atfO{
x]sf up5g\ h;n]
this
myelin
sheath.
This
blanket
prevents
the
ionic
currents
dfolng ;Ly (myelin sheath) agfpF5 . of] cjwf/0ffn]
from leaking out in the wrong place but, every so often the
cfolgs
k|jfxnfO{leave
unt a:yfgdf
hfgaf6
S5 axon
t/ w]/} 7fpFdf
glial
cells helpfully
little gap.
Here/f]the
lUnon s]fifn] its
pkof]Na+uand
L ¿kn]
;fgf] cGt/fn
85
\ . oxfF
concentrates
K+ ionPs
channels.
These 5f]
clusters
of
ion
channels
function
as /amplifiers
thatcfog
boostRofgn
and maintain
PShf]
gn] cfZgf]
;f]l8od
kf]6fl;od
s]lGb|tthe
u5{ .
action potential as it literally skips along the nerve. This
cfog
Rofgnsf]
em'
K
kfn]
PDlKnkmfo/sf]
sfd
u5{
h;n]
PS;g
can be very fast. In fact, in myelinated neurons, actionkf]6]lG;onnfO{
a9fFp5along
/ sfod
/ per
PS;gsecond!
kf]6]lG;on :gfo';+u}
potentials
can race
at 100/fV5,
metres

plk|mb} hfG5 . of] cToGt tLa| ultaf6 x'g ;S5 . jf:tjdf,

Action potentials have the distinctive characteristic of being
o'Qm they
:gfo'ddon’t
f PS;g
kf]6in]lG;on
dL6/they
k|lt
all-orvary
size, nueu
only in !))
how often
alldfolng
or-nothing:
nothing
;]s]08sf]
ultn]
l8gway
;S5
. the strength or duration of a
occur.
Thus,
the bf}
only
that
stimulus
can
be encoded
by variation
PS;g kf]
6]lG;onsf]
ljz]inif au'0single
f x'G5,cellof] is;d:t
of z"Go ofx'Gthe
5.
frequency of action potentials. The most efficient axons can
logLx¿sf]
cfsf/df
leGgtf
x'
b

g
}
,
dfq
slt
k|
f
oh;f]
logLx¿
conduct action potentials at frequencies up to 1000 times per
cfpF5g\ eGg]df leGgtf x'G5 . o; k|sf/ Ps pQ]hgfsf] cjlw jf
second.

zlQm s'g} Psn sf]ifleq lnlkdf xfNg ;lsg] Pp6} tl/sf eg]sf]
PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf] cfj[lQdf leGgtf x'gfn] xf] . ;a}eGbf ;Ifd
PShf]gn] Ps xhf/ u'gf k|lt;]s]G8sf] cfj[lQdf PS;g kf]6]lG;on
kl/rfng ug{ ;S5 .
Png xf]8sLg / PG8«o' xS;n]n]
:gfo' ;+j]usf] k|]if0fsf] k|lqmof
ktf nufPsfn] gf]an k'/:sf/
lht]sf lyP . pgLx?n]
Kn]dfpy d]l/g afof]nf]hL
k|of]uzfnfdf cWoogsf nflu
l:Sj8sf] æljzfn PShf]gÆ sf]
k|of]u u/]sf lyP .

PShf]gsf] OG;
OG;n]'n;] g

^

^

w]/}h;f] PShf]gdf PS;g kf]6]lG;on l7s} lx;fan] rNb5 t/ w]/} l56f]
xf]Og . c?df PS;g kf]6]lG;on :gfo';“u} jf:tjd} plk|mb} hfG5 . o;sf]
sf/0f PShf]gsf] tlGsPsf] nfdf] efu, lUnon sf]lzsf lemNnLn] ag]sf],
lrNnf] kbfy{ /x]sf], OG;'n]l6ª cfj/0fn] u'6'd'l6Psf] x'G5 h;nfO{
dfolng zLy elgG5 .
OG6/g]6 ln+s: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html
http://www.neuro.wustl.edu/neuromuscular/

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/f;folgs ;"rgfk|jfxs

PS;g kf]6]lG;on
G;on PShf]g x“x'b“ }+ ;fOGofK; gfds ljz]if If]qdf
k|jflxt x'G5, hxfF pQm PShf]gn] cGo :gfo'sf] 8]G8«fO6;+u
;Dks{ u5{ . o;df Ps k|L ;fOGoflK6s efu x'G5 hf] k|foM
8]G8«fOl6s :kfOGfdf
:kfOGfdf l:yt kf]:6;fOGoflK6s
6;fOGoflK6s efu af6 Ps ;fgf
;fgf]
cGt/fnn] 5'l§Psf] x'G5 . PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf]
G;onsf] PShf]g x“x'b“ } hfg]
lj:tf/sf] nflu pQ/bfoL ljB'
ljB'tLo k|jfxn] ;fOGoflK6s
cGt/fnnfO{ eg{ ;Sb}g . of] cGt/fnaf6 x'g] k|]if0f
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ gfds /f;folgs ;"rgfk|
rgfk|jfxaf6 k'/f x'G5 .
uf]nfsf/ y}nLdf kf]sf kfl/Psf
/f;folgs 6«fG;ld6/ ;fOGoflK6s
hª\S;g x'b}+ d'Qm x'gsf nflu pknAw
x'G5g\ .

;~ro / d'lQm
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ PShf]gsf] k'5f/df /x]sf ;fOGoflK6s e]l;sN;
gfds ;fgf uf]nfsf/ y}nLdf ;+u|lxt x'G5g\ . ToxfF ;~ro ug{sf
nflu e}l;sN; x'G5g\ / :gfo'sf] clGtd efu glhs} /x]sf
e]l;sN;x¿ lgd'{lStsf nflu tof/ x'G5g\ . PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf]
cfudgn] ubf{ cfog Rofgnx¿ v'N5g\, h;n] ubf{ Sofn\l;od leq
cfp5 . o;n] PGhfOdnfO{ ;lqmo agfpF5 hf] cg]s lk|;fOGoflK6s
k|f]l6g dfly sfd u5{, h;nfO{ cgf}7f gfd lbOPsf] 5 , h:t}–
…:g]o/Ú, …6\ofuldgÚ / …a|]legÚ–h'g ev{/} ul/Psf ;fx;L
j}1flgs syfsf rl/qsf nflu jf:tjd} /fd|f gfd x'g\ . :gfo'
j}1flgsn] xfn}df kQf nufPsf 5g\ ls oL lk|;fOGoflK6s k|f]l6g
c¿sf] cf;kf; 6\ofluª (Tagging) / 6]«lkª (Trapping) ub}{
bf}l8G5g\,h;n] ubf{ lgd'{lStsf nflu tof/ ;fOGoflK6s e]l;sN;
lemNnL;Fu 7f]lsG5g\ / km'65
\ g\ clg /f;folgs ;"rgf k|jfxsnfO{
:gfo'sf] kl5Nnf] efuaf6 aflx/ lgsfN5g\ .
To;kl5 oL ;"rgfk|jfxs ;fOGoflK6s Sn]ˆ6 gfds @@
Gofgf]ld6/sf] b"/Ldf km}lnG5 . ha ;fOGoflK6s e]l;sN;sf] lemNnL
:gfo'sf] clGtd efudf km]l/ cfOk'U5, ltgLx? k'gM aG5g\ . oL
;fOGoflK6s e]l;sN; k'gM k|of]udf cfpgsf nflu Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/n]
km]l/ el/G5 . ha Psrf]l6 Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ csf]{ 5]pdf k'U5 h'g
cToGt} l56f] Ps ldnL ;]s]G8eGbf sd ;dodf x'G5 . ta o;n]
csf]{ :gfo'sf] lemNnLdf /x]sf] l/;]K6/ gfds ljz]if cf0fljs
;+/rgf;+u k/:k/df lqmof ub{5 . ;fOGoflK6s Sn]ˆ6sf] jl/kl/
lUnon sf]ifx¿ klg 3'ld/x]sf x'G5g\ .

logLx¿dWo] s]xLsf] leq ;fgf EofSo'd lSng/ x'G5, h;nfO{ 6«fG;kf]6/{
elgG5, h;sf] sfd Sn]ˆ6df /x]sf 6«fG;ld6/nfO{ ;f]:g' xf] . o;n] csf]{
PS;g kf]6]lG;on cfpg' eGbf cufl8 g} /f;folgs ;"rgfk|jfxsx?nfO{
pQm af6f]af6 x6fO{ lbG5 . t/ s'g} klg lrh Joy{ h“fb}g, oL lUnon
sf]ifn] 6«fG;ld6/nfO{ k|zf]wg ub{5 / eljiodf k'gM k|of]usf nflu
:gfo'sf] kl5Nnf] efudf l:yt ;~ro ug]{ e]l;sN;df lkmtf{ k7fpF5 .
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/nfO{ ;fOGofK;af6 x6fpgsf] nflu lUnon sf]ifn] ug]{
Joj:yfkg Psdfq dfWod xf]Og . slxn]sf“xL :gfo' sf]ifn] 6«fG;ld6/
c0f'nfO{ Ps}rf]l6 :gfo'sf] kl5Nnf] efudf k'¥ofOlbG5 . c?a]nf,
6«fG;ld6/nfO{ ;fOGoflK6s Sn]ˆ6df /x]sf cGo /;fogn] tf]8g\ ] sfd u5{

.
;"rgfk|jfxs h;n] cfog Rofgn vf]N5
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/sf] l/;]K6/;Fusf] cGt/lqmof tfnf / rfaLsf] h:t} x'G5
. 6«fG;ld6/ -rfaL_ l/;]K6/ -tfnf_ ;Fu hf]l8gfn] k|foh;f] cfos
Rofgn v'Nb5 of] l/;]K6/nfO{ cfogf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/ elgG5 . -lrq
x]g'{xf]nf_
olb cfog Rofgnn] kf]h]l6e cfog -;f]l8od jf Sofnl;od_ nfO{ k|j]z
ug{ lbP eg], kf]h]l6e k|jfxsf] leqL aufOn] pQ]hgf pTkGg x'G5 . h;n]
pQ]hs kf]:6 ;fOg]lK6s kf]6]lG;on gfds lemNnL kf]6]lzondf ptf/
r9fa k}bf u/fpF5 . vf;u/L Ps :gfo'df 7"nf] ;ª\Vofdf ;fOGof;
cfOk'U5g\ / s'g} Ps ;dodf, s]xL ;lqmo x'G5g eg] s]xL x“'b}gg\ . olb oL
pQ]hs, kf]i6 ;fOGoflK6s kf]6]lG;onsf] hf]8, Ps k|]/0ff pTkGg ug{ ;Sg]
:t/;Dd k'Ub5 eg], Ps gofF PS;g kf]6]lG;on aG5 / ;+s]tx¿ k|fKtstf{
:gfo'sf] tnlt/ hfG5– of] af/] kl5Nnf] cWofodf atfOPsf] 5 .

6«fG;ld6/
(ligand)

l/;]K6/

6«fG;ld6/
hL k|f]l6g
l/;]K6/

sf]ifsf] aflx/
Knfhdf lemNnL
sf]ifsf] leq

låtLo
;"rgfk|jfx
Okm]S6/ s

cfogf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/ -afofF_ df Ps Rofgn x'G5, hxfFaf6 ;f]l8od
/ kf]6fl;od h:tf cfog hfG5 . of] Rofgn Ps j[tsf] ?kdf
Jojl:yt, % pk–OsfO ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . d]6faf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/ bfofF_ df Rofgn x'b}g t/ of] sf]lifsf lemNnLsf] leq hL –
k|f]l6g;Fu hf]l8P/ /xG5 h;n] ;Gb]z cufl8 a9fpg ;S5 .

&

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dl:tisdf k|d'v pQ]hs Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ Un'6fd]6 xf] . :gfo'
ultljlwsf] clwstd z'4tfsf nflu s]xL :gfo'df x'g] pQ]hgf
;uF;u} cGo :gfo'sf] ultljlwdf lgoGq0f x'g'k5{ . of] lgif]wsf]
k|lqmof (inhibition) åf/f x'G5 . lgif]wfTds ;fOGof;df
l/;]K6/sf] ;lqmotfn] ubf{ cfog Rofgn v'N5 h;n] C0ffTds
rfh{ cfogsf] cGt{k|jfxnfO{ cg'dlt lbG5 . kmn:j¿k lemNnLsf]
kf]6]lG;ondf kl/jt{g cfpF5 h;nfO{ lgif]wfTds kf]:6
;fOGoflK6s kf]6]lG;on -cfO{ lk P; lk _ - lrq x]g'{xf];\ _ elgG5
. o;n] lemNnLsf] ljw|j' Ls/0fnfO{ lj/f]w u5{ / To;}n] k|fKtstf{
Go'/f]gsf] :gfo'sf]ifdf PS;g kf]6l+ G;ofnsf] ;'?jft klg /f]S5 .
b'O{ k|sf/sf lgif]wfTds Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ x'G5g\ . ufaf /
Unfol;g .
;fOGoflK6s 6«fG;ld;g Ps cToGt tLj| k|lqmof xf]M Ps
;fOGofK;df PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf] cfudg bl]v csf]{ Go"/f]gdf
O{kLP;kLsf] pTklQ ;Ddsf] ;do cToGt tLj|– x'G5 Ps
;]s]G8sf]] !÷!))) hlt . ljleGg Go'/f]gnfO{ Psbd} yf]/}
;doleqdf cGodf Un'6fd]6sf] cfk"lt{sf] ;do lglZrt ug'{kg]{
x'G5, olb k|fKtstf{ Go'/f]gdf /x]sf] O{ kL P:f kL Ps gofF k|]/0ff Impulse_ sf] ;'?jft ug{sf nflu hDdf x“'b}5g\ eg] / lgif]wsf]
k|lqmofn] klg s]xL s'/fx¿nfO{ aGb ug{sf nflu, ToxL cGt/fndf
g} sfo{ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .

pQ]hs ;fOGoflK6s kf]6l+ G;on eg]sf] lemNnLsf] kf]6]lG;on O{kLP;kL_ df &) ldnLjf]N6af6 ) ldnLjf]N6 glhs lj:yfkg
x'g' xf] . lgif]wfTds ;fOGoflK6s kf]6]lG;on -cfO{kLP;kL_ sf]
o;sf] ljk/Lt k|efj x'G5

df]8'n]6 x'g] ;"rgfk|jfxs
pQ]]hs / lgif]wfTds Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/sf klxrfg ug{sf] nflu ul/Psf] vf]hn] Go'/f]gaf6
lgSng] 7"nf] ;ª\Vofsf] cGo /f;folgs kbfy{sf] pkl:yltsf af/] kQf nufPsf] 5 .
oLdWo] y'k|}n] Go'/f]gsf] lemNnLdf d]6faf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/ gfds k|fl]6gsf] Ps km/s ;]6;uF
cGt{lqmof u/]/ :gfo' ;DaGwL k|lqmofnfO{ k|efljt u5{g\ . oL l/;]K6/x?df cfog Rofgn
x'“b}gg\, logLx¿ ;b}j ;fOGofK;s} :yfgdf l:yt x“"b}gg\ / ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f
logLx?n] PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf] ;'?jft ub}{gg\ . xfdLn] ;f]r]sf 5f} ls, oL l/;]K6/n]
Go'/f]g leq eO/xg] /f;folgs k|lqmofsf] Jofks z[ª\vnf ;dfof]hg jf df]8'n]6 u5{g\ /
To;}n] d]6faf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/sf] sfo{nfO{ Go'/f]df]8'n];g elgG5 .
d]6faf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/ sf]ifsf] aflx/L efunfO{ sf]ifleq /x]sf] OGhfOd;“u hf]8\g] hl6n
s0fdf kfOG5 h;n] sf]ifsf] d]6faf]lnhdnfO{ k|efljt u5{ . ha Ps Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/nfO{
Ps d]6faf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/n] klxrfg u5{ / a“fW5, hL k|f]l6g gfds cGt/fn eg]{ k/df0f'
/ lemNnL;“u hf]l8Psf cGo OGhfOd ;fd"lxs ¿kdf ;lqmo x'g ;'? u5{g\ .
d]6faf]6«f]lks klxrfg :yn;“u 6«fG;ld6/sf] aGwgnfO k|Hjngsf] ;fFrf];Fu t'ngf ug{
;lsG5 .o;n] cfogf]6«f]lks l/;]K6/n]h:tf] lemNnLdf cfogsf] nflu 9f]sf vf]Nb}g t/
o;sf] ;f6f] zL3|tfk"j{s cGtsf]{]ifLo låtLo ;"rgfk|jfxsnfO{ ;lqmo agfpF5 h;df
h}ljs /f;folgs lqmofsf] z[ª\vnf ;fd]n x'G5 -lrq x]g'{xf];\_ .

To;kl5 Go'/f]gsf] d]6faf]lns OlGhg cf/De x'G5 / sfo{ ug{ yfN5 . Go'/f]df]8'n];gsf]
k|efjx¿df ;fd]n 5g\≤ cfog Rofgn, l/;]K6/, kl/jxgstf{ / lhgsf] cleJolQmdf ;d]t
kl/jt{g . oL kl/jt{gx¿sf] cf/De lj:tf/} x'G5 / pQ]hs tyf lgif]wfTds 6«fG;ld6/
åf/f ;'? ul/Psf] k|efjeGbf nfdf] ;do;Dd /lx/xG5 / logLx¿sf] k|efj ;fOGofK;eGbf
cufl8 ;Dd hfG5 . logLx¿n] PS;g kf]6]lG;on cf/De gug]{ ePklg, Go'/n g]6js{sf]
dfWodaf6 k|]/0ffsf] cfjfudgdf logLx¿sf] ulx/f] k|efj x'G5 .

;"rgf k|jfxsnfO{ cle1ft ug'{
hL–k|f]l6g l/;]K6/df sfo{ ug]{ cg]s ;"rgf k|jfxsdWo] x'g\
Pl;6fOnsf]lng, 8f]kfldg / g/Pl8«dgflng . oL 6«fG;ld6/nfO{
lgd'{St ug]{ Go'/f]gsf] sf]ifx¿df ljljw k|sf/sf] k|efj x'g] dfq
xf]Og pgLx¿sf] z/Ll/s ;+u7g klg pNn]vgLo x'G5 lsgls
logLx¿ ;ª\Vofdf s]xL sd x'G5g\ t/ ltgLx¿sf] PShf]g
dl:tisdf Jofks ¿kdf k|If]lkt x'G5 -lrq x]g'{xf;\_ .
dfgjdl:tisdf s]jn !^)) g/Pl8«gflng Go'/f]g x'G5g\ t/
ltgLx¿n] dl:tis / ;'if'Dgfsf] ;a} efudf PShf]g k7fpF5g\ . oL
Go'/f]df]8'n]6/L 6«fG;ld6/n] ljz'4 ;+j]bs ;"rgf aflx/ k7fpFb}gg\
t/ 5l/Psf Go'/f]gn ;d'bfonfO{ pgLx¿sf] sfo{ a9fpgsf] nflu
Pslqt u5{g\ .
gofFkg / tgfjsf] ljleGg ¿ksf] k|To'Q/df g/Pl8«gflng lgd'{St
x'G5 / oL r'gf}tLx¿k|lt JolQmsf] hl6n k|ltlqmofnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{
;xof]u u5 y'k|} g]6js{n] of] æhfGg'Æ kg]{ x'G5 ls pQm hLj
tgfjdf 5 . 8f]kfldgn] ;sf/fTds efjgf ;DaGwL ljz]iftf;Fu
hf]l8Psf] dl:tis s]Gb|df sfo{ u/]/ s]xL kl/l:yltnfO{ pQm hGt'sf]
nflu nfesf/L agfpF5 –cWofo $ x]g'{xf];\_ . o;sf] ljk/Lt
Pl:f6fOnsf]nLg b'j} t/Lsfaf6 sfo{ u5{ . o;n] cfog]6«f]lks /
d]6faf]6«f]lks b'j} l/;]K6/df sfo{ u5{ . ;a}eGbf klxn] vf]h
ul/Psf] Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/, o;n] rfns Go'/f]gb]lv :6«]o6]8 df+;k]zL
kmfOj/;Ddsf] :gfo' df+;k]zL hf]8 - Go'/f]d:s'n/ hª\;g_ df
;+s]t k7fpgsf nflu cfolgs k|lqmofsf] pkof]u u5{ .o;n] Ps
Go'/f]df]8'n]6/sf] ¿kdf klg sfo{ ug{ ;S5 . o;n] o;/L klg sfo{
u5{ , pbfx/0fsf] nflu ha tkfO{ s]xL s'/fdf Wofg s]lGb|t ug{
rfxg' x'G5 eg] dl:tisdf /x]sf] kmfOg–6\o'lgu Go'/f]gn] s]jn
;DalGwt ;"rgf dfq lng] sfd u5{ .

Noradrenaline cells are located in the locus coeruleus
(LC). Axons from these cells are distributed throughout
the midbrain such as the hypothalamus (Hyp), the
cerebellum (C) and cerebral cortex.

g/Pl8«gflng sf]if nf]s; sf]o?lnP; (Locuscoeruleus)
PNf:fL_ df l:yt x'G5g\ . oL sf]ifx?sf] PShf]g ld8a|]g el/
km}lnPsf x'G5g\ .h:t} xfOkf]y]n]d; -Hyp_ ;]/]a]nd (C) /
;]/]a|n s6]{S;

*

;fOGofK;sf] af/] Ps pQd j]a;fO6 : http://synapses.mcg.edu/index.asp

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cf}ifwL / dl:tis

y'k|} JolQmdf cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u u/]/ cfˆgf] r]tgfsf] cj:yf kl/jt{g
ug]{ tLj| OR5f ePsf] kfOG5 . pgLx¿ hfuf /xg / k"/f /ft g[To
;+uLtdf 8'la/xgsf nflu pQ]hs cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u u5{g\ . cGon]
cfˆgf] :gfo'nfO{ zflGtk"0f{ cj:yfdf /fVg ;]8]l6e -cf/fdbfos
cf}ifwL_ k|of]Uf u5{g\ . cem} o:tf] kbfy{ klg lnG5g\, h;n]
pgLx?nfO{ r]tg cj:yfsf] gofF ?k cg'ej ug{ / cf;gf] b}lgs
hLjgsf] lrGtfnfO{ e'Ng ;Ifd agfpF5 . of] ;a} cf}ifwLn]
dl:tisdf Go"/f]6«fG;ld6/ / cGo /f;folgs ;"rgfk|jfxs
k|0ffnL;Fu cnucnu ?kdf cGt/lqmof u5{g\ . y'k|} 36gfdf,
cf}ifwLn] k|fs[lts dl:tis k|0ffnLnfO{ lgoGq0fdf lnG5, Tof] k|0ffnL
h;sf] ;DaGw cfgGb / ;'vb cg'e"lt;uF x'G5 / h;cGtu{t
To:tf dgf]j}1flgs k|ls|of k5{g\ hf] ef]hg ug'{, lkpg', of}glqmof
;fy} l;sfO{ / :d/0fsf] nflu klg dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5g\ .

k|lt lge{/tf a9\g] qmddf z/L/ / dl:tis la:tf/} cf}ifwLsf]
af/Daf/sf] pkl:yltnfO{ ckgfp“5, t/ jf:tjdf dl:tisdf s]
kl/jt{g x'G5 eGg] s'/f /x:od} 5 . x'g t, x]/f]Og,
PlDkm6]dfOG;, lgsf]l6g, sf]s]g / s]gfla;sf] sfd ug]{ k|fylds
:yn cnucnu x'G5 t/ oL ;a} cf}iflwsf] ;dfg Ifdtf eg]sf]
logLx¿n] dl:tissf] s]xL If]qdf /f;folgs ;"rgfk|jfxs
8f]kfldgsf]
fldg lgd'{lStnfO{ a9fOlbG5 . oBlk of] sfo{sf] ‘cfGfGb’
cg'e"ltsf] ;'?jft;Fu ;DaGw x'Gf}k5{ eGg] 5}g . o:tf] ;f]lrPsf]
5 ls cf}ifwLsf] k|efjn] x'g] 8fkfldgsf] lgd'{lSt, dl:isdf
‘cfgGb’ k|flKtsf] nflu Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ clGtd ;femf dfu{ xf] .
o;n] tL ;+s]tsf] k|ltlglwTj u5{ h;n] Ps JolQmnfO{ cf}iflwsf]
k|of]u hf/L /fVg k|f]T;fxg lbG5 .]

cf}ifwL – logLx¿n] s;/L sfo{ u5{ / logLx¿nfO{
lnFbfsf] vt/fx¿
PNsf]xn

b'Jo{;gL / lge{/tftkm{sf] af6f]
dl:tisdf of dl:tissf] /Qm;+rf/df sfd ug]{ cf}ifwL cgdf]n
x'g ;S5 .h:t} b'vfO sd ug]{ cf}ifwL dgf]/Ghs cf}ifwLsf]
k|of]usf] Psbd} 5'§} k|of]hg x'G5 / of];Fu hf]l8Psf] ;d:of
eg]sf] o;n] ubf{ b'?kof]u lgDTofpg ;S5 . o;sf k|of]ustf{
lgs} ;lhnf];Fu o;df lge{/ cyjf b'Jo{
Jo{;gu|:t;Dd
x'g ;S5g
t
. pgLx?n] Psbd} clk|o zf/Ll/s Pj+ dgf]j}1flgs nIf0fsf]
;fdgf ug'{k5{, ha pgLx?n] cf}ifwL lbg] afgLnfO{ /f]S5g\ .
lge{/tfsf] of] l:yltn] ubf{ k|of]ustf{nfO{ cf}ifwL lng] OR5f
pTkGg x'G5, ha ls o:tf] ug'{ eg]sf] pgLx¿sf] sfd, :jf:Yo
/ kl/jf/k|lt :ki6 ¿kaf6 gf]S;fg k'¥ofpg' xf] . olb cj:yf
lgs} cl3 k'lu;s]s]f 5 eg], k|of]ustf{n] cf}ifwLsf] k|flKtsf]
nflu ck/fw klg ug{ ;S5 .

PNsf]
xn dl:tisdf Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ k|0ffnL dfly sfo{ u/]/
PNsf]xnn]
xn
pQ]lht ;Gb]znfO{ dGb u/fpg] / Go'/n ;lqmotfsf] cj/f]wnfO{
k|f]T;fxg ug]{ sfd u5{ . PNsf]xnsf] k|efj Ps l8«s kl5 cf/fd
/ /fd|f] dgf]ljgf]bsf] cj:yf x'b“ } cufl8 a9\5 / lgb|f nfUg]
cj:yf x'b“ } r]tgf x/fpg] l:ylt cf“p5 . oxL sf/0fn] ubf{ k'ln;
/S;L lkpg] / ;jf/L rnfpg] k|lt Psbd} s7f]/ x'G5g\ / of]
s7f]/ dgf]j[ltk|lt hgtfsf] klg Psbd} ;dy{g x'G5 . s]xL
dflg;x¿ /S;L lkP/ Psbd} l/;fxf / sf]xL t lx+;|s;d]t x'G5g
/ /S;L lkpg] bzdWo] Pshgf /S;Ldf lge{/ x'g k'U5g\ . nfdf]
;do;Dd /S;L lkO/fVgfn] z/L/nfO{ gf]S;fg k'¥ofp“b5, ljz]if
u/L sn]hf] -liver_ nfO{ / o;n] dl:tisnfO{ :yfoL Iflt
k'¥ofpg ;S5 . /S;L ;]jg ug]{ ue{jtL dlxnfaf6 hlGdPsf]
lzz'df dl:tis Ifltu|:t x'g;Sg] / cfO{=So' -IQ_ sd x'g;Sg]
vt/f x'G5 . la|6]gdf /S;L;Fu ;DalGwt /f]uaf6 k|ltjif{
#),))) eGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'G5 .

;f}efUon] dgf]/H+ fs cf}ifwL lng] ;a}hgf kl5 uP/ o;df
lge{/ xF'b}gg\ . lge{/ u/fpg;Sg] Ifdtf cf}ifwLx¿df cnu
cnu x'G5– sf]s]g, x]/f]Og / lgsf]l6g sf] dfdnfdf clws
hf]lvd x'G5 eg] PNsf]xn,
n sGgfla;,
sGgfla; PS;6];L /
PlDkm6]
PlDkm6]dfOg;\
fOg;\ sf] dfdnfdf hf]lvd s]xL sd x'G5 . cf}iflw

&^%
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!^%
@%

;'tL{

#@%

/lS;

!%%

dfl/h'ofgf

(%

6«fGSo'nfOh/ tyf
lrlsT;s4f/f
lgwf{l/t cf}ifwL
sf]s]g
x]/f]Og

s'g} Ps a]nf plNnlvt cf}ifwL÷j:t'sf] k|of]u ug]{ dflg;sf] k|ltzt

(%
!&%
@#%

lge{/ ePsf k|of]ustf{sf] k|ltzt

(

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o;sf] clws dfqf k6s–k6s lngfn] uf8L rnfpg] of a'l4sf]
pkof]u ug'{kg]{ sfd ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 . ljleGg k|of]ux¿jf6 l;4
ePsf] 5 ls, Sofgla;sf] g;fdf ePsf dflg;x¿n] hl6n dfgl;s
sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . x'gt clxn];Dd l;4 e};s]sf] 5}g tfklg s]xL
;fIo 5g\ ls o'jfx?n] o;sf] a9L k|of]u ugf{n] ;+j]bgzLn
JolQmx?df dfgl;s /f]u l;hf]k|]mlgof (Schizophrenia) x'g ;S5 k]h g+= %! x]g'{xf]nf _

PlDkm6fdfOG;

æhln/x]sf] r'/f]6 ;lxtsf] vKk/Æ – leG;]G6 Eofg uf]3, !**%

lgsf]l6g
lgsf]l6g ;a} ;'tL{hGo pTkfbgx¿sf] Ps ;lqmo cjoj xf] .
lgsf]l6gn] To:tf] dl:tis l/;]K6/df sfo{ u5{, h;n] ;fdfGotof
Go'/f]6«f+;ld6/ Pl;6fOnsfl]ngsf] klxrfg u5{ h;n] dl:tisdf
k|fs[lts ;r]ts k|lqmofnfO{ ;lqmo agfpg] sfd u5{ .o;} sf/0fn],
r'/f]6 lkpg] JolQmn] o;nfO{ lnFbf cfkm"nfO{ Wofg s]lGb|t ug{ d2t
ldN5 / Ps lsl;dsf] cf/fdsf] cg'e"lt ldN5 eGg' cfZro{sf]
s'/f xf]Og . ;d:of of] 5 ls, lgsf]l6g cToGt nt a;fpg] kbfy{
xf] / y'k|} w'd|kfgsf cDdnLx¿ o;nfO{ 5f]8b\ f x'g] clk|o
nIf0fx¿af6 aRgsf nflu klg o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' plrt
;DemG5g\ .o;sf] cfgGb nfdf] ;do rln/xG5 .dl:tisdf s'g}
vt/gfs c;/ gkg]{ ePklg w'd|kfg kmf]S;f]sf] nflu cToGt}
xfgLsf/s x'G5 / nfdf] ;do;Dd o;sf] ;]jg ugf{n] kmf]S;f]
SofG;/ ;fy} cGo kmf]S;f] / d'6' ;DaGwL /f]u nfUg ;S5
.lj|6]gdf w'd|kfg hGo /f]usf sf/0f k|To]s jif{ Ps nfveGbf a9L
dflg;sf] d[To' x'G5 .
Sofgflj;
Sofgflj;n]
Sofgflj; xfd|f] ;fd' Pp6f e|d k}bf u/]sf] 5 . lsgeg] o;n]
/f;folgs ¿kaf6 Sofgflj; h:t} nfUg] Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/sf] pkof]u
ug]{ dl:tissf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ k|fs[lts k|0ffnLdf sfo{ ub{5 . of]
k|0ffnLn] df+;k]zLsf] lgoGq0f / b'vfOsf] ;+j]bgzLntfsf]
Joj:yfkg ub{5 . a'l4dfgLk"j{s pkof]u u/]sf] v08df tyf
lrlsT;sLo ;Gbe{df Sofgfla; Ps cToGt} pkof]uL cf}ifwL ;flat
x'g ;S5 . Sofgfla; Ps k|sf/sf] Og 6lS;s]G6 xf], h'g cfgGb
lbg] / cf/fd lbg] vfnsf] x'g ;S5 / o;n] ;kgf h:tf] l:ylt
agfpF5 h;df JolQmsf] Wjlg, /· / ;dosf] cg'e"lt ghflgbf]
lsl;dn] s]xL kl/jt{g x'G5 .o;sf] clws dfqfdf k|of]u ugf{n]
s;}sf] d[To' ePsf] kfO“b}g, t}klg w]/} dfqfdf k|of]u ugf{n] s]xL
k|of]ustf{n] clk|o clteo¿kL l:yltsf] ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ x'g;S5 .
la|6]gdf tL; jif{ d'lgsf nueu cfwfh;f] dflg;x?n] sd ;] sd
Psk6s Sofgfla;sf] k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 . s]xL dflg;x¿
o;nfO sfg'gL dfGotf lbg'k5{ / o;f] ugf{n] pQm cf}ifwLsf]
cfk"lt{sf] cGo vt/gfs cf}ifwLsf] ck"lt{;u+“ sf] ;DaGwnfO{ tf]8g\
;lsG5 eGg]df ljZjf; u5{g\. b'ef{Uojz, lgsf]l6gsf] nflu h:t}
Sofgflj;nfO{ z/L/leq k|j]z u/fpg] ;a}eGbf k|efjsf/L tl/sf
eg]sf] o;nfO{ w'j“fsf] ¿kdf (Smoking) lng' xf] . Sofgla;sf]
w'j“fdf r'/f]6d} x'g]vfnsf] ljifsf] ld>0f x'G5 .-/ o;nfO{ k|foM
;'tL{sf] ;fydf lnO{G5 _ . Sofgfla; lkpg] dflg;x¿df kmf]S;f]sf]
/f]ux? b]lvg ;S5 / pgLx?df kmf]S;f]sf] SofG;/ x'g;Sg] vt/f
x'G5, x'gt of] s'/f clxn];Dd l;4 e};s]sf] 5}g . bz dWo] Ps
k|of]ustf{ o;df lge{/ x'g ;S5, of] cf}ifwL a]Rg] dfG5] o;af/]
/fd|f];u+“ hfgsf/ x'G5g\ .

!)

PlDkm6fdfOG
lDkm6fdfOG;
dfOG; dfgj lgld{t /;fog x'g\ h;df æ8]S;]l8«gÆ
( Dexedrine ) æl:k8Æ ( speed ) / æPS;6];LÆ ( ecstasy )
gfds d]yPlDkm6fdfOg 8]l/e]l6e ( derivative ) ;fd]n x'G5g\ .
oL cf}ifwLn] b'O{j6f k|fs[lts ¿kdf kfOg] Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/sf] lgd{'lQm
u/fP/ dl:tisdf sfo{ u5{ . Pp6f 8f]kfldg xf] h;n] ;+ejtM
PlDkm6fdfOG;n] x'g] ;zSt pQ]hgf / o;sf] cfgGbbfoL k|efjsf]
JofVof u5{ . csf]{ ;]/]6f]lgg (serotonin) xf], hf] cfk"m ;Grf]
ePsf] cg'e"lt k}bf ug{ / ;kgf h:tf] l:ylt h;df x]n'l;g];g
(hallucination) ;fd]n x'G5– o:tf] k}bf ug{sf] nflu pQ/bfoL
dflgG5 . 8]S;]l8«g / l:k8n] ljz]if u/L 8f]kfldg / PS;6];Ln]
;]/]6f]lggsf] lgd'{lStnfO{ k|f]T;fxg lbG5 . cem clws zlQmzfnL
xn';f]gf]lhs l8–PnP;l8n] klg dl:tisdf ;]/]6f]lgg k|lqmofdf
sfo{ ub{5 . PlDkm6fdfOG;\ zlQmzfnL ;fOsf]l:6d'n]G6 (Psycho
stimulant) x'g\ / clws dfqfdf lnPsf] v08df logLx¿
vt/gfs x'g ;S5g\ . hgfj/df ul/Psf] k|of]un] b]vfPsf] 5 ls,
PS;6];Ln] ;]/]6f]lgg sf]lzsfdf nfdf] ;do;Dd / ;fob :yfoL
¿kd} sdL cfpg ;S5 . of] ;fob ;KtfxfGtsf PS;6];L
k|of]ustf{nfO{ x'g] æld8 ljs An'hÆ (mid week blues) sf] nflu
pQ/bfoL x'g;S5 . k|To]s jif{ bh{gfF} o'jf o;nfO{ k|of]u ugf{n]
db{5g\ .eoeLt u/fpg] l;hf]k|m]lgof– h:t} ;fOsf]l;;sf] ;d:of
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xf]Og . o;n] To:tf] ub}g{ .

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To:tf] k|0ffnLnfO{ lgoGq0fdf lnG5, h;n] OG8f]lkm{g gfds
k|fs[lts ¿kdf pknAw Go'/f]6«f+;ld6/sf] pkof]u u5{ . logLx¿
b'vfO{sf] lgoGq0fsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5g\ / To;}n] logLx?sf]
ultljlwsf] cg's/0f ug]{ cf}ifwL lrlsT;f If]qdf cToGt
dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . x]/f]OgnfO{ ;'O{ -Oh]S;g_ jf w'jfFsf] ¿kdf
lnOG5 hxfF o;n] t'?Gt cfgGbsf] cg'e"lt u/fpF5– of] ;+ejtM
nfesf/L k|lqmofdf PG8lkm{G;sf] k|efjsf sf/0f x'g;S5 . of]
clws nt nufpg] kbfy{ xf] t/ ha lge{/tf a9\g yfN5, ta of]
cfgGbbfoL cg'ej l56} x/fP/ hfG5 / o;sf] ;f6f] lg/Gt/
æcfsf+IffÆ k}bf x'G5 . of] cToGt} vt/gfs cf}ifwL xf] h;sf]
s]xL clws dfqfdf lngfn] klg d[To' x'g ;S5 -o;n]
Zjf;k|Zjf;sf] l/ˆn]S; -reflex_ nfO{ bafOlbG5_ x]/f]Ogn] w]/}
dflg;sf] hLjg gfz u/]sf] 5 . Æ

sf]s]g
sf]s]g Ps csf]{ jg:klt Jo'TkGg /f;folgs kbfy{ xf] h;n]
c;fWo} cfgGbbfoL cg'e"lt u/fpg ;S5 . ;fy;fy} o;n] Ps
zlQmzfnL ;fOsf]l:6d'n]G6 -Psychostimulant_ sf] ¿kdf sfo{
u5{ . PlDkm6fdfOG;\ h:t} sf]s]gn] dl:tisdf clws 8f]kfldg /
;]/f]6f]lgg pknAw u/fpF5 . t}klg x]/f]Og h:t} sf]s]g klg Psbd}
vt/gfs cf}ifwL xf] . o;sf] dft nfu]sf] dflg;x¿ ljz]if u/L
æj|mofsÆ gfds w'jfFsf] ¿kdf o;nfO{ lng]x¿ t'?Gt} lx+;|s /
pQ]hs x'g ;S5g\= / o;sf] clws dfqfsf] k|of]u hLjgs} nflu
3fts x'g ;S5 . o;df lge{/tf k|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj w]/} x'G5 /
sf]s]g lng] afgL hf/L /fVg o;sf] k|of]ustf{x¿ ck/fwdf nfUg
;S5g\ .

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\ nf /x]sf x'G5g\ ;fy}
kL8fsf] ;+j]bgfsf nflu klg cGo /x]sf x'G5g\ . lje]bsf]
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rfksf]
rfk cg'e"lt_ ha ls ?lkmgL
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l/;]lK6e If]q, ;f]df6f];]G;/L l/;]K6/ cGtu{t kg]{ Ps dxŒjk"0f{
wf/0ff xf] . of] 5fnfdf x'g] Ps o:tf] If]q xf] hxfF k|To]s cnu–
cnu l/;]K6/n] k|ltlqmof lbG5 . k]l;lgog sk{;sN;sf] l/;]lK6e
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;txel/ x/]s ;+j]bgfsf] cg'ej ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . ha Ps rf]l6
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l/;]K6/nfO{ ;'if'Dgf;Fu hf]8g\ ] PShf]g 7'nf dfolng]6]8 tGt' x'G5g\
h:fn] aflx/af6 ;]/]a|n s6]{S;tkm{ Psbd} l56f] ;"rgf k|;f/0f u5{
. 7G8L, udL{ / kL8fsf] ;+j]bgf clGtddf gfª\uf ePsf PShf]gn]
kfpF5, h:n] s]lx l9nf] k|;f/0f u5{ . tfksf] l/;]K6/n] cg's"ntf
ntf
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x'g'eGbf klxn] d]8'nf / y]n]d;df :kz{sf nflu l/n] :6];g /x]sf]
x'G5 . :gfo'n] dWo/]vf kf/ u5{ h;n] ubf{ z/L/sf] afof efusf]
k|ltlglwTj bfofF uf]nf4{n] / bfoFf efusf] k|ltlglwTj afoFf uf]nf4{n]
u5{ .

tfksf] cg's"ntf ;DaGwL Ps k|of]u
k]l;lgPg sk{;sn

o;sf] ;'?jft 5fnfaf6 x'G5
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ul/Psf] 5– k]l;lgog
;lgog / ldd;g/ sk{;sN; . ds]{N; l8:s
/ ?lkmgL OlG8ª;\n] :kz{sf] ljleGg kIfsf] cg'ej u5{g\ .
oL ;a} l/;]K6/df cfog Rofgn x'G5 hf] oflGqs lj¿k0fsf]
k|To'Q/df v'Nb5g\, h:fn] PS;g kf]6]lG;onnfO{ ;lqmo
agfpF5, h:fnfO{ ;"Id On]S6«f]8sf] dfWodaf6 k|of]ufTds
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cfZro{df kfg]{ vfnsf cg';Gwfg u/]sf lyP, h;df
pgLx¿n] Psn ;+j]bs Go'/f]gaf6 clen]v /fVg cfÇg}
5fnfdf On]S6«f]8 3';f/]/ cfkm"d} cg';Gwfg u/]sf lyP . oL
/ n7\ofOPsf hgfj/df ul/Psf oL h:t} cg';Gwfgaf6
clxn] yfxf kfOPsf] 5 ls klxnf] b'O{ l/;]K6/x¿ zL3|
cg's"lnt x'G5g\ / logLx?n] t]h ¿kn] abln/xg]

of] k|of]u Psbd} ;/n 5 . tkfO{nfO{ Ps ld6/ hlt
nfdf] wft'sf] 58 rflxG5, h:tf] ls 6fjn /]n (Towel
rail) ;fy} b'O{ jflN6g kfgL rfFlxG5 . Pp6f jflN6gdf
cln tftf] kfgL / csf]{ jflN6gdf hlt ;Sbf] lr;f] kfgL
x'g'k5{ . ca tkfO{ Pp6f jflN6gdf cfLgf] bfofF /
csf]{df afofF xft 8'afpg'xf];\ / sDtLdf Ps ldg]6;Dd
/fVg'xf];\ . ca cfLgf] xft aflx/ lgsfNg'xf];\, To;nfO{
l56f] ;'Vvf agfpFg'xf];\ / wft'sf] 58 xftdf ;dfTg'xf];\
. tkfO{nfO{ nfUg]5 ls 58sf] tfkdfg b'j} efukl§ cnu–
cnu 5, lsg <
z/L/af6 k|fKt lgj]znfO{ z/L/sf] ;txsf] k|ltlglwTj agfpgsf
nflu ;f]d]6f];]G;/L s6]{S;sf] jl/kl/ Jojl:yt ¿kn] dfglrlqt
ul/G5 . z/L/sf s]xL efux¿ h:t} tkfO{sf] cf}“nfsf] 6'Kkf /
d'vdf l/;]K6/x¿ clws ;ª\Vofdf x'G5g\ / ;Fu;Fu} ;+j]bs Go'/f]g
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l/;]K6/ / Go'/f]g x'G5g\ oBlk, ;]d]6f];]G;/L s6]{S;df, Go'/f]gsf]
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Ps}vfn] 3gTjdf km}lnPsf] :kz{ l/;]K6/sf] k/ssf] ;fy ;fFRr} ljBdfg
x'GYof] eg], pQm JolQm cfZro{hgs ¿kn] ljs[t b]lvGYof] .
tkfO{ b'O{ ljGb'
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k/LIf0fsf]
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;+j]bgzLntfsf] k/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . s]xL k]k/ lSnknfO{ o' "U"
cfsf/df df]8g'xf];\ s]xLsf] 6'Kkf] @–# ;]=ld= cnu 5f]8g\ 'xf];\ eg] s]xLsf]
cln glhsd} df]8g\ 'xf];\ . To;kl5, cfFvfdf k§L afFWg'xf];\ / Pp6f
;fyLnfO{ oL k]k/ lSnksf] 6'Kkfn] tkfO{sf] z/L/sf] ljleGg efudf :kz{
ug{sf] nflu eGg'xf];\ . tkfO{nfO{ Pp6f 6'Kkf]sf] cg'ej eof] of b'O{6fsf] <
s] tkfO{nfO{ slxn]sfxLF b'O{6f 6'Kkfn] 5'bF f klg Pp6fn] dfq} 5f]Ph:tf]
cg'ej eof] < lsg <

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ug'{xf];\ ls tkfO{ ljleGg agfj6sf] ljrdf ;"Id lje]b 5'6o\ fpFb}
x'g'x'G5, h:t} ljleGg sk8f of :ofG8k]k/sf] lardf . tkfO{sf]
ljrf/df tnsf dWo] s'g rflxF kl/l:yltn] ;"Id lje]b kQf nufpF5
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gd'gfsf] dfly tkfO{sf] cf}n
F fsf] 6'Kkf 3'dfpFbf <
oGqsf] ;xof]un] gd'gfnfO{ tkfO{sf] cfF}nfsf] 6'Kkf
jl/kl/ 3'dfpFbf <

o:tf] Jojxf/fTds k|of]usf] kl/0ffdn] k|Zg p7fpF5 ls dl:tisdf
sxfFlg/ ;DalGwt ;+j]bs ;"rgfsf] ljZn]if0f x'G5 < sfof{Tds
dl:tis Od]lhªn] ;+s]t u5{ ls :kz{åf/f agfj6 jf j:t'sf] klxrfg
ug]{ qmddf s6]{S;sf] ljleGg If]q ;fd]n x'G5g\ . dl:tis Od]lhªn]
;f]df6f];]G;/L If]qdf z/L/sf] gS;f cg'ejsf] ;fy ablng ;S5 eGg]
tYo k|s6 u/]/ sl6{sn Knfl:6l;l6 -Cortical Plasticity_ sf
af/] cGt{b[li6 pTkGg ug{ ;'?jft u/]sf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu a|]n
k9\g] b[li6ljlxg JolQmdf k9\bf k|of]u x'g] rf]/ cfF}nfsf] sl6{sn
pkl:ylt clws dfqfdf x'G5 / tf/ ahfpg] JolQmdf -String
Player_ b]a|] xftsf] cf}nfsf] sl6{sn pkl:ylt clws x'G5 .

xf]d'gs'n; . ;f]df6f];]G;/L s6]{S;sf] ;txdf z/L/sf] s'g} klg
efuaf6 cfpg] l/;]K6/sf] ;ª\Vofsf] cg'kftdf JolQmsf] 5lj
agfOPsf] 5 . logLx¿sf] c;fWo} ljs[t :j¿k x'G5 .

lje]bsf] ljlzi6 Ifdtf
;"Id ljj/0f cg'ej ug]{ Ifdtf z/L/sf] ljleGg efudf cnu–cnu x'G5 .
cem cf}n
F fsf] 6'Kkf / cf]7df of] Ifdtf cToGt} w]/} x'G5 . 5fnf olt
;+j]bgzLn x'G5 ls o;n] Ps ldlnld6/sf] ;o efusf] Ps efu hlt
p7]sf] ljGb'nfO{ klg gfKg ;S5 – To;sf] nflu tkfO{n] b[li6ljxLg
JolQmn] k9\g] a|]n lnlkdf h;/L /u8\g'k5{. cg';Gwfgsf] Ps lqmofzLn
If]qn] atfpF5 ls, ljleGg k|sf/sf l/;]K6/n] s;/L ljleGg sfo{x¿ h:t}
agfa6sf] jLrdf lje]b kQf nufpg'' cyjf s'g} j:t'sf] cfsf/ kQf
nufpg' cflbdf of]ubfg lbG5 .
:kz{ s]jn Ps lgliqmo cg'el" t xf]Og h:fn] k|fKt u/]sf] ;+j]bgfnfO{ dfq
k|To'Q/ lbG5 . of] ultlzntfsf] ;lqmo lgoGq0f
lgoGq0fdf klg ;fd]n x'G5 .
tkfO{sf] xftsf] df+;k]zLsf] lgoGq0f ug]{ rfns s6]{S;df /x]sf Go'/f]g
h:fn] tkfO{sf] cf}Fnfx¿ xNnfpF5, tL Go'/f]gn] cf}n
F fsf] 6'Kkfdf ePsf :kz{
l/;]K6/af6 ;+j]bs lgj]z kfpFb5 . xftaf6 lrlKng nfu]sf] j:t'nfO{
;+j]bs / rfns k|0ffnLsf] ljrdf x'g] b|'t ;~rf/sf] dfWodaf6 eGbf cem
/fd+|f];+u s;/L klxrfg ug]{ < ;+j]bs / rfns k|0ffnL aLr jftf{ ;'if'Dgfsf]
k|yd l/n]hdf cf/De x'G5, h;df rfns Go'/f]gk|lt k|f]lk|of];]lK6e
lkm8Jofs (Proprioceptive Feedback) ;fd]n x'G5 / of]
;f]df6f];]G;/L k|0ffnLsf] x/]s :t/df hf/L /xG5 . k|fylds ;+j]bs /
rfns sl6{;]; (cortices) dl:tisdf Ps csf{sf] ;dLkdf /xG5 .

kL8f
w]/}h;f] kL8fnfO{ :kz{sf] ;fy Pp6f csf]{ Tjrf ;+j]bgfsf] ¿kdf
juL{s[t ul/g] eP tfklg kL8f jf:tjdf leGg sfo{x¿ / cToGt
km/s zf/Ll/s ;+u7g ePsf] Ps k|0ffnL xf] . o;sf] k|d'v
ljz]iftfx¿ eg]sf], of] clk|o x'G5, x/]s JolQmdf km/s km/s
x'G5 / cfZro{hgs ¿kdf kL8fsf l/;]K6/n] k7fpg] ;"rgfn]
pQ]hgfsf] :jefjsf af/] yf]/} hfgsf/L k|bfg u5{ -3fpsf] b'vfO
/ kf]Ng] kftsf] 8;fOsf] b'vfOdf yf]/} cGt/ x'G5_ k|frLg u|Lsdf
kL8fnfO{ Ps ;+j]bgfsf] ¿kdf geP/ Ps efjgfsf] ¿kdf
lnO{GYof] . hgfj/df Psn ;+j]bs kmfOa/df ul/Psf] clen]vgn]
tGt'sf] Iflt ug]{ of s]jn Ifltsf] r]tfjgL lbg] vfnsf pQ]hgf
k|lt k|ltlqmof k|s6 u5{– pu| oflGqs pQ]hgf -h:t} lrdf]6g\ '_,
pu| tfk / cg]s k|sf/sf] /f;folgs pQ]hgf t/ To:tf
k|of]ux¿n] xfdLnfO{ JolQmut cg'ejsf af/]df k|ToIf ?kdf s]xL
klg atfpFb}gg\ .
clxn] cf0fljs hLj j}1flgs 6]lSgS;n] y'k|} gf]l;l/;]K6/sf]
6/
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l/;]K6/ ;fd]n 5g\ h:fn] $^ l8u|L ;]lN;o;eGbf clws udL{,
tGt'sf] cDnLotf / Ps csf]{ cfZro{hgs s'/f– v';f{gLsf] ;lqmo
cjojsf k|lt k|ltlqmof lbG5g\ . k|an oflGqs pQ]hgfk|lt
k|ltlqmof lbg] l/;]K6/sf lhgsf] cem} kQf nfu]sf] 5}g, t/
ltgLx¿ ToxfF x'g}k5{ . k]/Lkm]/n ckm/]G6 kmfO{a/sf] b'O{j6f ju{n]
xflgsf/s pQ]hgfnfO{ k|ltlqmof lbG5 –ck]Iffs[t tLj| dfolng]6]8
kmfOa/, h;nfO{ Aδ fiber elgG5 / cToGt ;"Id, l9nf], u}/
dfolng]6]8 l; kmfOa/
kmfOa/ -C fiber__. :gfo'sf] b'O{j6} ;]6 ;'if'Dgfdf
k|j]z u5{g, hxfF logLx?n] ;]/]a|n s6]{S;tkm{ hfg] Go'/f]gsf
z[ªv
\ nf;Fu ;fOGofK; agfpF5 . logLx¿n] ;dfgfGt/ cf/f]xL
dfu{sf dfWodaf6 To;f] u5{g\ h;df Pp6fn] kL8fsf] :yfg
lglZrt u5{ eg] csf]{ kL8fsf] efjgfTds kIfsf] nflu pQ/bfoL
x'G5 .

