CONSTEEL 5.

0 USER MANUAL

Version 5.0 20.04.2010.
www.consteel.hu

5.0 USER MANUAL

1
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL

CONTENT
1 General description ................................................................................................................ 6 1.1 Installing the software .......................................................................................................... 6 1.2 The main window ................................................................................................................. 6
1.2.1 The startup window ............................................................................................................... 7 1.2.2 The graphical window ............................