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df]lk{
lk{mg

d]6–PGs]km]lng

cj/f]xL dfu{n] o;nfO{ dWo:y u/sf] x'G5 .o;df OG8f]lhg; cf]lkcO8
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PG8f]lhg; cf]lkcO8n] sfo{ u5{ .

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PlG6l/o/ l;ª\
l;ªu\ 'n]6 s6]{S; / OG;'n/ s6]{S; ;fd]n
x'G5g\ . lxKgf]l;;sf] pkof]u åf/f ul/g] a|]g Od]lh+u k|of]un] ubf{
kL8fsf] clk|otfnfO{ s]jn kL8fsf] ;+j]bgfaf6 5'6o\ fpg ;Dej
ePsf] 5 .
k|of]udf ;fd]n JolQmn] cfÇgf] xft kf]Ng] vfnsf] tftf] kfgLdf
8'afPF / To;kl5 pgLx?nfO{ kL8fsf] tLa|tf a9\g' of 36g' of
kL8fsf] clk|otfsf] nflu lxKgf]l;;sf] k|efjdf /flvof] . kf]lh6«f]g
Pld;g 6f]df]u|fkmL -kLO6L_, sf] pkof]uaf6 kQf nufOof] ls
kL8fsf] k|antfsf] cg'ejdf abnfj cfp“bf, ;f]df6f];]G;/L
s6]{S;sf] ;lqmotf ePsf] lyof] eg] kL8fsf] clk|otfsf] cg'ej;+u
PlG6l/o/ l;ª\u'n]6 s6]{S;sf] ;lqmotf hf]l8Psf] lyof] .
kL8f lagfsf] hLjg <
xfdL kL8fsf] ;|f]taf6 6f9} /xg rfxG5f“}+, h:tf] ls bfFtsf] 8fS6/,
To;sf/0f tkfO“{ kL8flagfsf] hLjg slt /fd|f] x'GYof] xf]nf eGg]
sNkgf ug'{x'G5 xf]nf . t/ To:tf] x“'b}g . lsgeg] kL8fsf] k|d'v
sfo{dWo] Ps eg]sf] xfdLnfO{ kL8f k}bf u/fpg] l:yltx?af6 6f9f
/xg ;dIf agfpg' xf] . ;'if'Dgfdf k|j]z ug]{ gf]l;;]lK6j :gfo'df
x'g] PS;g kf]6]lG;onn] :jrflnt ;'/IffTds k|ltIf]k lqmofsf]
k|f/De u5{, h:t} ljy8«n l/Çn]S; (Withdrawl reflex) .
;fy} logLx¿n] vt/gfs of eoeLt kfg]{ kl/l:yltaf6 6f9} /xg
dfu{blz{t ug]{ ;"rgf k|bfg u5{g\ .
kL8fsf] csf]{ k|d'v sfo{ ultljlwnfO{ /f]Sg' xf]– o;/L cf/fd
ugf{n] tGt'df ePsf] IfltnfO{ 7Ls kfg{ dbt u5{ . lg;Gb]x, of]
klg dxŒjk"0f{ 5 ls sltko kl/l:yltdf ultljlw / knfog
k|ltlqmofx¿ /f]lsb}g . o:tf] l:yltdf a:g] ;fdy{ k|bfg ug{sf
nflu lqmof lj1fgsf k|lqmofx?sf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 h;n] kL8fnfO{
36fpF5 of a9fpF5 . ;j{k|yd kQf nufOPsf] To:tf] df]8'n]6/L
k|lqmof xf] – PG8f]
PG8f]lhg; PgfNh]l;ssf]
;s lgd{'lSt . ;Defljt rf]6sf]
kl/l:yltdf, h:tf] ls o'4 e"lddf ;}lgs, kL8fsf] cg'e"lt Ps
cfZro{hgs :t/;Dd 36\5 – o;sf] sf/0f plNnlvt kbfy{sf]
lgd{'lSt x'g;S5 . hgfj/df ul/Psf] k|of]uaf6 kQf nfu]sf] 5
ls PSj]8S6n u|] kbfy{ h:tf] dl:tis If]qsf] ljB'tLo pQ]hgfn]
kL8fsf] :t/df pNn]vgLo pTyfg x'G5 / ld8a|]gaf6 ;'if'Dgftkm{sf]

kL8f a9\bfsf] sGe;{ (Converse) 36gfnfO{ xfOk/PNh]l;of elgG5
. h;df ;xg ;lsg] b'vfOsf] :t/sf sdL cfpF5, kL8fsf] k|antfdf
a[l4 x'G5 / slxn]sfxL“, pQm If]q h;dfly kL8fsf] cg'ej ePsf] 5,
km/flsnf] x'g] / ljgfzsf/L pQ]hgfsf] cg'kl:yltdf klg kL8fsf]
cg'ej x'g], of] b'j} x'g;S5 . of] Ps k|d'v lSnlgsn ;d:of aGg
;S5 . xfOk/PNh]l;ofdf k]l/km]/n l/;]K6/sf] ;r]tgfsf ;fy;fy}
cf/f]xL kL8f dfu{sf] ljleGg :t/sf hl6n 36gfx¿ ;fd]n x'G5g\ .
o;df /f;folgs ¿kaf6 dWo:y ePsf] pQ]hgf / OlGxla;gsf]
larsf] cGt/lqmof ;fd]n x'G5 . k'/fgf] kL8fsf] cj:yfdf b]lvg]
xfOk/PNh]l;of pQ]hgfsf] j[l4 / OlGxlj;gsf] cjgltsf] kl/0ffd
:j¿k x'G5 . oL dWo] w]/}h;f]sf] sf/0f ;+j]bs ;"rgfnfO{ k|lqmofut
ug]{ Go'/f]gsf] k|ltlqmofzLntfdf kl/jt{g cfpg' xf] . ;DalGwt
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6;{sf] sfo{nfO{ dWo:y ug]{ l/;]K6/ c0f'df dxŒjk"0f{
kl/jt{g x'G5 . xfOk/PNh]l;ofsf] sf]ifdf x'g] k|lqmof ;DaGwL xfd|f]
a'emfO{df 7"n} pGglt ePtf klg k'/fgf] kL8fsf] lSnlgsn pkrf/
cfh;Dd klg b'Mvb ¿kn] ckof{Kt g} 5 .

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL

k/Dk/fut lrlgof lrlsT;fdf kL8faf6 /fxt kfpg æPSo"k~r/Æ
gfds ljlwsf] pkof]u ul/G5 . of] ljlwdf d]l/l8og ;Fu;Fu} z/L/sf]
ljz]if :yfgdf dl;gf] ;'O xflnG5 / pkrf/ ul/lbg] JolQmn] pQm
;'O{nfO{ 3'dfpF5 of To;df sDkg k}bf u/fpF5 . o;n] lgZro g}
kL8faf6 /fxt ldN5 t/ o:tf] lsg x'G5 s;}n] atfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\
.
rfnL; jif{ klxn], o;sf] sfo{ljlw hfGgsf] nflu rLgdf Pp6f
cg';Gwfg k|of]uzfnf v8f ul/of] . o;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k kQf
nufOof] ls sDkgsf] Ps cfjt{gaf6 x'g] ljB'tLo pQ]hgfn] d]6–
PGs]km]lng h:tf OG8f]lkm{g gfds OG8f]lhg; cf]lkcFO8sf] lgd{'lQm ;'?
x'G5 eg] csf]{ cfjt{gsf] pQ]hgfdf 8fogf]lkm{g k|lt ;+j]bgzLn Ps
k|0ffnL ;lqmo x'G5 . o; sfo{n] Ps sd vlr{nf] ljB'tLo d];Lgsf]
ljsf; eof] -afof“_ h;nfO{ cf}ifwLsf] ;6\6fdf kL8f sd ug{ k|of]u
ug{ ;lsG5 . Ps hf]/ On]S6«f]8 xftsf] æx]s'Æ ljGb'df /flvG5 -bfof“_
eg] csf]{ kL8f ePsf] :yfgdf /flvG5 .

PSo'kGr/sf] af/]df cem} k9\
k9j\ rfxg'x'G5 < of] j]a;fO6 x]g{ ;Sg'x'G5 .
http://acupuncture.com/Acup/AcuInd.htm

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b[li6
dfgj b[li6sf] lx;fan] cToGt ;lqmo hLj xf] h;n] b'lgof ;DaGwL
cg]s lg0f{o lngsf nflu nuftf/ cf!gf] cf“vfsf] k|of]u u5{ . c¿
k|fOd]6;\ sf] (Primates) h:t} cufl8 /x]sf] cf“vfsf] dfWodaf6
xfdL b[li6sf] pkof]u jftfj/0fdf To:tf kIf a'em\ gsf] nflu u5f“}{ hf]
xfd|f] z/L/af6 6f9f x'G5 . k|sfz Ps k|sf/sf] ljB't\ r'DasLo
pmhf{ xf], h'g xfd|f] cf“vfdf k|j]z u5{ / ToxfF /]l6gfdf /x]sf]
kmf]6f]l/;]K6/df sfo{ u5{ . o;sf/0f To:tf] k|lqmof ;'? x'G5
h;af6 Go"/n k|]/0ff hfu[t x'G5 To;kl5 of] b[li6ut dl:tissf]
dfu{ / ;~hfn x'b“ } cufl8 a9\5 . ld8j|]g / ;]/]a|n s6]{S;tkm{
hfg] 5'§f5'§} dfu{n] cnu cnu b[li6ut sfo{nfO{ dWo:y u5{g\–
b[li6ut ljZjsf] ult, cfsf/, /+u tyf cGo vf; ljz]iftfx?sf]
klxrfg / k|ltlglwTj . oL dWo] ;a} xf]Og, s]xLsf] dfq r]tgf;Dd
kxF'r x'G5 . s6]{S;df, ljz]if b[li6ut If]qdf w]/} ;ª\Vofdf
Go'/f]gx¿ ljleGg lsl;dsf b[li6ut lg0f{o lngsf nflu sfo{/t
x'G5g\ .

Ps cgGt l/u|];gnfO{ /f]Sgsf lglDt, dfu{df s'g} jf:tljs
ljj/0f lagf b[li6ut dl:tisn] ;'Nemfpg' kg]{ 7"nf] ;d:of xfd|f]
cufl8 pleG5– o;n] b[li6ut ljZjaf/] JofVof ug{ / lg0f{o
lngsf nflu cf“vfaf6 cfPsf sf]8 ul/Psf ;Gb]zsf] s;/L
pkof]u u5{ .
Psk6s /]l6gfdf kmf]s; ePkl5, /]l6gfsf] ;txdf Jojl:yt
!@% ldlnog kmf]6f]l/;]K6/n]
6/ ;–;fgf ljB'tLo kf]6]lG;onnfO{
pTkGg u/]/ ToxfF 7f]lsPsf] k|sfzsf] k|To'Q/ lbG5g\ . of] ;+s]t
;fOGofK; x'Fb} /]l6gf l:yt sf]ifsf] ;~hfn;Dd k'U5g\, o;kl5
/]l6gn Uofª
\lUnog sf]if ;lqmo x'G5g\, h;sf] PShf]g ldn]/
UofªlUnog
lUn
clK6s :gfo'
:gfo agfp5 . logLx? dlitis leq k|j]z u5{g\ hxfF
logLx¿n] ljlzi6 sfo{ ug]{ y'k|} b[li6ut If]qdf PS;g kf]6]lG;on
k|]lift u5{g\ .

cfvfFdf k|sfzM
cf“
“ fdf k|sfz Ko'lknsf]
lkn dfWodaf6 k|j]z u5{ / slg{of / n]G;sf]
cfv
lkn
;
;xfotfn] cfFvfsf] k5fl8 /x]sf] /]l6gfdf
6gf uP/ kmf]s; x'G5 .
Ko'lknnfO{ jl/kl/af6, j0f{ -lkud]G6_ o'Qm cfOl/;n]
cfOl/; 9fs]sf] x'G5,
hf] v'lDrg] / km}lng] ug{ ;S5 h;sf/0f, k|sfzsf] :t/ cg';f/sf]
Ko'lknsf] cfsf/ 36\g] jf j9\g] x'G5 . cf“vfn] Ps Sofd/f h;/L
sfo{ u5{, h;n] ;+;f/sf] Pp6f æ5ljÆ agfpF5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{'
k|fs[lts xf] t/ w]/} kIfaf6 of] Ps e|lds d]6fkmf]/ (Metaphor)
xf] . klxnf], cf“vf ;w} rln/xg] x'gfn] ToxfF slxNo} klg l:y/ 5lj
x“'b}g . bf];|f], olb /]l6gfdf ag]sf] 5ljn] dl:tisdf csf]{ 5lj
k7fp“Yof] eg], pQm 5ljnfO{ x]g{ csf]{ dflg;sf] cfjZostf kg]{
lyof] –dl:tis leqsf] csf]{ dflg; .

k|sfz

/]l6gf

Ko'lkn
cfOl/;

UofFlUnog sf]if
afOkf]nf/ sf]if
If}lth sf]if
/f]8\;
sf]G;\

slg{of

clK6s :gfo',

PdfqmfOg sf]if

n]G;

/]l6gf. k|sfzsf] cfjfudg clK6s :gfo'sf] kmfOa/ / sf]ifsf]
;~hfn -h:t} afOkf]nf/ sf]if_ x'Fb} hfG5 h'g /]l6gfsf] k5fl8
/8\; / sf]G;df uP/ cf]n{G5 .
/]l6gf

AnfOG8:k6
kmf]laof
clK6s ge{
dfgj cf“vf . cf“vfdf k|j]z ug]{ k|sfznfO{ n]G;n]
cf“vfdf k5fl8 /x]sf] /]l6gfdf kmf]s; u5{ . ToxfF ePsf
l/;]K6/n] pmhf{sf] klxrfg u5{g / 6«fG;8Szgsf]
k|lqmofdfkm{t PS;g kf]6]lG;on pTkGg u5{g\ hf] clK6s
:gfo'df cfjfudg u5{g\ .

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b[li6ut k|lqmofsf] of] ;a}eGbf ;'?jftL cj:yfsf] af/]df w]/} yfxf
e};s]sf] 5 . /8\
/8;\ gfds ax';ª\Vos kmf]6f]l/;]K6/x¿ cNk;ª\Vos
sf]G; eGbf k|sfz;Fu xhf/ u'0ff a9L ;+j]bgzLn x'G5 . df]6fdf]6L
eGg'kbf{, tkfO{ /ftdf tkfO{sf] /8\;sf] ;xfotfn] b]Vg'x'G5 eg] lbgdf
sf]G;\sf] ;xfotfn] b]Vg'x'G5 . sf]G;\ tLg k|sf/sf] x'G5, hf] k|sfzsf]
ljleGg j]en]Gy (Wavelength) k|lt ;+j]bgzLn x'G5 . clt g} ;/n
agfP/ eGg ;lsG5 ls, sf]G;n] /+uLg b[Zo agfpF5 t/ ltgLx¿ o;sf
nflu clt dxŒjk"0f{ 5g\ . olb Pp6} /+usf] k|sfzsf] k|efj kl//x]sf]
v08df, sf]G;sf j0f{n] o;nfO{ u|x0f u5{ / pQm k|efj k/]sf] yf]/}
;dokl5 xfdLn] ug]{ /+usf] af]wdf sd of]ubfg lbG5 . -k|of]u x]g{'xf]nf_

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kl5Nnf] @% jif{df kmf]6f]6«fG;8S;g -/8\; / sf]G;\df uP/ k|sfz
ljB'tLo ;+s]tdf ablng'_ sf] k|lqmofsf] af/]df cg]s dxŒjk"0f{ vf]h
ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} /+u cGwf]kg (Colour Blindness) sf]
h]g]l6s cfwf/ hf] s]xL b[li6ut j0f{sf] cg'kl:yltsf sf/0f x'G5,
To;}u/L /]l6gn ;~hfnsf] sfo{x¿ / b'O{ k|sf/sf Uof+ulnog
sf]ifsf] pkl:yltsf] af/] klg y'k|} s'/f kQf nfu]sf] 5 . oL dWo]
sl/a ()∞ sf]if clws ;fgf x'G5g\ . / c¿ %∞ 7"nf Pd k|sf/
(M-type) cyjf DofUgf];]n'n/ sf]if x'G5g\ . xfdL kl5 x]g]{5f}+ .
ls Pd k|sf/sf] sf]ifsf] c;fdfGotfn] s]xL vfnsf l8:n]lS;of u/fpg
;S5 . -cWofo (_
/+u cg's"ngdfly Ps k|of]u

b[b[lli6ut
i6ut If]If]qq
afofF
afo“f

bfo“f

clK6s :gfo'
clK6s sfoHdf
kfZjL{o
h]lgs'n]6
Go'lSno;
s6]{S;tkm{sf] dfu{

tnsf b'O{ 7"nf uf]nf]sf] larsf] qm; -±_ df sDtLdf #)
;]s]G8;Dd cfgf] Wofg s]lGb|t ugxf];\ ca cfgf] tn kl§sf]
uf]nf]sf] larsf] qm;nfO{ lgofNg'xf];\ . tnsf b'O{ kx]“nf] uf]nf]
c¿ g} /+usf] nfUg]5 . tkfO{ ;f]Rg ;Sg'x'G5 o:tf] lsg ePsf]
xf]nf <

b[li6ut s6]{S;

b[li6ut s6]{S;df y'k|} If]qx¿ ;fd]n x'G5g\ h;n] b[li6ut
ljZjsf] cg]s kIfx¿ cfsf/, /+u, ultzLntf, b"/L cflb;Fu
sfo{ u5{g\ . oL sf]ifx¿ sf]n'D;df Jojl:yt x'G5g\ . b[li6ut
¿kdf /];kf]lG;e sf]ifsf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ kIf eg]sf] l/;]lK6e
If]q xf]– hf] /]l6gfsf] Pp6f If]q xf] hxfF sf]ifn] ;DalGwt
5ljnfO{ k|To'Q/ lbG5, eL1 df, sl6{sn k|lqmofsf] klxnf]
r/0fdf, Go"/f]gn] Ps ljz]if cf]l/og6];g, /]vf of wf/k|lt
;jf]{Qd ¿kn] k|ltlqmof lbG5 . Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ vf]h of] lyof]
ls, s'g} Ps sf]n'ddf ;a} Go'/f]gn] pxL cf]l/og6];g ePsf] /]vf
jf wf/k|lt sfo{ u5{ / l5d]sL sf]ifsf] sf]n'dn] s]xL km/s
cf]l/og6];gk|lt ;jf]{Qd ¿kn] sfo{ u5{, eL1 sf] ;txdf o:t}
lsl;dn] ePsf] x'G5 . o;sf] dtna sl6{sn b[li6ut sf]ifdf
ljZjsf] JofVof ug{sf nflu Ps cGt/lglxt ;+u7g x'G5 t/ of]
ckl/jt{gLo ;+u7g eg] xf]Og. bfofF jf afofF cf“vfdf x'g]
ultljlwn] Pp6f sf]ifnfO{ slt ;Ldf;Dd k|]l/t ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]
s'/f cg'ejaf6 ¿kfGtl/t ug{ ;lsG5 . ;a} ;+j]bs k|0ffnLdf
eP h:t} b[li6ut s6]{S;n] Knfl:6l;6L b;f{p“5 .

H

b[li6ut k|lqmofsf] csf]{ sbd
k|To]s cf“vfsf] clK6s :gfo' dl:tisdf uP/ hf]l8G5 . k|To]s
clK6s :gfo'sf] kmfOa/ clK6s sf;Hdf gfds ;+/rgfdf cfP/
hf]l8G5 . Pp6f :gfo'sf] cfwfh;f] kmfOa/ csf]{kl§ qm; u5{ /
ToxfF uP/ csf]{ clK6s :gfo'sf] qm; gePsf] cfwf kmfOa/;Fu
hf]l8G5 . oL kmfOa/sf em'Kkf ldn]/ clK6s 6«ofs agfpF5g\,
h;df b'j} cf“vfaf6 cfpg] kmfOa/ ;fd]n x'G5g\, / of] ca
;]/]a|n s6]{S; lt/ k|If]lkt x'G5 -kfZjL{o h]lgs'n]6 Go'lSno;
gfds ;+/rgfdf x'g] ;fOGoflK6s l/n]sf] dfWodaf6_ . oxL
:yfgdf g} xfd|f] jl/kl/sf] b[li6ut :yfgsf] cfGtl/s lrq
aG5. :kz{df h:t} -kl5Nnf] cWofo_, b]a|] xft kl§sf] b[li6ut
ljZj bflxg] x]ld:km]o/df x'G5 eg] bflxg] xftkl§sf] b]a|]
x]ld:km]o/df x'G5 . of] Go'/n k|ltlglwTjdf b'O{j6} cf“vfaf6
hfgsf/L cfPsf] x'G5 . To;}n] dl:tissf] k5fl8kl§ b[li6ut
If]qdf x'g] sf]ifn] -eL1 eL2 If]q elgG5_ s'g} klg cf“vfaf6
cfpg] 5ljsf] nflu k|ltlqmof lbG5 . o;nfO{ afOgf]s'nl/6L
elgG5 .

8]lj8 x'a]n
6f];{6]g lj;n

8]lj8 x'a]n / 6f];{6]g lj;n -dfly_ åf/f
b[li6ut s6]{S; -afofF_ df ePsf] sf]ifaf6
ul/Psf] ljB'tLo clen]vgåf/f s]xL cb\e"t
ljz]iftfx? kQf nfu]sf 5g\ . o;df
cf]l/og6];g rogzLntf, pQm sf]ifsf] ;'Gb/
sf]n'Dgf/ ;+u7g / k|0ffnLsf] Knfl:6l;;6L
;fd]n 5g\ . oL vf]hx¿n] gf]a]n k'/:sf/
k|fKt u/fPsf] lyof] .

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cg';Gwfg cu|0fL
s] tkfO{ b[li6ljxLg x'g'x'G5 eg] b]Vg ;Sg'x'G5 < kSs} ;Sg'x'Gg .
oBlk dl:tisdf ePsf y'k|} b[li6ut If]qsf] vf]haf6 yfxf x'g
cfPsf] 5 ls, ;r]t hfu?stf lagf klg s]xL b[li6ut Ifdtf /x]sf]
x'g ;S5 . s]xL JolQmx¿ h;sf] k|fylds b[li6ut s6]{S; V1 df
:yfoL Iflt k'u]sf] x'G5, pgLx¿ cf5gf] jl/kl/sf] s'/fx? gb]Vg]
atfpF5g\ t/ pgLx?nfO{ b]Vg g;Sg] elgPsf] lrh;Dd k'Ugsf]
nlfu elgof] eg], pgLx¿ of] sfd cToGt z'4tf;Fu ug{ ;S5g\ .
of] pT;'stfk"0f{ t/ rlst kfg]{ 36gfnfO{ æAnfOG8;fO6Æ (Blind
sight) elgG5 . of] ;Dejtf cf“vfaf6 s6]{S;sf] cGo efu
;Ddsf] ;dfgfGt/ ;+of]hsåf/f dWo:y ul/Psf] x'G5 .
cfkm"n] s] b]V5' eg]/ ;ts{ gx'g' eg]sf] ;fdfGo JolQmdf klg lbgx'F
x'g] k|lqmof xf] . olb tkfO{ sf/ rnfO/x]sf] a]nf ;Fu}sf] ofqL;Fu
s'/f ug'{x'G5 eg], tkfO{sf] r]tg hfu?stf k'/} aftlrttkm{
lgb]{lzt ePsf] x'g ;S5, t}klg tkfO{ /fd|f];Fu sf/ rnfO/xg'
x'G5, 6«flkms alQdf /f]Sg'x'G5 / jfwfx?af6 aRg'x'G5 . o;
Ifdtfn] sfof{Tds AnfOG8 ;fO6nfO{ a'emfpF5 .

b[li6ut s6]{S;sf] OGl6«s]6 ;ls{6«L Ps cToGt} e|ddf kfg]{ s'/f
xf], h;n] :gfo' j}1flgsx?nfO{ klxn]b]lv Jo:t agfPsf] 5 .
ljleGg k|sf/sf Go'/f]gnfO{ ^ j6f sl6{sn kqdf Jojl:yt
ul/Psf] x'G5 h'g Psbd} lglZrt kl/lwdf Pscfk;df af“lwPsf]
x'G5 . xfdLn] of] af/]df aNn a'em\ g yfn]sf 5f}+ . logLx¿sf]
s]xL ;+of]hg pQ]hs x'G5 eg] s]xL OlGxla6/L (Inhibitory)
x'G5. s]xL :gfo' j}1flgsn] ;'emfPsf 5g\ ls sDKo'6/df x'g]
lrK; h:t}, ToxfF Sofgf]lgsn sl6{sn dfOqmf];ls{6 x'G5 . ;a}
o;df ;xdt 5}gg\ . clxn] xfdL dfG5f“} ls Pp6f b[li6ut If]qdf
x'g] ;ls{l6«sf] c¿ If]qdf ePsf];Fu y'k|} ;dfgtf x'G5 t/ ToxfF
clt ;"Id c;dfgtf x'g ;S5 h;n] laleGg dfu{nfO{ b;f{pF5
h;df /x]/ b[li6ut dl:tissf] k|To]s efun] b[li6ut ljZjsf]
ljleGg kIfsf] JofVof u5{ . b[li6ut e|dsf] cWoogn] klg
xfdLnfO{ b[li6ut ljZn]if0fsf] ljleGg r/0fdf x'g;Sg]
k|lqmofsfaf/] cGt{b[li6 lbG5 .

la|:6f]nsf] of] k|l;4 Sofkm] jfnsf] 6fon afofF af:tjdf
cfoftsf/ 5g\ / To:tf] b]lvb}gg\ . 6fonsf] o; k|sf/sf]
Joj:yfn] /]vf / wf/sf] k|f];]l;ª ug]{ :gfo'sf lar x'g] hl6n
pQ]hs / OlGxla6/L cGt/lqmofaf6 Ps e|d pTkGg x'G5 .
slghf lqe'hf -bfofF_ jf:tjdf ljBfdg x“'b}g t/ o;f] x'g'n]
tkfO{nfO{ lqe'h b]Vgaf6 /f]Sg ;Sb}g. tkfO{sf] b[li6ut k|0ffnLn]
lg0f{o u5{ ls o; b[Zodf cGo j:t'x¿eGbf dfly Pp6f ;]tf]
lqe'h 5 .

lg0f{o tyf clg0f{o
;]/]a|n s6]{S;sf] Ps k|d'v sfo{ eg]sf] cg]s ;|f]taf6 k|fKt
;+j]bs ;"rgfnfO{ agfpg' / To;dfly sfo{ ug'{ xf] . lg0f{
lg0f{o lng'
o; Ifdtfsf] dxŒjk"0f{ efu xf] . of] k|lqmofsf] ;f]Rg], 1fg–
cfwfl/t jf æaf]wfTdsÆ efu xf] . pknAw ;+j]bs ;fIonfO{
tf}lng' k5{ / pQm ;dodf k|fKt x'g ;Sg] ;jf]{td ;fIonfO{ rog
ug'{k5{ -h:t} s'g} sfo{ ug'{ of gug'{_ s]xL lg0f{o hl6n x'G5g\ /
lngsf] nflu nfdf] ;do ;f]Rg'k5{ hals c? s]xL ;/n /
:jrflnt x'g ;S5g\ . Pstd ;/ntd lg0f{odf klg ;+j]bs
lgj]z / ePsf] 1fg larsf] k/:k/lqmof ;fd]n x'G5 .

!^

s]jn sfnf / ;]tf yf]Knf]x? <
s]jn sfnf / ;]tf yf]Knfx?
nfx? <
;'?df o; lrqdf /]vf / ;txsf]
klxrfg ug{ sl7g x'G5 . t/ ha
Psrf]l6 tkfO{n] yfxf kfpg'x'G5
ls of] Ps 8fnd];g s's'/ xf], ta
pQm lrq aflx/ cfpF5 . b[li6ut
dl:tisn] ;+j]bs b[Zosf] JofVof
ug{ cfGtl/s 1fgsf] pkof]u u5{
.

lg0f{o lng'sf] Go'/n cfwf/ a'em\ g] Pp6f tl/sf Ps JolQmnfO{ cf5gf]
;fdfGo b}lgs ultljlw ug{ lbg] / pgLx¿n] ljleGg sfo{ ubf{
Go'/f]gsf] ultljlw clen]lvt ug]{ x'g;S5 . xfdL sNkgf ug{ ;S5f}“
ls dl:tissf] k|To]s !)!! :gfo'sf] ultljlwnfO{ ldnL;]s]G8
z'4tfsf;fy clelnlvt ug{ ;sf}+ . To:tf] ePdf xfdL;Fu k|z:t
tYof° dfq x'g]5}g, o;sf] k|f];]l;ª ug'{kg]{ eLif0f sfo{ klg x'g]5 .
xfdLnfO{ o;sf] JofVof ug{ cem sl7gfO{ x'g]5. o:tf] lsg x'G5,
a'emgsf] nflu, Ps l5g dflg;x¿ lsg sfo{ ub{5g\ o;sf sf/0fx¿
;f]Rg'xf];\ .
xfdL s'g} Ps JolQm 6«]g :6];glt/ hfb} u/]sf] b]V5f}+ eGg], pQm JolQm
cfkm" 6«]g r9\g uPsf] x'G5, 6«]gdf s;}nfO{ e]6g\ jf s]jn æ6«]g
:kl6ªÆ ug{ uPsf] x'g;S5 . pm ToxfF hfg'sf] sf/0f ga'emLsg
p;sf] dl:tissf] ;lqmotfsf] qmd / p;sf] Jojxf/sf aLrsf]
k/:k/ ;DaGwsf] JoVof ug{ sl7g x'G5 .
To;}n] k|of]ufTds :gfo' j}1flgs, Jojxf/ut kl/l:yltx?nfO{ ljz'4
k|of]ufTds lgoGq0fsf]
lgoGq0fsf dftxtdf Nofpg rfxG5g\ . s'g} Ps lglZrt
sfo{ lgwf{/0f u/]/ o;nfO{ k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5– o;sf nflu dflg;n]
Jofks cEof;kl5 lglZrt ?kdf pQm sfo{nfO{ cf5gf] ;jf]{Qd
Ifdtfn] u/]sf] x'g'k5{ / To;kl5 cf5gf] sfo{ u/fOsf] lgu/fgL u/]sf]
x'g'k5{. ;jf]{Qd lsl;dsf] sfo{ Tof] xf], hf] /f]rs x'gsf nflu kof{Kt
hl6n xf];\ t}klg s] e}/x]sf]5 To;sf] ljZn]if0f ug{sf nflu kof{Kt
¿kdf ;/n xf];\ . o;sf] Ps /fd|f] pbfx/0f pQ]hgfsf] :j¿ksf]
af/] b[li6ut lg0f{o lng] k|lj|mof h;df k|foM b'O{eGbf al9 pQ]hgf
x“'b}gg\ / k|Œo't/sf] ¿kdf Pp6f ;/n ljsNk x'G5 . -h:t}–k|sfzsf]
s'g :yfg a9L 7"nf] of rlDsnf] 5<_ o:tf sfo{ ;/n eP tfklg
o;df lg0f{o lnbfFsf] Pp6f k'/f rqm ;fd]n x'G5 . ;+j]bs ;"rgf
u|x0f ul/G5 / To;sf] ljZn]if0f ul/G5, lnOPsf] lg0f{ok|lt ;xL of
unt pQ/ x''G5g\ / ul/Psf] sfo{ ;xL lyof] of lyPg To;sf]
cfwf/df >]o lbg ;lsG5 . o; lsl;dsf] cg';Gwfg, æb[li6sf]
ef}lts zf:qÆ sf] Ps k|sf/ xf] .
ult / /+usf] af/] lg0f{o M
clxn]sf] 7"nf] ?lrsf] ljifo – b[li6ut ultz
ultzLntfsf
ntf af/] lg0f{o lng]
qmddf Go"/f]g s;/L ;fd]n x'G5 eGg] xf] . Pp6f j:t' rln/x]sf] 5
ls 5}g, s'g lbzfdf rln/x]sf] 5, of] dflg; / c¿ hgfj/sf nflu
cToGt dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{o xf] . ;fk]If ultzLntfn] k|foM of] ;+s]t lbG5
ls Pp6f j:t' of] ;Fu}sf] c¿ j:t'eGbf leGg x'G5 . dfjg dl:tis
Od]lhª 6]slgs -cWofo !)_ sf] k|of]u ;fy} u}/–dfgj hgfj/df
cnu–cnu Go'/f]gsf] ultljlwsf] clen]vgåf/f dl:tissf] If]qsf]
lar ;+of]hgsf] qmdsf] hfFr u/]/ ultzLntfsf] ;"rgf k|f];]l;ªdf
;fd]n b[li6ut dl:tissf] If]qnfO{ ljlzi6 zf/Ll/s If]qsf] ?kdf kQf
nufpg ;lsG5 .

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A

B

C

D

ultsf] ;+j]bgzLntf s= k|fylds b[li6ut s6]{S; -jL1_ bfofF / Pd= 6L gfds Ps If]q -slxn]sfxL“ aL5 elgG5_ ;lxt a“fb/sf]
dl:tissf] kfZj{ b[Zo. v ultsf] k|lt ;+j]bgzLn Go'/f]g h;df pQ/ klZrd lbzfdf ult x'g'sf] k|ltpQ/df PS;g kf]6]lG;on
clwsf+ztM k}bf x'G5g\ . t/ ljk/Lt lbzfdf x'b“ f lj/n} k}bf x'G5g\ . Pd 6L -of lj5_ df /x]sf sf]ifsf] ljleGg :tDen] ultsf]
ljleGg lbzfsf] nflu sf]8 lbG5g\ . u= ult ;+j]bgzLntf dfly ul/Psf] k|of]udf pkof]u ul/Psf] Ps uf]nfsf/ l6eL l:qmg
h;df yf]Knf]x¿ cJojl:yt ¿kn] ;a} lbzfdf 3'D5g\ -z"Go k|ltzt ;Da4tf_ cyjf ;a} yf]Knf] Ps} lbzfdf 3'D5g\ -zt
k|ltzt ;Da4tf_ 3. yf]Knf]sf] ;Defljt lbzfsf nflu afFb/n] lbg] ;+s]t ltgLx?sf] ;Da4tf a9\bf ;“u} a9\5 -klxn] /]vf_ .
ljleGg k|sf/sf :tDesf] ljB'tLo dfO{qmf]l:6d'n];gn] clwdfGo lbzfsf] cg'dfgnfO{ ablnlbG5 -gLnf] /]vf_
Pp6f a“fb/n] rln/x]sf] yf]Knfsf] qmdsf af/] ;/n b[li6ut lg0f{o
ln“bf To;sf] Pd l6 of aL5 dWo] s'g} Ps If]qdf /x]sf] Go'/f]gnfO{
clelnlvt ul/Psf] 5 . clwsf+z yf]Knfx? cJojl:yt ¿kn] y'k|}
lbzfdf 3'D5g\ eg] tL dWo] yf]/} Pp6} lbzfdf 3'ld/xG5g\–dfly
tn bfofF of jfofF_ cjnf]sg ug]{ JolQmn] ultzLntfsf] ;du|
lbzfsf] qmdsf] ljj]rgf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . of] sfo{nfO{ ;lhnf]
agfpgsf nflu, yf]Knfx?nfO{ cJojl:yt lbzfdf xf]Og ls w]/}
yf]Knfx?nfO{ Ps} lbzfdf nuftf/ 3'Dg lbP/ Jojl:yt ug{ ;lsG5
cyjf cem sl7g agfpgsf nflu nuftf/ 3'Dg] yf]Knfsf] cg'kft
36fpg ;lsG5 . yfxf x'g cfPsf] 5 ls aL5 df ePsf sf]ifsf]
ultljlwn] ult ;+s]tsf] zlQmnfO{ z'4tfk"j{s k|blz{t u5{ . oxfF
Go'/f]gn] ultsf] s'g} lglZrt lbzfnfO{ /f]h]/ k|To'Q/ lbG5, / ha
/f]lhPsf] lbzfdf 3'Dg] yf]Knfsf] cg'kft a9\5 ta Go'/f]gsf]
ultljlw Jojl:yt / oyf]lrt ¿kn] a9\5 .
cfZro{hgs ¿kaf6 s]xL Psn Go'/f]gn] yf]Knfsf] ultzLntf
kQf nufpg] sfd To;/L g} /fd|f];Fu ug{ ;S5g\ h;/L Pp6f
cjnf]sgstf{, dflg; xf];\ of afFb/n] Jojxf/ut ljj]rgf ug{
;S5g\ . clen]v ug]{ On]S6«f]8sf] dfWodaf6 To:tf Go'/f]gsf]
dfOqmf]l:6d'n];g ugf{n] pQm afFb/n] ug]{ ;fk]If ultsf] ljj]rgfdf
kIfkft x'g ;S5 . of] pNn]vgLo 5 lsgls w]/} 7"nf] ;+Vofdf
Go'/f]gx¿ b[li6ut ultk|lt ;+j]bgzLn x'G5g\ / s;}]n] ;f]r]sf]
x'g;S5 ls lg0f{o s]xL Go'/f]gdf dfq geP/ y'k|} Go'/f]gsf]
ultljlwdf lge{/ x'G5 . /+usf] af/]df lg0f{o o:t} k|sf/n] cufl8
a9\5 . -cg';Gwfg cu|0fL aS; x]g'{xf]nf_

!&

g]s/ So'j x]bf{ nuftf/ abln/x]sf] b]lvG5 . /]l6gfdf 5lj
ablnb}g t/ xfdL klxnf So'asf] dflyNnf] afo“f s'gf xfd|f]
glhs} b]V5f“}+ . To;kl5 pQm s'gf kl5 ;/]sf] b]lvG5 . lj/n}
o;nfO{ r]K6f] ;txdf Ps cfk;df sf6\g] /]vfsf] ;d"xsf] ?kdf
b]lvG5 . xfdL w]/} k|sf/sf kl/jt{gLo lrqx? b]Vg ;S5f}+ . lt
dWo] sxLnfO{ Go'/n ;+s]tsf af/] hfGg pkof]u ul/G5, h'g
;+s]t, b[li6ut dl:tisn] s'g} Ps ;dodf s'g cfs[lt k|d'v
b]lvG5 eGg] lg0f{o ln“bf To;df ;fd]n x'G5 .

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cg';Gwfg cu|0fL
/+u ;r]tg sf]if . s]xL Go'/f]gn] ljleGg k|sf/sf ljleGg j]en]Gyk|lt ljleGg k|sf/sf ultljlw b]vfpF5g\ . slxn] nfdf j]en]Gyk|lt
;jf]{Qd pQ/ lbG5g\ eg] c?n] 5f]6fk|lt . tkfO{ ;f]Rg ;Sg'x'G5 ls /+u lrGg olt kof{Kt x'g]5 t/ o:tf] gx'g ;S5 . afofF /
bfofFtkm{sf] sf]if kmfol/u+sf] t'ngf ug'{xf];\ . s] tkfO{ leGgtf atfpg ;Sg'x'G5 <

jfofFtkm{
tkm{
df]l8«og -snfsf/ lki6 df]l8«ogsf] gfddf_ gfds /+uLg
k]rjs{sf] :ki6 ¿kfª\sg . of] nfdf], dWod / 5f]6f] j]en]Gy
ePsf] k|sfzsf] ljleGg ;+of]hgaf6 pHofnf] kfl/Psf] 5 . h;n]
ubf{ k|To]s Kofgnn] k|sfzsf] ToxL ld>0f b;f{p5
“ , t}klg, xfdL
jl/kl/sf] k}r -patches_ n' ubf{ logLx?nfO{ ;w} leGbf leGb}
/+usf] ¿kdf 7Dofp5f}+ . aL1-v1_ df clelnlvt,bfofFtkm{sf]
sf]ifn] ;a} a]nfdf pxL xb;Dd kmfo/ u5{ . o;n] /+Uf
7Dofp“b}g, o;n] vfnL k|To]s k}raf6 k|ltlalDat ;dsIfL
j]en]Gy ld>0fnfO{ k|To'Q/ lbG5.
ljZjf; ug'{ g} b]Vg' xf] .

jL5 (V5) If]qn] b[li6ut ;+j]bgfsf] ultnfO{ /lh:6/ ug]{eGbf cln
a9L u5{, o;n] 7DofOPsf] ultnfO{ /lh:6/ u5{ . olb b[li6ut
5nn] ubf{ yf]Knfsf] s'g} Ps If]q jl/kl/s]f yf]Knfsf] ultsf]
sf/0fn] Pp6f jf csf]{ lbzfdf 3'ld/x]sf] b]lvPdf cyf{t\ ultsf]
e|d ePdf pQm e|dsf] If]q;+ut Go'/f]gn] afo“ftkm{ of bfof“tkm{
7DofO{Psf] ultk|lt leGbf—leGb} lsl;dn] kmfo/ u5{ . olb ult
lagf s'g} qmdsf] 5 eg] bfofFtk{m ultzLn x'g vf]Hg] Go'/f]gn] cln
a9L 6«fonsf] ¿kdf kmfo/ u5{, Toltv]/ cjnf]sgstf{n] l/kf]6{
u5{ ls pQm cJojl:yt ult l;Ugn bfofFtkm{ 3'ld/x]sf] 5 .-/
o;sf] ljk/Lt_ æbfofFtkm{Æ of æafofFtkm{Æ sf] Go'/f]gn lg0f{osf]
aLrsf] leGgtfn] cjnf]sgstf{n] ultsf] 9f“rfaf/] s] cg'dfg u5{
eGg] b;f{p5
“ , g ls ultzLn ;+j]bgfsf] vf; :jefj .
b[li6ut lg0f{o / clg0f{osf] c¿ pbfx/0fdf k5{g\, jf:tljs
¿kaf6 ciki6 b[li6ut nIok|ltsf] k|ltlqmof, h:t} tyfslyt g]s/
So'j -lrq_. o:tf lsl;dsf pQ]hsn] cjnf]sgstf{nfO{ clg0f{osf]
l:yltdf /flvlbG5, h;df pm nuftf/ Pp6f AofVof af6 csf]{df
3'ld/xG5 . o:t} lsl;dsf] k|ltåG4 efg x'G5 ha afofF cf“vfn]
7f8f] w;f{sf] qmd b]V5 / bfofF cf“vfn] t];f]{ w;f{sf] qmd b]V5 .
kl/0ffd:j¿k cfpg] 7DofOnfO{ afOgf]s'n/ /fOjn/L elgG5,
lsgeg] cjnf]sgstf{n] klxnf 7f8f] /]vfsf] k|d'vtf x'G5 eG5
km]l/ t];f]{ /]vfsf] / k'gM 7f8f]sf] x'G5 eG5 . km]l/ klg, b[li6ut
s6]{S;sf] ljleGg If]qsf Go'/f]g k|ltlalDat x'G5g\ ha
cjnf]sgstf{sf] 7DofO 7f8f]af6 t];f]{lt/ ;5{ .

!*

bfofF tkm{
jL4 (V4) sf] Pp6f jf:tljs /+u ;r]tg sf]ifn] xfdLn] /ftf]
b]Vg] df]l8«ogsf] Ps If]qdf kmfo/ u5{ t/ c? If]qdf eg] lgs}
sd kmfo/ u5{ . k|To]s af6 j]e pmhf{sf] pxL l6«kn]6
k|ltljlDjt eP tfklg cl3sf] cjsn k|To'Q/ x'G5 . To;}n]
jL 4(V4) dlitissf] To:tf] If]q x'g ;S5, h;n] xfdLnfO{ /+u
7Dofpg ;dy{ agfp“5 . oBlk s]xL :gfo' j}1flgsn] z+sf
u5{g\ ls s]jn of] dfq ;fd]n 5}g .

xfd|f] b[li6ut ljZj Ps cb\e't :yn xf] . cfFvfleq k|j]z ug]{
k|sfzn] xfdLnfO{ xfd|f] jl/kl/sf] b'lgo“fnfO{ sb/ ug{ ;dy{
agfpF5 — h;df ;/n j:t'b]lv lnP/ xfdLnfO{ axsfpg] /
lt/ld¥ofpg] snfs[lt;Dd kb{5 . nfvf}“ — nfv Go'/f]g o;df
;fd]n x'G5g\ h;sf] st{Jo k|sfzsf] ls/0fnfO{ k|To'Q/ lbg]
/]l6gn kmf]6f]l/;]K6/sf] sfo{b]lv lnP/ b[li6ut ljZjdf s]xL s'/f
ultzLn 5 ls 5}g eg]/ lg0f{o ug]{ jL 5(V5) If]qsf]
Go'/f]g;Ddsf] x'G5 . of] ;a} s'/f xfd|f] dlitis leq cgfo;}
e}/x]sf] h:tf] b]lvG5 . xfdL oL ;a}s'/f a'‰g ;Sb}gf“} t/ :gfo'
j}1flgsn] o; ljifodf 7"nf] kfOnf rfln/x]sf 5g\ .
sf]lng An]sdf]/n] b[li6ut k|0ffnL s;/L
ljsf; x'G5 eGg] a'‰gsf] nflu 7"nf] of]ubfg
lbPsf 5g\ . o;df e|"0fLo dlitis leq
dfu{sf ljleGg efu ljrsf] cGt/ls|ofsf]
cWoog ug{sf nflu sf]if ;+jw{gsf
k|of]uaf6 ul/g] cu|ufdL cWoog ;fd]n 5g\,
-afofF_ . bfofF tkm{ xfdL PShf]g b]Vg ;S5f}xl/of] /+udf_ hf] cGo kmfO{a/ -;'Gtnf /+u_
;“u hf]l8g ljsf;zLn s6]{S;af6 tn em5{
/ lt kmfOj/ s6]{S; tkm{ hfg' cl3 æxft
ldnfpg]Æ sfd u5{ .

OG6/g]6 ln+s: faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chvision.html
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biol/research/psychology/nsg

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ult

Pp6f es'G8f]nfO{ ;dfpg] af/] ;f]Rg'xf];\ ;lhnf] 5 < o:t} nfUg
;S5 t/ o; ;/n sfo{ ug{sf] nflu klg tkfO{sf] dl:tisn] s]xL
pNn]vgLo sfo{ ug'{k5{ . xfdL o;nfO{ ;xh ?kdf lnG5f}+, t}klg
To;df of]hgf ul/Psf] x'G5: es'G8f] ux|'·f] 5 of xn'·f] 5 < of] s'g
lbzfaf6 cfO/x]sf] 5 / slt l56f] of] hfg]5 < Toxf“ ;+of]hg x'G5 M
Pp6f JolQmn] pQm es'G8f] ;dfTgsf nflu cf6gf] xft :jtM :km"t{
s;/L ;+of]hg u5{ / o;sf nflu s'g tl/sf pQd x'G5 < / ToxfF
;Dkfbg x'G5M s] tkfO{sf] xft ;xL :yfgdf k'U5 / s] tkfO{sf
cf}“nfx¿ ;xL ;dodf aGb x'G5g\ < clxn] :gfo'j}1flgsn] of] hfg]sf
5g\ ls dl:tissf] cg]s If]q o;df ;fd]n x'G5g\ . oL If]qdf x'g]
Go'/n ultljlw hf]l8P/ cfb]zsf Ps lkmtnf] >[ªv
\ nf agfp“5 – Ps
df]6/ qmd – ;]/]a|n s6{]S; / a];n Uofª\ulnofaf6 ;]/]a]nd /
;'if''Dgf ;Ddsf] .

Go/f]d:s'n/ hª\;g
df]6/ qmdsf] ;a}eGbf tNnf] :yfg ;'if'Dgfdf rfns Go'/f]g gfds
;of}+ ljif]z :gfo' sf]ifn] cfkm\gf] kmfol/ªsf] b/ a9fpF5 . oL
Go'/f]gsf PShf]g df+;k]zLdf hfG5 hxfF To;n] ;s'+rg of]Uo sG6«ofS6fOn_ df+;k]zL kmfOa/nfO{ ;lqmo agfp“5 . k|To]s
rfns Go'/f]gsf] PShf]gsf] clGtd xf“ufn] Pp6f df+;k]zLleq
/x]sf ;Lldt ;+Vofsf df+;k]zL kmfOa/;Fu ljz]if Go'/f]
/f]d:s'n/
hª\
hª;\ g agfpF5 . -tnsf] lrq x]g'{xf];\_ Po6f rfns Go'/f]gsf]
k|To]s PS;g kf]6]lG;onn] :gfo'sf] kl5Nnf] efuaf6
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/sf] lgd{'lSt u/fpF5 / df+;k]zL kmfOa/df ;dfg
PS;g kf]6]l;on k}bf u/fpF5 . o;n] ubf{ k|To]s df+;k]zL
kmfOa/df cGtMsf]if e08f/af6 SoflN;od cfog (Ca2+)
pTkGg x'G5 . o;n] ubf{ df+;k]zL kmfOa/ ;+s'lrt x'G5 / zlQm
tyf ult pTkGg x'G5 .

df+;k]zLsf] ;ª\s'rg k}bf ug{sf] nflu :gfo'n] Go'/f]d:s'n/
hª\;gdf Psn df+;k]zL kmfOa/;Fu ljif]z ;Dks{ agfpF5 .
o;sf] ljsf;;Fu}, k|To]s df+;k]zL kmfOa/df y'k|} :gfo' kmfOa/
hfG5, t/ :gfo'aLrsf] k|lt:kwf{sf] sf/0fn] s]xL x6]/ hfG5 .
To;kl5 clGtd ;kmn :gfo', ‘df]6/ OG8 Kn]6’ -/ftf] /u+sf]_ df
ljz]if cf0fljs l86]S6/ dfly cfkm\gf] Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/
Pl;6fOnsf]lng lgd'{St ug{sf nflu afFsL /xG5 . of] tl:j/
Ps s+kmf]sn ;"Idbz{s oGqsf] pkof]u u/]/ agfOPsf] lyof] .

df+;k]zLsf] ;fy hf]l8Psf] ljB'tLo ultljlwsf] /]sl8{ª
-On]S6«f] dfof]u|flkms ultljlw_
xftsf] df+;k]zLdf x'g] ljB'tLo 36gf PlDKnkmfo/sf] dfWodaf6
5fnfaf6 klg /]s8{ ug{ ;lsG5 / oL ljB't dfof]u|flkms /]sl8{ª OPdhL_ nfO{ k|To]s df+;k]zLdf x'g] ultljlwsf] :t/ dfkgsf nflu
k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . -dflysf] lrq x]g'{xf];\_
;'if'Dgfn] ljleGg l/Çn]S; dfu{sf] dfWodaf6 df+;k]zLsf] lgoGq0fdf
Ps dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . logLx¿df ljyOn l/Çn]S;]h k5{ h;n]
tkfO{nfO{ tLvf] / tftf] j:t'af6 arfpF5 . o;} u/L :6«]r l/Çn]S;]h
k5{ h;sf] zf/Ll/s l:yltdf e"ldsf x'G5 . w]/} ;'lgPsf] æ3'“8fsf]
em6\sfÆ sf] l/Çn]S;, :6«]r l/Çn]S;sf] pbfx/0f xf] hf] cln ljz]if
vfnsf] 5 lsgeg] o;df s]jn b'O{ k|sf/sf] :gfo' sf]if ;fd]n x'G5 –
;+j]bs Go'/f]g h;n] df+;k]zLsf] nDafOsf] l;Ugn lbG5 / rfns
Go'/f]g h;n] ultzLntf k}bf u/fpF5 hf] ;fOGofK;sf] dfWodaf6
;+j]bs Go"/f]g;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . oL l/Çn]S;x¿ cem hl6n
l/Çn]S;;Fu :kfOgn ;ls{6df uP/ ldN5, h;n] clwsf+ztM
Jojxf/nfO{ ;+ul7t u5{ – h:t} lx“8b\ f jf bf}8bf xftsf] tfna4
ultzLntf . o;df rfns Go'/f]gsf] ;dlGjt pQ]hgf / OlGxlj;g
;d]t x'G5 .
rfns Go'/f]g x8\8LnfO{ ultzLn agfpg] df+;k]zL;Ddsf] clGtd
;femf dfu{ xf] tyflk dl:tisnfO{ oL sf]ifx¿sf] ultljlwnfO{ lgoGq0f
ug{], k|d'v ;d:of 5 . s'g} klg sfo{ ug{sf] nflu o;n] s'g
df+;k]zLnfO{, slt;Dd / s'g :t/df ultlzn agfpg'k5{ <

qmdsf] lzv/– df]6/ s6{]S;
df]6/ qmdsf] ljk/Lt efu, ;]/]a|n s6]{S;df, ultzLntfsf] k|To]s
tTjsf] nflu xhf/f}+ sf]ifx¿åf/f c;ª\Vo u0fgf ug'{k5{ . oL u0fgfn]
;'glZrt u5{ ls ult ;'rf? ¿kaf6 / s'zntfk"j{s e}/x]sf] 5 .
;]/]a|n s6{]S; / ;'if'Dgfsf] rfns Go'/f]gsf] aLrdf, a|]g l:6dsf]
dxTjk"0f{ If]qn] ;'if'Dgfaf6 dfly cfPsf] xftuf]8f / df+;k]zL ;DaGwL
;"rgfnfO{ ;]/]a|n s6{]S;af6 tn hfb} u/]sf] ;"rgf;Fu hf]85
\ .

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ult dfly Ps k|of]u
dnfO{ s;n] rnfpF5 < cfÇgf] ;fyL;Fu} of] k|of]u ug'{xf];\ .
cfÇgf] bfofF xftsf] xTs]nfdf Pp6f cln ux'|ª\ u\ f] lstfa
lng'xf];\ . ca tkfO{sf] bfofF xftaf6 afofF xftn] lstfa
prfNg'xf];\ . tkfO{sf] sfd eg]sf] bfofF xft l:y/ /fVg' xf]
. tkfO{nfO{ of] ;lhnf] nfUg]5 . ca km]/L ug'{xf];\, ca
tkfO{sf] ;fyLnfO{ tkfO{sf] xftaf6 lstfa prfNg eGg'xf];\
/ cfÇgf] xft Psbd} l:y/ /fVg'xf];\ . s]lx dflg;n] dfq
o;f] ug{ ;S5g\ . gcflQg'xf];\ cg]s rf]6L k|of; u/]kl5
aNn tkfO{ To:t} k|bz{g ug{ ;Sg'x'g]5 h:tf] tkfO{ :jo+n]
dfq} ug'{ePsf] lyof] .

ultsf] lgoGq0fdf ;fd]n dlitissf] cg]s If]q

of] k|of]un] k|:6fp5 ls tkfO{sf] dl:tissf] ;]G;/Ldf]6/
If]qdf, c?n] tkfO{sf] sfdsf] z'?jft ul/lbPsf] /
tkfO{n] x]g{] l:yltsf] af/] eGbf tkfO{n] k"/f sfo{ cfkm}n]
ug{] l:yltsf] af/] a9L 1fg x'G5 .

rfns÷df]
rfns÷df]6/ s6]{S; tGt'sf] Ps kftnf] k§L xf] hf] ;f]df6f];]G;/L
s6{]S;sf] k|ToIf cufl8af6 dl:tissf] ;tx x'b}“ u'lh|G5 . -k]h !@
df x]g'{xf];\_ z/L/sf] k'/} dfglrq oxfF 5M ljleGg c+u÷xftuf]8fdf
ult pTkGg ug{] -;'if'Dgfdf rfns Go'/f]g;Fusf] ;+of]hgåf/f_ sf]ifx¿
6f]kf]u|flkms ¿kaf6 Jojl:yt x'G5g\ . /]sl8{ª On]S6«f]8sf]
pkof]uaf6 o; dfglrqsf] s'g} klg efudf :gfo' kfpg ;lsG5 hf]
plrt df+zk]zLdf s]xL ultljlw x'g' eGbf nueu !)) ldnL ;]s]G8
k"j{ g} ;lqmo x'G5 . df]6/ s6{]S;df s] sf]8 ePsf] x'G5 eGg] Ps
nfdf] ax;sf] ljifo lyof]–s] s6{]S;df ePsf sf]ifn] To:tf
ultljlwsf nflu sf]8 u5{ hf] Ps JolQm ug{ rfxG5 of cnu–cnu
df+zk]zLsf nflu sf]8 u5{ hf] pQm ultljlwsf nflu ;+s'lrt x'g'
k5{ . o; k|Zgsf] pQ/ s]xL leGg kfOof]– Psn Go'/f]g oL b'a}sf
nflu sf]8 ub{}g . o;sf] 7fpFdf hg;+
hg;+Vof sf]8 sf] pkof]u ul/G5
h;df Go'/f]gsf] Ps ;d"xsf] kmfol/·åf/f ultljlw lgb{]z ul/G5 .
df]6/ sf6{]S;sf] l7s ;fd'Gg] dxTjk"0f{ lk|–df]6/ If]q x'G5 hf] sfo{sf]
of]hgf ug{df, ultsf] nflu :kfOgn ;ls{6 agfpgdf / ult x]g'{ tyf
xfpefp a'emg' oL b'O{j6fdf lnª\s agfpg] k|lqmofdf ;fd]n x'G5 .
gofF k|efjzfnL tYodf afFb/df ld// Go'/f]
/f]gsf] vf]h kb{5, h;n] oL
b'a} a]nfdf k|To'Q/ lbG5 – ha afFb/ xftsf] ult b]V5 / ha of]
hgfj/ :jo+n] pQm ultljlw u5{ . ld// Go'/f]g ultljlwsf] gSsn
ug{] / ultljlwnfO{ a'em\ g] sfddf dxTjk"0f{ ePsf] dflgG5 . df]6/
s6{]S;sf] k5fl8, k/fO6n s6{]S;df y'k|} ;+Vofdf ljleGg sl6{sn
If]q z/L/sf] :yfg ;DaGwL k|ltlglwTj / xfd|f] jl/kl/sf] b[li6ut
tyf >Jo nIosf] ;fy ;DalGwt x'G5 . logLx¿n] Pp6f dfglrq
afs]sf] b]lvG5 ls xfd|f] xftuf]8f sxfF 5g\ / xfd|f] ;Gbe{sf] /f]rs
nIo sxfF 5 .

oL If]qx¿sf] Iflt ePdf pbfx/0fsf] nflu Ps cf3ft -:6«f]s_ kl5,
xfdL s'g} j:t'af/] unt a'em\g ;S5f}+ jf xfd|f] jl/kl/sf] b'lgofsf]
cz+nfO{ pk]lIft of c:jLsf/ ug{ klg ;S5f}+ . tyfslyt k]/fO6n
pk]Iffsf
ff la/fdLn] j:t'k|lt Wofg lbg' c;Ifd x'G5g\ -vf;u/L
afofFtkm{sf]_ / s]lxn] t cfÇgf] zl//sf] afofF efusf] pk]Iff klg u5{g\
.

a];n Uof+ulnof
a];n Uof+ulnof ;]/]a|n x]ld:km]o/sf] ulx/fOdf, s6{]S;sf] tn /x]sf]
cfk;df hf]l8Psf] If]qsf] Ps ;d"x xf] . logLx? ultsf] z'?jftsf]
nflu dxTjk"0f{ x'G5g\, t}klg logLx?n] of] s;/L u5{g\ cem} :ki6 5}g .

æld// Go'/f]gn] dgf]lj1fgdf Tof] sfo{ ug{]5g\ hf] l8PgPn] hLjlj1fgdf u/]M logLx¿n] Ps}gf;sf] ¿k/]vf
k|bfg ug{]5g\ / dfgl;s Ifdtfsf] ;d"xsf af/]df a'emfpg d2t ug{]5g\ hf] /x:odo ag]/ /x]sf 5g\ /
h;af/] s'g} k|of]u ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g . logLx¿ k|fOd]6 dl:tissf] ljsf;sf nflu 7'nf sbd x'g\ .Æ le P;
/fdfrGıg

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a];n Uof+ulnofn] Ps hl6n lkmN6/ h;/L sfo{ u/]sf] b]lvG5,
h;n] s6{]S;sf] cufl8sf] lx:;f -;+j]bs, rfns, lk|k|mG6n /
lnlDas If]q_ af6 k|fKt x'g] ljleGg lgj]zaf6 ;"rgf r'G5 . a];n
Uof+ulnofsf] lgisf;g df]6/ sl6{sn If]qlt/ g} x'G5 .
Ps ;femf df]6/ /f]u, kfls{G;G; /f]udf sDkg / ult ;'? ug{df
sl7gfO h:tf nIf0f x'G5g\ . of] a};n Uof+ulnofsf] lkmN6/df
cj/f]w k'u]sf] h:t} xf] .;d:of dl:tissf] Ps If]q,
;a:6\ofgl;of lgu|f -o;sf] sfnf] /+usf] pkl:yltsf] sf/0f of]
gfd lbOPsf] xf] ._ df Go'/f]gsf] gfz x'g' xf] h;sf] nfdf] k|If]lkt
PS;hf]gn] a];n Uof+ulnofdf Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ 8f]kfldg lgd'{St
u5{ . -tnsf] cg';Gwfg cu|0fL x]g'{xf];\_ 8f]kfldg PS;hf]gsf]
a];n Uof+ulnofdf /x]sf] cfÇgf nlIft Go'/f]g;Fusf] lglZrt
Joj:yf Psbd} hl6n x'G5 / o;n] ljleGg Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/
larsf] dxŒjk"0f{ cGt/lqmof af/] ;'emfj lbG5 . dl:tisdf uP/
8f]kfldgdf ablng] Pn 8f]kf gfds cf}iflwn] 8f]kfldgsf] :t/
7Ls u5{ / ult k'gM :yflkt u5{ . -cWofo !^ x]g'{xf];\_
a];n Uof+ulnof l;Sgsf] nflu klg dxTjk"0f{
dflgG5 . h;n] kmn kfpg] sfo{ /f]Hg d2t
u5{ .

;]/]a]nd
;]/]a]nd s'zn ultljlwsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5
. of] Ps ;'Gb/ Go'/f]gn oGq xf], h;sf] hl6n
sf]if ;DaGwL j:t'nfO{ lj:tf/;Fu lrlqt ul/Psf]
kfOG5 . a];n Uof+ulnof h:t} of] df]6/
lgoGq0f;+u ;DalGwt sl6{sn If]q / a|]gl:6d
;+/rgfx?sf] ;fy lj:t[t ¿kdf cGt{;DalGwt
x'G5 . ;]/]a]nddf Iflt ePdf sdhf]/ ¿kn]
;+of]lht ultlalw, ;Gt'ngsf] cefj, n8\v8fPsf]
cfjfh / cg]s af]wfTds sl7gfOx¿ klg
x'g;S5 . st} ;'lg;s]sf] s'/f h:tf] nfUof] <
;]/]a]nddf /S;Lsf] zlQmzfnL k|efj x'G5 .

;]/]a]ndsf] Ps k/ls+h] sf]if h;n] o;sf] 8]G8«|fOl6s u'R5fsf]
æcfaf{]/fOh];gÆ(arborisation) b;f{O/fv]sf] 5 . o;n] xfdLn]
l;Sg] s'zn ultljlwsf] oyfy{ cjlwsf nflu rflxg] c;ª\Vo
lgj]z k|fKt u5{ .
F Sl6{sn Pkm]/]G6;\
sf}8]6

!),)))sl6{sn 6ld{gN;
k'6fd]g
8f]kfldg Pkm]/]G6;\

8]G8«fOl6s :kfOgdf
!))) 8f]kfldg
;fOGofK;
l:6«P6n
Go'/f]g

P;Pg

;A6\ofgl;of lgu|f -P;Pg_

8f]kfldgsf] af/]df Ps cgk]lIft sxfgL
;]/]a]nd df]6/ 1fg / cg's"ntfsf] nflu klg dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . k|fo
;a} :j]lR5s sfo{x? df]6/ ;ls{6sf] kl/is[t lgoGq0fdf lge{/ x'G5
/ ;]/]a]nd logLx¿sf] pRrtd cg's"ntfsf] nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5–
pbfx/0fsf nflu ;dosf] ;Gbe{df o;df cToGt lgoldt sl6{sn
Joj:yf x'G5 / o:tf] b]lvG5 ls of] ;+j]bs k|0ffnL, sl6{sn df]6/
If]q, ;'if'Dgf / a|]gl:6daf6 cfPsf ljzfn dfqfsf ;"rgfnfO{ Ps}
7fpFdf Nofpgsf nflu ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . s'zn ult u|x0f ug'{,
sf]if ;DalGwt 1fg k|lqmofdf lge{/ x'G5, h;nfO{ bL3{ cjlw cj;fb
-nu+ 6d{ l8k|]zg Pn6L8L_ elgG5, h;n] s]xL ;fOGoflK6s ;+of]hgsf]
zlQm sd ul/lbG5 . -Knfl:6l;l6 dflysf] cWofo x]g'{xf]nf_
;]/]a]ndsf] sfo{ ;DalGwt cg]s l;4fGt 5g\ w]/}df of] wf/0ff kfOG5
ls o;n] df]6/ k|0ffnL s;/L sfo{ u5{ eGg] af/]df Pp6f df]8]n
agfpF5 – Ps k|sf/n] tkfO{sf] cfÇg} z/L/sf] sfNklgs jf:tljs
l;d'n]6/ h'g tkfO{sf] 6fpsf]leq x'G5 . o;n] pQm df]8]n
;fOGoflK6s Knfl:6l;6Lsf] k|of]uaf6 agfpF5 hf] o;sf] hl6n
;~hfnleq u8]/ a;]sf] x'G5 . To;}n] cl3sf] es'G8f]nfO{ km]l/
;dfTg'xf];\ / ;Demg'xf];\ ls tkfO{sf] df]6/ qmdsf] ;a}} :t/ o;df
;fd]n 5g\ – rnfodfg b[li6ut nIosf] ;Gbe{df sfo{sf] of]hgf
agfpg], tkfO{sf] xftuf]8fsf] ultnfO{ k|f]u|fld+u ug{] / tkfO{sf] xftsf]
kf]:r'/n l/Çn]S;sf] ;dfof]hg ug{] . ;a} :t/df tkfO{n] ;+j]bs
;"rgfnfO{ df+zk]zLtkm{ hfg] l;Ugnsf] wf/fdf ;lDdng u/fpg'kg{]
x'G5 .

sfo{ / nt ;DaGwL /;foglj1fgdf Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/
8f]kfldg ;fd]n x'G5 h'g a];n Uof+ulnofdf ePsf Go'/f]gdf
lgd'{St x'G5 hxfF o;n] d]6faf]6«lks l/;f]6/dfly sfo{ ub{5
. -cWofo #_ ToxfF o;n] ultljlwsf] nflu k|]/0ff / pko'Qm
ultljlw u/]df kmnsf] l;Ugn oL b'j}sf] ¿kdf sfo{ ub{5 .
Ps lh1f;f k}bf ug{] vf]h of] 5 ls, 8f]kfldgsf]
lgd'{lSt ta pRr x'G5 ha kmn -l/jf8{_ cgk]lIft x'G5 .
cyf{t, 8f]kfldg Go'/f]g l;sfOsf] Ps cj:yfdf ;a}eGbf
;zQm ¿kaf6 kmfo/ u5{ ha ;xL lgisf;g -cfp6k'6_
lgsfn]sf] sf/0f rfns -df]6/_ k|0ffnLnfO{ alnof] k|ang
-;xfotf_ lbgdf o;n] jf/tjd} d2t u5{ . To;kl5
ultnfO{ 8f]kfldgsf] nuftf/ lgd'{Sltåf/f Pp6f cg'qmddf
af“Wg ;lsG5 . kl5, olb hl6n ultljlw lgoldt aGof] eg]
k|0ffnL 8f]kfldg l/jf8{ lagf g} :jtM rNg ;S5 . of]
ljGb'df cfP/ ljz]if u/L olb ultnfO{ l7s;Fu ;dodf ug'{5
eg], ;]/]a]ndn] e"ldsf v]Ng ;'? u5{ .

ultsf] lgoGq0fsf af/] :gfo'j}1flgsn] s;/L kQf nufP, o;af/] clnslt Oltxf; hfGg'xf];\ .
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:gfo'k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;
dl:tissf] d"ne"t of]hgf sfNklgs ¿kdf x/]s JolQmdf
Psgf;sf] x'G5 / ;a} :tgwf/L k|f0fLdf lrGg ;lsg] u/L Ps
;dfg x'G5 . o;sf] lgwf{/0f w]/} xb;Dd lhgn] u5{ . t/ o;sf]
;~hfnsf] ;"Id ljj/0f dl:tissf] ljB'tLo ultljlwåf/f k|efljt
x'G5, cem ljz]if u/L hLjgsf] k|fDedf . o;sf] hl6ntf o:tf] 5
ls cfh;Dd klg xfdL dl:tissf] s;/L ljsf; x'G5 eGg]
oyfy{af6 cln k/} 5f}+ t/ h]g]l6s qmflGtsf sf/0f xfn}sf
jif{x?df :ki6 cGt{b[li6 cfPsf] 5 .

s

Pp6f kml6{nfOH8 cG8f lng'xf];\ / pkb]zsf] kfngf
ug'{xf];\ .
dfgj z/L/ / dl:tis Ps Psn sf]if kml6{nfOH8 cG8faf6
ljsl;t x'G5 . t/ s;/L < ljsf; hLjlj1fgsf] lgoGq0f l;4fGt
of] xf] ls, z/L/sf] s'g} klg c+u agfpgsf nflu lhgf]d pkb]zsf]
Ps ;]6 xf], An'lk|G6 xf]Og . lhgf]d $),))) of nueu o:t} lhg
xf] h;n] o; k|lqmofdf /rgf e5{ . of] pkb]zx¿sf] kfngf ug'{,
sfuh df]8\g] Ps lrlgo“f snf h:t} xf], h;df k6\ofpg], df]8\g],
vf]Ng] h:tf ;Lldt ;]6n] Pp6f ;+/rgf agfpF5, h;nfO{ An'lk|G6sf]
¿kdf j0f{g ug{ y'k|} /]vflrq rflxG5 . Pp6f e|"0faf6 ;'? u/]/
h]g]l6s pkb]zsf] t'ngfTds ¿kdf ;fgf] ;]6 sf]ifsf] ljljw k|sf/
/ ljsf;sf] qmddf dl:tissf] ;+of]hg pTkGg ug{ ;Ifd x'G5 .
cfZro{hgs ¿kn], xfd|f] w]/} hLgx? 8«f];f]lkmnf gfds kmnsf]
sL/f h:t} x'G5 . h] xf];\ oL kmnsf sL/fdf ul/Psf cWoognfO{
wGojfb, h;af6 dfgj :gfo' k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;sf nflu dxŒjk"0f{
dflgPsf lhg klxnf]k6s kQf nfUof] . dl:tissf] ljsf;sf]
cWoog ub{} u/]sf :gfo' j}1flgsn] cg]s k|sf/sf hgfj/sf]
k/LIf0f u5{g\– h]a|f lkm;, Eofu'tf, s'v'/f / d';f k|To]sn] s'g}
ljz]if cf0fljs of sf]if ;DaGwL 36gfsf af/] k/LIf0f ug{ of]ubfg
lbG5g\ . h]a|f lkm;sf] e|"0f kf/bzL{ x'G5 h;n] ubf{ k|To]s sf]ifsf]
ljsf; x'g] qmddf dfOqmf]:sf]kdf x]g{ ;lsG5 . d';fsf] k|hgg
Psbd} l56f] x'G5, o;sf] lhgd dfglrlqt ul/Psf] 5 / nueu
k'/} cg'qmddf /flvPsf] 5 . s'v'/f / Eofu'tf lhg ;DaGwL
cWoogsf nflu sd pko'Qm x'G5 t/ ltgLx¿sf] 7'nf] e|"0fn] ;"Id
zNolqmof ;DaGwL abnfa ug{ ;xof]u u5{– h:t} sf]ifx¿
c;fdfGo l:yltdf n}hfFbf s] x'G5 o;sf] k/LIf0f ug'{ .

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klxnf] kfOnf…
dl:tis ljsf;sf] klxnf] sbd sf]ifsf] ljefhg xf] . csf{] k|d'v
sbd sf]ifsf] lje]bLs/0f xf] h;df x/]s Psn sf]ifn] ljefhg
/f]S5 / ljz]if u'0f k|fKt u5{ – h:t} :gfo' of lUnon sf]if .
lje]bLs/0fn] j:t'x¿nfO{ 5'§f5'§} Jojl:yt u5{ . k]6g{ lgdf{0f
gfds k|lqmof cGt{ut, :gfo'sf] ljleGg k|sf/ ljleGg :yndf
;5{ .
k]6g{ lgdf{0fsf] klxnf] k|d'v 36gf dfgj e|"0ffj:yfsf] t];|f]
xKtfdf x'G5, ha e|"0f ljefhg x'g] sf]ifsf] s]an b'O{ ;+of]lht
l;6 sf] ?kdf x'G5 .

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Go'/n Kn]6 bf]la|P/ Go'/n 6\o'a aG5 . -s_ ue{wf/0fsf] #
;ftf kl5sf] dfgj e|"0f -v_ e|"0fsf] dflyNnf] -k[i7_ ;tx
agfp“b} u/]sf] Go'/n Kn]6 . -u_ s]xL lbgkl5 e|"0fdf
cufl8sf] efudf 7"nf] lz/sf] kmGsf] aG5, Go'/n Kn]6 /
k'R5/sf] efudf v'n} /xG5 t/ lardf aGb x'G5 . 3, ª, r
lz/b]lv k'R5/;Ddsf] cIfsf] ljleGg :t/ h;n] Go'/n
6\o'asf] aGbsf] qmdsf] ljleGg r/0f b;f{Psf] 5 .

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bf]xf]/f] kqsf] dflyNnf] ;txdf ePsf] sf]ifsf] Pp6f ;fgf]
6'qmfnfO{ dl:tis / ;'if'Dgf agfpg lzIff÷pkb]z lbOG5 . oL
sf]ifx¿n] Go'/n Kn]6 gfds 6]lg; Kofs]6 h:tf] ;+/rgf agfpF5
h;sf] cufl8sf] efuaf6 dl:tis aG5 eg] k5fl8af6 ;'if'Dgf .
oL sf]ifsf] eljio lgb{]lzt ug{] l;Ugn Tof] kqsf] d'lgaf6 cfp“5
h;n] uP/ dWo/]vfsf] cfl:yk~h/ / e|"0fs]f df;+k]zL agfp“5 .
cf/lDes :gfo' k|f0ffnLsf] ljleGg If]qn] lhgsf] ljleGg ;a;]6
(Subset) cleJoQm u5{, h;n] sf]ifsf] k[ys jf:t'zf:q / sfo{
ePsf] dl:tis If]qsf] pTkltnfO{ nlIft u5{ .

rf/}lt/ 3'Dg'
Ps ;ftf kl5, Go'/n Kn]6 dflylt/ 3'D5, Pp6f 6\o'a agfp“5 /
e|"0fdf 8'A5, hxf of] eljiosf] Olk8ld+;af6 9flsG5 . cem
uxg kl/jt{g kl5sf s]xL ;ftfdf x'G5– h;df sf]ifsf] cfsf/df
kl/jt{g, sf]ifsf] ljefhg / a;fO“ ;/fO / sf]if–sf]if ;+;lQm
k5{g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu Go'/n 6\o'a o; k|sf/ lgx'l/G5 ls
6fpsf]sf] efu lhpsf] efu;Fu ()l8u|L sf]0fdf em'S5 . of]
qmdn] kl/is[teGbf kl/is[t lgZrodf k'¥ofp“5 / cGtdf ev{/sf
:gfo'nfO{ JolQmut klxrfg k|bfg u5{ .
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/ lz/–k'R5/ cIf;Fu} o;df cg]s df]8 x'G5 .

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s]xL s'/f g/fd|f] klg x'g ;S5 . Go'/n 6\o'a aGb x'g ;s]g eg]
:kfOgn afOlkm8f klg x'g ;S5, of] o:tf] cj:yf xf] h'g ;'if'Dgfsf]
tNnf] efudf ;Lldt x'G5 . o;n] tgfj lbP tfklg hLjgnfO{ g}
vt/f kg{] eg] x'Gg . t/ o;sf] ljk/Lt 6fpsf]kl§ olb aGb
gePdf Ps ;+ul7t dl:tis k'/} cg'kl:yt x'g ;S5, h;nfO{
Pg]gl;kmfnL elgG5 .

hLjgdf cfÇgf] :yfg hfGg'xf];\
k}6lg{u+ cGglg{lxt l;4fGt of] xf] ls dl:tis k|0ffnLsf] k|wfg
cIfx?sf] cufl8b]lv k5fl8 / dflyb]lv tn– ;fk]Ifdf
sf]ifx¿nfO{ cfÇgf] :yfg yfxf x'G5 . h;n] ubf{, k|To]s sf]ifn]
cfÇgf] :yfg oL cyf{]uf]gn ;+of]hgsf] cfwf/df dfkg u5{g\, of]
emG8}emG8} gS;f k9\g] JolQmn] p;sf] cfÇgf] :yfgnfO{ s'g}
lglZrt ljGb'af6 b"/L dfkg u/]/ cfsng u/] h:t} xf] .
cf0fljs :t/df o;n] s;/L sfo{ ub{5 eg], e|"0fn] Go'/n 6\o'adf
y'k|} ;ª\Vofdf :yfgLo kf]nf/fOlhª If]q agfpF5 h;n] l;Ugn
c0f'sf] ;|fj u5{ . k|To]s dfdnfdf, c0f' cfÇgf] ;|f]t eGbf k/
kl/rflnt x'G5, h;n] b"/L;“usf] ;fb|tfsf] u|fl8oG6 agfpF5 .
:yfgsf] ;+j]bgf lbg] k|lj|mofsf] Ps pbfx/0f ;'if'Dgfsf] dflyb]lv
tn;Ddsf] -8f];{]e]G6«n_ cIf xf] . Go'/n 6\o'asf] tnkl§sf] efun]
;|fljt k|f]l6gnfO{ cleJoQm u5{ h;sf] cfZro{hgs gfd 5–
;f]lgs x]hxf]u. ;f]lgs x]hxf]u Çnf]/ Kn]6af6 k/ lj;l/t x'G5
/ 8f];f{]e]G6«n cIfdf ePsf sf]ifnfO{ ltgLx¿sf] Çnf]/ Kn]6;Fusf]
b"/Lsf] cfwf/df k|efljt u5{ . glhs ePsf] a]nf, ;f]lgs
x]hxf]un] Ps lhgsf] cleJolQmnfO{ k|f]T;fxg u5{ h;n] s'g} Ps
k|sf/sf] OG6/Go'/f]g agfpF5 . cem 6f9f x'Fbf ;f]lgs x]hxf]usf]
ca x'g] sd ;fb|tfn] csf{] lhgsf] cleJolQmnfO{ k|f]T;fxg u5{
h;n] df]6/ Go'/f]g agfpF5 .

yfldg' jf yfxf kfpg' ls tkfO{ sxfF h“fb} x'g'x'G5 .
ha Pp6f Go'/f]gn] cfÇgf] JolQmut klxrfg agfpF5 / ljefhg
x'g] qmd /f]lsG5, ta o;n] (Growth Cone) u|f]y sf]g
gfds Pp6f km's]sf] 6'Kkf];lxt cfÇgf] PShf]gnfO{ nDAofpF5 .
Pp6f lgk'0f kj{tLo kyk|bz{s h:t}} u|f]y sf]g cfÇgf] l;ksf]
k|of]u u/]/ cfÇgf] cg's"n dfu{ /fHb} tGt'sf] laraf6 hfgsf]
nflu lj]z]ifLs[t x'G5 . o;f] ug{] qmddf o;n] PShf]gnfO{ cfÇgf]
k5fl8 nufpF5, h;/L Pp6f s's'/ l;qmLsf] kl5 cfpF5, ha of]
nIodf k'U5 To;kl5 u|f]y sf]gn] cfÇgf] cufl8 a9\g ;Sg] zlQm
x/fpF5 / ;fOGofK; agfpF5 . PShf]gn dfu{bz{g Ps pRrtd
kl/rfngsf] sfo{ xf], hf] 5f]6f] / nfdf] b"/Ldf z'4 x'G5 . of] Ps
l;+un dfOG8]8 k|ls|of klg xf] h;df nIo sf]if Psbd} z'4tfsf
;fy 5gf]6 x'g] dfq geP/ ToxfF k'Ugsf] nflu u|f]y sf]gn]
ljleGg :yfgdf hfFb} u/]sf cGo u|f]y sf]gnfO{ kf/ ug'{kg{] x'G5 .
pQm dfu{sf] ;fy dfu{bz{gn] ;+s]t lbG5 h;n] u|f]y sf]gnfO{
cfslif{t of ljslif{t u/]/ af6f] kQf nufpg ;xof]u u5{, t}klg
oL ;+s]tsf] cleJolQmnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{sf nflu pQ/bfoL
cf0fljs k|lqmofsf af/] yf]/} dfq yfxf ePsf] 5 .

ljB'tLo ultljlwåf/f lzNk agfpg'
x'gt Go'/f]gsf] :yfg ;DaGwL aGbf]a:t / logLx¿sf] ;+of]hg
b'a}df pRr :t/Lo z'4tf cf/Deaf6 k|fKt x'G5, t/ :gfo'
k|0ffnLsf] s]xL efusf] jfol/+u -;+of]hg_ kl5 ultljlw– cfwfl/t
kl/is/0fdf nluG5g\, h:t} PShf]gsf] sfF65fF6 / Go'/f]gsf] gfz.
oL Ifltx¿ Joy{ h:tf] nfUg ;S5 t/ lgdf0f{af6 dfq} k"0f{ /
pQd dl:tis agfpg ;w}“ ;Dej jf jf~5gLo gx'g ;S5 .
ljsf;nfO{ Ps l6+s// (a tinkerer) sf] ¿kdf elgG5 t/ of]
Pp6f lzNksf/ klg xf] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu, cfFvf / dl:tisdf
Go'/f]gsf] aLr laGb'af6 laGb';Ddsf] dfglrq0f .

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Go'/f]gn] -lgnf]_ cfÇgf] PShf]g / u|f]y sf]g -cufl8sf] efukl§
ePsf] r'Rrfx¿_ km}nfpg] qmddf hDsfe]6 ePsf dfu{bz{s
;+s]tx¿ . :yfgLo / 6f9f b'a}sf ;+s]tx¿ u|f]y sf]gsf nflu
cfsif{s (+) cyjf ljsif{s (-) x'g ;S5g\. ljlzi6 cf0fljs
dfu{bz{s ;+s]tsf] s]xL pbfx/0f lbOPsf] 5 .
pbfx/0fsf] nflu cfFvf / dl:tisdf Go'/f]gsf] lar laGb'af6
laGb';Ddsf] dfglrq0f hf] :ki6 ¿kaf6 b]Vgsf] nflu rflxG5,
of] /]l6gfdf x'g] k|efjL k]6g{o'St ljB'tLo ultljlwsf] dfWodaf6
cf+lzs ¿kdf k|fKt x'G5 . ;fy} gfh's cj:yfdf ;+of]hgsf] Ps
k|f/lDes ljk'n ;]6 agfOG5, To;kl5 b[li6ut k|0ffnLsf] d"ne"t
k]6g{ k"/f x'G5, hf] afFb/df nueu cf7 ;ftfsf] cfo'df /
dflg;df ;fob Ps jif{sf] cfo'df x'G5 . Ps cGtlg{lxt k|Zg
of] 5 ls s] To:tf k|f/lDes ljsf;sf sfo{qmd /f]un] ubf{
Go'/f]gsf] Iflt ePsf] cj:yf -h:t} cNhfOd/ / kfls{g;G;
/f]udf_ jf ;'if'Dgfdf Iflt k'u]sf]n] kIf3ft ePsf] cj:yfdf k'gM
;lqmo x'g ;S5 < kl5sf] l:yltdf Iflt e};s]kl5 PShf]gnfO{
kml]/ a[l4 x'gsf] nflu k|f]T;flxt ug{ ;lsG5 t/ s] To;nfO{ k'gM
pko'Qm ¿kaf6 hf]8\g ;lsG5 eGg] s'/f cem} klg ;3g
cg';Gwfgsf] If]q xf] .

lhgf]d s|flGt
xfdLn] dl:tissf] lgdf{0fsf nflu rflxg] lhgsf] ;Dk"0f{ ;"rLkq
Psbd} l56f] k|fKt ul//fv]sf 5f}+“ . cf0fljs h}ljs ljlwx¿sf]
cb\e't zlQmnfO{ wGojfb h;n] ubf{ xfdL ljsf;sf] qmddf lhgsf]
cleJolQmnfO{ hxfF / hlxn];'s} 36a9 u/]/ pQm lhgsf] sfo{
k/LIf0f ug{ ;S5f}+“ . casf] d'Vo sfo{ eg]sf] h]g]l6s lgoGq0fsf]
pQm qmd kQf nufpg' xf] h;n] sf]ifsf] Ps kftfnfO{ sfo{zLn
dl:tisdf ¿kfGt/0f u5{ . of] :gfo'lj1fgsf] a[xt\ r'gf}ltx? dWo]
Ps xf] .

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL
l:6s sf]if z/L/sf] To:tf sf]if x'g\ h;df ljleGg k|sf/sf
cGo sf]ifdf ¿kfGtl/t x'g ;Sg] ;fdYo{ x'G5 . e|'0fLo l:6d
sf]if gfds s]xL sf]ifx? ljsf;sf] qmddf w]/} rf8f] pTkGg
x'G5g\ . cGo af]g Dof/f] / e|"0f gfn h;n] cfdfnfO{ pgsf]
gjhft lzz';Fu hf]8\5 To;df kfOG5 . :gfo'j}1flgsn]
jo:s dl:tisdf Ifltu|:t Go'/f]gsf] dd{tsf nflu l:6d
sf]ifsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 ls
eg]/ kQf nufpg vf]lh/x]sf
5g\ . clxn]sf] ;dodf clwsf+z
sfo{ hgfj/df ug{] ul/Psf]
5 t/ cfzf 5 ls kl5 uP/
xfdL kfls{G;G; /f]u h:tf cj:yfn]
ubf{ Ifltu|:t ePsf dl:tissf
If]q dd{t ug{ ;kmn x'g]5f“}+ .

dl:tissf] ljsf;sf] s]xL ljlzi6 r/0fdf k|To]s ldg]6df tkfO{sf] dl:tisdf @,%),))) sf]if ylkG5g\M
o; af/] yk hfgsf/Lsf] nflu ox“ fk9\g'xf];\ http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/dev.html

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l8:n]lS;of
s] tkfO{ ;Demg'x'G5 k9fO l;Sg slt ufx|f] x'GYof] < af]Ng' h;sf]
ljsf;fTds pb\ej cToGt k'/fgf] 5, of] eGbf cnu n]Vg' / k9\g'
ck]Iffs[t ¿kdf xfn}sf] dfgj cfljisf/ xf] . Ps xhf/ jif{
klxn] g} xf]nf b'lgo“fsf] ;a} efudf 5l/Psf ;d'bfon] cg'ej u/]
ls, af]lng] xhf/f“ zAbx¿ Ps ;fgf] ;ª\Vofsf cnu Wjlgx¿
ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 -c+u|]hLdf $$ kmf]g]d_ / logLx¿nfO{ cem ;fgf]
;+Vofsf] b[li6ut ;+s]tsf dfWodaf6 k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 . oL
;+s]tnfO[{ l;Sg ;do nfUg ;S5 / s]xL aRrfx?nfO{ c;fWo}
sl7gfO x'g;S5 . of] a'l4dtfdf s'g} k|sf/sf] sdLn] ubf{ ePsf]
x}g t/ lsg xf] eg] ltgLx¿sf] dl:tisn] k9\gsf nflu rflxg]
k"jf{wf/ /fd|f];+u l;Sg ;Sb}g . xfdL bzdf Ps hgfn] of] l:ylt
ef]Ug'k/]sf] x'g;S5, h;nfO{ clxn] o;sf] Go'/f]nf]lhsn gfd,
ljsf; ;DaGwL l8:n]lS;ofn] lrlgG5 .
l8:n]lS;of Ps cfd ;d:of xf] . of] ;d:of x'g] aRrfx¿
a'em\b}gg\ ls pgLx?nfO{ k9\g' olt w]/} sl7g lsg nfU5 hals
pgLx¿ cfkm"nfO{ k9\g ;lhnf] nfUg] ;fyL;/x a'l4dfg\ kfpF5g\ .
To;}n] l8:n]lS;of b'Mvsf] Ps k|d'v sf/0f xf] . y'k|} aRrfx¿n]
cfTdljZjf; x/fpF5g\, o;n] ubf{ pgLx¿ lg/fz x'g k'U5g\,
ljb|f]xL, cfqmfds / ck/fwL;d]t x'g ;S5g\ . t}klg
l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t y'k|} aRrfx¿n] cGo If]qM v]n, lj1fg,
u0fgf, jfl0fHo jf snfdf cfÇgf] lgk'0ftf b]vfpg ;S5g\ , t/
o;sf] nflu k9fOdf cfPsf] k|f/lDes ;d:ofn] pgLx¿sf] k'/}
cfzf / cfTd–;Ddfg x/fPsf] x'g' x'b“ }g . To;}n] l8:n]lS;ofsf]
h}ljs cfwf/nfO{ a'em\g' cfkm“}df dxŒjk"0f{ 5 ;fy} o;n] si6sf]
ef/sf] /f]syfddf klg of]ubfg lbG5 . /fd|f] tl/sfn] k9\g]
k|lqmof a'em\gfn] xfdLnfO{ of] ;d:ofsf] pkrf/ ug{] jf o;af6
5'6sf/f kfpg] dfu{ ldNg ;S5 .

k9\g l;Sg'
k9\g' b[li6ut ;+s]tnfO{ pgLx?sf] ;lx qmd cg';f/ klxrfg
ug'{df lge{/ x'G5 – aRrfn] h'g efiff l;ls/fv]sf] 5 To;sf]
cyf{]u|fkmL / zAbdf ePsf cnu cnu WjgLnfO{ ;lx qmddf ;'Gg'
. o;df kmf]g]lds ;+/rgfsf] lgisif{0f ;fd]n x'G5 h;n] ubf{
;+s]tx?nfO{ ;lx Wjlgdf abNg ;lsG5 . b'ef{Uojz
l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t clwsf+z JolQmx? zAbsf] cyf{]u|flkms /
kmf]gf]nf]lhs ljz]iftfsf] ljZn]if0f la:tf/} / cz'4 t/Lsfaf6
u5{g\ .
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k9fOsf] a]nf cf“vfsf] ultljlw . k]g /]s8{/sf] tn dflysf] ult
bfofF / afofFsf] cg'¿k x'G5 .
cf“vfsf] ult;DaGwL k|0ffnLsf] b[li6ut lgoGq0fdf DofUgf];]n'n/
k|0ffnL gfds 7"nf Go'/f]gsf] ;~hfnsf] k|efj x'G5 . o;nfO{ of]
gfd o;sf/0f lbOof] ls Go"/f]g -sf]if_ Psbd} 7"nf -DofUgf]_ x'G5g\ .
of] ;~hfnnfO{ /]l6gfaf6 ;'? u/]/, ;]/]a|n s6{]S; / ;]/]a]nd
;Ddsf] dfu{ x'b} cfvfFsf] df+;k]zLsf] rfns Go'/f]g;Dd b;f{pg
;lsG5 . ultzLn ;+s]tnfO{ s]xL /fd|f];Fu k|To'Q/ lbg of] ljz]ifLs[t
x'G5 / To;}n] ultzLn nIonfO{ k5\ofpgsf nflu of] dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5
. of] k|0ffnLsf] Ps dxŒjk"0f{ ljz]iftf of] xf] ls k9fOsf] a]nf o;n]
ultsf] ;+s]t pTkGg u5{ ha cf“vf tL cIf/af6 k/ ;5{ hxfF Tof]
cl8g'kg{] dflgGYof] . of] ult q'l6k"0f{ ;+s]t cf“vfsf] ult k|0ffnLdf
lkmtf{ k7fOG5 tf ls cf“vfnfO{ km]/L nIodf Nofpg ;lsof];\ .
DofUgf];]n'n/ k|0ffnLn] cf“vfnfO{ k|To]s cIf/df l:y/ eP/ s]lGb|t
ug{ / To;}n] ltgLx¿sf] qmd lgwf{/0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 .
kfef]{;]n'n/
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b'j} k|lqmofdf lge{/ /xG5 . ckl/lrt zAbsf] nflu / k9\g ;'?
ubf{ ;a} zAb ckl/lrt g} x'G5g\ – To:tf] a]nf k|To]s cIf/nfO{
lrGg'k5{ / ;xL qmddf /fVg'k5{ . of] k|lqmof ;'Gbfh:tf] ;lhnf]
5}g lsgeg] cf“vfn] Pp6f cIf/af6 csf{]df 5f]6f]–5f]6f] ult lnG5
. cf“vf Pp6f cIf/df /f]lsPsf] a]nf pQm cIf/ 7DofpF5 t/
To;sf] qmd eg] ToxfFaf6 lbOG5 hxfF k|To]s cIf/nfO{ x]bf{ c“fvf
s]lGb|t ePsf] x'G5 . cf“vfn] s] b]V5 eGg] s'/f cf“vfsf] ult
;DaGwL k|0ffnLaf6 k|fKt rfns ;+s]tsf] ;fy ;lDdng x'G5 /
oxL leHof]df]6/ (Visuomotor) ;lDdng;Fu w]/} l8:n]lS;of ePsf
JolQmnfO{ ;d:of x'G5 .

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l8:n]lS;ofdf ;+ul7t gePsf] kfef{] / DofUgf];]n'n/ sf]if
b;f{OPsf] kfZjL{o hlgs'n]6 Go'lSno;sf] lx:6f]nf]lhsn :6]g

@%

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k|0ffnL y'k|} l8:n]lS;of ePsf JolQmdf yf]/} sdhf]/ x'G5 .
dl:tissf] tGt'nfO{ k|ToIf ¿kdf x]g'{ o;nfO{ -lrq_ k|blz{t ug{]
Pp6f tl/sf xf] t/ o;sf] ;fy} l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t JolQmsf]
b[li6ut ult ;DaGwL ;+j]bgzLntf ;fdfGo kf7ssf] t'ngfdf
sdhf]/ x'G5 / ultzLn pQ]hs;Fu pgLx¿sf] dl:tis t/+usf]
k|To'Q/ c;fdfGo x'G5 . dl:tis Od]lhªn] klg b[li6ut ult
k|lt ;+j]bgzLn If]qdf sfof{Tds ;lqmotf kl/jlt{t k]6g{nfO{
b]vfPsf] 5 . -a|]g Od]lhu+df cWofo !@ x]g'{xf];\_ l8:n]lS;ofaf6
kLl8t JolQmdf cf“vfsf] lgoGq0f sd l:y/ x'G5 . To;}n] w]/}
h;f] pgLx¿ k9\g] sf]l;; ubf{ cIf/x¿ otfptf 3'D5g\ / 7fpF
;f6\5g\ eGg] l;sfot u5{g\ . oL b[li6ut e|d b[li6ut
DofUgf];]n'n/ k|0ffnLn] cf“vfx? l:y/ /fVg g;Sg'sf] kl/0ffd
x'g;S5 h'g o;n] /fd|f] kf7sx¿df ug{ ;S5 .

WjlgnfO{ ;xL qmddf /fVg'
w]/} l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t JolQmnfO{ zAbsf] WjlgnfO{ ;xL qmddf
/fVg klg ;d:of x'G5 To;}n] pgLx¿ unt pRrf/0f ug{] x'G5g\
. -h:t} nlnkknfO{
nlnkk klnkk pRrf/0f u5{g\_ / pgLx¿ l56f]–
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x'G5g\ . ha pgLx¿ k9\g ;'? u5{g\ pgLx¿ cln l9nf] k9\5g\
/ cIf/nfO{ Wjlgdf cg'jfb ug{] sfd cln cz'4 ¿kn] u5{g\ .
pgLx¿sf] b[li6ut ;d:of h:t} of] kmf]gf]nf]lhsn -zAb ;DaGwL_
cefj ;DejtM d"ne"t >Jo sf}zntfsf] cefj cGtu{t k5{ .
xfdL Wjlgsf] cfj[lQ / logLx?sf] :jefj j0f{g ug{] tLj|tfsf]
kl/jt{gdf clt;"Id leGgtf klxrfg u/]/ kmf]g]d gfds cIf/
Wjlg 5'6o\ fpF5f}“ . oL Wjlg ;DaGwL df]8'n];g 7"nf >Jo Go'/f]gsf]
k|0ffnLn] kQf nufp“5g\ h;n] Wjlg tLj|tf / cfj[ltdf ePsf]
kl/jt{gnfO{ k5\ofp“5 . y'k}| k|df0f kfOPsf] 5 ls oL Go'/f]g
l8:n]lS;of ePsf] JolQmdf /fd|f];Fu ljsf; x'g ;Sb}g h;/L of]
/fd|f] kf7sdf ePsf] x'G5 / p:t} Wjlg h:t} c+u|]hLsf] aL / 8L
aLrsf] >]0fLut ;Ldf/]vf pgLx¿nfO{ ;'Gg cln ufx|f] k5{ . -lrq
x]g'{xf];\_
y'k|} l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t JolQmdf dl:tissf] ljsf; sdhf]/
ePsf] kfOPsf] 5, hf] k9\g;“u ;DalGwt pgLx¿sf] b[li6ut /
>Jo ;d:ofeGbf cufl8 a9]sf] 5 . oL To:tf Go'/f]gdf x'g]
;d:of xf] h;n] dl:tisel/ ;~hfn agfpF5 h'g 6]Dkf]/n
kl/jt{gnfO{ k5\ofpgsf nflu ljz]ifLs[t x'G5 . ;a} sf]ifsf]
Pp6} lsl;dsf] ;txL c0f' x'G5 h;n] ubf{ pgLx? Ps cfk;nfO{
lrG5g\ / ;Dks{ agfpF5g\ t/ o;n] pgLx¿nfO{ PG6Lj8Lsf]
xdnfk|lt klg hf]lvdk"0f{ agfpF5 .
DofUgf];]n'n/ k|0ffnLn] ;]/]a]ndnfO{ s]xL 7"n} lgIf]k lbG5 .
-ultzLntf dflysf] cWofo & x]g'{xf];\_

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/f]rs s'/f of] 5 ls, s]xL l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t JolQm s]xL
af]wf] x'G5g\ / pgLx¿sf] cIf/ klg k|foM cln g/fd|f] x'G5 .
;]/]a]ndsf] Go'/f] Od]lhª -k]h $! x]g'{xf];\_ / d]6faf]lns
cWoogn] b;f{p5
“ ls l8:n]lS;of ePsf] JolQmdf ;]/]a]ndsf]
sfo{df gf]S;fg k'u]sf] x'g ;S5 / n]vfOdf sl7gfOsf] d'Vo
sf/0f oxL g} x'g ;S5 . s]xL :gfo'j}1flgssf] ljZjf; 5 ls
;]/]a]nd n]Vg' / af]Ng' h:tf s]an ultsf] ;Dkfbg afx]s c¿
y'k|} sfo{df ;fd]n x'G5 – h;cGtu{t af]wfTds of]hgfsf] If]q
klg k5{ . olb of] ;To xf] eg] ;]/]a]ndsf] sfo{df ePsf] sdLn]
ubf{ k9\g, n]Vg / lxHh] l;Sgdf ;d:of a9\g ;S5 .

s] ug{ ;lsG5 <
l8:n]lS;ofsf] cg]sf}“ pkrf/ x'g;S5, k|To]s pkrf/ o;df
lglxt sf/0f;“u ;DalGwt kl/sNkgfdf cfwfl/t x'G5. s]xLn]
DofUgf];]n'n/ kl/sNkgfdf s]lGb|t u/]sf 5g\ t/ c¿n] cflh{t
cj:yfsf] ljleGg ¿kdf ljefhg u5{g\ h;nfO{ ;txL / uxg
l8:n]lS;of elgG5 . h;nfO{ cnu pkrf/ rflxg ;S5 . ;a}
pkrf/ /f]usf] zL3| lgwf{/0fdf lge{/ x'G5 .
j}1flgsx¿ ;b}j ;a} s'/fdf ;xdt x'b“ }gg\ / l8:n]l:S;ofsf]
pQd pkrf/ klg To:t} c;xdltsf] Pp6f If]q xf] . xfn}df of]
;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 ls, dl:tissf] Knfl:6l;6L ;DaGwL ;fdfGo
k|lqmofsf] k|of]u u/]/ Wjlgsf] af/]df l;Sbf, unt ¿kdf hfg]
s]xL l8:n]lS;of ePsf JolQmdf Wjlgsf] k|;fwgdf ;d:of
x'g;S5 . ;DalGwt ljrf/ of] xf] ls, olb aRrfnfO{ sDKo'6/
u]d v]NgnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ul/of], h;df pgLx¿ o:tf] cfjfh ;'Gg
;S5g\ h;nfO{ Tof] ljGb' ;DddGb agfOPsf] x'G5 hxfF kmf]g]lds
;Ldf clws :ki6 x'G5 . To;f] ul/Pdf aRrfx¿nfO{ l;wf /
;+sL0f{df kmsf{pg ;lsG5 . To;kl5 WjlgnfO{ lj:tf/} a9fOG5
. bfjf ul/G5 ls o;n] lgs} /fd|f];Fu sfo{ u5{ t/ :jtGq
k/LIf0f cem} klg ul/G5 . o;df ljrf/df j}1flgs ¿kaf6
/f]rs s] 5 eg], Psbd} ;fdfGo dl:tis k|lqmofx¿n] k|f/lDes
lhg;DaGwL c;fdfGotf;Fu cGt/lqmof u5{ / clt/+lht k|efj
pTkGg u/fpF5 . of] lhg / jftfj/0f s;/L cGt/lqmof ug{
;S5 eGg] af/] Ps 3tnfUbf] pbfx/0f xf] .
of] s'/fdf hf]8 lbg' dxTjk"0f{ 5 ls l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t
JolQm s]xL ljrf/fTds lg0f{odf /fd|f];Fu k9\g] JolQmeGbf s]xL
pQd x'g ;S5g\, h:t} /+u larsf] e]b 5'6o\ fpg', :yfgLoeGbf
cem ljZjJofkL cfsf/df km/s 5'6o\ fpg' . of] s'/fn] ;+efljt
JofVof ug{ d2t u5{ ls lsg y'k|} l8l:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t
JolQmx¿ nfdf] /]Ghsf] ;+;u{, cgk]lIft ;+;u{ / ;du| ;f]rsf]
dfdnfdf ljlzi6 x'G5g\ . ofb /fVg'xf];\, lnof]gfbf{] bf leGrL,
leGrL
xfG; lqml:rog P+8/;g, /l8;g / cfOG;6fOg tyf cg]s
/rgfTds snfsf/ / cljisf/s l8:n]lS;ofaf6 kLl8t lyP .

l8:n]lS;of / l;sfOsf] ;d:ofx¿;Fu ;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6
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xfd|f] k'/} hLjge/
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Knfl:6l;g df]8n ;dfg dflgG5, h;sf] cfGtl/s efunfO{ nuftf/
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sd k|of]u x'g] ;+of]hg sdhf]/ x'b“ } hfG5 / x/fP/ klg hfg ;S5 .
;fOGofK; hf] ;lqmo x'G5g\ / hf] ;lqmotfsf ;fy abln/xG5g\,
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o;sf] pkof]u u/ jf o;nfO{ u'dfpm
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;fOGoflK6s
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u/L ;fOGoflK6s zlQmdf nfdf] ;do;Dd /lx/fVg] kl/jt{gdf ¿lr
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;lsG5– pNn]Vo¿kdf b'O{ k|lqmofaf6 klxnf]nfO{ bL3{ cjlw
kf]6]lG;o
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bf];|f] bL3{ cjlw l8k|];g -Pn=l6=8L_ h;n] pgLx¿nfO{ s'+l7t
u/fpF5.

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u5{ . Un'6fd]6 l/;]K6/ hf] d'Votof ;fOGofK;sf] k|fks kIfkl§
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ePtfklg, pgLx¿n] Psbd} km/s sfo{ u5{g\ . cfogf]6«f]lks
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eg] d]6faf]6«f]lks Un'6fd]6 l/;]K6/n] xfdLn] klxn] atfPsf]
Go'/f]df]8'n]6/L sfo{ -k]h *_ h:t}, o; k|To'Q/sf] cfsf/ /
:jefjnfO{ 36a9 u5{ . ;fOGofl:6s Knfl:6l;6Lsf nflu oL ;a}
k|sf/ dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 t/ PPdkLP / PgPd8LP l/;]K6/sf af/]
xfdLnfO{ ;a} eGbf a9L yfxf 5 / logLx¿nfO{ g} k|foM :d/0f
c0f'sf ¿kdf dflgG5 . o;sf] clwsf+z 1fg tL cf}iflwsf]
k|of]ufTds sfo{af6 k|fKt ePsf] xf], h;n] oL l/;]K6/sf] ultljlw
¿kfGt/0f ug{sf nflu sfo{ ub{5 . -k]h @( sf] aS; x]g'{xf];\_
PPdkLP l/;]K6/ ;a}eGbf l56f] sfo{ u5{ . ha Psk6s
Un'6fd]6 cfP/ oL l/;]K6/df hf]l8G5 ta o;n] Ps 6«flGhPG6
PS;fO6]6/L kf]:6 ;fOGoflK6s kf]6]lG;on pTkGg ug{sf nflu
cfÇgf] cfog Rofgn l56f]–l56f] vf]lnlbG5 -OkLP;kL af/] cWofo
# df atfOPsf] 5_ . Un'6fd]6 PPdkLP l/;]K6/;Fu Ps
;]s]G8sf] s]xL efu ;Dd dfq hf]l8G5 / Psk6s of] cnu
eO;s]kl5 ;fOGofK;af6 g} x6fOG5, To;kl5 cfog Rofgn
aGb x'G5 / ljB'tLo kf]6]lG;on cfÇgf] lj>fdsf] l:yltdf lkmtf{
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Pscfk;df l56f]–l56f] ;"rgf k|]lift u5{g\ .

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x'G5, ;fOGoflK6s
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k|j]z u5{

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df]Ug]l;od cfog -;fgf] sfnf] uf]nf], dfly bfofF_ n]
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leq x'G5 / o;nfO{ ;3g ljw|'jLs/0fåf/f lj:yflkt
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Go'/f]gn] c¿ Go'/f]g;Fusf] ;+of]hg kl/jt{g ug'{kg{] x'G5 .
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PPg8LP l/;]K6/M Knfl:6l;6L ;'? ug{sf nflu
cf0fljs oGq
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hf]l8G5, oL ;fOGoflK6s Knfl:6l;6L ;'? ug{] dxŒjk"0f{ oGq x'g\
. olb ;fOGofK; cln lj:tf/} ;lqmo ePsf] 5 eg], PnPd8LP
l/;]K6/n] yf]/} cyjf s]xL klg e"ldsf v]Nb}g . o:tf] lsg x'G5
eg], h;} PgPd8LP l/;]K6/n] cfÇgf] cfog Rofgn vf]N5,
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cfog cfP/ 9flslbG5 . t/, ha ;fOGofK; cg]s :kGbgåf/f
clt zL3| Pp6f Go'/f]gdf lgj]zsf] Ps} ;]6;Dd ;lqmo x'G5, ta
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;fOGoflK6s ultljlwn] kf]:6;fOGoflK6s Go'/f]gdf 7"nf]
ljw'|jLs/0f pTkGg u/fpF5 / o;n] ljB'tLo ljsif{0fsf]
k|lqmofåf/f PgPd8LP cfog Rofgnaf6 d]Ug]l;od cfognfO{
aflx/ lgsfN5 . PgPd8LP l/;]K6/ t'?Gt} ;fOGoflK6s ;+rf/df
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pgLx¿ of] sfo{ b'O{ tl/sfaf6 u5{g\ . klxnf], PPdkLP
l/;]K6/h:t} logLx¿n] ;f]l8od / kf]6fl;od cfog ;+rfng
u5{g\– h;n] ljw|j' Ls/0fnfO{ hf]8 lbG5, bf];|f] o;n] Sofnl;od
cfognfO{ Go'/f]gdf k|j]z ug{ lbG5 . csf{] zAbdf eGg'kbf{,
PgPd8LP l/;]K6/ ;zSt Go'/f]gn, ultljlw cg'ej u5{g\ /
SoflN;odsf] dxft/+usf] ¿kdf Go'/f]gdf ;+s]t k7fFp5g\ . of]
SoflN;odsf] dxft/+u klg ;+lIfKt x'G5 / h'g nueu Ps
;]s]G8eGbf a9L ;do;Dd /x“b}g hals olta]nf Un'6fd]6
PgPd8LP l/;]K6/;Fu hf]l8G5 . h]xf];\, SoflN;od cfog Ps
dxŒjk"0f{ c0f' xf], lsgeg] o;n] PgPd8LP l/;]K6/ ;lqmo
ePsf] a]nfdf klg Go'/f]gnfO{ ;+s]t lbG5 .

dfdnfn] ubf{ O{kLP;kL w]/} x'G5– h'g Pn6LkLdf
Pn6LkL x'g] 36gf xf] .
o;sf] ljk/Ltdf x'g] kl/jt{g– PPdkLP l/;]K6/sf] bIftf of
;+Vofdf sdLn] ubf{ Pn6L8L u/fpg ;S5 .Pn6LkL of
Pn6L8LnfO{ k|]l/t ug{] of] k|lqmofsf] ;'Gb/tf of] xf] ls of] ;/n
eOsg klg eJo x'G5– of] Ps Psn 8]G8«fOl6s :kfOg leq
x'g;S5 / o;n] cToGt :yfgLs[t tl/sfaf6 ;fOGoflK6s
zlQmnfO{ kl/jlt{t ug{ ;S5 . of] o:tf] s'/f] xf] h;af6
:d/0fzlQm jf:tjdf ag]sf] x'G5 . Ps d'2f h;sf] af/]df xfdL
cl3Nnf] cWofodf s'/f ug{]5f}+ .

dl:tisnfO{ cEof; u/fpg'
PPdkLP l/;]K6/sf] sfo{df kl/jt{g cfpg' g} k'/} sxfgL xf]Og .
:d/0fzlQm hlt :yfoL x'Fb} hfG5, dl:tisdf ;+/rgfTds kl/jt{g
x'G5 . ;fOGofK; h;df Pn6L8Lsf] k|]/0ffkZrft\ clws PPdkLP
l/;]K6/ l5/fOPsf] x'G5– To;n] cfÇgf] cfsf/ kl/jt{g u5{ /
clws 7"nf] x'g;S5 cyjf 8]G8«fO6af6 gofF ;fOGofK; aGg ;S5
h;sf/0f Pp6f ;fOGofK;sf] sfo{ ca b'Oj{ 6fn] u5{ . o;sf]
ljk/Lt, ;fOGofK; h;n] Pn6L8Lsf] k|]/0ffkZrft\ PPdkLP l/;]K6/
u'dfpF5, v'lDrG5 / dg{ ;S5 . xfd|f] dl:tissf] ef}lts kbfy{
dl:tis ultljlwsf] k|To'Q/df kl/jt{g x'G5 . dl:tisn] cEof;
dgk/fp“5– kSs} klg dfgl;s cEof;, h;/L xfdL zf/Ll/s
s;/t ubf{ xfd|f] df+;k]zL] alnof] x'Fb} hfG5 . To;/L g} xfdLn]
clws k|of]u u/]df xfd|f] ;fOGoflK6s ;+of]hg ;+Vofdf a9\5 /
pTs[i6 ¿kn] Jojl:yt x'G5 .

:d/0fzlQm dfly lbdfu
;fOGofK;df x'g] ;fgf ljB'tLo ef]N6]hsf] lgu/fgL ug{df
k|of]u x'g] pks/0f .
Psrf]l6 Go'/f]gsf] leq k'u]kl5 SoflN;od cfog ;fOGofK;sf]
Psbd glhs /x]sf] k|f]l6g;Fu hf]l8G5 hxfF PgPd8LP
l/;]K6/ ;lqmo ePsf] x'G5 . oLdWo] y'k|} k|f]l6g ef}lts
¿kaf6 PgPd8LP l/;]K6/;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 h;cGtu{t Ps
cf0fljs oGq ag]sf] x'G5 . s]xL OGhfOd x'G5g\ h;nfO{
SoflN;od cfogn] ;lqmo agfpF5 / o;n] ubf{ ;fOGofK;df
jf ;fOGofK; glhs} /x]sf cGo k|f]l6gsf] /f;folgs
¿kfGt/0f x'G5 . oL /f;folgs ?kfGt/0f :d/0fzlQm aGgsf
nflu klxnf] r/0f xf] .

PPdkLP l/;]K6/M :d/0fzlQm e08f/0f ug{sf
nflu xfd|f] cf0fljs oGq .
olb PgPd8LP l/;]K6/sf] ;lqmotfn] Go'/f]gsf]
;+of]hgdf x'g] Knfl:6s kl/jt{gnfO{ ;'? u5{ eg]
zlQmdf x'g] kl/jt{gnfO{ s]n] cleJoQm u5{ < o:tf]
x'g;S5 ls clws /f;folgs 6«fG;ld6/ lgd'{St
x'g;S5 . o:tf] x'g ;S5, t/ xfdLnfO{ ljZjf; 5
ls, k|lqmofsf] Ps ;]6df ;fOGofK;sf] kf]:6
;fOGoflK6s kIfdf ePsf] PPdkLP l/;]K6/ ;fd]n
x'G5 . o;nfO{ ug{] cg]s tl/sf x'G5g\ . Ps tl/sf
PPdkLP l/;]K6/nfO{ clws bIftfsf ;fy sfo{ ug{
;Sg] agfpg] x'g;S5, h:t} ;lqmo ePkl5 Go'/f]gdf
a9L wf/f k|jflxt ug'{ . bf];|f] tl/sf clws PPdkLP
l/;]K6/nfO{ ;fOGofK;df l5/fpg] x'g;S5 . oL b'a}

xfdL slt /fd|f];Fu l;S5f}+ eGg] xfd|f] efjgfTds l:yltdf w]/} lge{/
x'G5 . xfdL ;'vb, b'vb of rf]6 k'Ug] cg'ej;Fu hf]l8Psf]
36gfnfO{ ;lDemg] u5f}{“ . xfdL ha Wofg lbG5f}“ ta klg /fd|f];Fu
l;Sg ;S5f}+“ . lbdfusf oL l:yltdf Go'/f]df]8'n]6/sf] lgd{'lSt
;fd]n x'G5 h:t} Pl;6fOnsf]lng -clws Wofg lbg] a]nf_ 8f]kfldg,
g/Pl8«gflng / :6]/f]O8 xfdf{]g h:t} sl6{;f]n -gf}nf] 36gf, tgfj
/ lrGtfsf] a]nf_ df]8'n]6/n] Go'/f]gdf cg]s sfo{ u5{, tLdWo]
y'k|}n] PgPd8LP l/;]K6/sf] sfo{df kl/jt{gdfkm{t\ sfd u5{g\ .
cGo sfo{df l;sfO;Fu ljlzi6 ¿kaf6 cfj4 ljz]if lhgsf]
;lqmotf ;fd]n x'G5 . logLx¿n] agfpg] k|f]l6gn] Pn6LkLnfO{
l:y/ agfpg / nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg] agfpg ;xfotf u5{ .

xfdL leqsf] 8fS6/
;fOGoflK6s Knfl:6l;6Ln] xfd|f] dl:tisdf csf{] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf
v]N5, o;n] dl:tisnfO{ rf]6af6 k'gnf{e ug{df ;xof]u ug{ ;S5 .
pbfx/0fsf] nflu olb s'g} ljif]z ultnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{] Go'/f]g gi6
eof] eg] h:tf] kIff3ft jf 6fpsf]sf] uDeL/ rf]6df x'g ;S5,
Toltv]/ ;a} g} gi6 x'g' h?/L 5}g . clwsf+z kl/l:ydf Go'/f]g :jo+
j[l4 x“'b}g . o;sf] ;f6f] cGo Go'/f]gn] slxn]sfxL“ gi6 e};s]sf]
Go'/f]gsf] ;dfg sfof{Tds e"ldsf ckgfpF5 / cfk"mnfO{ To;cg'¿k
9fN5, h;n] p:t} k|sf/sf] ;~hfn agfpF5 . of] k'gM l;Sg] k|lqmof
xf] / o;n] dl:tissf] k'gnf{e ug{] Ifdtfdf k|sfz kf5{ .
h]km/L jf6lsG;
Ps lrlsT;f /;fog1 h;n] ljz]if Un'6fd]6
l/;]K6/df sfo{ ug{] PkL8 -tn_ h:tf]
cf}iflwsf] ljsf; u/]/ dl:tisdf pQ]hs
k|]if0fsf] cWofognfO{ ?kfGtl/t u/] .

;DalGwt O{G6/g]6 ;fO6: http://www.cf.ac.uk/plasticity/index.html
http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/public/brainbasic.html

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l;Sg' / :d/0fzlQm
xfd|f] :d/0fzlQm xfd|f] JolQmTjsf] s]Gb| xf] . xfdLdWo] k|To]sn]
s] ofb u5f“}+ eGg] s'/f c¿n] s] ofb u5{g eGg]af6 leGg x'G5,
cem o:tf] l:yltaf/] klg hxfF xfdL;Fu} ePsf x'G5f}+“ . t}klg
cfÇgf] ljlzi6 tl/sfaf6, xfdL ;a}n] 36gf, tYo, dgf]j}1flgs
cg'e"lt / sf}zntf ofb /fV5f}+“– s]xL 5f]6f] ;dosf nflu /
c¿ hLjge/sf nflu . dl:tisdf ljleGg ljz]iftfn] o'St
cg]s :d/0f k|0ffnL x'G5g\ / h;nfO{ ljleGg Go'/f]gn
ultljlwn] dfWoldt u/]sf] x'G5 . clxn] dflgPsf] 5 ls gofF
ofbsf] lgdf{0f ;fOGoflK6s Knfl:6l;6Ldf lge{/ x'G5– kl5Nnf]
cWofodf JofVof ul/Ph:t,} t/ xfdL ;"rgf k'gM k|flKtsf]
Go'/n k|lqmofsf] af/] lglZrt x'g ;s]sf 5}gf}“ . ha ls xfdL
;a} cfÇgf] :d/0fzlQmsf] af/] c;Gtf]if k|s6 u5f“}+, t/ of]
k|foM l:yltdf Psbd /fd|f] x'G5, s]an a'9f] pd]/df c;kmn
x'g ;'? x'G5 jf s'g} :gfo';DaGwL /f]udf IfL0f x'Fb} hfG5 .
xfd|f] :d/0f zlQm a9fpg k|of; ug'{ /fd|f] xf] t/ o;f] ugf{n]
la;{b“f g} /fd|f] x'g] sltko s'/fnfO{ klg ;Demg'kg{] x'G5 .

:d/0fzlQmsf] Joj:yfkg
dl:tissf] To:tf] s'g} Psn If]q x'b“ }g hxfF xfdLn] l;s]sf ;a}
hfgsf/L e08f/ x'gsf nflu hDdf x'G5 . sfo{zLn
:d/0fzlQmn]
:d/0fzlQm tkfO{sf] lbdfudf 5f]6f ;do;Ddsf nflu ;lqmo
;r]t cj:yfdf hfgsf/Lx¿nfO{ /flv/fV5 . ;"rgfsf] cln 7"nf]
/ clws lgliqmo e08f/ sIfnfO{ bL3{ cjlw :d/0f elgG5 .
cfGtl/s lnlk

b[li6ut :yflgs :s]r Kof8

s]Gb|Lo sfo{kfng k|0ffnL

clwsf+ztM elgG5 ls tkfO{ sfo{zLn :d/0f cGtu{t & ± @ s'/fx¿
ofb /fVg ;Sg'x'G5M To;}sf/0f w]/} h;f] 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ & jf *
c+seGbf nfdf] x'b}g . t/ logLx¿nfO{ ;xL ¿kdf ofb /fVg' clgjfo{
x'G5 . tkfO{ cfÇgf] ;fyL;Fu ldn]/ Ps ;/n k|of]uåf/f sfo{zLn
:d/0fsf] Ifdtf / ;Lldt b[9tfsf] k|bz{g ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 .

cNkfjlw :d/0fzlQmdfly Ps k|of]u
cNkfjlw jf sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQmsf] Ps ;/n k|of]unfO{
æn]6/ :kfgÆ (Letter span) elgG5 . o;sf] nflu
tkfO{nfO{ sDtLdf b'O{ hgf rflxG5, hals k'/} sIffdf
ul/Pdf o;n] cem} /fd|f];Fu sfd ug{ ;S5 . tkfO{x?
dWo] Ps hgfn] sDtLdf b'O{ cIf/af6 ;'? u/]/ uf]kgLo
¿kn] cIf/sf] Ps z[ªv
\ nf n]Vg'xf];\, Wofg /fVg'xf];\ ls
o;af6 s'g} zAb aGg x“'b}g -pbfx/0fsf] nflu – XT_
ca pQm JolQmn] Psk6sdf Pp6f cIf/ a9fp“b}, cIf/sf]
c? z[ªv
\ nf agfpg'xf];\ -pbfx/0fsf] nflu % cIf/sf]
z[ªv
\ nf h:t} QVHKZ / !) cIf/sf] z[ªv
\ nf h:t}
DWCUKOBPSZ_ oL ;a} tof/ ePkl5 k|of]u ;'? x'G5
. csf{] JolQm -jf k'/} sIffn]_ cIf/sf] k|To]s z[ªv
\ nf
;'Gg'x'G5 / % ;]s]G8kl5 :d/0f u/]/ cIf/nfO{ ;xL
qmddf n]Vg] sf]l;; ug'{x'g]5 . ;lhnf] b'O{ cIf/sf]
z[ªv
\ nfaf6 ;'? eP/ :d/0fsf] of] k|of]u nfdf
z[ªv
\ nf;Dd hfG5 . clwsf+zM JolQmn] & jf *
cIf/;Dd o;nfO{ Psbd ;xL ¿kdf ug{ ;S5g\ /
To;kl5 uNtL ;'? x'G5 . lgs} sd JolQmn] !)
cIf/;Dd /fd|f];Fu ug{ ;S5g\ . cNkfjlw :d/0fzlQmsf]
IfdtfnfO{ æhfb'do &– Kn; jf dfOg; @Æ sf] ¿kdf
JofVof ul/Psf] 5 .

>Jo cNkfjlw e08f/

df}g l/x;{n n"k

dl:tissf] cNkfjlw sfo{zLn :d/0f k|0ffnL

sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQm
sfd of 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ h;nfO{ xfdLn] ;+If]kdf ofb /fVg'kg{]
x'G5, To;nfO{ l6Kgsf nflu 8]:sdf /flvPsf] Kof8 h:t}
dl:tisdf klg yf]/} dfqfsf ;"rgfnfO{ z'4tfk"j{s /fVg /
To;df sfo{ ug{ Pp6f k|0ffnL x'G5 . xfdL o;sf] pkof]u
jftf{nfksf] axfjsf] JofVof ug{ k'Ug] hlt nfdf] af]nL ofb
ug{sf nflu, dfgl;s ¿kaf6 ul0ft ug{sf nflu / s]xL
;docl3 xfdLn] xfd|f] ;f“rf] sxfF / slxn] /fVof}+“ ofb ug{sf
nflu u5f}+“ . Odfgbf/L of] k|0ffnLsf] s]Gb| xf]– of] To:tf] ljz]iftf
xf] hf] ;Lldt Ifdtf / b[9tfaf6 cfpF5 .

#)

s]Gb|Lo sfo{kfng k|0ffnLn]
ffnL ;"rgfsf] axfjnfO{ lgolGqt u5{, h;nfO{
b'O{ cltl/Qm :d/0f e08f/n] ;xof]u u/]sf] x'G5 . df}g l/x;{n n'k
tkfO{sf] dl:tissf] ;fgf] lx:;f h;nfO{ tkfO{ cfk}“m;Fu s]xL af]Ngsf
nflu k|of]u ug'{x'G5† o;;Fu} Ps kmf]gf]nf]lhsn e08f/ x'G5 . tkfO{n]
zAb of ;+VofnfO{ x]/]/ k9] tfklg of] ;"rgf kmf]gf]nf]lhsn sf]8df
ablnG5 / o; b'O{ efusf] k|0ffnLdf yf]/} ;dosf nflu ;+u[xLt x'G5
. ToxfF Ps b[li6ut :s]rKof8 x'G5 h;n] j:t'sf] 5lj nfdf]
;do;Dd e08f/ ug{ ;S5 h;n] ubf{ tkfO{ To;nfO{ cfÇgf] lbdfusf]
cf“vfdf kl/jlt{t ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 .
sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQm w]/}h;f] k|mG6n / k]/fO6n nf]adf /x]sf] x'G5 .
lkO6L / Pkm Pd cf/ cfO{ dl:tis Od]lhª k|of]uaf6 ul/Psf]
dl:tis Od]lhª cWoogn] b]vfpF5 ls sfo{zLn :d/0fsf] >Jo efu
k|foM afofF k|mG6n / k]/fO6n nf]adf kflZj{t x'G5 hxfF ltgLx¿
jf0fL, cfof]hgf / lg0f{o lng';Fu ;DalGwt Go'/f]gn ;~hfn;Fu
cGt/lqmof u5{g\ .

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oL To:tf ultljlw x'g\ h;sf nflu /fd|f] sfo{zLn :d/0f rflxG5
. b[li6ut :s]r Kof8 bfofF x]ld:km]o/df x'G5 . -cWofosf] cGTodf
/x]sf] aS; x]g'{xf];\_
sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQm s;/L ;'?jft eof] < hgfj/x¿ To;df klg
sltko :tgwf/L hgfj/df xfdLdf ePsf] h:t} p:t} k|sf/sf]
cNkfjlw :d/0fzlQm k|0ffnL x“'b}g / of] k|f/lDes xf]ldlg8\;df
6]lnkmf]g gDa/ ofb /fVg ;xof]u ug{sf nflu t kSs} klg ljsf;
ePsf] lyPg . ;fgf aRrf;Fu ul/Psf] cWoogn] efiff l;Sgdf
sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQmsf] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf b;f{p5
“ / o;n] ;+s]t
lbG5 ls of] :d/0f k|0ffnL jf0fL;Fu} ljsl;t ePsf] x'g ;S5 .
cIf/sf] xf/ ldnfpg / jfSodf ltgLx¿nfO{ qmd ldnfP/ /fVg
rflxg] z'4tf, ;xL cy{ 7Ls tl/sfaf6 lgsfNgsf nflu dxTjk"0f{
x'G5 .

bL3{ cjlw :d/0fzlQm
bL3{ cjlw :d/0fzlQm dl:tisdf Jofks ¿kaf6 km}lnPsf]
;~hfndf l:yt ljleGg k|0ffnLdf pk–ljeflht ePsf] x'G5.
ljleGg ;~hfnn] km/s–km/s sfo{ u5{g\ . a[xt\ ?kdf s'/f ubf{
;"rgf ;+j]bg k|0ffnLdf k|j]z u5{ / To;kl5 pQm dfu{df hfG5
h;n] nuftf/ a9\g] ljz]ifLs[t k|f];]l;ª k|bfg u5{. pbfx/0fsf]
nflu, b[li6ut k|0ffnLdf k|j]z ug{] ;"rgf :6«]O s6{]S; (striae
cortex) af6 tyfslyt e]G6«n dfu{ x'Fb} d]l8on nf]a;Dd Ps
;~hfnsf] 5fFuf] dfkm{t\ hfG5 .
h;n] j:t'sf] cfsf/, /+u, j:t'sf] 1fg j:t' lrghfg]sf] 5 of 5}g
eGg]af/] yfxf lbG5 . ta;Dd ha of] j:t' ljz]ifsf] af/] /
o;nfO{ sxfF / slxn] b]lvPsf] xf] eGg]af/] s]xL :d/0f cfpF5 .

dxŒjk"0f{ ljif]ztf of] xf] ls tYonfO{ >]0fLdf Jojl:yt ul/Psf]
x'G5 . :d/0fsf] k'gnf{esf] nflu of] dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 lsgls vf]h
k|lqmof To;kl5 s]xL s'/fnfO{ bIftfsf] ;fy kQf nufpg o;
e08f/u[xdf /x]sf] ¿v lrqsf] dfWodaf6 cufl8 aG5 . olb
l;dflG6s :d/0f To; ¿kdf Jojl:yt ePsf] eP h'g ¿kdf w]/}
dflg;x¿n] cfÇgf] 3/sf] ;fdfg /fV5g\, hxL“txL“ c:tJo:t
xfdLnfO{ s'g} klg s'/f ofb ug{ c;fWo} sl7t x'g] lyof] . efUojz
dl:tisn] tL ;"rgfx¿nfO{ r'G5 h;nfO{ xfdL >]0fLdf sf]8 u5f}{“,
t}klg ljBfnodf hl6n s'/f l;SgnfO{ Ps s'zn lzIfs ePdf
;xfotf x'G5 . z+sf 5}g, ljz]if s'zn lzIfs cfÇgf ljBfyL{df
lagf s'g} k|of; g} of] ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ ;S5g\ .
j:t'
OgPlgd]6

Plgd]6

:ygwf/L

r/f
p8\g] r/f

ufpg] r/f
Sofgl/h

gp8\g] r/f
cGo r/f
k]Gu'Og

xfdLnfO{ hgfj/sf] af/]df yfxf ePsf] tYo ¿vsf]
;+/rgfdf Jojl:yt ePsf] x'G5 . xfdLnfO{ cem};Dd yfxf
5}g dl:tissf] ;~hfnn] of] s;/L u5{ .
xfdL j:t'sf af/] l;k / efjgfTds cg'e"lt klg cfh{g u5f}+“ .
Ps lkofgf]nfO{ of] lkofgf] xf] eg]/ hfGg' Pp6f s'/f xf] / o;nfO{
ahfpg ;Ifd x'g' csf{]. ;fOsn s;/L rnfpg] eg]/ hfGg'
pkof]uL x'G5, t/ af6f]df s]xL kl/l:yltx¿ vt/gfs x'g;S5g\
eGg]af/] hfu?s x'g' sd dxŒjk"0f{ 5}g . l;k, ;'ljrfl/t /
lj:t[t cEof;af6 l;lsG5 eg] efjgfTds l;sfO{ clt a9L l56f]
ePsf] dflgG5 . clwsf+ztM of] l56f] x'g'k5{, ljz]if tL s'/fdf
h'gb]lv xfdL 8/fpg l;S5f“} . oL b'a,} slG8;
slG8;lg
G8;lgª
lgª gfds
l;sfO{sf] k|sf/ x'g\ . ljz]ifLs[t dl:tis If]q o;df ;fd]n x'G5–
a];n Uof+ulnof / ;]/]a]nd l;k l;sfOsf nflu Psbd} dxŒjk"0f{
x'G5 / Pldu8fnf efjgfTds l;sfOsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 .
y'k|} hgfj/n] l;k l;S5g\ of] pgLx?nfO{ hLljt /xgsf] nflu
Psbd} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 .

dl:tissf] If]qsf] 5f“ufx? hxfFaf6 b[li6ut ;"rgfsf] k|f];]l;ª
klxnf u|x0fsf lgldQ x'G5 / To;kl5 :d/0fsf nflu x'G5 .
ljZn]if0fsf] of] 5fFufsf] af/]df ;f]Rg] cg]s tl/sf 5g\ . klxnf],
s6{]S;df If]qx¿ 5g\ h;n] xfdL s]nfO{ x]b{5f}+ T;af/] b[li6uf]r/
k|:t'tLs/0f lgsfN5 . of] xfd|f] jl/kl/ /x]sf] s'/f e08f/ ug{ /
kl5 klxrfg ug{sf nflu k|of]u x'G5 . kqklqsfsf] sf6'{gdf
lrg]hfg]sf] cg'xf/ ePsf] /fhgLlt1nfO{ klxrfg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfn]
of] k|0ffnLnfO{ b;f{p5
“ . o;;Fu glhssf] ;DaGw /fVg] Ps
k|0ffnLnfO{ l;
;dflG6s :d/0f elgG5– of] xfdLn] ljZjaf/] ;+ufn]sf
tYo 1fgsf] j[xt\ e08f/u[x xf] . xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5 ls k|mfG;sf]
/fhwfgL k]l/; xf], l8PgPn] a]; hf]8Lsf] qmdsf] ¿kdf h]g]l6s
;"rgf sf]8 u5{ / o:t} c¿ .

lrDkfGhLn] Ps 58Lsf] k|of]uaf6 wld/fsf] l;sf/ ug{]
l;k l;s]sf 5g\ . hjfg lrDkfGhL pgLx¿sf] dftf
lktfnfO{ x]/]/ of] l;S5g\ .

#!

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:d/0fdf cj/f]w / dl:tisdf Plk;f]l8s
:d/0fsf] :yfgLs/0f
dl:tisdf :d/0f k|0ffnLsf] clGtd k|sf/nfO{ Plk;f]l8s :d/0f
elgG5 . o;sf] pkof]u tkfO{ cfÇgf] JolQmut cg'ejnfO{ ofb
/fVg ug'{x'G5 . 36gfnfO{ ofb /fVg', tYo l;Sg'eGbf Ps
dxŒjk"0f{ sf]0faf6 km/s x'G5, 36gf s]jn Psrf]l6 36\5 .
olb tkfO{n] cfh laxfg gf:tfdf s] vfg'eof] -c;Dej k|foM_ jf
clGtd lqm;d;df s] ePsf] lyof] -;DefJo_ jf :s'nsf] klxnf]
lbg s]–s] ePsf] lyof] -;DejtM_ eGg] s'/f la;{g'eof] eg]
tkfO{ oL ;a}nfO{ sIffsf] cltl/Qm kf7 h:t} k'gM Nofpg
;Sg'x'Gg . of] k|0ffnLn] l56f] l;S5 lsgeg] o:tf] x'g}k5{ .
xfdLn] :gfo'/f]uLsf] cWoog u/]/ Plk;f]l8s :d/0fsf] af/] w]/}
hflg;s]sf 5f“}– tL la/fdLdf kIff3ft, a|]g 6\o'd/ jf efO/n
;qmd0f h:t} xk{]; OG;]kmnfOl6; e};s]kl5 slxn]sfxL“ of]
k|sf/sf] :d/0fzlQmdf ljz]if sld cfpg ;S5 . To:tf
la/fdLnfO{ Wofgk"j{s cWoog ug{', oL / cGo :d/0f k|0ffnLsf]
zf/Ll/s ;+u7gsf] af/] 1ft ug{sf nflu 7"nf] pkfo xf] .

cfZro{hgs ¿kn] PDg]l;ofsf la/fdLn] r]tg cj:yfdf ofb ug{
g;Sg] s]xL s'/f l;Sg ;S5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ df]6/ l;k jf
pN6f]af6 Psbd} l56f] k9\g] l;k l;sfpg ;lsG5 .
k5fl8af6 l56f]–l56f] k9\g] tflnd kfpg s]xL ;do nfU5 . of]
xfdLnfO{ h:t} PDg]l;of ePsfsf] nflu klg ;To xf] t/ xfdLnfO{
o;f] ug{ l;sfPsf] xfdL ;Demg ;S5f“}+ eg] pgLx¿ ;Sb}gg\ . of]
pgLx¿sf] ;r]tg hfu?stfdf cb\e't lj;+of]hg xf] . PlDgl;of
ePsfx¿ l;Sg] a]nfdf kSs} klg ;r]tg x'G5g\ t/ kl5 l;s]sf
lyP eGg]af/] cgle1 x'G5g\ . pgLx¿ lat]sf] ;doaf6 ;r]tg
hfu?stf k'gM k|fKt ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . of] tgfjk"0f{ l:ylt k}bf u/fpg]
vfnsf] Iflt ljleGg dl:tis kl/j[tdf ePsf] x'g;S5 . ld8a|]gsf]
dfd]n/L al8h
al8h / yfnfd; gfds If]q ;fdfGo :d/0fsf nflu
dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5, lxKof]SofDk; gfds d]lon 6]Dkf]/n nf]adf
ePsf] ;+/rgf klg of] h:t} elgG5 . oL If]qdf x'g] Ifltaf6
Plk;f]l8s / l;dflG6s :d/0fsf] lgdf{0fnfO{ ljz]if k|efj k5{ .

ærf]6n] xfd|f] Tolt Wofg lvRg ;Sb}g hlt rf]6 of /f]un] ubf{ ;fdfGo
sfo{x¿ To;} 5fl8G5g\ .Æ
-;/ x]g/L x]8– @) cf}“ :gfo' j}1flgs_
PDg]l;of gfds l:yltaf6 kLl8t JolQmn] s]jn cfwf 306f
cl3 e]6]sf] cGo JolQm ofb ug{ ;Sb}g . pgLx¿ ofb ug{
;Sb}gg\ ls, pgLx?n] ev{/ vfgf vfP jf vfgf vfg]jfnf 5g\
/ lhGbuLsf] To:tf ;/n clgjfo{tf h:t} ev{/} 3/df j:t'x¿
sxfF /flvof] . Pp6f hl6n lrq b]vfpFbf tn OG;]6df
b]vfPh:t} pgLx¿ To;nfO{ ;fg{ ;S5g\ t/ #) ldg]6kl5
xfdLdWo] w]/}n] ug{] h:tf] /fd|f];Fu :d/0f u/]/ agfpg ;Sb}gg\
. k|foM pgLx¿ la/fdL x'g'eGbf cl3sf] 36]sf s'/fx¿
;lDemg ;Sb}gg\, o;nfO{ /]6«f]u|]8 PDg]l;of elgG5 .
To:tf] hLjgdf ;do / :yfgdf x'g] ;a} ;+/rgfsf] sdL x'G5
/ Ps cToflws cWoog ul/Psf] PDg]l;ofsf] la/fdLn] o;nfO{
nuftf/ ælgb|faf6 Jo'emg'Æ h:t} eg]/ JofVof u/]sf 5g\ .
t/klg oL pg} JolQm;Fu cfÇgf] efiffsf] 1ft / zAbsf] cy{ /
;dembf/ s'/f ug{sf nflu kof{Kt sfo{zLn :d/0f /x]sf] x'G5
.
of] ta;Dd x'“b}g ha;Dd s;}n]
p;Fu 7\ofSs} oxL s'/f u5{ hf]
p;sf] cl:tTjsf] ljgfzsf/L
:jtGqtf pb\3fl6t ePsf] s]xL
ldg]6kl5 x'G5 .

PSg]l;ofsf la/fdL (A) df of] h:t} hl6n lrq /fd|f];Fu
x]g{ / ;fg{ ;S5g\ t/ pgLx¿ ;fdfGo JolQm (Normal
control subjects NC) sf] t'ngfdf To;nfO{ nfdf]
;do;Dd ofb /fVg ;Sb}gg\ .

#@

Plk;f]l8s :d/0fsf nflu b'O{j6f ;+/rgf c;fWo} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5g\
– k]l6l/gn s6{]S; -kLcf/Pr_ h;n] klxn]sf] ;do;Fu klxrfgsf]
;+j]bgf dfWoldt u5{ / lxKkf]SofDk; h;n] 36gf / :yfgnfO{
sf]8 u5{ .

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cGo :d/0f k|0ffnL
dl:tisdf sxLF st} Iflt k'u]df cGo :d/0fk|0ffnL k|efljt x'G5 .
x|f; x'Fb} hfg] k|lqmof h:t} s]xL k|sf/sf l;dflG6s l8d]lG;of –
Ps k|sf/sf] cNhfOd/ /f]u_ n] l;dflG6s :d/0f vl:sb} hfg]
cgf}7f] qmd aGg ;S5 . ;'?jftdf /f]uL tkfO{nfO{ atfpg ;Ifd
x'G5 ls k|of]udf pgLx¿nfO{ b]vfOPsf] tl:j/ la/fnf] jf s's'/
jf sf/ jf /]nsf] xf] . t/ /f]u nfu]sf] cln kl5, d';fsf]
tl:j/nfO{ d';f eGg cK7]/f] dfG5g\, o;sf] ;f6f] of] s's'/sf] xf]
eGg ;S5g\ . o;n] s] k'li6 u5{ eg], tYofTds ;"rgf, OgPlgd]6
(inanimate) ;"rgfeGbf 6f9f, Plgd]6 (animate) ;"rgf;Fu}
e08fl/t eP/ >]0fLut ¿kdf Jojl:yt ePsf] x'G5 .

:d/0fsf] :gfo' hLjlj1fg
Go'/f]nf]lhsn la/fdLnfO{ ;fjwfgLk"j{s cWoog ugf{n] xfdLnfO{
dl:tisdf :d/0f ;DaGwL sfo{x¿ sxfF x'G5g\ eGg] kQf nufpg
d2t ldN5 t/ Go'/f]g / /f;folgs 6«fG;ld6/;{sf] ;Gbe{df
ltgLx¿n] s;/L sfo{ ub{5g\ eGg] kQf nufpg k|of]uzfnf
hgfj/sf] k|of]u u/]/ ;fjwfgLk"j{s cfof]hgf ul/Psf] cg';Gwfg
x'g'k5{ .
:gfo'j}1flgsn] clxn] ljZjf; u5{g\ ls ljsf;zLn dl:tisdf
Go'/n ;+of]hgsf] kmfOg 6\o'lgªsf] cg]s kf6fnfO{ klg cf/lDes
l;sfOdf k|of]u ul/G5 . Pp6f lzz' / p;sf] cfdf aLr
ljsl;t x'g] ;+of]hgsf] cWoog ;fgf rNnfdf OlDk|lG6ª
(imprinting) gfds k|lqmofdf cWoog ul/Psf] 5 .

lxKkf]SofDk;

o; uf]NhL :6]g
n] sfnf]
/+udf
Go"/f]gsf] Ps
;a;]6
b;f{p“5

hxfFg]/ ;fgf rNnfdf l;Sg] k|lqmof ePsf] x'G5 / l/;]K6/df sfo{
ug{sf nflu lgd'{St ePsf /f;folgs Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/;{ cfdfsf] s'g}
k|sf/sf] æ5ljÆ e08fl/t ug{sf nflu ;fd]n ePsf] x'G5g\ . of]
5lj cToGt lglb{i6 x'G5 h;n] ubf{ ;fgf] rNnfn] c¿nfO{ xf]Og
ls cfÇg} cfdfnfO{ k5\ofp“5 . ;fgf hgfj/nfO{ Psrf]l6df yf]/}
vfgfsf] :jfb rfv]/ of] hfGg' klg h?/L x'G5 ls vfgsf] nflu s]
vfg]s'/f ;'/lIft x'G5 / s'g s'/fsf] :jfb v/fa x'G5 . o;nfO{
s]jn lhg;DaGwL k"jf{g'dfgdf dfq} 5f]8g\ ;lsGg . ljsf;sf]
b[li6af6 cufl8 cfPsf] l;Sg] k|lqmof klg o;df sfo{/t x'G5 .
OlDk|lG6ª jf vfg]s'/fsf] :jfb lng] avt ;lqmo ePsf] l/;]K6/sf]
cl3 a9]/ låtLo ;"rgfk|jfxs /;fogsf] 5“fufn] dl:tis sf]ifsf]
Go'lSno;nfO{ ;+s]t k7fpF5 hxfF lhg ljz]if k|sf/sf] k|f]l6g
agfpgsf nflu ;lqmo x'G5g\ h'g k|f]l6gn] jf:tjdf :d/0fnfO{
lglZrt agfpF5 .
Kn]; ;]N; (Place cells) csf{] dxŒjk"0f{ vf]h x'g\ . oL
lxKkf]SofDk;df ePsf To:tf Go'/f]g x'g\ h;n] PS;g
kf]6]lG;onnfO{ Tolt a]nf dfq} lgsfN5 hlt a]nf Pp6f hgfj/n]
lrg] hfg]sf] 7fpF km]nf kf5{ . km/s sf]ifn] jftfj/0fsf] ljleGg
lx:;fsf nflu sf]8 u5{ h;n] ubf{ sf]ifsf] Ps ;d"x k'/} If]qsf]
dfglrq0fdf ;fd]n x'G5 . glhs}sf] dl:tis If]qdf ePsf cGo
sf]ifn] pQm hgfj/ lx“l8/x]sf] lbzfsf nflu sf]8 u5{ . ;Fu;Fu}
sfo{ ug{] oL b'O{ If]q– :yfgsf] gS;f / lbzfsf] af]w– o;n]
hgfj/nfO{ ;+;f/el/ cfÇgf] dfu{ kQf nufpg] sfd l;Sg ;xof]u
u5{ . :ki6 5 ls of] hgfj/sf] nflu Psbd} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5
lsgls vfg]s'/f / kfgL vf]Hg' / To;kl5 b'nf], u'F8 jf cGo 3/
tkm{ kms{g] af6f] vf]Hg' pgLx¿sf] hLljsfsf] nflu cfjZos x'G5 .
o; ofqfsf] qmddf l;Sg] k|0ffnL l;d]lG6s / Plk;f]l8s b'j}
:d/0f;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . hgfj/n] pgLx¿sf] Onfsfdf s] s'/f
sxfF 5 eGg]af/] :yfoL k|ltlglwTj agfpF5– of] xfdLn] xfd|f]
b'lgofFsf] af/] tYo 1fg cfh{g u/]h:t} xf]. / :ynsf] of] gS;fn]
36gfx¿ ofb ug{sf nflu :d/0fsf] Ps ¿k/]vf k|bfg u5{, h:t}
clGtdk6s eIfs hGt' sxfF b]lvPsf] lyof] . Kn]; ;]N;n] dfq
:yfg eGbf a9L sf]8 ug{ ;S5– ltgLx¿n] hgfj/nfO{ 36gfx¿
sxfF 36]sf] lyof] eGg] ;Demg d2t ug{ ;S5 .

lxKkf]SofDk;sf] sf]if glhs}sf rf/, /]sl8{ª tf/n] pb\3fl6t
u5{ ls b'O{j6f tf/ -! / @, slxn]sfxL“ $_ df ePsf] :gfo'
k|]/0ff h;n] Ps ljz]if :yn -uf]nfsf/ 3]/fdf /ftf] pi0f
ljGb'_ df kmfo/ ug{] Go'/f]gsf] k|ltlglwTj u5{ . ;dosf] qmd
lj:tfl/t ugf{n] -/ftf] uf]nf]_ dl:tisdf :kfOs (spikes) sf]
cfsf/ k|blz{t x'G5 .
oL gS;f / c¿ :d/0f cjz]if s;/L aG5 <
Pp6f cufl8 cfO/x]sf] ljrf/ of] 5 ls PgPd8LP l/;]K6/df
cfwfl/t ;fOGofl:6s Knfl:6l;6L o;df ;fd]n x'G5 . kl5Nnf]
cWofodf xfdLn] j0f{g u¥of}+ ls s;/L ;fOGoflK6s
Knfl:6l;6LnfO{ ;lqmo agfpgfn] Go'/f]gsf] ;~hfndf ;+of]hgsf]
zlQmdf abnfj cfpF5 / j0f{g u¥of} ls of] g} ;"rgf e08f/ ug{]
Pp6f dfu{ xf] . :yfgsf] af/]df l;Sg] sfddf sdL cfpF5, ha
PgPd8LP l/;]K6/nfO{
6/ cj/f]w ug{] cf}iflw lxKkf]SofDk;df k|of]u
ul/G5 .

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pbfx/0fsf] nflu d';fnfO{ kfgLsf] ;txd'lg yfxf gkfpg] u/L
s'g} Ps :yfgdf /x]sf] aflx/ lg:sg] Kn]6kmd{ vf]Hgsf nflu
kfgLsf] Ps bxdf kf}8g] tflnd lbg ;lsG5 . pgLx¿n] af6f]
vf]Hgsf nflu cfÇgf] Kn]; ;]N; / x]8 8fO/]S;g ;]N;sf] k|of]u
u5{g\ / pgLx¿n] PgPd8LP l/;]K6/åf/f ;~rfng x'g]
Knfl:6l;6Lsf] dfWodaf6 Kn]6kmfd{sf] ;xL :yfg :d/0fdf sf]8
u5{g\ . lhg gs cfp6 hgfj/ klg tof/ ul/Psf] 5, h;df
lxKkf]SofDk;af6 PgPd8LP l/;]K6/nfO{ x6fOPsf] 5 . oL
hgfj/ l;Sgdf sdhf]/ x'G5g\ / pgLx¿df ck"0f{ k|sf/sf]
Kn]; ;]N; x'G5 . kl5Nnf] cWofodf xfdLn] j0f{g u¥of“} ls
;fOGofl:6s ef/df x'g] kl/jt{gnfO{ pQ]hs PPdkLP l/;]K6/df
x'g] abnfjsf] dfWodaf6 cleJoQm ul/G5 . xfdLnfO{ cem}
yfxf 5}g ls :d/0fsf] nflu of] ;To xf], of] clxn] ;3g
cg';Gwfgsf] ljifo xf] .

d';f bxdf n's]sf] Kn]6kmd{;Dd kf}l8Psf] 5, hxfF of] plePsf]
5.

s] xfdL :d/0fzlQm a9fpg ;S5f}+“ .
xfdL ;a} ;f]R5f}“ ls xfd|f] :d/0fsf] Ifdtf jf :yfloTj a9fpg
;s] /fd|f] x'g]lyof] . a9L pd]/ k'u]sf JolQm w]/}h;f] cfÇgf]
:d/0fzlQmsf] l;sfot u5{g\ . oBflk s]xL d"No r'sfPdf
:d/0fzlQmdf ;'wf/ kSs} cfpF5 . lsgeg] /fd|f] :d/0fzlQm
eg]sf] ofb /fVg' / la;{g' larsf] ;Gt'ng xf] . olb xfdL
o;nfO{ ;'wfg{ vf]Hb} 5f}“ eg], xfdLnfO{ lbge/ 36]sf ;fdfGo
s'/fx¿ la;{g ufx|f] kg{;S5 h;nfO{ ;lDem/fVg' h?/L 5}g .
/fd|f] :d/0fzlQmsf] æ;f/Æ of] xf] ls o;n] dl:tisdf ;xL
s'/fx¿ ofb /fV5 / Jojl:yt u5{ t/ sd dxŒjk"0f{ k|tLt x'g]
s'/fx¿nfO{ lal;{lbG5 . of] c;Dejk|foM nfU5 ls, xfdL;Fu
slxNo} Ps o:tf] uf]nL x'g]5 h;n] :d/0fzlQm ;'wfg{sf nflu
hfb'do a'n]6sf] sfd ug{]5, sDtLdf ;fdfGo JolQmdf .
ljsf;n] ;'lglZrt u/]sf] 5 ls of] k|0ffnL cg's"n¿kn]
;Gt'lnt 5 .
elgG5 ls Psbd} uDeL/ lsl;dsf] la;{g] :jefj To:tf]
cf}iflwn] sd ug{ ;lsG5 h;n] PgPd8LP jf PPdkLP
l/;]K6/nfO{ /fd|f];Fu sfd ug{] agfpF5 jf låtLo ;"rgfk|jfxs
;+s]tsf] z[ªv
\ nf ;'? ug{] cf}iflw h;nfO{ ;fgf hgfj/df
l;sfOsf] cWoogaf6 kQf nufOPsf] 5 . :gfo'sf] x|f; x'g]
/f]usf] dfu{nfO{ l:6ldª ug{] tl/sf kQf nufpg' klg ;xof]uL
x'g ;S5, h:t} cNhfOd/ /f]udf h;n] :d/0fnfO{ l5§} k|efljt
u5{ . clxn] :gfo'lj1fgsf] cb\e't 36gfdWo] Ps xf],
ljZjljBfno cg';Gwfg ;+:yfg, kmfdf{So'l6sn sDkgLsf
j}1flgs o; lsl;dsf] kl/of]hgfdf sfo{ ub{} 5g\ . nueu
;a}h;f] ljsl;t b]zsf] hg;+Vofsf] cWoog -8]df]u|fkmL_ x]bf{
j[¢j[4fsf] afx'Notf a9\b} uPsf] b]lvPsf] cj:yfdf pgLx¿nfO{
nfdf] :jtGq hLjg lhpg ;xof]u ug{] pkrf/n] 7'nf] dxŒj
/fV5 .
oBlk, s]xL j}1flgs ljZjf; u5{g\ ls cf}iflwsf] ;fy;fy}
af]wfTds OlGhlgol/ª
OlGhlgol/ª klg rflxG5 . tkfO{ af]wfTds
OlGhlgol/ªsf af/] kqklqsfdf Tolt w]/} ;'Gg'x'Gg hlt gofF
cf}iflwaf/] ;'Gg'x'G5, t/ of] sd dxŒjk"0f{ 5}g .

#$

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL

nG8g 6\Sof;L rfnsnfO{ ef8fdf 6\ofS;L rnfpg'eGbf klxn] ;x/
af/] /fd|f];Fu yfxf kfpg'kg{] x'G5 . ha cg';Gwfgstf{n] cg'ejL
6\ofS;L rfnsnfO{ a|]g :Sofg/df /fv] / pgLx?nfO{ dfa{n
cfs{af6 Plnkm]G6 / Sof;n;Ddsf] ofqf sNkgf ug{ nufP,
pgLx?n] rfnssf] bfofF kf/flxKkf]SofDkn s6{]S; -/ftf] If]q_ df
clws ;lqmotf b]v] . 6\ofS;L 8«fOe/sf] ;+/rgfTds Pdcf/cfO{
:Sofgn] pgLx¿sf] lxKkf]SofDk;sf] ljleGg efusf] ;fk]If cfsf/df
kl/jt{g b]vfof] hf] pgLx¿ slt ;Dd ;x/ ofb ug{ ;S5g\ eGg]
;Fu ;DalGwt x'g ;S5– oBlk o;sf] cGo sf/0f klg x'g ;S5 .

o;sf] ljrf/–ljlw eg]sf] ;"rgfnfO{ s;/L sf]8 ug{], e08f/,
;+of]hg -l:y/Ls/0f sf] k|lqmof_ / k'gM k|fKt ug{] eGg]af/] s]
l;lsPsf] 5, To;sf] nfe p7fpg' xf] . Wofg lbg', l;Sg] ;qsf]
cfof]hgf ug'{ / l:y/Ls/0f k|lqmofdf ;xof]u ug{ af/Daf/
:d/0fkq agfpg'÷lng' ;a} pbfx/0f x'g\ . :d/0fsf] ;d:of ePsf
s]lx kfsf la/fdLn] æGo'/f]k]hÆ gfds k]lhª k|0ffnLnfO{ w]/}
pkof]uL kfPsf 5g\ . o;n] pgLx?nfO{ cl3Nnf] sfd s] ug'{5
eGg] ofb lbnfp“5 / To;}n] pgLx?nfO{ cfÇgf] lbg To:tf] ¿kaf6
Jojl:yt ug{ ;xof]u u5{ h'g ¿kdf cGoyf pgLx? ug{ e'Ng] lyP
. Olk;f]l8s :d/0fzlQm / s'zn l;sfOsf] ljleGg ;lqmo
l;4fGtnfO{ klxrfg ug'{ klg cTofjZos x'G5– tkfO{ s'g} Ps
sf}zn s]jn ;'g]sf] e/df slxNo} l;Sg ;Sg'x'Gg oBlk
Olk;f]l8s :d/0fzlQmsf nflu o;n] /fd|f];Fu sfo{ u5{ . s'g}
sf}zn l;Sg rfxg] hf]sf]xLn] klg af/Daf/ cEof; ug'{k5{, h;/L
sf]xL ;+uLt lzIfssf ljBfyL{nfO{ ;w}“ ofb lbnfOG5 .
Pnfg a8n] h;n] sfo{zLn :d/0fzlQmsf]
ljrf/ ljsl;t u/], h;df ljleGg
cGt{lqmofTds k|0ffnL ;lDdlnt x'G5 .

kmf]df]nf]lhsn e08f/, leHof]:kfl6on :s]r Kof8 / s]Gb|Lo sfo{sf/L
dl:tissf] ljleGg efudf l:yt x'G5g\ .

:d/0fzlQmaf/] c? k|of]u ug{ rfxg'x'G5 < x]g'{xf];\
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tgfj

;a}eGbf zfGt nfUg] lhGbuLnfO{ klg tgfjn] k|efljt u/]sf] x'G5
. xfdL ;a}n] o;sf] cg'ej u5f}{“– k/LIffsf] a]nf, v]ns'bdf efu
ln“bf, ;fyL of b':dg;Fu emu8f kbf{. of] lsg x'G5 / o;sf]
b'vbfoL ;+j]bgfsf] sf/0f s] xf] < s] of] s'g} s'/fsf] nflu /fd|f]
x'G5 < olb o;sf] l:ylt lalu|of] eg] s] x'G5 < :gfo'j}1flgsn]
a'em\g yfn]sf 5g\ ls dl:tisn] s;/L tgfjsf nflu ;+of]lht
/f;folgs k|ltlqmof pTkGg u5{ .

tgfj s] xf] / xfdLnfO{ of] lsg rflxG5 <
tgfjnfO{ a'em\g sl7g 5 < of] s]jn tgfjn] lyRg' dfq xf]Og–
lsgeg] of] ;w}“ tgfjk"0f{ x“'b}g– t/ of] z/L/ / dl:tisn] s]
cfzf u/]sf] 5 / xfdLn] jf:tjdf s] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf jf cg'ej
u5f}{“, Tof] aLrdf d]n gx'g' xf] . xfdLn] ;fdgf ug{] y'k|}
r'gf}tLx¿ dgf]j}1flgs x'G5g\– h;n], xfdLn] k7gkf7gdf
;kmntf xfl;n ug{] qmddf, :s'n l6ddf :yfg kfpg k|lt:kwf{
ubf{ jf kl5 hLjgdf gf]s/Lsf] nflu k|lt:kwf{ ubf{, cGo
JolQm;Fu cGt/lqmof ubf{ x'g] sl7gfOnfO{ b;f{p5
“ . cGo tgfj
zf/Ll/s x'G5g\ h:t} crfgs la/fdL kg'{ jf sf/ b'3{6gfdf v'§f
e“flrFg' . w]/}h;f] tgfj u/fpg] tŒj ldl>t x'G5g\M s'g} la/fdLn]
ubf{ x'g] kL8f / cGo zf/Ll/s si6, lk/lrGtf;Fu hf]l8G5 .
tgfj Ps df}lns k|lqmof xf] . o;n] ;/ntd AofS6]l/of /
k|f]6f]hf]cfb]lv lnP/ hl6n o'sf/of]6;\ (eukaryotes) h:t}
:tgwf/L;Dd ;a} k|f0fLnfO{ k|efljt u5{ . Ps sf]if ePsf]
k|f0fLdf / xfd|f] z/L/sf] k|To]s Psn sf]ifdf, c0f' ljsl;t ePsf]
5g\ h;n] cfkt\sfnLg k|0ffnLsf] Ps z[ªv
\ nf k|bfg u5{ h;n]
sf]if ;DaGwL d'Vo sfo{nfO{ ck|Toflzt afx\o r'gf}tL /
ltgLx¿sf] cfGtl/s kl/0ffdaf6 /Iff u5{ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu
lx6–
lx6–;s k|f]l6g gfds ljz]if c0f'n] Ifltu|:t k|f]l6gnfO{ sxfF
dd{t ug{ ;lsG5 jf xflg/lxt Ifo ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]af/]
dfu{bz{g lbG5– h;n] sf]ifnfO{ ljiffSttf jf lgliqmotfaf6
arfp“5 . hl6n k|f0fL h:t} xfdL cfk}m“df, tgfj k|0ffnL clt
hl6n k|lqmofsf] ¿kdf ljsf; ePsf] 5 h;n] xfdLnfO{ kL8f lbg
;Sg] c;fwf/0f r'gf}tL;Fu h'Wg ;xof]u u5{ . logLx¿n],
tgfjaf6 arfj6 ug]{ 7'nf] ;~hfndf ljlN8ª Ans (building
block) sf] ¿kdf sf]ifsf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLsf] pkof]u u5{g\ .

;+3if{ ug'{ of knfog x'g' (Fight or Flight)
klxrfgsf] ;a}eGbf ;lhnf] k|ltlqmof– l;DKofy]l6s :gfo' k|0ffnL
gfds k|0ffnLsf] tTsfn ;lqmotf x'g' xf] . Pp6f tgfjk"0f{
r'gf}tL k|fKt u/]kZrft\ / plrt k|ltlqmofsf] n]vfhf]vf
ul/;s]kl5 dl:tisn] a|]gl:6dsf] lgoGq0f s]Gb|af6 pTkGg x'g]
:gfo'nfO{ cltzL3| ;lqmo u/fpF5 . o;n] ubf{ ljleGg ;+/rgfdf
g/Pl8«gflng / Pl8«gn u|lGy -d[uf}nfsf] l7s dfly l:yt x'G5_
af6 Pl8«gflngsf] lgd'{lSt x'G5 . logLx¿sf] lgd'{lStn] ;+3if{ of
knfog (fight or fight) k|ltlqmofnfO{ ;xfotf u5{– h'g vt/fsf]
k|To'Q/df x'g'kg{] pTs[i6 tTsfnLg k|ltlqmof xf] . xfdL ;a}n]
cf/lDes emgemgfpg] ;+j]bgf,
gf, kl;
kl;gf
l;gf cfpg', ;hutfdf j[l4, tLj|
gf8Lsf] rfn,
rfn, pRr/Qmrfk / eosf] cg'e"lt klxrfg ug{ ;S5f}+“,
h'g xfdL ;a}n] tgfjk"0f{ r'gf}tLsf] t'?Gt kl5sf] If0fdf cg'ej
ug{ ;S5f}+“ . oL kl/jt{g /QmgnLdf kfOg] l/;]K6/sf sf/0fn]
x'G5, h;n] /QmgnLnfO{ v'Drfpg] sfd u5{ / To;}n] xfd|f]
/Qmrfk a9\g hfG5 / d'6'sf] ultj[l4 x'G5 / 5ftLdf kf}lG8ª
;+j]bgf -l56f] l56f] w8\lsg]_ pTkGg x'G5 h;nfO{ kflNk6];g
(Palpitation) elgG5 . 5fnfdf klg l/;]K6/ x'G5g\ h;n] /f}“
7f8f] agfpF5 -u'haDk;_ / cfGb|f (gut) df x'G5g\ h;n]
PA8f]ldgn (abdominal) ;+j]bgf laufl/lbG5, h;sf] cg'e"lt
xfdL ;a}nfO{ tgfjsf] ¿kdf x'G5 . oL kl/jt{gx¿ xfdLnfO{
;+3if{ of knfogsf lglDt tof/ ug{sf nflu / df+;k]zL /
dl:tis h:tf dxŒjk"0f{ c+udf /Qmk|jfx s]lGb|t ug{sf nflu
ePsf] x'G5 .

xfOkf]yfnlds– lk6\o'6/L – P8«]gn -PrkLP_ cIf
lxKkf]SofDk;
xfOkf]yfnfd;

tgfj / dl:tis
tgfjsf] af]w x'G5 / dl:tisn] k|ltlqmof ;dGjo u5{ . s'g}
l:yltk|lt dl:tisdf x'g] xfd|f] af]wfTds d"Nofª\sg, /QmgnLdf
x'g] zf/Ll/s ;+s]t h:t} xf/df]g, kf]ifs tŒj / OGÇnfd]6/L
(inflammatory) c0f' / d'Vo c+u Pj+ ;+j]bgfnfO{ lgolGqt ug{]
kl/lw:y :gfo'sf ;fy cGt/lqmof u5{ . dl:tisn] ljz]if / u|]8]8
k|ltlqmofsf] z[ªv
\ nf pTkGg ug{sf nflu logLx¿nfO{ ;+ul7t u5{
. o;n] o:tf] s;/L u5{ eGg]af/] xfd|f] a'emfO{
Go'/f]
/f]OG8«f]qmf]Ogf]nf]hL (neuroendocrinology) sf] dfWodaf6
cfPsf] xf] . tgfj;Fu h'Wg z/L/nfO{ ;Ifd agfpgsf nflu
/utdf kl/rflnt xf/df]gsf] dl:tisn] lgb{]zg u5{ .

#%

lk6\o"6/L

P8«]gn u|lGy
PrkLP cIf . s]Gb|sf] xfOkf]yfnfd;n] lk6\o'6/Laf6 xfdf{]gsf]
;|fjnfO{ lgoGq0f u5{, h'g xfdf{]gn] Pl8«gn u|lGydf sfo{ u5{ .
xf/df]g ;|fj k|lt g]u]l6e kmL8Aofs, cIfsf] ljleGg :t/df
lbOG5 .

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tgfjsf] k|lt bf];|f] d'Vo Go'/f]OG8f]qmfOg k|ltlqmof z/L/ /
dl:tis hf]8g\ ] ;ls{6, PrkLP cIf (HPA Axis) sf] ;lqmotf
xf] . o;n] xfOkf]yfnfd;, lk6\o'6/L u|lGy, Pl8«gn s6{]S;nfO{
ljz]ifLs[t xfdf{]g af]Sg] /Qmdfu{åf/f Ps;fy hf]85
\ .
xfOkf]yfnfd; xfd|f] y'k|} xfdf{]gnfO{ lgolGqt ug{] Ps k|d'v
dl:tis If]q xf] . cldu8fnf (amygdala) ;lxt, efjgfTds
;"rgfsf] k|f];]l;ª ug{] dl:tissf] If]q / l;Dkfy]l6s dl:tis
k|ltlqmofnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{] a|]gl:6dsf] If]qaf6 o;nfO{ alnof]
lgj]z k|fKt x'G5 . o;n] xfdf{]gn ;DaGwL ;dlGjt k|ltkmn
pTkGg ug{sf nflu logLx¿nfO{ ;+ul7t u5{ h;n] ;ls{6sf] csf{]
efu– lk6\o'6/L u|lGynfO{ pQ]lht u5{ . h;nn] abnfdf
PlOgf]sl6{sf]6«f]lkmg -P;L6LPr_ gfds xfdf{]g /utdf lgd'{St u5{
. To;kl5 P;L6LPrn] Pl8«gn u|lGysf] Pp6f efunfO{ sl6{;f]nsf]
;|fjsf nflu pQ]lht u5{ .
sl6{;f]n Ps :6]/f]O8 xfdf{]g xf] hf] tgfj k|ltlqmofsf] csf{] r/0f
a'‰gsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . o;n] /utdf lrgL / cGo
d]6faf]lns OGwg h:t} Çofl§ Pl;8sf] dfqf a9fOlbG5 . o;df
k|foM To:tf] k|f]l6gsf] vr{ x'G5, hf] tTsfn rflxg] OGwgdf
6'lqmG5, h;n] df+;k]zL / dl:tissf nflu t'?Gt ærsn]6
af/sf]Æ sfd u5{ . sl6{;f]nn] Pl8«gflngnfO{ /Qmrfk a9fpg
klg ;xof]u u5{ / 5f]6f] cjlwdf tkfO{nfO{ /fd|f] dx;'; u/fpF5
. :s"n sG;6{df Psn uLt ufpg] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug'{k¥of] eg],
tkfO{n] ug{ rfxg] clGtd s'/f eg]sf] lrGtf a9fpg] s'/fdf
3f]lTn/xg] xf] . tkfO{ o;nfO{ oyf;Dej sd :jhfu?stfsf
;fy ug{ rfxg'x'G5 . sl6{;f]nn] j[l4, kfrg, OGÇnfd];g /
oxfF;Dd ls 3fp ;Grf] x'g] k|lqmof aGb ul/lbG5– :ki6tM To:tf
s'/f hf] kl5 cem /fd|f];Fu ug{ ;lsG5 . o;n] of}g OR5f klg
aGb ul/lbG5 . ;ls{6sf] clGtd sbd dl:tisnfO{ sl6{;f]n
lkm8Aofs lbg' xf] . sl6{;f]n l/;]K6/sf] pRrtd 3gTj
lxKkf]SofDk;df x'G5, hf] l;sfO / :d/0fsf] nflu Ps dxŒjk"0f{
;+/rgf xf] t/ sl6{;f]nn] cldu8fnfdf klg sfo{ u5{ h;n] eo
/ 3a/fx6nfO{ k|lqmofut u5{ . o;sf] ;f/ k|efj eg]sf]
cldu8fnfnfO{ ;'rf? ug'{ xf]– h;n] eo ;DaGwL ;"rgf hfGg
;Ifd u/fpF5 / lxKkf]SofDk;nfO{ aGb ug{' xf]– h;n] ;'lglZrt
u5{ ls l;sfOsf] clt hl6n t/ cgfjZos s'/fdf ;+;fwgsf]
ajf{bL ePsf] 5}g . sl6{;]fn ;s]lGb|t /; xf] .
tgfj ckl/xfo{ x'G5, of] Tof] xf] hf] xfdL ;a}n] cg'ej u5f}{“ .
of] dgf]j}1flgs, zf/Ll/s jf -k|fo_ b'j} x'G5 .

b'O{ sl6{;f]n l/;]K6/ / l;s'l8“b}÷;+s'lrt x'b“ } hfg]
lxKkf]SofDk;sf] Ps ljj/0f
lxKkf]SofDk;df sl6{;f]nsf nflu pRr :t/sf] b'O{ l/;]K6/ x'G5–
ltgLx¿nfO{ lgDg Pdcf/
Pdcf/ / pRr hLcf/
hLcf/ l/;]K6/ egf}“ . lgDg
Pd cf/ l/;]K6/ PrkLP cIfsf] /Qm;~rf/ dfu{df sl6{;f]nsf]
;fdfGo ¿kdf kl/rflnt :t/åf/f ;lqmo x'G5 . o;n] xfd|f]
;fwf/0f d]6faf]lnhd / dl:tis k|lqmof /fd|f];Fu rfn' /fV5 .
tyflk ha sl6{;f]nsf] :t/ a9\g yfN5, ljz]iftM laxfg a]nf,
ta pRr hLcf/ l/;]K6/sf] ;lqmotfdf j[l4 x'G5 yfN5 . ha
xfdL tgfjdf x'G5f}+“, ta sl6{;f]nsf] :t/ cToGt pRr x'G5 /
of] l/;]K6/sf] ;lqmotf yfldG5 / h]g]l6s ¿kaf6 lgolGqt
sfo{qmdåf/f lxKkf]SofDk; aGb x'G5 . of] ;a}nfO{ Ps;fy /fVbf
tkfO{n] 306Lsf] cfs[lt ePsf] jj|m /]vf
vf kfpg'x'g]5 . of]
tgfjnfO{ dl:tissf] sfo{;Fu hf]8\g] pTs[i6 jj|m /]vf xf]– s]xL
yf]/} tkfO{sf] nflu /fd|f] x'G5, clnslt a9L ePdf cem /fd|f]
x'G5 t/ c;fWo} w]/} ePdf g/fd|f] x'G5 .

#^

tgfjsf] nflu 306L cfsf/sf] jj|m /]vf . yf]/} tgfjn] /fd|f]
u/fpg ;S5, t/ ;fx|} w]/}n] g/fd|f] ug{ ;S5 .

pbf;L / tgfj– k|0ffnLsf] clt;lqmotf
s]xL j|mf]lgs (chronic) dl:tis /f]udf /utdf clws sl6{;f]n
b]lvG5 . ljz]if ¿kdf eGg'kbf{ uDeL/ pbf;Ldf sl6{;f]n clt–
pTkflbt x'G5 / xfn}sf sfo{n] ;+s]t u5{ ls o:tf] l:yltdf
lxKkf]SofDk; klg ;+s'lrt x'G5 . o:tf kl/0ffdn]
dgf]lrlsT;snfO{, uDeL/ pbf;LnfO{
pbf;L , uDeL/ bL3{ tgfjsf] ¿kdf
;f]Rg jfWo agfPsf] 5 . of] ;'lglZrt 5}g ls sl6{;f]nsf] j[l4
x'g' g} of] ;d:ofsf] k|d'v sf/0f xf] a? of] uDeL/ dgf]j}1flgs
c;Gt'ng / o;sf] ;xof]uL tgfjsf] kl/0ffd xf] . oBlk,
sl6{;f]nsf] pTkfbg jf sfo{nfO{ /f]s]/ la/fdLnfO{ pNn]vgLo
¿kaf6 ;xof]u ug{ ;lsG5≤ ljz]if u/L To:tf] la/fdL h;df
pbf;L lj?4sf cf}iflwsf] pkrf/n] sfd ub}{g . pbf;L lj?4sf
cf}iflwn] k|foM cltlqmofzLn PrkLP cIfnfO{ ;fdfGo agfpg d2t
u5{ . Pp6f /fo of] 5 ls, logLx¿n] To:tf], dl:tisdf cem
ljz]if u/L lxKkf]SofDk;df Pd cf/ / hLcf/ l/;]K6/sf] 3gTj
;dfof]hg u/]/ u5{g\, o;df sfo{/t :gfo'j}1flgsn] tgfj ;DaGwL
/f]usf nflu cem k|efjsf/L pkrf/sf] ljsf; ug{] cfzf /fv]sf
5g\, hf] lkm8Aofs lgoGq0f k|0ffnLnfO{ k'gM ldnfP/ / cTolws
xfdf{]gn tgfj k|ltlqmof sd u/]/ sfo{ u5{ .

tgfj / a'9o\ f}nL
dl:tissf] a'9f]kgf o;sf] sfo{df ;fdfGo sdLsf] ;fy x'G5, t/
of] sdL JolQm–JolQm aLrdf km/s x'G5 . s]xL JolQmn] pd]/
;Fu;Fu} /fd|f] af]wfTds Ifdtf hf/L /fV5g\ -;kmn a'9o\ f}nL_ hals
cGo JolQm /fd|f];Fu /fVg ;Sb}gg\ -c;kmn a'9o\ f}nL_. s] xfdL
o;sf] cf0fljs÷;"Id 1fg kfpg ;S5f“}+ < sl6{;f]nsf] :t/ ;kmn
a'9o\ f}nLdf eGbf c;kmn a'9o\ f}nLdf pRr x'G5 . of] j[l4n] ubf{
dfgl;s Ifdtfdf lu/fj6 cfpF5 / ;Fu;Fu} dl:tis :Sofgdf
lxKkf]SofDk;sf] cfsf/ 36]sf] b]lvG5 . d';fdf ul/Psf] k|of]un]
b]vfPsf] 5 ls hGd]b]lv of dWod cfo'b]lv tgfj xf/df]gsf] :t/
sd /fv]df :d/0fdf v/faL cfpgaf6 /f]Sg ;lsG5 h'g cGoyf
pkrf/ gul/Psf] hg;+Vofdf b]lvG5 . To;}n] o:tf] b]lvG5 ls,
tgfjk|lt cTolws xfdf{]g k|ltlqmof ePsf JolQm– ;a}eGbf a9L
tgfj x'g] JolQm x'g} k5{ eGg] xf]Og t/ To:tf] JolQm h;n] tgfj
u/fpg] tŒjk|lt clws k|ltlqmof lbG5g\ . pgLx¿dfg} a9\bf]
pd]/sf ;fy clws :d/0f Ifo x'G5 / cGo af]wfTds /f]ux¿
b]lvG5g\ . olb of] dfgjdf klg ;To xf] eg], xfdL pbf;L lj?4sf]
cf}iflw k|of]u u/]/, h;n] PrkLP tgfj k|0ffnLnfO{ lgoGq0fdf
/fV5, To:tf k|efjsf] ef/nfO{ sd ug{ ;S5f“} . tgfj cfw'lgs
hLjgsf] d'Vo ljif]ztf xf] / of] ;DalGw syfdf cem y'k|} s'/f 5
. t/ o;nfO{ j0f{g ug{ xfdLn] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ Nofpg'k5{ .

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: http://www.brainsource.com/stress_&_health.htm

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k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL
s]xL jif{ klxn];Dd, dl:tisnfO{ Ps k|lt/Iff ljz]ifflws[t c+u
dflgGYof] lsgeg] of] k|lt/Iff k|ltlqmof jf OGÇnfd];gåf/f
k|efljt x“'b}gYof] . of] An8 a|]g Aofl/o/åf/f aflx/sf 36gfaf6
s]xL xb;Dd ;+/lIft x'G5 . of] jf:tjd} Ps Aofl/o/ xf]Og t/
dl:tissf] /QmgnLdf x'g] ljz]ifLs[t OG8f]y]lnon sf]if x'g hf]
7"nf c0f' jf k|lt/Iff sf]ifsf] /utaf6 dl:tisdf x'g] k|jfxdf
ck]Iffs[t afws aG5 . oBlk, dl:tis k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL
cGt/lqmof dflysf] cg';Gwfgsf] kl/0ffdn] ubf{ kl5Nnf] bzsdf
dl:tisnfO{ ljz]ifflws[t 7flgg] b[li6sf]0f gf6sLo ¿kaf6
kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 . Go'/f]ODo'gf]nf]hL clxn] cg';Gwfgsf] Ps
clt ;lqmo If]q xf] .

z/L/sf] /Iff
k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL xfgL ug{] cfqmd0fsf/Lsf lj?4 xfd|f] klxnf]
/Iffsjr xf] . oL cfqmd0fsf/L efO/;, AofS6]l/of / O:6
(yeast), ;fdfGo / sd vt/gfs h:t} ;a}n] yfxf kfPsf] lr;f]
nfUg'b]lv lnP/ uDeL/ / hLjgsf nflu vt/gfs h:t} Pr cfO
eL, d]lgGhfOl6; jf l6la;Ddsf x'G5g\ .
xfd|f] /Iffsjr y'k|} tl/sfaf6 sfo{ ub{5g\ . klxnf], ;+qmldt,
3fon jf OGÇnfd (inflam) ePsf] tGt'leq} :yfgLo ¿kdf ;'hg,
kL8f, /ut k|jfxdf kl/jt{g / :yfgLo OGÇnfd];g u/fpg]
c0f'sf] pT;h{g u/]/ x'G5 . cln a[xt\ ¿kdf k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLsf]
;lqmotfn] No'sf];fO6 / Dofs|f]km]h]h / PSo'6 km]h k|f]l6gnfO{
pQ]lht u5{ / logLx¿ cfqmd0f ug]{ /f]usf sf/snfO{ klxrfg
ug{, dfg{ / x6fpg cfqmd0f:yntkm{ hfG5g\ .

Pl8«gn

/IffTds c0f'sf] ¿kdf ;fO6f]sfOG;\

xfOkf]y]n]d;

;+qmd0f rf]6 /
OGÇnfd];g

:yfgLo Okm]/G] 6

;Lcf/kL

k|lt/Iff / OGh]qmfOg
k|0ffnL

dl:tis k|lt/IffTds ¿kdf ljz]ifflws[t c+u xf] eGg] b[li6sf]0fn]
clxn] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL;Fusf] o;sf] ;DaGwsf] af/] cToGt} km/s
kl/sNkgfnfO{ dfu{blz{t u/]sf] 5 . of] ls xf] eg], clxn] 1ft
ePsf] 5 ls dl:tisn] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL / Ifltu|:t tGt'af6 kfpg]
;+s]tk|lt k|ltlqmof lbg ;S5 / lbG5 . k'/fgf] s§/ b[li6sf]0f
clxn] x6]sf] 5 . k|of]ux¿n] aflx/ NofPsf] 5 ls dl:tisn]
:yfgLo k|lt/Iff / OGÇnfd]6/L (inflammatory) k|ltlqmofsf] qmd
k|blz{t u5{ / To;}n] of] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL / PSo'6 r/0f
k|ltlqmofsf] dxŒjk"0f{ lgoGqs xf] . /f]usf] k|lt ljleGg k|ltlqmof
h:t} Hj/f] -z/L/sf] tfkqmd_ lgGb|f / ef]ssf] lgoGq0f d'Votof
xfOkf]yfnfd;af6 x'G5 .

P;L6LPr

dl:tis

l;Dkfy]l6s
:gfo' k|0ffnl

dl:tis / /IffTds k|ltlqmofx?

dl:tisn] Ifltu|:t of ;+s|ldt tGt'af6 ;+s]t k|fKt u5{ hf] d"ntM
Go'/n -;+j]bs :gfo'sf] dfWodaf6_ jf Þo'df]/n -kl/rflnt
c0f'af6_ x'g;S5 . Go'/n ;+s]t ;L kmfOa/ (c-fibres) sf]
dfWodaf6 cfpg] b]lvG5 -h;n] kL8fsf] klg ;~rf/ u5{– cWofo–
%, x]g'{xf];\_ / sn]hf]af6 e]u; :gfo'sf] dfWodaf6 cfPsf] b]lvG5
hf] PSo'6 km]h k|f]l6gsf]] pTkfbgsf nflu Ps d'Vo :yn xf] .
dl:tistkm{sf] d'Vo kl/rfng ;+s]tsf] k|s[lt ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf
a'lemPsf] 5}g t/ o;df k|f]:6fUnflG8g -h;nfO{ Pl:kl/gn] /f]S5_
/ slDKnd]G6 k|f]l6g -k|f]l6gsf] Ps 5f“uf] hf] cfqmfds sf]ifnfO{
dfg{sf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5_. t/ ;fob ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ ;+s]t
xf] k|f]l6gsf] Ps ;d"x hf] kl5Nnf] @) jif{df k|sfzdf cfPsf] 5
h;nfO{ ;fO6f]sfOG;\ (cytokines) elgG5 .

tgfj, ;fdflhs sf/s

Þo'df]/n / Go'/n
ckm/]G6;\

o;sf ;fy} PSo'6 r/0f k|ltlqmofn] To:tf nIf0fx¿ pTkGg
u5{g\ hf] xfdL ;a}n] cg'ej u/]sf 5f}“ -Hj/f], b'vfO{ / kL8f,
lgGb|f nfUg', ef]s x/fpg' / c?lr x'g'_ . oLdWo] x/]s
k|ltlqmofn] ;+qmd0f;Fu n8\g, zlQm ;~ro ug{ / dd{tdf
;xfotf ug{ ;xof]u u5{ t/ cTolws dfqfdf jf clws
;do;Dd ;lqmo eO/x]df logLx¿ c;fWo} xflgsf/s x'g
;S5g\ . To;}n] logLx¿nfO{ ;fjwfgLk"j{s lgoGq0f ug'{kg{]
x'G5 .

lk6\o'6/L

Un'sf]sl6{sf]O8\;

;fO6f]sfOG;\ z/L/sf] k|ltsf/s xf] . clxn] ltgLx¿ !)) eGbf
a9L 5g\ / x/]s ;dodf cem al9 kQf nflu/x]sf] 5 . oL
k|f]l6gx¿ ;fwf/0ftof z/L/df clt sd :t/df pTkfbg ePsf
x'G5g\ t/ /f]u of rf]6sf] k|To'Q/df l56f] ;lqmo x'G5g\ . logLx¿df
OG6/km]/f]G;\, OG6/No'lsG;, 6\o'd/ g]qmf]l;; ÇofS6/ / s]df]sfOG;\
;fd]n x'G5 . y'k|}sf] pTkfbg Ifltu|:t tGt'leq :yfgLo ¿kdf x'G5
/ glhssf] sf]ifdf sfo{ u5{ t/ s]xL /Qm;~rf/df k|j]z u5{g\ /
hxfF ltgLx¿n] dl:tis ;lxtsf 6f9fsf c+unfO{ ;+s]t k7fpF5 .
;fO6f]sfOG;\n] g} /f]u / ;+qmd0fsf] k|lt w]/}h;f] k|ltlqmof lbG5 .

dl:tis / k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLsf] ;dGjosf nflu y'k|} dl:tis
k|0ffnL;Fu} cfpF5g\ .

#&

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;fO6f]sfOgsf] pTkfbg ;'? ug{] pQ]hsdf AofS6]l/of jf efO/;
kl/0ffdx¿, sf]ifsf] Iflt jf sf]ifsf] hLljtfj:yfdf vt/f h:t}
6lS;g jf clS;hgsf] lgDg :t/ ;fd]n x'G5g\ . ;fO6f]sfOg
pTkfbgsf] csf{] dxŒjk"0f{ ;+rfns dl:tis xf] h;n] tGt'nfO{
Go'/n ;+s]t lbP/ -d'VotofM l;Dkfy]l6s dl:tis k|0ffnLsf]
dfWodaf6_ jf xfdf{]gsf] dfWodaf6 -h:t} Pl8«gn u|lGyaf6
sl6{;f]n_ ;fO6f]sfOgsf] pTkfbg ug{ jf aGb ug{ ;S5 .
;fO6f]sfOg y'k|} sfo{ ug{] k|f]l6g c0f' xf] h;n] ljz]if u/L
k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLdf sfo{ u5{ . clwsf+zn] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ /
OGÇnfd];gsf] k|d'v ;fws h:t} ;'hg, /Qm;~rf/df :yfgLo
kl/jt{g / OGÇnfd]6/L c0f'sf] bf];|f] k|jfxsf] pT;h{gnfO{ pQ]lht
u5{ . logLx¿n] k|foM ;a} zf/Ll/s k|0ffnLdf sfo{ u5{, h;df
sn]hf] klg ;fd]n x'G5 hxfF ltgLx¿n] PSo'6 km]h k|f]l6gnfO{
pQ]lht u5{ . oBlk, ;fO6f]sfOG;n] y'k|} sfo{df efu lng] eP
tfklg, ltgLx¿df pNn]vgLo leGgtf x'G5 . s]xL PlG6–
OGÇnfd]6/L x'G5g\ / k|f]–OGÇnfd]6/L k|lqmof lgif]w u5{g\, w]/}n]
pgLx¿sf] pTkfbg ePsf] 7fpF glhssf] sf]ifdf :yfgLo ¿kdf
sfo{ u5{g\ eg] cGo xfdf{]g em“} /Qm;+rf/df lgd'{St x'G5g\ .

tgfj / k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL
xfdL ;a}n] ;'g]sf 5f“} ls tgfj / lrGtfn] xfd|f] k|lt/IffnfO{ sd
u5{ / xfdLnfO{ /f]uL agfpg ;S5 . xfdLn] clxn] tgfjn]
s;/L dl:tisnfO{ PrkLP cIf ;lqmo u/]/ -kl5Nnf] cWofodf
j0f{g ul/Psf] lyof]_ k|ToIf¿kdf k|efljt u5{ eGg] dfq geP/
o;n] s;/L k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ klg k|efljt u5{– o;df s'g}
cfZro{ 5}g ls of] ck|ToIf dfu{åf/f u5{, Tof] klg dl:tis
dfkm{t\ x'G5 eGg] af/]df klg a'em\ g yfn]sf 5f}“ . tgfjn] k|lt/Iff
k|0ffnL / /f]u nfUg ;Sg] ;DefjgfnfO{ k|efljt ug{ ;S5, t/
of] tgfjsf] k|sf/ / o;k|lt xfdLn] s;/L k|ltlqmof lbG5f“},
To;df cfwfl/t x'G5– s]xL JolQmx¿ o;df :ki6 ¿kaf6 ;kmn
x'G5g\ . To:tf] tgfjsf] k|sf/ hf];Fu xfdL ;dfof]hg ug{
;Sb}gf}“, To;n] xfd|f] /IffTds k|ltlqmof aGb ul/lbg ;S5, h:t}
clws sfo{ jf 7"nf] ljof]u .

#*

tgfj / k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL aLrsf] ;DaGwsf nflu pQ/bfoL k|lqmof
k'/} a'lemPsf] 5}g t/ xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5 ls Ps k|d'v ¿k
xfOkf]yfnflds–
6' /L–Pl8«gn cIfsf]
fnflds–lk6\
lk6o'\o6/L–
6/L
cIf ;lqmotf xf] . dl:tisdf
tgfjk|ltsf] d"Vo k|ltlqmofdWo] Ps xfOkf]yfnfd;df sl6{sf]6«f]lkg
l/lnlhª ÇofS6/
ÇofS6/ -;Lcf/Pkm_ gfds Ps k|fl]6gsf] pTkfbg a9\g'
xf] . ;Lcf/Pkmn] Pl8«gf]sl6{
sl6{sf]lkmg l/lnlhª ÇofS6/ -Pl;l6Pr_
gfds csf{] xfdf{]g lgd'{St ug{sf nflu xfOkf]yfnfd;b]lv lk6\o'6/L
u|lGy;Ddsf] 5f]6f] b"/Lsf] ofqf u5{ . of] xfdf{]gn] :6]/f]O8 xfdf{]g dfgjdf sl6{;f]n_ lgd'{St ug{sf nflu /Qm;~rf/sf] dfWodaf6
Pl8«gn u|lGy;Dd ofqf u5{ . k|lt/Iff sfo{ / OGÇnfd];g bafpg]
zlQmzfnL tŒjdWo] s]xL oL :6]/f]O8 xfdf{]g klg x'g\ . t/ syf
of]eGbf a9L hl6n b]lvG5 lsgeg] cGo xfdf{]gn / Go'/n tŒj
klg 5g\ / xfdLnfO{ of] klg yfxf 5 ls xNsf tgfjsf] s]xL ¿kn]
xfd|f] k|lt/Iff sfo{nfO{ ;lqmotfsf ;fy ;'wfg{ ;S5 .

dl:tisleq k|lt/Iff / OGÇnfd]6/L k|ltlqmof
xfn}sf] cg';Gwfgn] b]vfPsf] 5 ls y'k|} /IffTds c0f'x¿ h:t}
;fO6f]sfOG;, dl:tissf /f]ux¿ h:t} dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;;,
kIff3ft / cNhfOd/sf nflu ;lqmo of]ubfg ug{] tTj x'g\ .
o:tf] b]lvG5 ls, To:tf c0f' ljz]if u/L s]xL ;fO6f]sfOG;sf]
dl:tisleq} cTolws pTkfbgn] Go'/f]gnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg ;S5 .
k|lt/Iff / OGÇnfd]6/L c0f'nfO{ /f]Sg] ljrf/df /x]/ dl:tissf
/f]usf nflu ljleGg gofF pkrf/ /0fgLltsf] ljsf; eO/x]sf] 5
. To;}n] Go'/f]ODo'gf]nf]hL hf] Go'/f];fOG; -dl:tis lj1fg_ sf]
If]qdf Ps gj cfuGt's xf], o;n] 7"nf dl:tis /f]usf nflu s]xL
;"q / ;Defljt pkrf/ k|bfg ug{ ;S5 .

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: http://science.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm

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lg+b|f

Z Z Zz

k|To]s /ft xfdL cfÇgf] zogsIfdf hfG5f“}, cf]5\ofgdf r9\5f“} /
lj:tf/} lg+b|fsf] cr]t cj:yfdf hfG5f}+“ . xfdL dWo] w]/} nueu *
306fsf nflu ;'T5f}+“, h;sf] dtna xfdL cfÇgf] hLjgsf] nueu
Ps ltxfO efu cr]t cj:yfdf latfpF5f“}+ / o;sf] s]xL efu
;kgfdf . olb tkfO{n] cGo ultljlw h:t} /flt l9nf];Ddsf] kf6L{
jf k/LIffsf] nflu cfwf/ft;Dd k9\g'sf nflu of] ax'd"No ;dosf]
k|of]u ug{] x]t'n] lg+b|f Tofu ug{] k|of; ug'{eof] eg] tkfO{sf] z/L/
/ dl:tisn] l5§} tkfO{nfO{ ;r]t u5{ ls tkfO{n] o;f] ug'{ x“b' }g .
xfdL o;nfO s]xL ;dosf] nflu k5fl8 ;fg{ ;S5f}“ t/ nfdf]
;dosf nflu slxNo} ;Sb}gf“} . lgbfpg]÷hfuf x'g] rqm z/L/
tyf dl:tissf] cg]s noa4 ultljlwdWo] Ps xf] . ltgLx¿
lsg ljBdfg x'G5g\, dl:tissf] s'g efu ;fd]n x'G5 / To;n]
s;/L sfo{ u5{ <

hLjgsf] nflu no
;'Tg]÷hfUg] rqm Ps cfGtl/s no xf] hf] hLjgsf] cf/lDes
jif{df lbjf–/fqL rqmdf cfj4 x'G5 . o;nfO{ g} ;sf{l8og
l8og l/bd
(circadian rhythm) elgG5, o:tf] lsg elgG5 eg] ‘;sf{’
jl/kl/sf] nflu / ‘8fOh’ lbgsf] nflu Nofl6g zAb xf] . of]
hLjge/sf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5M aRrf -lzz'_ lbg / /ft b'a}
a]nfdf 5f]6f] cjlwsf nflu ;'T5g\, ;fgf s]6fs]6L k|foM vfgfkl5
Psl5g lgbfp“5g\ hals jo:s JolQm ;fdfGotM /ftdf dfq}
;'T5g\ . lg+b|f tkfO{sf] nflu /fd|f] x'G5 – lj+G;6g rlr{n, bf];|f]
ljZjo'4sf] a]nfsf k|wfgdGqL, kfFr ldg]6 jf To:t} ;dosf] 5f]6f
lg+b|f lng ?rfp“y], slxn]sfxL“ t dlGqd08n a}7ssf] a]nfdf klg
.
;'Tg' / hfuf x'g'nfO{ lbg–/ft rqmdf cfj4 ug{] ;fdfGo qmd,
clK6s sfOHdfsf] l7s dfly, xfOkf]yfnfd;df ePsf]
;'k|fsfOHdfl6s Go'lSno;
lSno; gfds sf]ifsf] Ps ;fgf] ;d"xaf6
cf+lzs¿kdf lgolGqt x'G5 . oxfFsf] Go'/f]g, h;df c;fdfGo
¿kaf6 8]G8«fO6sf aLrdf y'k|} ;fOGofK; x'G5 tf ls pgLx?sf]
kmfol/ª Ps}rf]l6 Pslqt xf];\, oL Go'/f]g dl:tissf] h}ljs
38Lsf] efu x'g\ . dfgjdf Ps lbgeGbf yf]/} l9nf] ultdf rN5,
t/ ;fdfGotof o;nfO{ rnfpg] sfd cf“vfaf6 cfpg] lgj]zn]
u5{, h;n] o;nfO{ lbgsf] ;dodf xf] of /ftsf] eg]/ atfpg] u5{
. xfdLnfO{ of] yfxf 5 lsgeg], nfdf] cjlw;Ddsf nflu lbgsf]
;xL ;do yfxf x'g] x/]s ;"qaf6 6f9f, ulx/f] u'kmfdf a;]/
lg+b|fsf] cg';Gwfgdf ;xefuL x'g] JolQmn] nueu @% 306fsf]
:jR5Gb ;'Tg]÷hfUg] rqm ePsf] ultljlwsf] qmdnfO{ ckgfP .

lg+b|fsf r/0fx¿
lg+b|f Tolt lgliqmo k|lqmof klg xf]Og hlt of] b]lvG5 . olb s'g}
JolQmnfO{ lg+b|f k|of]uzfnfdf -hxfF a]Gr xf]Og cf]5o\ fg x'G5_
p;sf] tfn'df On]S6«f]8x¿ tf/j4 u/]/ /flvG5 eg], p;sf]
dl:tissf] On]S6«f]OG;]km]nf]u|fd -O{O{hL_ cg]sf}“ :ki6 r/0fx¿af6
u'lh|G5 . hfuf x'bF f, xfd|f] dl:tisn] lgDg –cfoflds ljB'tLo
ultljlw b]vfpF5 . ha xfdL lgbfpF5f}“, OOhL ;'?df t ;':t x'G5
t/ kl5 lj:tf/} o;n] cfofddf j[l4 / af/Daf/tfdf sdL b]vfpF5
h;} xfdL lg+b|fsf] :ki6 r/0fsf] z[ªv
\ nfaf6 u'h|G5f}“ . oL
r/0fx¿nfO{ dGb nx/ lg+b|f,P;8An"
P;8An"P;(Slow Wave Sleep)
elgG5 . ljB'tLo ultljlwsf] of] kl/jt{gsf] sf/0f cem} k"0f{tof
a'lemPsf] 5}g . oBlk, dflgG5 ls, dl:tissf Go'/f]g ha
pgLx¿sf] ;fdfGo lgj]zk|lt k|ltlqmofxLg x'G5, pgLx¿ lj:tf/}
Ps–csf{]sf] ;fy Pslqt x'g yfN5g\ . ha cliyk~h/ df+;k]zLsf]
ultljlw lgoGq0f ug{] Go'/f]g tTk/tf;fy cj?4 x'G5g\, ta
tkfO{n] df+;k]zLsf] 6f]g u'dfpg' x'G5, t/ ;f}efUojz,
Zjf;k|Zjf; / d'6'sf] ult lgoGq0f ug{] Go'/f]g ;fdfGo ¿kaf6 g}
sfo{ ul//fV5 .
/fte/ xfdL lg+b|fsf oL ljleGg r/0fsf] lar cl3 kl5 ul//fV5f}“
. oLdWo] Pp6fdf, O{O{hL hfuf x'g] cj:yfsf] em“} x'G5 / xfd|f]
cfFvf, xfd|f] aGb knssf] d'lg tndfly em6\lsG5 . of] lg+b|fsf]
slyt tLj|
tLj| cfFvf rng, cf/OPd
cf/OPd (rapid eye movement) cj:yf
xf]– hf] xfdLn] ;kgf b]Vg] a]nfdf x'G5 . olb dflg;x¿ cf/ O
Pd lg+b|f ePsf] a]nf hfu]df, pgLx¿ nueu ;a} ;kgfsf] s'/f
eG5g\– oxfF;Dd ls To:tf JolQmn] klg hf] ;b}j eGg] u5{g\ ls
pgLx¿ ;kgf b]Vb}gg\ -cfÇgf] kl/jf/sf] Ps ;b:odf Ps k|of]usf[
¿kdf u/]/ x]g'{xf];\_ jf:tjdf xfdLdWo] w]/}df k|To]s /ft cf/O{Pd
lg+b|fsf] $–^ 5f]6f k|;· x'G5g\ . aRrfdf cln w]/} cf/O{Pd lg+b|f
x'G5 / hgfj/df klg cf/O{Pd lg+b|f b]lvG5 .
hfu[t
cf/O{Pd
cj:yf !
cj:yf @
cj:yf #
cj:yf $
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

lg+b|fsf] 306f

cf7 306fsf] ;fdfGo /ftsf] lg+b|fdf lg+b|fsf ljleGg r/0fsf] qmd ;fd]n
x'G5, h;df cf/O{Pd lg+b|fsf] 5f]6f] cjlw -/ftf] If]q_ x'G5 hf] k|o]s /ftdf
nueu $ k6s cfpF5 .

lg+b|faf6 j+rg
lbjf k|sfzdf ;lqmo P;;LPg

/ftdf lgliqmo P;;LPg

;'k|fsfPHdfl6s Go'lSno; dl:tissf] cfÇg} JolQmut 38L xf] .

s]xL jif{ cl3, Ps cd]l/sL lszf]/M /]G8L uf8{g/n], /]s8{ /flvPsf]
bL3{td cjlw;Dd, lg+b|f lagf /x]/ lulgh a's ckm /]s8{;\ df cfÇgf]
:yfg lhTg k|of; ug{] ;+sNk u/] . p;sf] cfsf+Iff @^$ 306f;Dd
lg+b|f lagf /xg' lyof] / p;n] o:tf] u/\of] . of] cd]l/sL gf}ljefudf
lrlsT;såf/f ;'k/Lj]If0f ul/Psf] Ps ;fjwfgLk"j{s lgolGqt k|of]u
lyof] t/ xfdL tkfO{nfO{ of] bf]xf]¥ofpg] ;Nnfx eg] lbb}gf}“ .

#(

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p;n] ef]Ug'k/]sf sl7gfOx¿ -lg+b|fn' dx;'; ug{]afx]s_ lyP,
af]Ngdf sl7gfO, Psfu| x'g c;dy{tf, :d/0fdf x|f; /
e|flGthgs lbjf:jKg . t/ p;sf] z/L/ pTs[i6 ef}lts l:yltdf
/x\of] t/ pm slxNo} dgf]ljlIfKt ePg jf jf:tljstfaf6 p;sf]
;Dks{ x/fPg . k|of]u k'/f e};s]kl5 p;n] ;fgf] k|ltIf]k b]vfof],
klxnf] /ft nueu kGw| 3G6f ;'Tof] / kl5sf /ftdf 5f]6f]
cltl/Qm cjlwsf nflu ;'Tof] . of] / of] ;dfg y'k|} cGo
k|of]un] lg+b|f cg';Gwfgstf{nfO{ ljZj:t kf/]sf] 5 ls, lg+b|faf6
jf:tjd} nfelGjt x'g] k|d'vtM dl:tis xf] z/L/ xf]Og .
;fjwfgLk"j{s lgolGqt kz' k|of]u;lxt cGo cWoogaf6 o:t}
k|sf/sf] lgisif{ lgsflnPsf] 5 .

xfdL lsg ;'T5f}+ <
:gfo'lj1fgsf y'k|} d'2f kx]nLsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 / lg+b|f tLdWo]
Ps xf] . s]xL JolQmn] ts{ lbPsf 5g\ ls, lg+b|f kz'nfO{ crn
/ vt/faf6 aflx/ /xg Pp6f ;lhnf] dfWod xf] . t/ o;df
Tof] eGbf a9L s'/f x'g'k5{ . lg+b|f j+rg k|of]un] xfdLnfO{ of]
;f]Rg] agfPsf] 5 ls, cf/O{Pd lg+b|f / P;8An"P; sf] s]xL
r/0fn] dl:tisnfO{ k'gnf{e ug{ ;dy{ agfpF5 . xfdLnfO{ o:tf]
k|sf/sf] lg+b|f /ftsf] klxnf] $ 306fdf cfpF5 . ;DejtM o;n]
dl:tissf s'/fnfO{ k'gM Jojl:yt x'g ;xof]u u5{ / of]
cfjZos sfo{ ug{] 7Ls ;do 8«fO8sdf /flvPsf] hxfh;Fu
;fb[Zo ubf{, Toltv]/ xf] ha, dl:tis ;+j]bs ;"rgfnfO{ k|f];]l;ª
ul//x]sf] x'b“ }g jf of] ;ts{ / Psfu| ePsf] x'b“ }g jf o;n] xfd|f]
sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug'{ k/]sf] x“'b}g . cg';Gwfgn] of] klg
;'emfpF5 ls, lg+b|f Tof] ;do xf] ha xfdLn] Ps lbg cl3 s]
l;s]sf 5f}+“ To;nfO{ ;+of]lht u5f}“– of] :d/0fsf] Ps dxŒjk"0f{
k|lqmof xf] .

no s;/L sfd u5{ <
ljleGg lg+b|f cj:yfsf] aLr kl/jt{gsf] a]nf, dl:tissf] cg]s
If]qdf x'g] Go'/f]gsf] ultljlwnfO{ clen]lvt u/]/ noj4 ultjlw
h:t} lg+b|fsf] Go'/n k|lqmofsf af/] w]/} s'/fx¿ yfxf ePsf 5g\
. o;n] Ps a|]gl:6d ;lqmo0f k|0ffnLnfO{ aflx/ NofPsf] 5– h;
cGtu{t Ps k|sf/sf] cf0fljs z[ªvnf
\vnf k|ltlqmof h;n] xfdLnfO{
ljleGg lg+b|f r/0fdf lnP/ hfG5, To;df Pl8gf]l;g nufotsf
ljleGg Go'/f]df]8'n]6/L 6«fG;ld6;{ ;fd]n x'G5g\ .

;xrfng k|lqmofn] ;~hfnnfO{ Ps lgb|f cj:yfaf6 csf{]df hfg
;xfotf u5{ .
Go'/f]h]g]l6S;af6 cufl8 a9\g 7"nf] km6\sf] cfPsf] 5 . ljleGg
lhg kQf nfu]sf 5g\, hf] 3l8sf] sulJxN; (cog wheels) /
:s]kd]G6 (escapement– Ps k'hf{) h:t}, noj4 k];d]s/sf]
cf0fljs efu xf] . o;sf] clwsfz+ sfo{ 8«f];f]lkmnf -kmnsf] dfvf_
df ul/Psf] 5 hxfF of] kfOPsf] 5 ls, b'O{ lhg k/ (per) / l6d
(tim) n] k|f]l6g pTkfbg u5{g\ hf] cfÇg} ;Zn]if0f Jojl:yt ug{
cfk;df cGt{lqmof u5{g\ . Pdcf/PgP / k|f]l6g pTkfbg, lbgdf
rfF8}g} z'? x'G5, k|f]l6g ;+rLt x'G5, Ps cfk;df hf]l8G5 / of]
;DaGwn] To;kl5 ltgLx“¿sf] cfÇg} ;Zn]if0f /f]lslbG5 .
lbjfk|sfzn] k|f]l6gnfO{ kbfjgt (degrade) ug{ ;xof]u u5{ h;sf]
:t/ cGttM To:tf] ljGb'df em5{ hxfF k/ / l6d k|f]l6g agfpg] hLg
k'gM sfd ug{ yfN5g\ . of] rqm 3'ldlkm/L rln/xG5 / ta klg
hf/L /xG5 olb Go'/f]gnfO{ Ps l/sfkLdf hLljt /flvG5 .
xfdLh:t} :tgwf/L k|f0fLdf ePsf] 38L dfvfdf ePsf] h:t} ;Fu
ljlrqtfk"j{s ;dfg?kn] sfo{ u5{ . ;sf{l8og no, ljsf;fTds
cy{df w]/} k"/fgf] xf], t;y{, o;df s'g} cfZro{ 5}g ls, To:tf
ljleGg hLjdf, Ps} k|sf/sf] c0f'n] 38LnfO{ ;+rflnt u5{ .

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL
k|sfz

cGwsf/

k|sfz

cGwsf/

;fdfGo d';fn] æh]6NofuÆ b;f{p5

k|sfz

cGwsf/

k|sfz

cGwsf/

pTkl/jlt{t (mutant) d';fn] tTsfn æ38L cGt/0fÆ (clock shift) u5{ .

;sf{l8og nosf] cf0fljs k|lqmof a'em\g] sf]l;; ug{, :gfo'j}1flgsn] h]g]l6s ?kaf6 o:tf] d';f tof/ kf/]sf 5g\ h;df ;'k|fsfoHdfl6s
Go'lSno;df cleJoQm lhg ælgsflnlbOG5Æ oL eLcfO{kLcf/–@, (VIPR2) d';f /fd|f];Fu hLljt /xG5 / ;fdfGo d';fn] h:t}, /ft / lbgsf lar
ultljlw qmddf kl/jt{g b;f{pF5 . dfly b;f{OPsf] qmdsf] sfnf] yf]Knf]n] d';f slxn] ;lqmo x'G5 eGg] b]vfpF5, /ftdf ultljlw x'g] Ps b}lgs no
-v}/f] If]q_ oBlk, Tof] ;do hlta]nf aQL aGb ul/G5, cs:dft\ * 306f cufl8 NofOof] -nueu @% cf}+“ lbg_, ;dfGo d';fn] cfÇgf] ultljlw
qmddf cGt/ Nofpg s]xL ;do nufP/ æh]6 NofuÆ b;f{p5 . gscfp6 -lhg lgsflnOPsf]_ d';fn] tTsfn abN5 . o:tf k|sf/sf cWoogn]
xfdLnfO{ tL cf0fljs k|lqmofsf af/] l;Sg ;xof]u ug'{k5{, h;åf/f k|sfzn] ;sf{l8og k];d]s/ lhgnfO{ nU5 .

$)

;DalGwt j]a;fO{6: http://www.hhmi.org/lectures/2000/

http://www.cbt.virginia.edu,
http://science.howstuffworks.com/sleep.htm

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dl:tis 5jLs/0f
skfn j}1flgs (Phrenologist) n] ;f]r] ls, pgLx¿ vKk/sf]
;txdf ePsf] aDk (Bumps) sf] k/LIf0f u/]/ dl:tisnfO{
a'em\mg\ ;S5g\
;S5g\ . olb of] clxn] c:jf
c:jfefljs b]lvPsf] x'g;S5,
;S5, t/
pgLx¿sf]
pgLx¿sf] aflx/af6
aflx/af6 x]/]/ dl:tisnfO{ a'em\mg]\g] dxŒj
dxŒjfsf+Iffn]
o'ufb]“}bl] v w]/}nfO{ cfslif{t u/]sf] 5 . clxn] xfdL cfw'lgs
dl:tis 5jLs/0f oGqsnfaf6 jf:tjd} o;f] ug{ ;S5f}+“ .
cfw'lgs :Sofg/n] xfdLnfO{ Go'/f]
/f]gn / kmfOa/ dfu{ ;+/rgfsf],
/Qm;+rf/ / dl:tisdf zlQm d]6faf]lnhdsf]
nhdsf] / xfdLn] ljleGg
sfo{ ubf{ Go'/n
/n ultljlwdf cfpg] kl/jt{gsf] cfZro{hgs 5lj
k|bfg ug{ cg]sf}+ ;fwgsf] k|of]u u5{ .

cfw'lgs oGqsnf tkm{sf] dfu{
;+/rgfnfO{ sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt ug{] k|of;df Go'/f]nf]lh:6 /
Go'/f];fOsf]nf]lh:6åf/f w]/} s'/f l;lsPsf] 5, h;n] kf]:6df6{dsf]
a]nf lbdfu jf Jojxf/sf] ljlrqtfnfO{ dl:tis ;+/rgfsf]
dfk;Fu ;DalGwt u5{ . oxL ¿kaf6 g} dl:tissf] jf0fL
(Speech) If]q a|f]sfåf/f klxrfg ul/Psf] lyof] . of] tl/sfsf]
cg]s ;kmntfx¿ 5g\ t/ o;sf ;Ldfx¿ klg 5g\ . s;}n] klg
;/n cg'dfg ug{ ;Sb}gg\ ls, dl:tissf] Ps If]qsf] Ifltsf]
sf/0f x'g] sfo{sf] Ifon] pQm If]qsf] ;fdfGo sfo{nfO{ b;f{p5
“ .
pbfx/0fsf] nflu sdL÷c;dy{tf b]lvg ;S5 lsgls pQm If]q
cGo If]qaf6 5'l§G5 of cnu x'G5 h;sf] ;fy of] ;fdfGotof
;+rf/ u5{ . of] klg ;Dej 5 ls Ifltu|:t gePsf dl:tissf
If]qn] To:tf s]xL sfo{ ug{ yfN5g\ hf] ;fdfGo kl/l:yltdf
Ifltu|:t If]qn] uy{] o;nfO{ Knfl:6l;6L elgG5 . cGttM lglZrt
sfof{Tds If]qdf lgs} yf]/} Kofyf]nf]lhsn rf]6 ;Lldt x'G5 /
hLljt x'Fbf la/fdLsf] cWoog / kl5 dl:tissf] ljZn]if0fsf] aLr
w]/} nfdf] ljnDa x'g ;S5 .
;+/rgfut dl:tis 5jLs/0f oGqsnf nueu #) jif{ cl3
ljsl;t x'g ;'? u/]sf] xf] . lrlsT;f z/L/ zf:qLåf/f xfn}df
ul/Psf] sfof{Tds 5jLs/0f k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] ljz]if Wofg
cfslif{t u/]sf] 5 . logLx¿n] xfdLnfO{ jf:tjd} vKk/leq x]g{
/ dfgj dl:tisleq lrxfpg ;dy{ agfpF5– h;} dl:tisn]
;f]R5, l;S5 jf ;kgf b]V5 .

afFofM
bfofFM

o;n] s;/L sfo{ u5{ <
Go'/f]gsf] ultljlw x]g{sf nflu ul/g] On]S6«f]lkmlhof]nf]lhsn
oGqsnf, ;lqmoflGjt Go'/f]gsf] d}Da|]g kf]6]+l;ondf x'g] kl/jt{gdf
cfwfl/t x'G5 . dl:tis :Sofg ug{] oGqsnfn], ;lqmo Go'/f]gnfO{
rflxg], zlQm d]6faf]lnhdsf] kl/jt{gnfO{ x]/]/ sfo{ u5{ .
On]S6«f]s]ldsn u|ofl8oG6 h;n] rfh{ cfognfO{ Go'/f]gsf] leq /
aflx/ k|jflxt u5{, -h;df ;fOGoflK6s / PS;g kf]6]lG;on k5{_
pgLx?nfO{ cfÇgf] sfo{sf lglDt, zlQm rflxG5 . of] zlQmsf] ;|f]t
Un'sf]hsf] clS;8];g xf] . ;]/]a|n kl/rfngåf/f Un'sf]h /
clS;hg dl:tisdf k7fOG5 . Go'/f]
/f]ef:s'n/ ln+ssf] sf/0fn]
;lqmo If]qdf ;]/]a|n /Qm;+rf/df :yfgLo j[l4 x'G5 . of] cToGt}
l56f] x'G5 . cfw'lgs :gfo' 5jLs/0f oGqn] ;]/]a|n /Qm ;+rf/df
x'g] kl/jt{gnfO{ dfkg u5{ / To;nfO{ Go'/n ultljlwsf] ;"rssf
¿kdf k|of]u u5{ .
klxnf] ljsl;t ul/Psf] sfof{Tds oGqsnfnfO{ kf]lh6«
lh6«g Pld;g
lh
6f]
]df]u|fkmL -kLO{
6L_ elgGYof] . of] k|lqmofdf To:tf] /]l8of] PlS6e
6fdf]
kLO{6L_
6«];/nfO{ dfgj z/L/df l5/fpg' ;fd]n lyof], hf] hLj lj1fg;Fu
;DalGwt ld>0f;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . -h:t} cf}iflw hf]
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ l/;]K6/;Fu af“lwG5 ._ la/fdLsf] 6fpsf] jl/kl/
ePsf] l86]S6/sf] l/ªn] Go'lSno/ cfO{;f]6f]kåf/f dl:tissf]
jf/kf/ ubf{ / gi6 x'Fbf pT;lh{t x'g] ufdf tŒjsf] ;do / l:ylt
/]s8{ u5{ . kLO{6LnfO{ :yfgLo ;]/]a|n /Qm ;+rf/df x'g] kl/jt{gsf]
gS;f tof/ ug{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . To:tf dfkgn] dfgj
dl:tisdf ;+j]bs, df]6/ / af]wfTds dl:tis sfo{sf] :yfg
lgwf{/0f u/fPsf] 5 . kLO{6Lsf y'k|} a]kmfObfx¿ 5g,\ ;a}eGbf k|d'v
of] xf] ls, o;sf /]l8of] PlS6e 6«];/ l5/fpg' k5{ . o;sf] dtna
y'k|} JolQmn] kLO{6L :Sofg ug{ ;Sb}gg\, h:t} aRrf / aRrf
hGdfpg ;Sg] pd]/sL dlxnf, :Sofgsf] a]nf ckgfpg ;lsg]
ljlwx¿ ;Lldt x'G5g\ .
Ps cnu oGqsnf DofUg]
DofUg]l6s l/hf]g]G; Od]lhª -Pdcf/cfO{_ sf]
ljsf; ul/of] h;df s]xL s'/f l5/fpg'kb}{g / /]l8of]PlS6e tŒjsf]
cfjZostf kb{}g .

O{P{ dcfO{n] ‘lj6N;’sf] /]s8{sf] laqmLaf6 u/]sf] gfkmfn] klxnf] a|]g :Sofg/sf] ljsf;sf nflu vr{ ug{ ;xfotf lbof] . oL /
kl5sf oGqn] :gfo'j}1flgsnfO{ dl:tisleq gofF tl/sfaf6 x]g{ ;Ifd agfof] .
Ps cfw'lgs Pdcf/cfO{ :Sofgu/. o;df /f]uLx?nfO{ Ps 6]andf /flvG5 h'g r'Dassf] j[Q leq :Sofgsf nflu nluG5
h;sf nflu #) ldg]6b]lv Ps 306f ;Dd nfUg ;S5 .

$!

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o;n] ubf{ hlt klg jif{ ePsf JolQmsf] :Sofg ug{ ;lsG5 .
Pdcf/cfO{sf] pkof]u dl:tis ;+/rgfsf] clt ;"Id 5lj k|bfg
ug{sf nflu ug{ ;lsG5 / Ps xfn}sf] ljsf; h;nfO{ l8Ço'hg
hg
6]G;/ Od]lhª -l86LcfO{_ elgG5, o;n] dl:tis If]qnfO{ hf]8g\ ]
kmfOa/sf] x\jfO6 Dof6/ 6«ofssf] k"/f 5lj lbG5 .

dl:tisdf ePsf] /QmgnLsf] lrq . /Qm ;+rf/df x'g] kl/jt{g kQf nufpg
;lsG5 / o;n] Go'/n ultljlwsf] ;+s]tsf] ¿kdf sfd u5{ .

Pdcf/cfO{ 6]Sgf]nf]hLsf] clws pT;fxhgs cg'k|of]udWo] Psn]
dl:tis sfo{sf] 5lj k|bfg u5{, o;nfO{ kmª\
kmª;\ gn DofUg]l6s l/hf]g]G;
Od]lhª -PkmPdcf/cfO{_ elgG5 . of] oGqsnf /utdf /x]sf]
clS;x]df]Unf]lag / l8clS;h]g]6]8 x]df]Unf]lagsf] r'DasLo u'0fsf]
leGgtfdf cfwfl/t x'G5 . -To;}n] PkmPdcf/cfO{ df ;+s]tnfO{
aLcf]Pn8L cyf{t\ An8–
An8– clS;lhg];g– n]en–
n– l8k]G8]G6 l;Ugn
elgG5_ Go'/f]gn ultljlwdf ePsf] j[l4n] cfognfO{ ultzLn u/fpF5,
h;n] zlQm rflxg] cfog kDknfO{ ;lqmo agfpF5, To;}n] ToxfF zlQm
d]6faf]lnhd / clS;hg vktdf j[l4 x'G5 . o;n] l8clS;h]g]6]8
x]df]Unf]lagdf j[l4 / r'DasLo ;+s]tdf sdL u/fpF5 . oBlk,
clS;hgsf] vktdf j[l4 ePsf] s]xL ;]s]G8d} ;]/]a|ddf :yfgLo /Qm
;+rf/df j[l4 x'G5 . ;]/]a|ddf /Qm ;+rf/sf] j[l4, clS;hgsf] vktdf
ePsf] j[l4 eGbf clws x'G5, To;}n] ToxfF clS;x]df]Unf]lag / ;+s]tsf]
cfsf/df ;fk]If j[l4 x'G5 . ;]/]a|ddf /Qm ;+rf/sf] j[l4sf] oyfy{
k|lqmof cem} c:ki6 5, t/ Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ ;DalGwt ;+s]tLs/0fnfO{
clxn] pQ/bfoL dflgPsf] 5 .

o;nfO{ pkof]udf Nofp“bf

sDKo'6/ 6]Sgf]nf]hLsf] ;fy kLO6L / Pdcf/cfO{ :Sofg/åf/f k|fKt ePsf
lrqn] dl:tis leq 7\ofSs} sxfFlg/ /Qm ;+rf/df kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 eGg]
b]vfpF5 .

$@

tkfO{ ;+Vofsf] 36fp ug{df lgs} /fd|f] x'g'x'G5 xf]nf . t/ s] tkfO{n]
slxNo} dl:tissf] 36fp ug{] k|of; ug'{ePsf] 5 < s'g} cfZro{ 5}g
ls s]6f lj/f]wfef;df b]lvG5 -sf6'{g_ dl:tissf] 5ljnfO{ @ of #
cfotgdf 36fpg' 8f6f ljZn]if0fsf nflu sl7g x'g hfG5 . w]/}
h;f] PkmPdcf/cfO{ cWoogdf ha JolQm ;fjwfgLk"j{s lgolGqt
sfo{df sfo{/t x'G5 ta aLcf]Pn8L ;+s]tsf] dfkg ;fd]n x'G5 .
:Sofgsf] a]nf, /f]uL r'Dassf] af]/ -l5b|_ leq /xG5, / pQ]hs
k|ltsf] pgLx¿sf] Jofjxfl/s k|ltlqmof x]l/G5 . w]/} lj:tf/sf]
pQ]hs k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5, hf] b[li6ut x'g ;S5– /f]uLnfO{ x]g{sf
nflu kbf{df k|If]lkt u/]/ jf >JoIf]q;DaGwL x]8kmf]gåf/f k|:t't ug{
;lsG5 . u'Kt ljifo h:t} cg'e"lt, l;Sg', :d/0f ug'{, ;f]Rg' of
of]hgf agfpg' sf] k/LIf0f ug{ ;Dej 5 .

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k|foM b'O{j6f lgs} ;dfg sfo{sf] ¿k/]vf tof/ kfl/G5 h;df
Pp6f nuQ} csf{] ug'{kg{] x'G5 . o;df of] cfzo 5 ls, klxnf]
sfo{df To:tf] dl:tis k|lqmof ;fd]n x'G5 h;df k|of]ustf{sf]
sf}t"xn x'G5 eg] csf{]df x“'b}g . k|fKt ul/Psf] dl:tissf] 5ljsf]
qmd Ps csf{af6 cnu ul/G5 tfls dxŒjk"0f{ dl:tis k|lqmofsf]
kfng;Fu, ultljlwsf] s:tf] kl/jt{g ;lDdlnt x'G5 eGg] af/]sf]
lkS;]n]6]8 28L 5lj pTkGg ug{ ;lsof];\ . oL 5ljx?nfO{
cWofodf -kl5Nnf] k[i7sf] sf6'{g x]g'{xf];\_ 5ljsf] k|efjsf/L
36fp pTkGg ug{sf nflu sDKo'6/n] ;+u[xLt u5{ . xfn}sf
ljsf;n] atfp“5 ls, c;fWo} Ifl0fs ljrf/ jf dl:tissf] 36gf
-Ps jf b'O{ ;]s]G8 cjlw;Ddsf] 5f]6f]_ klg dfkg ug{ ;lsG5 .
o;nfO{ 36gf ;DaGwL PkmPdcf/cfO{ elgG5 . s'g} Ps sfo{
ubf{ ;+s]tdf cfpg] kl/jt{g ;+lVosLo ¿kaf6 ljZj;gLo 5 of
5}g eGg] hf“Rg tYofª\s ljZn]if0fsf] hl6n k|ljlwsf] k|of]u
ul/G5 .
Pp6f w]/} k|of]u x'g] ljZn]if0f Kofs]h, h;n] 5jLs/0f
tYofª\ssf] k|f];]l;ªsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t u/]sf] 5, To;nfO{
:6fl6l:6sn kf/fd]l6«s Doflkª elgG5 .

:Sofg/df ePsf] JolQmnfO{ cg]s k|sf/sf] b[li6ut 5lj
b]vfpg ;lsG5 . oL ;a}n] b[li6ut s6{]S;sf] k|fylds
If]qx¿ eL1 / eL2 nfO{ k|]l/t u5{ . rnfv 36fp 6]lSgssf]
k|of]un] b]vfPsf] 5 ls, /u+ k|f];]l;ª -afofF_ eL4 If]qdf x'G5
eg], ultsf] k|f];]l;ªn] -Ps kbf{df hxL“txL“ 3'ld/x]sf]
yf]Knfx?–bfofF_ eL5 nfO{ ;lqmo agfpF5 .
P;kLPdf DofknfO{ k|foM /+u lbOPsf] x'G5, h;df pu| kx]nf] /+u
ultljlwsf] ;a}eGbf ætftf]Æ If]qsf] nflu k|of]u ul/G5 eg]
æ7G8fÆ If]qsf nflu gLnf] / sfnf] /+usf] k|of]u ul/G5 .
dl:tis 5jLs/0f j}1flgsn] s]lx sfo{ u/]sf] a]nf x'g] If]qsf]
ænfOl6 ckÆ sf af/] af]n]sf 5g\ . olb Ps JolQmn] nuftf/
kl/jt{g eO/x]sf] r]s/af]8{ (checkerboard) x]5{ eg], k|fylds
b[li6ut s6{]S;df dxŒjk"0f{ ;lqmotf b]lvG5 . ultzLn / /+uLg
/+u k]6{g / b[li6ut k|0ffnLsf ljleGg If]qnfO{ ;lqmo ug{sf
nflu lgld{t cGo rnfv pQ]hssf] k|of]un] xfdLnfO{ dfgj
b[li6ut k|0ffnLsf] ;+:yfkgsf] af/]df w]/} gofF ;"rgf lbPsf] 5 .
cGo ;+j]bs k4ltsf nflu o;} ;dfgsf cWoog ul/Psf 5g\ .
;f]rfOsf] of] :yfgLs/0f tl/sfn], k9fOsf] ljlzi6 ;+36sdf
;fd]n dl:tis If]q kQf nufpg ;xof]u u/]sf] 5– ;+36sx¿
h:t}– b[li6ut zAbnfO{ Wjlg lj1fgL sf]8df abNg', :j/x¿nfO{
;Dk"0f{ zAbdf ;d"xa4 ug'{, zAbsf] cy{ lgsfNg] k|lqmof cflb .
sfo{ l;Sg'sf] klg cWoog ul/Psf] 5, h;df kL8fsf] cGbfh /
cg''e"ltdf ;fd]n dl:tis If]qnfO{ ljeflht ug{] sfd klg kb{5 .
oBlk, h;} cg';Gwfg cufl8 al9/x]5, cg]s cfZro{hgs tYo
aflx/ cfPsf 5g\ . Ps k|f/lDes pbfx/0f lyof], bL3f{jlws :d
/0f sfo{df d]l8on 6]Dkf]/n nf]anfO{ lgTo ¿kdf k|Hjlnt ePsf]
(lighting up) b]Vgdf ck|Toflzt c;kmntf x'g' .

eL5 If]qsf] ;lqmotfn] ultsf] af]w b;f{p5 . of] If]qsf] lgj]z
(input) s6{]S;sf] eL2 / dl:tissf] ulx/fOdf /x]sf] k'lNeg/
(pulvinar/pul) af6 cfpF5 . kf]:6]l/o/ k/fO6n s6{]S; kLkL;L_ n] ;"rgfsf] k|jfx lgolGqt u5{ . k|efjsf/L ;+of]hstf
ljZn]if0fn] oL ;a}sf] ;fk]If of]ubfg lgsfNg ;xfotf u5{ .
oBlk, gofF k/LIf0f gd'gf h;dWo] s]xLdf er'{cn l/ofln6L ;fd]n
x'G5– ltgLx¿n] of] If]q ;fy} cGo If]q, h:t} lk|k|mG6n s6]{S; /
lk|s'g; (Precunious) sf] :d/0f k|f];]l;ªdf x'g] ultljlwnfO{
aflx/ NofPsf] 5 . gofF Go'/f];fOsf]nf]lhsn / cGo 5jLs/0f
glthf;Fu ldn]/ ;lDdlnt dl:tis If]qsf] of] ljljwtfn] dl:tissf]
:d/0fk|0ffnL k|ltsf] xfd|f] a'emfOnfO{ k'glj{rf/ u/fPsf] 5 . hl6n
sfo{sf] a]nf ljleGg dl:tis If]qsf] Go'/n ultljlw s;/L
cGt/lqmof u5{ / ;DalGwt x'G5 -h;nfO{ Okm]lS6e sg]lS6le6L
elgG5_ eGg] x]g{sf nflu gofF ul0ftLo 6]lSgssf] klg ljsf;
e}/x]sf] 5 . of] pkfon] xfdLnfO{, dl:tis If]qn] s;/L vfnL Pp6f
5'§} sfo{ut If]qsf] ¿kdf dfq geP/ Pp6f 6Ldsf] ¿kdf sfo{
u5{ eGg] s'/fsf] k|z+;f ug{ cg'dlt lbG5 . cfzf 5 ls, oL gofF
6]lSgsn], cem} ;l6s 5lj k|bfg ug{] pRr lkmN8 Ifdtf ePsf
r'Dassf ;fydf xfdLnfO{ af]w, ljrf/ / sfo{df l;dn];÷
aGwgjLxLg lgoGq0fdf Ps csf{];Fu aftrLt ul//x]sf] Go'/f]gsf]
;~hfnsf] ultzLntfsf] af/]df atfpg] 5 .

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL

lgsf]; nf]u]y]l6; Ps o'jf cg';Gwfgstf{ x'g\ h;n] dl:tisdf
Go'/f]gsf] ultljlw / dl:tis 5jLs/0f k|of]udf b]lvg] ;+s]tsf
aLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ a'em\g 7'nf] of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .
xfn}sf cg';Gwfgx¿ h;df PkmPdcf/cfO{;Fu ljB'tLo /]sl8{u+nfO[
;+o'Qm ul/Psf] lyof], ltgLx¿n] PS;g kf]6]lG;on l8:rfh{;Fu
eGbf ;fOGoflK6s ultljlw / aLcf]Pn8L ;+s]tsf aLrdf clws
glhssf] ;DaGwdf b]vfPsf 5g\ . To;}n] aLcf]Pn8L ;+s]t, Pp6f
dl:tis If]q leqsf] ;fOGoflK6s k|f];]l;ªsf], o;sf] PS;g
kf]6]lG;on k|ltkmneGbf, clws ljZj;gLo ;"rsf+s xf] . sfo{sf]
:yfg lgwf{/0fsf cfwf/df aLcf]Pn8L ;+s]tsf] JofVofsf nflu
o;sf] dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg 5 .

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/bic/
http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/

$#

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Go'/n ;~hfn / s[lqd
dl:tis
jf:tljs dl:tis Ps n]bf]h:tf] j:t' xf] . o;sf Go'/f]
/f]g, /QmgnL
]l6g /
/ t/n kbfy{n] el/Psf] e]lG6«sN;, lnlk8 d]Da|]g, k|fl6g
cTolws
“nfn]
cTolws kfgLn] ag]sf] x'G5 . tkfO{ dl:tisnfO{ tkfO{sf] cf}nfn]
sf]6ofpg
\ofpg ;Sg'x'G5, dfOqmf]6f]d (Microtome) df sf6\
sf6g\
;Sg'x'G5, o;sf Go'/f]
/f]gdf On]S6«f]8 3';fpg ;Sg'x'G5 / o;af6
lgl:sPsf] /Qmrfk x]g{ ;Sg'x'G5 . dl:tissf] cWoog b[9 ¿kdf
¿kdf
hLjlj1fg / cf}iflwsf] cWoogdf s]lGb|t ePsf] b]lvG5 . oBlk,
o;sf] af/]df ;f]Rg] csf{] tl/sf 5 h;n] ul0ft1, ef}ltszf:q
tszf:qL
:qL,
OlGhlgo/
6/ j}1flgssf] Wofgfsif{0f u/]sf] 5, pgLx¿n]
OlGhlgo/ / sDKo'6/
;dLs/0f n]v]/, sDKo'6/
6/ df]8n agfP/ / oxfF;Dd ls xf8{j]o/
pks/0f agfP/ h;n] xfd|f] 6fpsf]leqsf] jf:tljs Go'/f]
/f]gsf]
gSsn u5{, dl:tissf] af/]df ;f]R5g\
5g\ .
jf:tljs dl:tis cToGt} cg's"ngLo x'G5g\ . pgLx¿ ljleGg
s'/f ug{ ;Ifd x'G5g\, k'/} cGhfg JolQmsf] efif0f÷af]nL a'em\g
;S5g\ . / pgLx¿ unt x'b}“ uPsf] s'/fnfO{ ;xg ug{ ;S5g\ .
sf]if db{} hfg] eP tfklg pgLx¿ hLjge/ oyf]lrt ¿kn]
/fd|f];Fu sfo{ ug{ ;S5g\ / j[4fj:yfdf klg dl:tis gofF rfn
l;Sg ;Ifd x'G5 . cfhsf] /f]af]6, tL ;Lldt sfo{ ug{df lgs}
/fd|f x'G5g\, h;sf nflu pgLx¿sf] l8hfOg ul/Psf] x'G5, h:t}
sf/sf] Ps efu agfpg' t/ ha s]xL unt x'G5 pgLx¿ sd
;xgzLn xG5g\ .
;a} jf:tljs dl:tis cToGt} cGt;{DalGwt Go'/f]
/f]gn
g]6js{÷;+hfnn]
fn ag]sf] x'G5 . pgLx¿sf] Go'/f]gnfO{ zlQm /
;+hfnsf] nflu :yfg rflxG5 . xfd|f] dl:tisdf cGbfhL !))
lalnog :gfo' sf]if, #=@ ldlnog ls=ld= ætf/Æ / ldlnog–
lalnog sg]S;g ;a} !=% ld6/sf] kl/df0fdf Kofs ePsf] x'G5
t/ jhg s]jn !=% s]=hL= x'G5 / dfq} !) jf6sf] vkt u5{ .
olb xfdLn] l;lnsg lrK;sf] k|of]u u/]/ To:tf] dl:tis agfpg]
sf]l;; u¥of}“ eg], To;n] nueu !) d]ufjf6 vkt ug{]5, h'g
Ps ;x/nfO{ k'Ug] hlt ljB't\ xf] . o; dfdnfnfO{ cem v/fa
agfpg, To:tf] l;lnsg dl:tisaf6 pTkGg x'g] tfkn] pQm
dl:tisnfO{ kuflnlbG5 . r'gf}tL eg]sf] dl:tisn] o:tf] ;Ifdtf
/ cNkJooL ¿kaf6 s;/L sfo{ u5{ eGg] vf]h ug'{ xf] / ;dfg
l;4fGtnfO{ dl:tis ;dfg d]l;g agfpgdf k|of]u ug'{ xf] .

tkfO{sf] dl:tis !)),))),))),))) sf]ifx¿ /
#,@)),))) ls=dL= sf] tf/ xf] h;df
!,))),))),))),))),))) ;fOGoflK6s sg]S;g
x'G5, ;a} !=% ln leq Kofs ePsf] x'G5 / !=% s]=hL=
tf}n ePsf] x'G5 . t}klg o;n] Ps gfO6 aNa
/fltsf] aQL_ a/fa/sf] dfq ljB't\ vkt u5{ .

$$

l;lnsgdf dl:tis ;ls{6 agfpg'
Pp6f Go'/f]gaf6 csf{]df– ;+s]t lbg'sf] zlQm nfut–
nfut dl:tissf]
ljsf;df ;DejtM Ps d'Vo sf/s /x]sf] 5 . dl:tissf] s'n
zlQm vktsf] nueu %)–*)%; ;fOGoflK6s 6«f+;ld;g / ge{
kmfOa/df x'g] PS;g kf]6]lG;ondf vkt x'G5 . afFsL /x]sf]
lgdf{0f / k|:yfkgf ug{df nfU5 . of] Ps df}/Lsf] dl:tissf] nflu
klg Tolt g} ;fFrf] x'G5 hlt xfd|f] dl:tissf] nflu . oBlk,
l8lh6n sDKo'6/sf] ult;Fu t'ngf ubf{, ge{ ODkN;sf] ult ;fx|}
l9nf] x'G5 / s]jn s]xL ld6/ k|lt;]s]G8 . qmda4 k|f];];/ h:t}
l8lh6n sDKo'6/df, o;n] hLjg c;Dej agfOlbG5 . oBlk,
h}ljs dl:tissf] lgdf{0f cToGt} ;dfgfGt/ ;~hfnsf] ¿kdf x'G5
. clwsf+z Go'/f]g k|ToIf ¿kdf cGo sof}+ xhf/;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5
. o;f] ug{sf nflu dl:tisn] cfÇgf] tLg cfofdL cfotgnfO{ ;a}
s'/f leq c6fpg] u/L k|of]u u5{– sf]ifsf] Rofb/nfO{ txdf df]85
\
/ sg]S;gnfO{ ;Fu} glhs} em'Kkfx¿df a'G5 . o;sf] ljk/Lt, cem
sd ;+Vofsf] l;lnsg Go'/f]gsf aLrdf ;Dks{ agfpg', lrK; /
;ls{6 af]8{sf] b'O{ cfofdL :j¿kn] ;Lldt agfOlbG5 . To;}n],
dl:tiseGbf km/s, l;lnsg Go'/f]gsf aLr k|ToIf ;+rf/ uDeL/
¿kn] k|ltalGwt x'G5 . tyflk, kf/Dkfl/s On]S6«f]lgssf] cToGt}
w]/} ult k|of]u u/]/, y'k|} l;lnsg Go"/f]gsf] ODkN;nfO{
ædlN6Kn]S;Æ -;+lZni6_ ug{ ;lsG5– of] Pp6} tf/af6 cg]s km/s
km/s ;Gb]z k7fpg] k|lqmof xf] . o;/L, l;lnsg OlGhlgo/n]
h}ljs ;+hfnsf] sg]lS6le6L;Fu a/fa/L ug{ ;'? ug{ ;S5g\ .
ljB't\ 36fpg t/ ult a9fpgsf nflu, Go'/n ¿kaf6 k|]l/t
OlGhlgo/x¿n] l8lh6n sf]l8ª
8ªsf] ;f6f] Pgfnu (analogue) sf]
k|of]u ug{] hLjj}1flgs /0fgLlt, ckgfPsf 5g\ . sfj{/ ld8,
Soflnkmf]lg{ofdf l;lnsg EofnLsf] ‘u'?’ dWo] Psn],
Go'/f]jfof]nf]hLsf] 6]Sgf]nf]hLdf kl/jt{gsf] JofVof ug{sf nflu
æGo'/f]dlkm{s OlGhlgol/ªÆsf] j0f{g lbPsf 5g\ . ) / ! df
8Llh6n sf]l8ª ug'{sf] ;f6f], Pgfnu ;ls{6n] ef]N6]hsf] nuftf/
kl/jt{gdf sf]8 u5{, h;/L Go'/f]gn] pgLx¿sf] ;a–y]|;xf]N8
cj:yfdf u5{ -cWofo #_ . Tolta]nf yf]/} r/0fdf g} u0fgf ug{
;lsg]5 lsgeg] l;lnsg pks/0fsf] k|fylds ef}lts lj1fgsf]
zf]if0f ul/Psf] x'G5 . Pgfnf]u u0fgfn] Pp6f lx;fa ug{] ljlwsf]
k|fylds s'/f ;'lhn} k|bfg u5{M hf]8, 36fp, 3ft÷efu /
PsLs/0f oL dWo] ;a} l8lh6n d]l;gsf nflu hl6n sfo{ x'g\ .
ha Go'/f]g– rfx] h}ljs xf];\ of l;lnsg– u0fgf u5{ / lg0f{o
lnG5, ta pgLx¿ nlIft Go'/f]gnfO{ pQ/ lbgsf nflu ODkN;nfO{
PShf]g xF'b} k|]if0f u5{g\ . :kfOs sf]l8+u (spike coding) pmhf{sf]
b[li6af6 dxFuf] x'G5 To;}n] ;Ifd sf]l8ª÷Olkml;oG6 sf]l8+u
(efficient coding) n] l/8g8]G;L (redundancy) gfds tŒj
sd u/]/ :kfOssf] k]6g{df k|:t't x'g] ;"rgfsf] dfqf a9fpF5 .
zlQm Ifdtf– hlt;Sbf] sd ;+Vofdf ;lqmo Go'/f]gsf] k|of]u u/]/
klg a9\5 . o;nfO{ :k];{ sf]l8ª
8ª (sparse coding) elgG5 /
o;n] s[lqd Go'/n ;~hfn agfpg] OlGhlgo/nfO{ csf{] dxŒjk"0f{
l8hfOg l;4fGt k|bfg u5{ .

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l;lnsg /]l6gf

s[lqd Go'/n ;~hfn

Ps hLjlj1fgL ;+hfnsf] ;/n s[lqd ;+:s/0f agfOPsf] 5
h;df l;lnsg /]l6gf x'G5, h;n] k|sfz u|x0f u5{ / ;Dk"0f{
nfOl6ª kl/l:yltdf kl/jt{g;Fu :jtM:km"t{?kdf cfÇgf] k|ltkmn
ldnfpF5 . of] b'O{j6f l;lnsg Go'/f]g;Fu hf]l8G5, h;sf]
b[li6ut s6]{S;df ePsf] jf:tljs Go"/f]g h:t}, wsf{sf] sf]0fsf]
af/] ;"rgf ;+u|x ug{] / /]l6gfsf] 5ljdf ;Ldf k|lts"n÷ljk/Lt
kfg{] sfd x'G5 .
of] k|f]6f]6fOkdf ePsf Go'/f]gnfO{ OlG6u|]6–PG8
PG8––kmfo/ Go'/f]
/f]g
elgG5 / Go'/f]dlkm{s OlGhlgo/n] ltgLx¿sf] w]/} pkof]u u5{g\
. pgLx¿n] of] gfd kfP lsgeg] pgLx¿n] ef/ ePsf Go'/f]gdf
æhf]8g\ ]Æ sfd u5{g\, hf] ef]N6]hsf] ¿kdf sf]8 ePsf] x'G5 /
pgLx¿sf] ;fOGofK;df cfPsf] x'G5 / PS;g kf]6]lG;onnfO{
tadfq ækmfo/Æ u5{, olb ef]N6]h Ps lglZrt y|];xf]N8df k'U5
. l;lnsg Go'/f]g cfkm} g} 6«flG;:6/n] ag]sf] x'G5 t/ kf/Dkl/s
l8lh6n k|0ffnLdf h:t} 6«flG;6/nfO{ l:jrsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug{] /
ef]N6]hnfO{ :ofr'/];gdf nfg] geP/ 6«flG;:6/ pgLx¿sf]
;jy|];xf]N8 /]Ghdf sfo{ u5{ . of] /]Ghdf pgLx¿ jf:tljs
Go'/f]gsf] ;]n d]Da]|g h:t} sfo{ u5{g\ . cltl/Qm 6«flG;:6/n],
ef]N6]h / jf:tljs cfog Rofgnsf] ;dodf cfl>t wf/f
k|jfxsf] a/fa/L ug{sf lglDt ;lqmo ;+rfng k|bfg u5{ . of]
n3' b[li6ut k|0ffnL, ljsf;sf] qmddf /x]sf clws Jofks
s[lqd b[li6ut k|0ffnLsf] k|f]6f]6fOk xf] t/ o;n] klg JofVof u5{
ls, s;/L Ps ;/n lg0f{o;Dd k'Ugsf nflu ;fx|}
xNnfvNnfjfnf jf:tljs b'lgo“fsf] lgj]znfO{ zL3|tfsf ;fy
k|f];]l;ª ug{ ;lsG5 . o;n] Tof] ;a ug{ ;S5 h;nfO{ ug{sf
lglDt of] agfOPsf] xf]– Ps b[Zodf nfOg -wsf{_ sf]
cled'vLs/0f atfpF5– / :gfo'j}1flgsx¿n] of] ;/n l;lnsg
b[li6ut k|0ffnLnfO{ pks/0fsf] k/LIf0f ug{ / ljBfyL{nfO{
k|lzlIft ug{ k|of]u ul/;s]sf 5g\ . s[lqd ;+hfnsf] af/] clt
dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f of] xf] ls, pgLx¿ jf:tljs b'lgo“fdf, jf:tljs
;dodf sfo{ u5{g\ / clt sd ljB't\ pkof]u u5{g\ .

s[lqd Go'/n ;~hfn -PPgPG;_ k|fo l;sfO / :d/0fsf] cWoog
ug{sf nflu k|of]u ul/G5 . ;fwf/0ftM pgLx¿ kf/Dkl/s
l8lh6n sDKo'6/df ;Ç6j]o/sf] ¿kdf x'G5g\, pgLx¿df y'k|}
;/n k|f];]l;ª PsfO x'G5g\ hf] Ps ;+hfndf cfk;df hf]l8Psf]
x'G5 . PPgPgsf] ;/ntd ¿k lkm8km/jf8{ P;f]l;P6/ xf],
h;df Ps cfk;df hf]l8Psf] Ogk'6 / cfp6k'6 OsfOsf] tx
x'G5 . txx¿sf] aLrsf] ;DaGwsf] zlQm x]/km]/ u/]/,
P;f]l;Pl6e :d/0f OGsf]8 ul/G5, h;n] ubf{, ha Ps Ogk'6
k]6g{ k|:t't ul/G5, ta pQm k]6g{;Fu ;DalGwt ;+u[xLt k]6g{sf]
k'gM k|flKt x'G5 -cl3Nnf] k[i7sf] ul0ftLo khn aS; x]g'{xf]nf_.
Pp6f cem hl6n PPgPg Ps l/s/]G6 Go'/n
/n g]6 (recurrent
neural net) xf] . o;df Psn tx x'G5 hxfF x/]s PsfO
Pscsf{]df ;DalGwt x'G5 / ;a} PsfO{ Ogk'6 / cfp6k'6sf]
¿kdf sfo{ u5{g\ . ;'Gbf cln cgf}7f] nfU5 t/ of] l8hfOgn]
g]6nfO{ vfnL s]xL lrhsf] hf]8f dfq geP/ k]6g{nfO{ g} ;+u[xLt
ug{ ;dy{ agfpF5 . o; k|sf/sf] c6f]c;f]l;Pl6e ;+hfnsf]
fn
(auto associative network) l8sf]l8+u, ;+u|lxt k]6g{sf]
vf]håf/f k|fKt x'G5 . o:tf] b]vfOPsf] 5 ls, !))) PsfOsf]
;+hfnsf nflu, k'gM k|flKt k]6g{sf] bf]if clt w]/} x'g'eGbf klxn]
g} nueu !%) k]6g{nfO{ k'gM k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 .

l;lnsg /]l6gfsf] ;fd'Gg] l:yt Ps Sofd/f n]G;

PPgPgsf] dl:tis;Fusf] ;dfgtf, pgLx¿n] ;"rgf ;+u|x ug{] /
k|f];]l;ª ug{] tl/sfdf lglxt 5 . pgLx¿n] k|f];]l;ª ug{] ‘1fg’
;~hfn cfkm};Fu /xG5 . l8lh6n sDKo'6/sf] h:tf], pgLx¿;Fu
cnUu} :d/0f :yfg x'b“ }g, h;sf nflu c+°ul0ftLo k|f];];/ /
:d/0f :yfgx¿ 5'§} x'G5 . abnfdf pgLx¿;Fu sG6]G6 c8«];]an
:6f]/]h (content addressable storage) x'G5 . PPgPgdf,
;+of]hg÷sg]S;gsf] ef/df ;"rgf ;+u[xLt x'G5, pxL ¿kdf h;/L
l;Sg] a]nfdf ;fOGofK;n] Ifdtf kl/jt{g u5{ . PPgPgx¿nfO{
s'g} k|lqmof ug{sf nflu sfo{;"lrt ul/Psf] x'b}g . k|To]s
æGo'/f]gÆ leqaf6 ænf6f]Æ x'G5 / o;sf] ef/;lxtsf] Ogk'6sf]
hf]8 cg';f/ k|ltlqmof lbG5 . t}klg pgLx¿nfO{ rnfv sfo{sf
nflu k|lzlIft ug{ ;lsG5 . l;sfOsf]
l;sfOsf] lgodx¿
lgodx¿ h;n] Go'/f]gsf]
larsf] ;DaGwsf] Ifdtf x]/km]/ u/]/ ;+hfnnfO{ To;f] ug{
k|lzlIft u5{, Ps ;fdfGo s'/f h;n] lgodsf] ¿kdf ;+hfnsf]
cfp6k'6nfO{ lbOPsf] Ogk'6 k]6g{;Dd nU5 / OlR5t k]6g{;Fu
o;sf] t'ngf u5{ . t'ngfdf cfpg] s'g} q'l6sf] pkof]u, To;kl5
OlR5t cfp6k'6;Fu lgs6 cfp6k'6 k|fKt ug{sf nflu,
;+of]hgsf] ef/ ;dfof]lht ug{sf nflu ul/G5 . g]6js{n] uNtL
;+s]t Go"gtddf emf5{ . o;n] sfd u5{– t/ la:tf/} dfq} .
q'l6 dxTjk"0f{ eP/ lgl:sG5– olb ;+hfnn] uNtL ug{ ;Sb}g eg]
s'g} klg l;sfO÷nlg{ª ;Dej x“'b}g . of] nlg{ªsf] Tof] ljz]iftf xf]
hf] gh/cGbfh ul/g ;S5 . clws k|lzlIft ;+hfn h;n] s'g}
q'l6 ub{}g, To;n] s]jn Ps lsl;dsf] Ogk'6nfO{ dfq k|ltlqmof
lbG5 . To:tf ;+hfnnfO{ nfIfl0fs ¿kaf6 æUofG8d
|fG8db8{Æ (grand
fG8
mothered) elgG5, hf] dfgj dl:tissf] kf}/fl0fs æUo|fG8db/
;]nÆ ;Fu ;Gbe{ /fV5, h;n] ta dfq k|ltlqmof lbg] dflgG5 ha
pQm JolQmsf] xh'/cfdf -Uo|fG8db/_ cufl8 b]lvlG5g\ / To;n]
slxn] klg s'g} uNtL ub{}g . of] jf:tljs b'lgof“sf] cg'k|of]udf
;fx|} pkof]uL b]lv“b}g lsgeg] xfdLn] l;Sg'kg{] x/]s s'/fsf nflu
cnUu} ;+hfn rflxG5 . o;sf] ljk/Lt, PPgPg sf af/] ;':ki6
s'/f, pgLx¿sf] Ogk'6 k]6g{nfO{ ;fdfGo agfpg ;Sg] v'aLdf
lglxt 5, h;af/] pgLx¿nfO{ slxNo} k|lzIf0f lbOPsf] x'Gg .
pgLx¿ k]6g{df, ;DaGw b]V5g\, ;Dd]ng lgsfN5g\ / lgoldttfsf]
vf]h u5{g\ / pgLx¿ jf:tljs dl:tis h:t} bf]ifk|lt ;xgzLn
x'G5g\ . pgLx¿n] Ogk'6 k]6g{ Wjlgd'Qm of ck"0f{ eP tfklg,
;+u[xLt k]6g{ k'gM k|fKt ug{ ;S5g\ . oL hLjlj1fgL dl:tissf
nflu clt dxŒjk"0f{ ljz]iftf x'g\ / PPgPgn] klg oL s'/fx¿ ug{
;Sb5g\ .

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cfw'lgs u0fgf 6]Sgf]nf]hLsf] lj/f]wfef;
jt{dfg ;dosf] PPgPD;sf] lj/f]wfef; of] xf] ls pgLx¿sf]
l8lh6n sDKo'6/df ul0ftLo ¿kaf6 gSsn ul/G5 . o;n]
jf:tljs b'lg“ofsf] kl/l:yltdf pgLx¿sf] pkof]u ;Lldt agfOlbG5
lsg eGf] cg's/0fn] ;do lnG5 / To;}n] PPgPG;n] jf:tljs
;dodf sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . PPGfPG;\ c6f]df]afOn rnfpg of
xjfO{hxfh p8fpgsf nflu pko'Qm b]lvg ;S5 lsgeg] pgLx¿
Wjlgsf] aLrdf klg dha't x'G5g\ / g]6js{ ;+hfnsf s]xL PsfO{n]
sfd ug{ aGb u/]sf] cj:yfdf klg rln/xG5g\ . oBlk :jrflnt
kfOn6df k|of]u x'g] ljz]if1 l;:6d l8lh6n sDKo'6/ x'g h;df
kf/Dkl/s lg0f{ofTds ;6j]o/ kf}u|fd ul/Psf] x'G5 / ;'/Iffsf
nflu o;nfO{ ;b}j Jofscksf] cfjZostf k5{ . olb pQm
xjfO{hxfhdf s]xL s'/f g/fd|f];u“ v/fa eof] eg] To:tf ljz]if1
l;:6dn] sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . dfgj kfOn6n] sfd xftdf lng}k5{ .
PPgPgsf nflu jt{dfg ;dosf tflnd PNuf]l/bd (algorithm)
To:tf cfsl:ds kl/l:yltsf nflu cToGt} ;':t 5g\ . olb l;lnsg
Go'/f]gn] l;Sg ;s] hf] pgLx¿ vf;df ;Sb}gg\ o:tf w]/} ;d:of
;dfKt x'g]5g\ . xfdLn] dl:tisn] s;/L sfd u5{ eGg] af/] hlt
w]/} a'em\of“} xfdfL clws hl6n Go'/n g]6js{ agfpg ;Ifd x'g] 5f}“
h;n] jf:tljs dl:tis h:t} sfo{ k|bfg u5{ .

gf]df8 (NOMAD) cfpg]jfnf ;f]Rg] d]l;gsf] r~rn t/
ljrf/zLn lkt[ xf] . of] a]ngfsf/ 6/;f] (Torso) sf] ;fy b'O{
kmL6 cUnf] x'G5, of] ;“u æc“fvfÆ, æsfgÆ, ;dfTg] æxftÆ /
cGo ;]G;/ (sensor) x'G5 h;n] o;nfO{ rNg dbt u5{ .
gf]df8nfO{ clwsf+z /f]6 eGbf km/s s] n] agfpF5 eGg] ,
o;n] sf]8 ul/Psf pkb]z of lgod lagfg} sfo{ u5{ . o;sf]
;f6f] of] ;“u !),))) l;d'n]6]8 dl:tis sf]if ;lxtsf]
sDKo'6/ åf/f l;d'n]6]8 dl:tis x'G5 o;sf ;fy} jl/kl/sf]
aftfj/0fsf] cg'e"lt ug{ / k|ltlqmof lbgsf nflu pQm sf]ifsf
aLrdf Ps ldlnog eGbf a9L sg]S;g x'G5 . o;n] gf}nf]
l:ylt ;DxfNg ;S5 / cfgf] ulNtx?af6 l;Sg ;S5 h;} of]
;fgf /·Lg So'ax¿ 5l/Psf] :yfgdf 6xN5 . s]lx So'a wsf{
ePsf] / ljB'tLo ;+jfxs x'G5g\ h;n] pgLx?nfO{ æ?lrs/Æ
agfpF5 . cGo So'a wAafbf/ x'G5g\ / ljB't\ ;+jfxg ub{}gg\
h;n] pgLx?nfO{ æsd ?lrs/Æ agfpF5 . So'a x]g]{ / ;dfTg]
7fpF -lu|k/_df ePsf] ljB'tLo ;]G;/ åf/f ltgLx¿nfO{ ærfVg]Æ
(tasting) u/]/ gf]df8n] wAafbf/ So'a 5f]8g
\ ] / :jflbi6
wsf{bf/ So'a r'Gg l;S5 .

$^

ul0ftLo khn aS;

ljifoj:t' ;Daf]lwt ljeflht :d/0f
tf/sf] o:tf] ;]6sf] sNkgf ug'{; hf] t];f]{ uO/x]sf] 5 / $
j6f 7f8f] tf/;“u ljrdf sfl6G5 (intersect) / pQm
sfl6Psf] ljGb'df l:jr x'G5 -Kofgn s_ of] Dofl6«S;
:d/0f xf] . o;df ;"rgf afOg/L gDa/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't
x'G5 h:t} ))!! / !)!! / xfdLn] hlxn] Pp6f ! csf]{ !
;uF ldN5 ta l:jr cg x'g] Joj:yf u5f{}{ -vdf lgnf]df
b]vfOPsf] _ . logLx¿n] oL b'O{ gDa/sf] hf]8LnfO{ ;+u|x
u5{ . Dofl6«S;n] k|yd hf]8L dfly cGo ;ª\VofnfO{ klg
;+u|x ug{ ;S5, h:t} !)!) / )!!) . Dofl6«S;sf]
clGtd cj:yfdf u df b]vfPh:t} & j6f l:jr cg x'g'k5{
. olb tkfO{n] ca Dofl6«S;sf] clGtd r/0fdf klxn]s}
;ª\Vof ))!! nfO{ km]l/ k|:t't ug'{eof] / l:jr cg u/]sf]
a]nf 7f8f] tf/df s/]G6 rfn' x'g] Joj:yf ug'{eof] eg] -3_
tkfO{n] cGTodf 7f8f] tf/sf] d'lgaf6 ;ª\Vof @!@) sf]
;dfg'kflts ¿kdf s/]G6 aflx/ cfPsf] kfpg'x'g]5 . of]
))!! ;“u ;'?df hf]8L agfOPsf] ;ª\Vof xf]Og t/ olb
tkfO{n] @!@) nfO{ k'g M :d/0f ;+s]tsf] ¿kdf k|of]u
ePsf] ;ª\Vofdf /x]sf] s'n ! ;ª\Vofn] -)±)±!±! = @_
OlG6u/ efu -h;df xfdL z]ifefunfO{ lal;{lbG5f}“ _ åf/f
efu ug'{eof] eGf] cGTodf tkfO{n] !)!) kfpg'x'g]5 .
To;}n] klxnf]sf] dfly csf]{ ;Gb]z ;+u|lxt ul/Psf] eP
klg pQm Dofl6«S;n] æ;lDemG5Æ ls ))!!, !)!) ;Fu}
hfG5 . tkfO{ hfR“g ;Sg'x'G5 ls o;n] ;ª\Vofsf] låtLo
hf]8L;“u klg sfo{ u5{ .

A

B

C

D

of] Ps To:tf] :d/0f xf] hf] lglZrt :yfgdf x'G5 Hf:t} Ps
kL ;L -PC_ df . ;"rgf g]6js{sf] aLr ljtl/t x'G5,
;fOGoflK6s ef/df x'g] kl/jt{gsf] ¿kdf ;+u[xLt x'G5 /
o;sf] lglxt tTjsf] ;Gbe{df o;nfO{ k'gM k|fKt ug{
;lsG5 . ;d:of of] 5 ls o;k|sf/sf] :d/0f Psbd} l56f]
;Gt[Kt x'G5 ljz]if u/L Toltv]/ ha s]jn rf/j6f tf/
x'G5 . oBlk !))) hf]8L tf/sf] ;fy Dofl6«S; y'k|} Ps
dfly csf]{ ;Gb]zx? w]/} x:tIf]k lagf g} ;+u[xLt ug{
;S5g\ .

;DjlGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: www.artificialbrains.com
http://www.ii.unizh.ch/

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ha s]xL unt x'G5
dl:tis Ps gfh's c+u xf] . b'3{6gfn] ubf{ 6fpsf]df rf]6
nfUg;S5 / dl:tis /f]uL x'g ;S5 / o;n] ;fdfGo 9+uaf6
sfd ug{
ug{ aGb ug{ ;S5 . dl:tissf /f]ux¿n] cfZro{hgs
nIf0fx¿ k}bf ug{ ;S5 / pg
pgLx?nfO{ a'´g\ sl7g x'g ;S5 .
dl:tissf] /f]ux¿sf
/f]nf]lh:6
x¿sf]
sf] d"Nof+sgsf lglDt Go'/f]
h:6 jf
dgf]lrlsT;ssf] lrlsT;f ;DaGw
fzn / kl/is[t h}ljs–
;DaGwL
GwL s}fzn
js–
lrlsT;sLo k/
k/LIf0f Pj+ a|]g Od]lhªsf] h?/t xG5 . dl:tissf]
/f]ux¿ ;DalGw
;DalGw cg';Gwfgsf lgldQ t cem lj:t[t bIftf
rflxG5 . s]xL /f]ux¿ h:t}, 5f/]/f]u / l8k|];g–w]/}df b]lvG5,
ox“
ox“f;Dd ls aRrfx¿ / lszf]/fj:yfdf ;d]t b]lvG5
vG5 . cGo
sd}df dfq} b]lvG5 h:t} ;fOhf]km| ]lgof cyjf j[4fj:yfdf k|foM
oM
b]lvG5, h:t} cNhfOd/ /f]u, t/ log
logLx¿ yf]/} dfq czSQm
u/fpg] vfnsf eg] x“x'b“ }gg\g\ . s]lx /f]udf alnof] h]g]l6s cfwf/
xG5 . h;n] To:tf cÇ7]/f k|Zgx¿ v8f u5{g\ ls, s] xfdLdWo]
xfdLdWo]
k|To]sn] of] hfGg rfxfG5f}+“ ls xfdLdf o:tf k|f;+lus pTkl/jtg{
( mutation) ePsf] 5 h;n] xfdLnfO{ o:tf] /f]usf] l;sf/
l;sf/
agfpg ;S5 .

:gfo'lj1fg cg';Gwfgn] 5f/]/f]u ePsf dflg;x¿sf] hLjg
;'wfg{sf] nflu b'Oj{ 6f d'Vo of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . klxnf] pQ]hs
6«fG;ld;gaf/] xfd|f] ljsl;t a'emfOaf6 xfdL ca To:tf] cf}ifwL
agfpg ;S5f}“ h;n] ;fdfGo dl:tis ultljlwnfO{ sd gu/Lsg}
c;fdfGo l;h/ ultljlwnfO{ sd ug{ ;S5 . k'/fgf
cf}iflwx¿n] lj:t[t lgb|fsf/L -;]8]l6e_ sf] ¿kdf sfd uYof]{
eg] cfw'lgs cf}iflwx¿ clws lglZrt vfnsf x'G5g\ . bf];|f]
a|]g Od]lhªsf] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ x'g'sf] cy{ of] xf] ls, cTolws
si6bfos l;h/af6 u|:t s]xL JolQm?nfO{ ca pgLx¿sf]
l;h/sf] ;|f]tnfO{ ;xL ¿kdf kQf nufpg ;Dej ePsf] 5 .
To;sf/0f slxn]sfxL“ Go'/f];h{gnfO{ /f]uu|:t lbdfuL tGt' sf6\g
;Dej ePsf] 5 . h;n] ubf{ l;h/sf] k'g/fj[lt sd x'G5 /
ck|efljt lbdfuL tGt'df of] km}ng ;Sg] hf]lvd klg 36\5 .
5f/]/f]usf] zNo – lrlsT;fåf/f pkrf/ slxn]sfxL clns k|an
dflgG5 t/ o;n] hltrf]l6 sfd u5{ o;sf] c;/ cb\e't
dflgG5 .

u8a8 l;Uglnª – 5f/]/f]u

6fpsf] b'vfO / dfOu|]g

l;h/ (seizure – an epileptic fit) cfPsf] a]nf pQm JolQm
a]xf]; x'G5 / hldgdf n8\g ;S5, p;sf] z/L/ s8f x'g ;S5
/ pm s“fKg ;S5 . ha pgLx¿nfO{ xf]; cfp“5 ta pgLx¿
cfk"mnfO{ lha|f] 6f]lsPsf], leh]sf] cj:yfdf kfpg ;S5g\ . kl5
pgLx¿ ljIf'Aw jf lgb|f nfu]sf] h:tf] x'g ;S5g\ . y'k|}
aRrfx¿nfO{ of] /f]u nfUg ;S5 t/ pgLx¿sf] hLjgdf kl5
uP/ o:tf cfqmd0f lgs} sd cfpg ;S5 . b'ef{Uojz s]xLdf
eg] o:tf] cfqmd0f x/]s xKtf jf cem} x/]s lbg klg cfpg
;S5 .
To;f]eP s] s'/f u8a8 e}/x]sf] 5 t < l;h/sf] a]nf,
Go"/f]gåf/f PS;g kf]6]lG;onsf] kmfol/ªdf j[l4 x'G5 /
To;nuQ} s]xL ;do pQ]hgfdf x|f; cfpF5 . of] rqmnfO{
lgif]ws -ufaf_ / pQ]hs -Un'6fd]6_ Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/n] ldnfpg]
sfd u5{g\ . ha pQ]hgfdf sdL ck"0f{ /xG5 , ta cf;kf;sf
Go'/f]gsf] clgolGqt etL{sf sf/0f l:fh/ ;'? x'g ;S5 . of]
etL{ s'g} Ps :yfgdf x'g ;S5 -h;n] cf+lzs l;h/ x'g ;S5_
cyjf ;Dk"0f{ s6]{S;df km}lng ;S5 -Jofks l;h/_ . Jofks
l;h/sf]
l;h/ a]nf, On]S6«f]OG;;]km]nf]u|fd -O{O{hL ‚ sf] ;fdfGo cNkmf
l/bdsf] :yfg, b'a} x]ld:km]o/df ljB'tLo ;lqmotfsf] 7"nf], ;':t,
;dsflns t/+un] lnG5 . -Aofs8«k x]g'{xf];_
slxn]sfxL“ cfpg] l;h/ cln a9L x'G5 t/ af/Daf/ cfpg]
l;h/ – 5f/]/f]u – sd} kfOG5 / clws si6bfos klg x'G5 .
o;sf] tfTsfnLg sf/0f cem} c:ki6 5 . 5f/]/f]u ePsf]
JolQmdf, o:tf] cfqmd0f ysfg vfgf gvfg' /utdf lrgLsf]
sdL, /S;L jf 6]lnlehgsf] l6dl6dfPsf] l:qmgn] ubf{ cfpg
;S5 . kLl8t JolQmx¿ ;fjwfg /xg'k5{ .
Jofs8«kn] 5f/]/f]udf cfpg] cfqmd0fsf] qmdsf] O{O{hL b]vfPSf] 5 .

W]/}h;f] JolQmnfO{ s'g} g s'g} a]nf 6fpsf] b'V5 . k|foM of]
df+;k]zLsf] tgfjn] ubf{ x'G5 / of] lrGtf ug'{kg]{ ljifo xf]O{g .
slxn]sfxL“ vf;u/L olb 6fpsf] l56f]–l56f] b'V5 jf 5fnfdf
kmf]sf÷bfu cfpg] jf jfGtf x'g] klg ;“u;“u} x'G5 eg] o;sf] uDeL/
cGt{lg{lxt sf/0f x'g;S5 . oL cj:yfx¿df b'vfO{ dl:tisaf6
cfp“b}g t/ dl:tisnfO{ 3]/]sf] d]lgGh]hsf] lr8lr8fx6 of tGsfO{sf]
sf/0faf6 cfp““5 .
6fpsf] b'vfOsf] Ps clws cfd sf/0f dfOu|]g xf] . 6fpsf]df
eofgs kL8f -k|foM Psfkl§_ sf] ;fy;fy} dflg;n] la/fdL
dx;'; u5{ . rdsbf/ k|sfz of rsf]{ cfjfhn] c;'ljwf
lbPsf] kfpF5 / p;n] ædfOu|]g; cf}/fÆ sf] dx;"; u5{ h;df
rdsbf/ k|sfz jf 6]9fd]9f w;f{ b]V5 .
æcf}/fÆ k|foM 6fpsf] b'Vg'eGbf
cufl8 cfpF5 . clxn] o:tf]
b]lvG5 ls dfOu|]g dl:tissf] pQm
efuaf6 ;'? x'G5 h;n] ;]/]a|n
/QmgnLaf6 cfpg] kL8fsf]
;+j]bgfnfO{ k|lqmoflGjt u5{ . a|]g
Od]lhªn], dfOu|]gsf] ;'?jftdf oL
efux¿df ultljlw j[l4 ePsf]
b]vfpF5 . o;sf] k|ltlqmof :j?k
Tox“f :yfgLo /Qm ;+rf/df s]xL
a]/sf nflu j[l4 x'G5 -h;n]
rlDsnf] k|sfz h:tf] nIf0f k}bf
u5{_ h;sf] t'?Gt} kl5 /Qm
k|jfxdf sdL cfpF5 -hf] c:yfO{
sdhf]/Lsf] ¿kdf k|s6 x'G5 _
;]/f]6f]lgg -% Pr6L_ l/;]K6/sf] af/]df xfd|f] hfgsf/Ldf ePsf]
k|ultsf] sf/0f klxNnf] bzsdf dfOu|]gsf] cfqmd0fsf] pkrf/df
j|mflGtsf/L abnfj ePsf] 5 .

$&

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cf}iflwsf] Ps gofF ju{sf] cljisf/ eof] h;n] ;/]6f]lgg
l/;]K6/sf] Ps lsl;dsf] pk–;d"xnfO{ ;lqmo agfp“Yof] .
l6«K6\6ofG;\
\ofG;\ (triptans) gfds oL cf}iflw dfOu|]g b'vfOnfO{
ofG;
;'?jftd} /f]lslbg cToGt} k|efjsf/L x'G5 . of] tL y'k|}
tl/sfx¿dWo] Ps xf] h;df :gfo'lj1fgsf] cg';Gwfgn]
ljZjel/sf nfvf“}+ dflg;sf] hLjg ;'wfg{df of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 .

kof{Kt pmhf{sf] cefj– kIff3ft

(Stroke)

ha dflg;df crfgs z/L/sf] Ps efukl§ sdhf]/L k}bf x'G5,
of] k|foM ljk/Lt efusf] dl:tisdf k|efljt u/]sf] kIff3ftsf]
sf/0f x'G5 . ;Gt'ng, ;+j]bgf jf efiff / af]nL;d]t k|efljt x'g
;S5 . slxn]sfxL“ oL c;fdfGo s'/fx¿ ;do;Fu} ;'w|b“ } hfG5,
;fdfGo nfUg] l:ylt;Dd klg k'U5, t/ kIff3ft cem} klg d[To' /
czSttfsf] k|rlnt sf/0f xf] . kIff3ft ljleGg cfsf/df k|s6
x'G5 / o;sf] kl/0ffd dl:tissf] s'g efu k|efljt 5 To;df
w]/} lge{/ x'G5 .
h] u8a8L k}bf ePsf] 5 To;sf] ;DaGw dl:tisnfO{ sfd
ug{sf nflu rflxg] zlQmsf] cfk"lt{tdf cj/f]w cfpg';Fu 5 .
Go¬/f]g / lUnof (glia) nfO{ sfd ug{ / af“Rgsf nflu pmhf{sf]
cfjZostf k5{ . pQm pmhf{ k'¥ofpg] sfd dl:tisdf cfk"lt{
ug{] rf/ k|d'v /QmgnLn] u5{ . ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ pmhf{
clS;hg / Un¬sf]hsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] sfaf{]xfO8«]6 xf], logLx? b'a}
ldn]/ P6LkL (ATP)– hf] sf]ifsf] pmhf{ xf]– agfpgsf nflu
sRrf kbfy{ k|bfg u5{g\ . of] pmhf{ -cWofo @ / # x]g'{xf];\_
rfh{ ePsf cfogsf] k|jfx xf“Sgsf nflu h?/L x'G5 – h;
cGtu{t Go¬/f]gsf] ljB'tLo ultljlw lglxt x'G5 . Go¬/f]gsf]
pmhf{sf] b'O{ ltxfO lx:;f, ;f]l8od÷kf]6fl;od P6LkL Ph
(ATPase) gfds OGhfOdnfO{ rnfpgsf nflu k|of]u x'G5,
h;n] PS;g kf]6]lG;on e};s]kl5 ;f]l8od / kf]6fl;odsf]
cfolgs u|]l8oG6nfO{ k'gM rfh{ u5{ .

dl:tissf]
bfo“f
x]ld:km]o/

afo“f x]ld:km]o/sf]
sfl6Psf] ;tx
kIff3ft :yn

6«flGhPG6 O:
\ofs -6LcfOP_ gfds k|lqmofdf,
O:s]lds c6\
c6ofs
dl:tissf] Ps lx:;fdf /Qm ;+rf/ aGb x'G5 / P6LkLsf]
cfk"lt{df cj/f]w cfpF5 . Go'/f]gn] pgLx¿sf] cfolgs u|]l8oG6
k'gM rfh{ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ h;sf/0f To;kl5 PS;g kf]6]lG;on
;+rf/ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . pbfx/0fsf nflu, olb afofF x]ld:km]o/sf]
df]6/ s6{]S;sf] /Qm cfk"lt{ aGb eof] eg], bfofF xft / v'§f
Kof/fnfOh x'G5 . olb cj/f]w l5§} uof] eg] Go'/f]gn] k'gM P6LkL
agfpg ;S5, cfÇgf] d]Da|]gnfO{ k'gM rfh{ ug{ ;S5 / ;fdfGo
k|lqmof÷sfo{ ;'rf? x'G5 . ;f}efUojz 6LcfO{Pdf s'g} :yfoL Iflt
x'Fb}g .
kIfff3ft a9L uDeL/ x'G5 . olb /Qm cfk"lt{ nfdf] ;do;Dd
kIf
aGb eof] eg], ckl/jt{gLo Iflt x'g;S5 . P6LkLsf]
cg'kl:yltdf sf]ifn] xf]ldof]:6]l;; (homeostasis) agfO/fVg
;Sb}g / ltgLx¿ ;'lGgg / km'6g\ ;Sb5g\ . Go'/f]g klg
To;sf/0f l8kf]n/fOh x'g;S5 h;af6 ljiffn' x'g;Sg]
Go'/f]6«f]G;ld6/ h:t} Un'6fd]6, lgd'{St x'g ;S5 / lUnon sf]if,
h;n] P6LkLdf cfl>t kKkåf/f clws Un'6fd]6nfO{ x6fOlbG5,
To;n] klg sfd ug{ 5f]85
\ . phf{sf] cefjdf dl:tissf]
sf]ifsf] hLjg cToGt clglZrt x'G5 .
kIff3ftsf] a]nf x'g] k|ltlqmofsf] ;fjwfgLk"j{s cWoog u/]/
:gfo'j}1flgs gofF pkrf/ ljsf; ug{ ;Ifd ePsf 5g\ . w]/}h;f]
kIff3ft /QmgnLdf cj/f]w ug{] /Stlk08 (Blood clot)_ sf
sf/0f x'G5 / æl6:o' Knfhldgf]lhg PlS6e]6/Æ -6LkLP_ gfds
lk08nfO{ tf]8g\ ] cf}iflwn] lk08 km'6fpg ;S5 / /Qm ;+rf/ ;'rf?
x'g;S5 . l56f] lbOPsf] v08df 6LkLPn] kl/0ffddf gf6sLo
k|efj kfg{ ;S5 . b'ef{Uojz, kIf3ftsf] /f]uLnfO{ To:tf] cf}iflw
lbg' ;lhnf] 5}g lsgeg] /f]uLsf] kl/jf/nfO{ s] eO/x]sf] 5 eGg]
7\ofSs} yfxf gx'g ;S5 .
csf{] gofF pkrf/, cf}iflwsf] Tof] >]0fL xf] h;n] Un'6fd]6
nufotsf Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/nfO{ Ans÷cj?4 ul/lbG5 hf] kIff3ft
x'Fbf ljiffn' x'g] :t/;Dd hDdf x'G5 . oL cf}iflwn] of t cfkm“}n]
Un'6fd]6 l/;]K6/nfO{ Ans ul/lbG5 of Un'6fd]6åf/f ;+rfng x'g]
cGtsf{]ifLo ;+s]t dfu{ cj?4 u5{ . y'k|} To:tf cf}iflw ljsf;sf
qmddf 5g\ . b'Mvsf s'/f, s'g}n] klg kIff3ftnfO{ s]xL c;/
kf/]sf] 5}g .

h]g]l6s /f]u

kIff3ft :ynsf]
jl/kl/ Ifltu|:t
sf]ifsf]] k]gDa|f
bfo“f ;]/]a]nd
;'if'Dgf

dl:tisdf cfk"lt{
ug{] wdgL

kIff3ftdf dl:tissf] Iflt / To;sf] cf;kf;sf] Ifltu|:t
x'g;Sg] vt/f ePsf] k]gDa|n :yfg b]vfOPsf] lrq .

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nfdf] ;dob]lv lrlsT;sn] k|efljt :yfgsf cfwf/df dl:tis
/f]usf] klxrfg / pkrf/ ul//x]sf 5g\ . y'k|} /f]usf nflu
pgLx¿sf] gfd– s] unt ePsf] b]lvG5 / dl:tissf] s'g efu
;fd]n ePsf] 5– To;sf] ljj/0f xf] hf] k|foM Nofl6g jf u|Lsdf
;lhPsf] x'G5, h:t} æk/fO6n Pk|oflS;ofÆ (parietal apraxia)
. kl5Nnf] bz jif{df lhg ;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] lj:kmf]6n] ;a}s'/f
k"0f{tof kl/jt{g ul/lbPsf] 5 . y'k|} Ogx]l/6]8 k}t[s /f]udf
;d:of cGoq} x'G5 .
s]xL dflg;n] xnrn ubf{ /fd|f];Fu lgoGq0f ug{df ;d:of k}t[s
¿kdf k|fKt ub{5g\ h;n] pgLx?nfO{ ;do laTb} hfFbf cfÇgf]
v'§fdf a9\bf] ¿kdf cl:y/ agfpF5 . :kfOgf];]/]a]n/ P6
P6]lS;of
gfds of] /f]u h;sf] of] gfdn] /f]usf] gfds/0fsf] k|frLg
Oltxf;nfO{ k|ltlalDat u5{– clxn] xfdLn] of] /f]u u/fpg] oyfy{
lhg–bf]if yfxf kfPsf 5f}+“ . y'k|} cGo cj:yfx¿ ca pgLx¿sf]
sf/s cg';f/ juL{s[t ug{ ;lsG5 / :kfOgf];]/]a]n/ P6]lS;of jf
cGo h]g]l6s cj:yf z+sf nfu]sf] /f]uLdf 8foUgf]l:6s h]g]l6s
6]l:6ª lgTo ¿kdf ul/G5 . /f]usf] klxrfg klxn]eGbf w]/} l56f]
/ clws ;'lglZrttfsf ;fy ug{ ;lsG5.

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l;Sgdf b'a{ntf
;fOhf]k|]mlgof

OGÇnfd];g– dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;;
dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;; o'jf aflnux¿df x'g] /f]u xf] . o;df af/Daf/
sdhf]/L eO/xg', emgemgfpg' –nf6f] x'g', bf]xf]/f] b]Vg' jf v/fa
;Gt'ng x'g' h:tf nIf0fx¿ b]lvG5g\, hf] 7Ls eP/ nueu klxn]s}
cj:yfdf cfpg'eGbf cufl8 s]xL xKtf;Dd /xG5 . la/fdL x''g' /
7Ls x'g] cjlwsf] aLrsf] rqm /f]us} Ps ljz]iftf xf] .

l;Sgdf b'a{ntf / ;fOhf]k|]mlgof x'g ;Sg] kl/jf/sf] lk9Lx¿
b;f{Psf] j+zj[If . Wofg lbg'xf];\ s;/L oL /f]un], slxn]sfxL
s'g} lk9LnfO{ gf3]/÷5f8]/ hfG5 .
xlG6ª
xlG6ª6g
G6ª6g /f]u Ps Go'/f]l8h]g]/]l6e -:gfo'x|f;L_ /f]u xf], hf]
z/L/sf] c;fdfGo cg}lR5s ultljlw;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5– of]
dfdnfdf pQm 8fS6/sf] gfddf of] /f]u hflgG5 h;n]
klxnf]k6s o; cj:yfsf] j0f{g u/]sf lyP . of] dfgj h]gf]ddf
;a}eGbf 7"nf] lhg dWo]sf] Ps –xxlG6ªl6g
lG6ªl6g gfds lhgdf
af/Daf/sf] pTkl/jt{g (mutation) sf] sf/0fn] x'G5 . kfls{G;g
/f]u -;':tkgf, s8fkg, sDkg / cl:y/tf k}bf ug{] /f]u_ sf]
cf/lDes ¿k, kfls{g ;DaGwL lhg sf]l8ªdf ;d:ofsf] sf/0fn]
ubf{ x'G5 . klxrfgsf] nflu d2t ug'{sf] ;fy;fy} h]g]l6s
6]l:6ª÷k/LIf0fsf] pkof]u kl/jf/sf] cGo ;b:onfO{ pgLx¿df
pQm /f]u k}bf x'g ;Sg] jf pgLx¿sf] aRrfdf ;fg{÷k7fpg ;Sg]
;Defjgfsf af/] ;Nnfx lbgsf nflu klg ul/G5 .
h]g]l6s qmflGtn], :gfo' k|0ffnLsf /f]ux¿;Fu h'Wg] 8fS6/x?sf]
tl/sf ablnlbPsf] 5, oBlk, of] vf]hsf] nfdf] ofqfsf] ;'?jft
dfq xf] . Pp6} k|sf/sf] lhg bf]ifn] klg cnu–cnu dflg;df
cnu /f]u k}bf ug{ ;S5 / cnu–cnu lhg bf]ifn] klg p:t}
k|sf/sf] /f]u k}bf ug{ ;S5 . of] cGt/ u/fpg] sf/0f s] xf] /
xfd|f] h]g]l6s ;+/rgfn] xfdL afFlr/x]sf] / xfdLn] xfd|f] jl/kl/
v8f u/]sf] b'lgo“f;Fu s;/L cGtlq{mof u5{, eGg] af/] a'emg',
clxn]sf] h]gf]lds o'usf] csf{] 7"nf] r'gf}tL xf] .
ax;sf] d'2f
olb tkfO{n] kQf nufpg' eof] ls, tkfO{nfO{ h]g]l6s /f]u k}bf
x'g] vt/f 5, s] tkfO{ ;fRr} lglZrt¿kdf of] yfxf kfpg
rfxg'x'G5 < s] hGdeGbf cl3 g} lhgsf] klxrfg ug'{ /
h;df /f]u x'g;S5 To;sf] ue{ktg ug'{ 7Ls x'g]5 < kLl8t
JolQmn] /f]u b]lvg'eGbf cl3 lhpg] tL pkof]uL / nfebfos
jif{x¿sf af/] s] eGg'x'G5 <

dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;;, dl:tis k|0ffnLdf x'g] OGÇnfd];gsf] sf/0fn]
x'G5, hf] klxn] a9\5 / kl5 sd x'G5 . xfd|f] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL
AofS6]l/of jf efO/;n] ug{] ;+qmd0f;Fu n8\gsf nflu ag]sf] x'G5 .
slxn]sflx“ of] e'mlSsG5 / abnfdf xfd|} c+unfO{ k|xf/ ug{ yfN5 .
xfdL o:tf] l:yltnfO{ c6f]ODo'g /f]u eG5f“} / o;n] h'g;'s} tGt'nfO{
klg k|efljt ug{ ;S5 . olb k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] Go'/f]gsf] jl/kl/
nk]l6Psf] dfOlng dfly cfqmd0f u¥of] eg], ToxfF :yfgLo If]qdf
OGÇnfd];g x'g]5 h;n] l8dfOlng]
8dfOlng];g k}bf u/fpF5 . ;do;Fu},
OGÇnfd];g k|foM sd x'G5, dfOlngdf ;'wf/ x'G5 / ;a} s'/f
;fdfGo cj:yfdf cfpF5 . OGÇnfd];gnfO{ ;j{k|yd s]n] ;'¿jft
u5{ eGg] :ki6 5}g, / l8dfOn];g ePsf y'k|} JolQmdf s]jn Ps
;+lIfKt k6s dfq b]lvg ;S5 . oBlk, s]xL JolQmdf dl:tissf]
ljleGg efu k|efljt x'g] u/L k6s–k6s b]lvg] k|j[lQ x'G5 .
lsgls xfdLnfO{ clxn];Dd dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;;df OGÇnfd];g s] n]
;'? u5{ eGg] yfxf 5}g, xfdL o;nfO{ k"0f{tof /f]Sg ;Sb}gf}“ . oBlk,
xfdLnfO{ clxn] yfxf 5 ls xfdL :6]/f]O8 h:tf k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{
sdhf]/ agfpg] cf}iflwsf] k|of]u u/]/ cfqmd0fnfO{ 5f]6f] agfpg
;S5f“}+ . s]xL 8fS6/sf] dfGg' 5 ls, uDeL/ dlN6kn :Sn]/f]l;; PdP;_ ePsf] la/fdLdf k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLsf] s]xL efunfO{,
Phflycf]
Phflycf]lk|g (azathioprine) jf aL–
aL–OG6/km]/f]g (B-interferon)
h:tf cf}iflwåf/f :yfoL ¿kdf sdhf]/ kfg'{ nfebfos x'g;S5 .
cem} klg ltgLx¿sf] k|of]uaf/] w]/} xb;Dd clglZrttf /x]sf] 5 .
k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] :gfo'– df+;k]zL;Fu hf]l8g] 7fpFdf klg k|xf/ ug{
;S5 –h;n] ubf{ dfo:y]lgof u}|lj; (myasthenia gravis) gfds
/f]u nfUg ;S5, jf o;n] ;'if'Dgfaf6 lg:sg] :gfo'df k|xf/ ug{
;S5 h;sf] kl/0ffd :j¿k ulnog
'lnog af/] l;G8«f]d (Guillain Barre
syndrome) gfds l:ylt pTkGg x'g;S5 .

h}slng 8' lk|– Ps ljVoft
;+uLtsdL{ hf] dlN6kn
:Sn]/f]l;;af6 kLl8t lyOg\ .

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Go'/f]l8h]g/];g
cNhfOd/ /f]u
xfdL sf] xf“}≤ ljleGg kl/l:yltdf xfdLn] s;/L k|ltlqmof lbG5f“},
sf];Fu xfdL dfof uf“:5f}, xfdL s];“u 8/fpF5f“}, xfdL s] ;DemG5f}“,
oL ;a} xfd|f] dl:tisn] lgwf{/0f u5{ . dfgj :jefjsf] of] k|d'v
¿k Toltv]/ a]sf/ x'G5 ha dl:tis la:tf/}–la:tf/} sdhf]/
eP/ sfd ug{ aGb u5{ cyf{t\ ha cNhfOd/ /f]u nfU5 .
cNhfOd/ /f]u l8d]lG;of
G;of ( Dementia) sf] Ps ¿k xf] .
l8d]lG;of h;df dfgl;s zlQm nueu gfz x'G5, h;n] ^%
jif{sf nueu %∞ JolQmnfO{ / *% jf ;f] eGbf a9L pd]/sf
@%∞ JolQmnfO{ k|efljt u/]sf] 5 . cNhfOd/ /f]u Ps cToGt
b'vb /f]u xf]M o;df ;'?jftdf :d/0fzlQm IfL0f x“'b} hfG5
To;kl5 lj:tf/} ;fDffGo JolQmut sfdx¿ x/fpb} hfG5 /
cGttM d'To' x'G5 . cfÇgf lk|ohgnfO{ o:tf] cj:yfdf b]Vg'
gft]bf/x¿sf nflu cToGt} ufx|f] cg'ej x'g hfG5 . nuQ}
kLl8tx¿ cfÇgf glhssf JolQmx?nfO{ lrGg klg c;dy{ x'g
;S5g\ / b}lgs lqmofsnfk h:t} sk8f nufpg', vfg', g'xfpg',
lbzflk;fa ug'{ cflbsf nflu klg pgLx¿nfO{ ;xfotf rflxg
;S5 . kmn:j¿k pgLx¿sf] x]/rfx ug]{ JolQmsf] lhGbuL klg
gf6sLo 9·n] ablnG5 .
“cfhsn a'jfn] d sf] x'F eGg] yfxf kfpg'x'Gg . ca pxfFn]
dnfO{ lrGg'x'G5
G5 h:tf] nfUb}g . pxfF ;fgf;fgf s'/fb]lv
l/;fpg'x'G5 / 8/fpg'x'G5 . dnfO{ nfUb}g ls pxfFnfO{ cfÇgf]
jl/kl/ s] e}/x]5 eGg] yfxf 5 . ;'?df pxfF la;{g] dfq}
x'g'ePsf] lyof], ;w} s]xL s'/fx¿ e'Ng'x'GYof] . To;kl5 l:ylt
g/fd|f] x'“b} uof] . pxf“ cf]5ofgdf
\ofgdf hfg'
hfg'x'GgYof], s'g ;do xf]
eGg] pxf“ yfxf kfpg'x'GgYof], oxfF;Dd ls pxfF sxfF x'g'x'G5
eGg] klg yfxf kfpg'x'GgYof] . clxn] pxfFn] cfÇgf] lbzfsf]
lgoGq0f u'dfpg'ePsf] 5 / pxf“nfO{ vfg tyf sk8f km]g{
klg ;xof]u rflxG5 . dnfO{ of] ;a} ug{ ufx|f] eO/x]5.
s] unt eO/x]5 < h;} cNhfOd/ /f]u ;'? x'G5 dl:tissf
sf]ifx¿ dg{ yfN5gM s6]{S; kftnf] x'G5 / e]lG6«snx¿ dl:tisdf t/n kbfy{n] el/Psf] :yfg_ a9\g yfN5g\ . /f]usf]
lgwf{/0f ;fdfGotof /f]usf] ljz]if nIf0fsf cfwf/df ul/G5 t/
o;sf] lglZrt k'li6 eg] /f]uLsf] d[To' kZrft\ p;sf] kf]i6
df6{daf6 dfq} x'g ;S5 ha dl:tissf] ;"IdbzL{ k/LIf0faf6
kQf nfU5 ls sf]if gi6 ePsf] 5 / 5l/Psf] ;fgf ;fgf ljs[t
PdfOnf]O8 Kn]s (Amyloid plaques ) sf] ¿kdf y'k|} PdfOnf]O8
k|f]l6g c;fdfGo ¿kdf hDdf ePSf] 5 / ;u;u} /8 h:t} k|f]l6g
klg 5 –lkmla|
lkmla|n/L 6ofª\
\ofªun
\un (Fibrillary tangles) hf] dl:tis
ofª
sf]ifsf] ;fdfGo ;+36s xf] . jt{dfg cg';Gwfg kl/of]hgfx?n]
gofF :gfo' dgf]j}1flgs k/LIf0f ljlwx¿4f/f lhp“bf] /x]s} a]nf o;
/f]usf] lgwf{/0f j[l4 ug{ k|of;/t 5g\ h'g ljlwx¿ cNhfOd/
/f]usf] k|f/lDes r/0fdf b]lvg] dfgl;s kl/jt{gx¿nfO{ cGo
/f]u h:t} l8k|];g af6 cnUofpg'df s]lGb|t /x]sf] x'G5 .

t/ h]g]l6s sf/0fx¿ v'a} dxŒjk"0f{ 5g\ lsgls k|of]uzfnfdf
h]g]l6s ¿kdf ¿kfGtl/t kz'x¿ hGdfOPSf] 5 h;n] /f]usf]
nIf0f b]vfPsf 5g\ . oL s'/fx¿df ul/Psf] cg';Gwfg
xf]l;of/Lk"j{s JofVof ug'{k5{, a9fO{– r9fO{ JofVof ug'{ x“'b]g . t/
ltgLx¿n] xfdLnfO{ /f]usf] k|lqmofsf] hLjlj1fgsf af/] a'emg dbt
ug{ ;S5g\ . cNhfOd/ /f]usf] ljsf;nfO{ /f]Sg] pkrf/
clxn];Dd 5}g, oBlk ltgLx¿sf] tTk/tfsf ;fy vf]hL eO/x]sf]
5 / oxfFlg/ g} kz'x¿dflysf] cg';Gwfg ljz]if d"Nojfg\ 5 .
yfxf 5 ls of] l:yltdf /f;folgs 6«fG;ld6/ Pl;6fOnsf]
Pl;6fOnsf]lngsf]
ng
k|of]u ug]{ :gfo' sf]ifx¿ ljz]if u/L cfqmd0fsf] l;sf/ x'g ;S5g\
. cf}ifwLx¿ h;n] of] Go'/f]6«fG;dL6/ nfO{ gi6 ug]{ OGhfOdsf]
k|efjnfO{ /f]s]/ z]if Pl;6fOnsf]lngsf] sfo{nfO{ a9fpF5≤ kz'x¿
/ s]xL /f]lusf] dfdnfdf yf]/} ¿kdf c;/bf/ x'G5 . oBlk oL
cf}iflwx?n] of] /f]usf] ljsf; sd ug{ s]xL klg ub}{g . h]g]l6s
;s]t a'Efm\g' dl:tissf] /;foglj1fg / dgf]j}1flgs sfo{k|0ffnL
aLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ a'em\g' / sf]ifx¿ gi6 x'g] k|lqmofsf af/] yk
hfGg' g} of] /f]unfO{ sfa'df /fVgsf nflu ca ug'{kg]{ dfu{x¿sf
¿kdf b]lvG5g\ .

l8k|]l;e ljsf/ -l8;c8{/_
of] hfGg' xfd|f] nflu cfZro{hgs x'Gf;S5 ls l8k|];g /
Go'/f]l8h]g]/];gdf ulx/f] ;DaGw x'g;S5 t/ clxn] xfdLnfO{ yfxf
5 ls l8k|];gaf6 uDeL/ ¿kdf kLl8t /f]uLsf] dl:tis sf]if gi6
x'g;S5 .
l8k|];gsf] ladf/L xfdLn] ;do
;dodf cg'ej ug]{ sdhf]/
dgf]efjeGbf cnu 5 . xfdL
Ps jf:tjd} uDeL/ cj:yfsf]
af/] s'/f ub{}5f}“ ha dflg;df
xKtf}“ / dlxgf};“ Dd v/fa d'8
/lx/xG5 . o;n] lj:tf/} ;j}
?lrnfO{ ;dfKt kfl/lbG5 Tof]
l:ylt;Dd ls kLl8t /f]uL dg{
rfxG5 / cfkm"nfO{ dfg]{ sf]l;;
ug{ ;S5 . kLl8tn] cGo
ljz]if nIf0fx¿ b]vfpF5 M lgb|f
layf]lng', ef]s sd nfUg,' Wofg s]lGb|t ug{ g;Sg', :d/0fdf x|f;
cfpg' / hLjgk|lt nufj gx'g' . ;f}efUojz of] /f]usf] w]/}
xb;Dd pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . PG6Ll8k|
PG6Ll8k|];]G6 cf}ifwL h;n]
Go'/f]df]8'n]6/L 6«fG;dL6/ h:t} ;]/f]6f]lgg / g/Pl8«gflngsf]
flng
k|efjnfO{ a9fpF5≤ of] /f]usf] pkrf/ b'|t¿kdf -s]xL xKtfleq}_
ug{;S5 .

dl:tissf] :6]lgu+n] PdfOnf]O8 Kn]s h:t} ls cfotsf/ leq_ / c“Wof/f
wJafjfn 6]u+ n -lt/_ b;f{p5 .

k'gM h]g]l6S;n] xfdLnfO{ of] /f]usf] af/]df hfGg] df}sf lbPsf] 5
h;n] lhgdf x'g] kl/jt{g k|lt nlIft u5{ h;n] PdfOnf]O8
lk|s;{/ k|f]l6g
l6g -h;af6 PdfOnf]O8 aG5_ / lk|;]lglnG; -h;n]
l6
lk|s;{/ k|f]l6gnfO{ 6'qmf kfg]{ OGhfOdnfO{ sf]8 u5{ _ nfO{ sf]8
u5{ . Pkf]]lnkf]k|fl6G
]l6Gf O{ -PkLcf]
l6
PkLcf] O{ _ lhgsf] ljz]if ¿kfGt/n]
ag]sf] PkLcf]O{ –$ k}t[s ¿kaf6 z/L/df /xg' klg of] /f]usf]
nflu k|d'v vt/f xf] . oBlk h]g]l6s s'/fx¿ g} o;sf nflu k"/}
lhDd]jf/ 5}gg\ . kof{j/0fLo s'/fx¿ h:t} ljif / cGo cf3ft
h:tf] ls b'3{6gfn] dl:tisdf rf]6 nfUg' cflbn] klg dxŒjk"0f{
e"ldsf v]Ng :fS5g\ .

%)

leG;]G6 Eofg uf]xf– uDeL/
l8k|];gaf6 kLl8t ODk|];lg:6

ljz]if vfnsf]
af]nLrfnLaf6 ul/g]
pkrf/ klg k|efjsf/L
x'G5g\ / /f;folgs tyf
dgf]j}1flgs pkrf/sf]
;+of]hg klg ljz]if
;xof]uL x'g;S5 . of]
cj:yf cfZro{hgs ¿kdf
y'k|}df b]lvPsf] kfOG5– %
dWo] ! hgf hLjgsf] s'g}
;dodf s]xL xb;Ddsf]
l8k|];gsf] l;sf/ ePsf]
kfOG5 . uDeL/ / nfdf]
;dob]lv l8k|];gsf] l;sf/
ePsf JolQmdf tgfjsf]
lgoGq0fdf c;Gt'lnt k|efj
x'G5 .

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oBlk nfdf] ;do;Dd ;lqmo eO/x]df, tgfj ;DaGwL xfdf]{gn],
ljz]if u/L dl:tissf] k|mG6n / 6]Dkf]/n nf]adf /x]sf,] dl:tis
sf]ifnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg ;S5 . xfn}df kQf nfu]sf] 5 ls
PlG6l8k|];]G6 cf}ifwLn] dl:tis sf]ifsf] l:ylt /fd|f] agfpF5 /
lxKk]SofDk;df gofF Go'/f]g pTkGGf ug]{ b/ j[l4 u5{ . o;k|sf/
oL cf}iflwn] dl:tisdf tgfjn] kfg]{ g/fd|f] 6lS;s k|efjaf6
arfpg] / pQm k|efjnfO{ pN6fpg] klg ub{5 .

;fOhf]k|m]lgof
csf]{ dgf]lrlsT;Lo u8a8L, h;df dl:tissf] s]d]:6«L /
dl:tissf] ;+/rgfsf] c;fdfGo ¿k÷v/faL ;dfj]z x'G5,
To;nfO{ ;fOhf]k|]mlgof elgG5 . of] Ps a9\b} hfg] vfnsf] /
;DejtM Psbd} czQm kfg]{ l:ylt xf] h;n] !)) df ! nfO{
k|efljt u5{ . pQm l:ylt k|foM ;'?jtL jo:s pd]/df ;'? x'G5
/ elgG5 ls o;n] SofG;/n] eGbf a9L hLjgdf clgi6 kf/]sf]
5.
;fOhf]k|m]lgofsf k|d'v e|d (delusion) -c;fdfGo ljZjf;– cg]s
lsl;dsf ;f]rfO cfpg' hf] k|foM q"m/ vfnsf x'G5g\ _/ dlte|d
(hallucination) -1fgaf]wdf ;d:of h;df pQm ;d:of ePsf]
JolQmnfO{ c;fdfGo ;+j]bgfTds cg'e"lt x'G5 h:t} cfjfh ;'lgg'
hals ToxfF sf]xL klg x“'b}g . of] cj:yfdf ;f]rljrf/ ug]{
Ifdtf, ;fdflhs cGtlq{mof / sfd ug]{ Ifdtfdf lj:tf/} sdL
cfpF5 .
of] cj:yfsf] k|foM unt JofVof ul/G5M o;nfO{ æljvl08t
JolQmTjÆ ;Fu hf]l8G5 h;;“u o;sf] s'g} ;DaGw x“'b}g g of]
l:yltdf o:tf] lgod 5 ls, o;sf /f]uL lx+;|s x'G5g\ .
jf:tjdf, xfOhf]k|m]lgof ePsf JolQmx¿ vt/gfs xf]Og ls
8/fPsf x'G5g\ . of] /f]usf] ljsf;sf k5fl8 lhg;DaGwL
sf/sx¿ x'G5g\ t/ jftfj/0f / tgfjn] klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf
v]N5g\ . ;fy} hlt klg b]lvg] dgf]j}1flgs kl/jt{gn] ubf{ of]
cj:yf d'Vo ¿kaf6 Ps dl:tis /f]u xf] . w]/} klxn] b]lv yfxf
ePsf] 5 ls of] cj:yfdf d'Vo ?kaf6 Ps dl:tis /f]u xf] .
w]/} klxn]b]lv yfxf ePsf] 5f ls of] cj:yfdf dl:tissf]
e]lG6«sn a9\5g\ / k|mG6n nf]asf] ultljlwdf klg xflg k'U5 .
æ;'?df t xfdLn] yfxf kfPgf}“ ls xfd|L 5f]/L ;' nfO{ s] e}O/x]sf]
lyof] . p;n] ljZjljBfnodf /fd|f] ;'?jft u/]sL lyO{ / klxnf]
jif{sf] k/LIffdf klg /fd|f] u/]sL lyO{ . To;kl5 p;df kl/jt{g
cfpg YffNof] . pgL 3/df /x“bf r'krfk / cfkm“}df x/fpg
yflng hals pm klxnf aflx/ hfg ?rfp“lyg . pgn] ;fyLx¿
e]6g\ 5fl8lbOg\ / kl5 xfdLn] yfxf kfof}“ ls pm sIffdf klg
hf“b}glyg\ / lbge/ vf6df al;/xlGyg\ . To;kl5 Pslbg p;n]
xfdLnfO{ egL ls– p;n] 6]lnlehgaf6 Ps ljz]if ;Gb]z kfO{
h;df elgPsf] lyof] ls p;df ljz]if zlQm 5 / ;]6]nfO6 pku|x_ n] 6]nLKofyLåf/f p;sf] ljrf/ lgolGqt ul//x]sf 5g\ .
pm ljgfsf/0f xf“:g yfNyL / km]l/ ¿g ;'? uyL{ . kSs} klg s]xL
s'/f unt eO/x]sf] lyof] .pm eGyL ls p;n] cfUgf] jl/kl/
cfjfhx¿ ;'Gg ;SyL h;n] p;n] s] s] u/L ;a} elglbGYof] .
kl5 yfxf eof] ls p;nfO{ ;fOhf]k|m]lgof ePsf] lyof] .
pm klxnf]k6s b'O{ dlxgff;DDf xl:k6ndf /xL . pm clxn]
lgoldt cf}iflw vfG5] . pm xfn lgs} 7Ls ePsL 5– p;df
pku|xsf] ljlrq k|sf/sf] ljrf/ cfp“b}g t}klg pm clxn] klg
cGo s'/fx¿df vf;} ?lr /flVbg . p;n] ljZjljBfnosf] k9fO{
/f]Sg'k¥of] . p;n] Ps :yfgLo k;ndf s]xL ;dosf nflu sfd
u/] tfklg s]xL xKtfsf nflu p;nfO{ c:ktfn hfg k¥of]
h;sf/0f p;n] sfd 5f]8g\ kKof] . pm cj klxn]sf] h:t} /lxg

8f]kfldg l/;]K6/nfO{
6/ Ans ug]{ -/f]Sg]_ cf}iflw nIf0fsf] k|efj /
af/Daf/tf sd ug{ ;xof]uL x'G5 t/ ltgLx¿n] of] cj:yfsf]
pkrf/ ub}g{ g\ . xfn}sf] cg';Gwfgn] atfpF5 ls PDkm]6fdfOg
h:tf cf}iflwsf] k|of]u u/L k/LIf0fsf nflu ;lqmo ubf{
;fOhf]k|m]lgof ePsf] JolQmdf 8f]kfldgsf] lgd'{lQmdf c;fdfGotf
kQf nufpg ;Dej x'G5 . o; /f]usf af/] y'k}| s'/f kQf nufpg
afFsL 5M kf]i6 df6{d cWoogn] atfpF5 ls, ljsf;sf] qmddf
Go'/f]gx¿ h;/L hf]l8Psf] x'G5– Tof] c;fdfGo x'g;S5 / cGo
Go'/f]6«fG;ld6/ k|0ffnL h:t} Un'6fd]6n] /fd|f];uF sfd gu/]sf] x'g
;S5 .
dfgl;s /f]usf] k|s[lt a'‰g] xfd|f] k|of;n] d]l8sn Go'/f];fOG;sf
nflu æclGtd dxŒjk"0f{ cu|0fL
0fLÆ bzf{p5 . lrlsT;f cg';Gwfg
0f
kl/ifb\ / j]nsd 6«:6 h:tf ;+:yfn] casf] bzsel/ ul/g]
cg';Gwfgsf nflu cfÇgf Ph]G8fdf dfgl;s :jf:YonfO{
zLif{:yfgdf /fv]sf 5g\ . jt{dfgsf] Ps dxŒjk"0f{ kl/of]hgf xf],
/f]u nfUg ;Sg] hf]lvd ePsf] kl/jf/df /f]usf af/] cg';Gwfg ub}{
hfgsf nflu h]g]l6s 1fg / a|]g :Soflgª ;fdu|L b'j}df Wofg lbg'
-aS; x]g'{xf;\_ . c0f' -dlNSo"n_ af6 z}ofut -a]8;fO8_ ;Ddsf]
cGt/nfO{ eg'{ g} ;a}eGbf r'gf}tLk"0f{ cg';Gwfg k|of; xf] .

cg';Gwfg cu|0fL
kl/0ffd

hfrstf{

dgf]lrlsT;s
hLkL
ljifo

/f]uaf6 kLl8t x'g;Sg]
;+efljt kl/jf/

;fOhf]k|m]lgofsf] efjL lbzfsf] cWoog
Go'/f]g;DaGwL / dgf]lrlsT;sLo /f]usf] w]/}h;f] cWoog
To:tf JolQmdf ul/G5 h;df klxNo} pQm /f]usf] l:ylt
x'G5 . :s6NofG8sf cg';Gwfgstf{, pQm /f]usf] ljsf;
x'g;Sg] vt/f ePsf kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] cWoog ug{sf
nflu lhg;DaGwL ;"rgf k|of]u ul//x]sf 5g\ . /f]usf]
k|f/lDes ljsf;sf] ;"rs kQf nufpg ;lsG5 ls eg]/
a|]g :Soflgª / dfgl;s sfo{ / zf/Ll/s nIf0fsf]
Woffgk"j{s hf“r lgoldt ¿kdf ul/Psf] 5 . gofF
pkrf/sf] ljsf;sf nflu of] ;"rgf lgs} pkof]uL ;flat
x'g;S5 .

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: Brain and spine foundation: http://www.bbsf.org.uk
la|l6z Olkn]lK; P;f]l;o;g: http://www.epilepsy.org.uk Stroke: http://www.strokecenter.org
g];gn OlG:6Ro'6 ckm Go'/f]nf]lhsn l8:c8{/ PG8 :6«f]s: http://www.ninds.nih.gov

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:gfo' gLltzf:q

w]/} klxn]sf] s'/f xf], s'g} ;dodf -h;/L kl/syf k|foM
oM ;'
;'?
x'G5_ lj1fg / 6]Sgf]nf]hLsf
Lsf aLrdf Ps :ki6 leGgtf lyof] .
j}1flgsx¿n]
flgsx¿n] ækQf nufpg'sf] cfgGbÆ afx]s cGo s'g} k'/:sf/
lagf g} , ;Tosf] cGj]if0fsf] af6f]df nfu] rfx] Tof] dfu{ htf;'s}
hfcf];\ . OlGhlgo/ tyf 6]Sgf]nf]lh:6n] klg xfdL a:g] ;+
;+;f/nfO{
f/nfO{
kl/jt{g ug{sf nflu j}1flgs k|of;sf kl/0ffdnfO{ nfu' u/] .
rfx] of] tLI0f leGgtf hlt g} e|fds lsg gb]lvof];\ of] Ps
kl/syf /lxcfPsf]
/lxcfPsf] 5 / xf] . cfhsn j}1flgs pgLx¿n]
pgLx¿n] sfd
ug]{ ;fdflhs ;Gbe{
sf af/] / pQm ;Gbe{n] pgLx¿n]
;Gbe{sf
pgLx¿n] ug]{
cWoognfO{ s;/L k|efj kf5{ eGg] af/] cem a9L hfu?s ePsf
5g\
5g\ .
;dfhdf :gfo'lj1fgn] kfg]{ k|efj;“u ;DalGwt k|Zgx¿nfO{ :gfo'
gLltzf:q gfds zLif{scGtu{t Pslqt ul/Psf] 5 hf]
:gfo'lj1fg,
j1fg bz{gzf:q tyf gLltzf:qsf]
gLltzf:q ;+ud xf] . o;df
dl:tis ;DaGwL vf]hn] s;/L dfgjhfltsf] ¿kdf xfd|f]
cl:tTjnfO{ k|efljt u5{ eGg] s'/f ;fd]n x'G5 -h:t} g}ltstfsf]
:gfo' cfwf/_ of] ;fdflhs gLltsf nflu sfof{Gjog -h:t} Ps
afnssf] z}lIfs ;DefJotf_ / cg';Gwfg s;/L ul/G5 eGg] af/]
xf] -h:t} kz'df ul/g] k|of]usf] g}ltstf jf dflg;df wf]sfsf]
k|of]u_ / of] s;/L :gfoja}1flgsx? pgLx¿n] s] u5{g\ eGg]af/]
cfd dflg;nfO{ ;';"lrt ug]{tkm{ nfUg'k5{ / pgLx¿n] s] ug'{kg]{
xf] eGg]af/] ljrf/sf] ;fem]bf/L ug'{k5{ eGg];“u ;DalGwt xf] .

ædl:tissf] af/]df ;f]Rg] sfo{n] xfdL ;j}nfO{ x'G5, of] zflAbs
cy{df lbdfuL sfo{ xf] . Æ
h]s xn, Soflnkmf]lg{of ljZjljBfno

%@

;fdflhs ;Gbe{
s]xL :gfo'j}1flgs sf] ljZjf; 5 ls pgLx¿sf] wf/0ff
;fdflhs jf:tljstfaf6 leGg 5 t/ of] lj/n} x'G5 . ;qf}“
ztfAbLdf, 8]:sf6]{;n] s;/L dl:tissf] ædgf]j[lŒfÆ n]
df+;k]zLnfO{ ;+rfng u5{ eGg]af/] j0f{g ug{ xfO8«f]lns
cnª\sf/sf] k|of]u u/]sf lyP– Ps cnª\sf/ hf] pgn] k|mfG;]nL
3/sf] au}r
“ fdf b]v]sf hn OlGhlgol/ªaf6 lnPsf x'g . @)cf}“
ztfAbL h;n] cf}Bf]lus o'u k|ltljlDat u5{,
Go'/f]lkmlhof]nf]lh:6n] dl:tissf] hl6n jfol/ªnfO{ ædfofjL
n'dÆ (an enchanted loom) / kl5 Ps ljzfn æb"/efif s]Gb|Æ
(Telephone exchange) sf] ¿kdf j0f{g u/] . clxn] @! cf}“
ztfAbLsf] cf/De;“u}, u0fgfTds cNfª\sf/x¿ k|r'/ 5g\ h:t}
sfNklgs cg'dfg ls æ;]/]a|n s6]{S;n] lghL ljZjJofkL
j]aeGbf km/s ¿kn] sfo{ ub}{gÆ . oL hl6n ljrf/sf] ;+rf/
;xof]ufy{ c+ztM 5f]6s/Llnlk x'g;S5 t/ oL To:tf wf/0ff klg
x'g\ hf] oyfy{df kl/is[t dl:tis l;4fGtsf ¿kdf aG5 .
:gfo'j}1flgsx¿ lbgx'Fsf] ljZjaf6 cnlUuP/ j}1flgs ;d:ofsf]
af/]df ;f]Rg ;S5g\ / ;f]Rb5g\ . k|foM of] 5'6sf/f Ps
kl/is[t cgfk;gfko'Qm ljZjsf nflu x'G5 h;df :fTosf] nflu
Ps tkf]do vf]hLsf] h:t} s]xl s'/f jf:tjd} rln/x]sf] x'G5 .
rfx] of] tL cfolgs wf/fsf af/] sfd ug'{ xf;\– hf] PS;g
kf]6+lG;onsf] k|;f/df c+t{lg{lxt 5, s;/L /f;folgs
;"rgfk|jfxs lgd'{St x'G5 / sfd u5{ eGg] ;DaGwdf xf];\ of
s;/L b'li6ut s6]{S;df x'g] ;]n kmfol/ªn] b[li6ut ljZjsf]
kIfx¿sf] k|ltlglwTj u5{ eGg] af/] xf];\– :gfo'lj1fgdf ljleGg
;d:ofnfO{ k[ys\ t/ ;/n ¿kdf 9fNg ;lsG5 .
t/ jf:tljs ljZj slxNo} klg 6f9f x'“b}g . ha xfdL Psk6s
/f;folgs 6«fG;ld6/n] s;/L sfd u5{ eGg] yfxf kfp“5f}, ta
To:tf :df6{ cf}iflwsf
flw af/]df ;f]Rg' :jfefljs xf] h;n] xfdLnfO{
/fd|f];“u :d/0f ug{ ;xfotf ug{;S5 . s]xL JolQmn]
Go'/f]
/f]6lS;G;\
lS;G;\ -:gfo' Ph]G6_ agfpg] af/] ;f]Rg ;S5g\ h;n] of]
sl7g k|lqmofnfO{ l5Gg–leGg kfg{ ;S5 h:t} OGhfOd cj/f]ws
hf] t/ h}ljs ;ª\3if{sf Ph]G6x¿af6 clns k/ x'G5g\ .

olb o:tf] cf}iflw pknAw x'GYof] eg] h;n] tkfO{nfO{ k/LIff kf;
ug{df ;xfotf ug{ ;sf];\ s] tkfO{ o;nfO{ lng'x'GYof] < s]
o;df / Ps wfjsn] cfÇgf] v]nsf}zn /fd|f] agfpg :6]/f]O8sf]
k|of]u ug'{ jf Ps JolQmn] l8k|];g lj?4sf] cf}iflw lng'df s]xL
km/s 5 <
sd sfNklgs g}lts b'ljwfn] a|]g Od]lhªsf]
hªsf] eljionfO{
eljio jl/kl/
af“w]sf] 5, pbfx/0sf] nflu a|]g Od]lhª 6]lSgsn] pko'Qm
k/LIf0f k|0ffnLaf6 rf“8} g}, JolQmsf] jf:tljs ofbnfO{ ldYof
ofbaf6 cnu b]vfpg ;Dej agfpg ;S5 .

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k|ltlqmofdf leGgtf clxn] Hofb} w]/} 5 t/ Ps lbg Gofofnodf
a|]g :Soflgª 6]Sgf]nf]hL pknAw x'g;S5 hf] Psk|sf/sf] æ;]/a|n
lkmª\Gu/lk|lG6ªÆ xf] h;n] ;fIfLsf] ;TotfnfO{ :yflkt ug{ ;xof]u
ug{;S5 . o;n] af]wfTds uf]kgLotfsf
otf af/] ?lrs/ d'2f pTkGg
ug{ ;S5 .
dl:tissf af/] gofF lgisif{n] ;b}j xfdL :jo+sf af/] xfd|f]
efjgfnfO{
efjgf ;+zf]wg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . dl:tissf] ljsf;sf af/]df
k|efjk"0f{ ljrf/df ;fdflhs af]w;“u ;DalGwt cg]s ljrf/ ;fd]n
5g\ . Pp6f pbfodfg hfu?stf 5 ls, g}ltstf / ;r]tgf
efjgfTds dl:tis;“u glhs} ;+of]lht 5g\ h;n] Ogfd / b08sf]
;+s]tnfO{ k|lqmoflGjt u5–{ Pp6f o:tf] :fDefjgf h;af/] s]lxn]
ljsf;fTds g}ltstfsf]
tstf zLif{scGtu{t ts{ lbPsf 5g\ .
logLx¿sfaf/] cem} hfGg' /fd|f]sf] nflu k|efjzfnL an x'g;S5,
h;n] xfdLnfO{ Pscsf{sf] efjgfk|lt ‘cjut’ x'g dbt u5{ .
Go'/f]gn Knfl:6l;6Lsf] xfd|f] jt{dfg k|fylds ;+sNkgfdf oL
ljrf/x¿sf] lgdf{0f ugf{n] tTsfnLg z}lIfs nIo hf] k|foM ax;sf]
Psdfq s]Gb| x'G5 Tof]eGbf w]/} cufl8sf] lzIff k|efljt x'g;S5 .
of] dfGg' klg dxŒjk"0f{ 5 ls :gfo'j}1flgs cfÇgf] ljifosf] efjL
lbzfsf] af/]df ;xdt 5}gg\ . s]xL cf0fljs :gfo' hLjj}1flgssf
nflu cGttM :fTo :gfo'k|0ffnLsf] cf0fljs ;+36sdf lglxt x'G5–
h;df gofF 8LPgP tyf k|f]l6of]lds 6]Sgf]nf]hLn] dl:tissf] k"0f{
JofVofnfO{ ;Dej agfpF5 h;af6 cGo :gfo'j}1flgsn] ef]u]sf
;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug]{5 . of] l/8S;lg:6
l/8S;lg:6 -n3's/0fst{f ‚ Ph]G8f
xf] h;sf] k"0f{ bz{gzf:qLo Pj+ 6]Sgf]nf]hL ;DaGwL ljsf;sf] k|foM
ldl8ofdf u'0fufg ul/G5 . s] To:tf] n3's/0fstf{ ljZjf; plrt
x'G5 < cyjf dl:tissf] Pj+ ljefusf] pRr :t/Lo :ki6Ls/0f 5
hf] o;k|sf/ n3's/0f ug{ ;lsb}g < s] dl:tissf] ;+u7gaf6
pbodfg nIf0f pTkGGf eO/x]sf] 5 < cGtlqmofTds
:gfo'j}1flgsx¿
flgs Ps km/s sfo{;"rLdf b[9 ljZjf; u5{g\ .
pgLx¿ cfw'lgs :gfo'lj1fgsf] cl3s pbf/ b[li6sf]0fsf nflu ts{
lbG5g\ hf] Ps o:tf] b[li6sf]0f xf] h;n] ;fdflhs lj1fgsf] ;fy
o;sf] cGt{lq{mofsf] cGj]if0f klg u5{ . oL To:tf d'2f xf]Ogg\
h;sf] ;fj{hlgs d~rdf ;xh rrf{ x'g] u5{ t/ s:tf vfnsf
c';Gwfg ug'{k5{ eGg] k|Zgx¿ To:tf s'/f x'g h;af/] ;dfh;uF
k/fdz{ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . lsg ls oL ug{sf nflu dflg;x¿n] lt/]sf]
s/ g} pkof]u x'G5 .
:gfo' gLltzf:q– s]xL 7f]; pbfx/0f
:gfo' gLltzf:qdf s]xL d'2fn] ;fdf
;fdfGo
1fgeGbf s]xL a9L of]ubfg
Go 1fg
lbG5 . dfgf“} s'g} cg';Gwfgdf ;fd]n :jod\;]jLsf] dl:tis
:Sofgaf6 ck|Toflzt ¿kaf6 s'g} ;]/]a|n c;fdfGotf pb\3fl6t
eof] h:t} a|]g 6\o'd/ . cyjf sNkgf ug'{xf];\ ls dfgj :gfo'
h]g]l6s l:qmgdf s'g] JolQmdf pTkl/jt{g (Mutation) ePsf]
kfOof] h;n] p;nfO{ s'g} :gfo' x|f;L /f]uk|lt ;+j]bgzLn agfpg
;S5 . of] dWo] x/]s dfdnfdf s] pQm JolQmnfO{ o;jf/] atfpg'
k5{ < ;fdfGo 1fg n] of] ;'emfpF5 ls of] lhDd]jf/L :jod;]jLnfO{
g} lbg' k5{ h;nfO{ :Sofgsf] ;dodf kQf nfu]sf] s'g} ;DalGwt
lrlsT;f ;"rgf atfOg] 5 eGGf] af/] klxn] g} cfÇgf] ;xdlt of
c;xdlt lbgsf] nflu elgG5 .
oBlk ;"lrt ;xdlt Ps ljlrq sfo{ xf] . dfgf“} ls Ps dl:tis
cg';Gwfgstf{ kIff3ftsf nflu gofF pkrf/sf] k/LIf0f ub}{5g\
h;df cf}iflw of Kn]l;af] (Placebo) nfO{ kf/Dkl/s ¿kaf6
kIff3ft ePsf] s]xL 306fleq lbg'kg]{ 5 . o:tf /fG8f]dfOH8
k|f]6f]sn ( randomised protocol ) sf] 7f]; j}1flgs sf/0fx¿
5g\ . t/ xfdL of] cGbfh ug{ ;Sb}gf}“ ls s;nfO{ kIff3ft
x'g;S5 / k|efljt JolQmnfO{ klg ;"lrt ;xdlt lbg c;Dej x'g
;S5 . olb o;n] la/fdLnfO{ pQm k|sf/sf] cg';Gwfg kl/of]hgfdf
efu lngaf6 /f]S5 eg] of] pgLx¿ tyf kl5sf /f]uLsf nflu

bL3f{jlws xflg x'g]5 . cGo ;DaGwL klg To:tf] dgMcj:yfdf
x'“b}gg\ hxfF pgLx¿sf] nflu pknAw ;dodf ;xdltsf] lg0f{o ug{
;xh xf];\ . s] xfdL a[xQ/ enf]sf nflu ;"lrt ;xdltnfO{ TofUg
/ j]e/ -waiver ‚ sf] ;'?jft ug{ ;S5f}“ < of s] of] Ps lrKnf]
le/h:t} xf] <
:gfo' gLltzf:qsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kf6f] kz' k|of]ux¿;“u ;DalGwt
5 . kz' cfÇgf] dl:tisdf ;+rflnt ul/g] cfqmfds k|of]usf nflu
;xdlt k|bfg ug]{ l:yltdf x“'b}gg\ . s]xL JolQmsf nflu To:tf]
sfo{sf] b[li6sf]0f Jojwfgsf/L nfUg ;S5 . cGosf nflu :jf:Yo
/ /f]udf dl:tis k|0ffnLsf] xfd|f] a'emfO a9fpgsf nflu o;n]
k|bfg ug]{ cj;/ To:tf] 5 ls o;nfO{ cg';/0f gug'{ ctfls{s
x'G5 . lgikIf ¿kdf jfbljjfb ug{sf nflu oL ;lhnf d'2f xf]Ogg\
t/ of] dxŒjk"0f{ 5 ls xfdL To;f] u/f}“ / xfdL To;f] ;Ddfgk"j{s
u/f} .
clwsf+z o'/f]lkog b]zx¿df kz' k|of]ux¿ cToGt s8f ¿kdf
lgoldt ul/Psf] x'G5 . cg';Gwfgstf{n] kf7\oqmddf efu lng' /
k/LIffx¿ kf; ug}{kg]{ x'G5 h;n] pgLx¿df sfg'gsf] 1fg /
pgLx¿sf] ;Ifdtfsf] hf“r ul/G5 tfls of] ;'lglZrt ug{ ;lsof];\
ls kz'x¿nfO{ cgfjZos kL8f kg{]5}g . of] Jofks ¿kdf :jLsf/
ul/Psf] 5 ls tLg cf/ n3's/0f -l/8Szg_ kl/is/0f
kl/is/0f l/kmfOgd]G6_ / k|lt:yfkg -l/Kn];d]G6_ h}ljs lrlsT;f
cg';Gwfgstf{åf/f cg'df]bg ug{sf nflu /fd|f l;4fGt x'g\ .
pgLx¿n] o:tf] sfg'gsf] 9f“rfleq :j]R5f;“u u5{g\ tyf o;sf/0f
logLx¿ ;j{;Ddt geP tfklg Jofks ¿kn] nf]s :jLs[t 5g\ .
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lj1fgsf] k|efj dGbdGb xfdL ;a}df k5{ .

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/may22/neuroethics.html
http://www.dana.org/books/press/neuroethics/

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.

;DalGwt OG6/g]6 ;fO6: http://www.abpi-careers.org.uk/
www.gsk.com www.sciart.org

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cGt{/fli6«o cg'jfb ;dGjostf{ 8f. 8Gsg Aofª\S; (d.banks@open.ac.uk) b cf]kg o'lgel;{l6, o' s]
-la Pg P j]a;fO6 Dofg]h/ ‚

yk k9fO{
lj1fg / :gfo'lj1fgsf af/] yk k9\gsf nflu y'k|} cfsif{s k':tsx¿ pknJw 5g\ . tL dWo] s]xLsf] ;"rL oxf“ 5M

V.S. Ramachandran, (Sandra Blakeslee) Phantoms in the Brain: Human Nature and the Architecture of the Mind
Fourth Dimension Publications
(Paperback - 6 May, 1999) ISBN: 1857028953
A fascinating account of phantom-limb pain and related disorders of the nervous system.

Oliver Sacks, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (Picador)
Picador
(Paperback - 7 November, 1986) ISBN: 0330294911
An amusing and well-written account of the effects of brain damage on the mind.

Jean-Dominique Bauby, The Diving-bell and the Butterfly
Fourth Estate
(Paperback - 7 May, 2002) ISBN: 0007139845
A very personal and moving account of the consequences of a stroke.

Richard P. Feynman, Surely You’re Joking, Mr Feynman: Adventures of a Curious Character
Paperback
19 November, 1992 ISBN: 009917331X
Physicist, bongo-drum man, and all round polymath. A hero for all young scientists.

Nancy Rothwell, Who Wants to Be a Scientist?: Choosing Science as a Career
Smudge (Illustrator) Cambridge University Press
(Paperback - 19 September, 2002) ISBN: 0521520924
Sound practical advice on choosing science as a career.

%^

cltl/Œfm k|lt dufpgsf] nfluM cgnfOg c8{/M www.bna.org.uk/publications
x'nfs: The British Neuroscience Association, c/o: The Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool L68 3GE
6]lnkmf]g: 44 (0) 151 794 4943/5449 Fax: 44 (0) 794 5516/5517

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Cartoon by Spike Gerrell; words by Jennifer Altman and David Concar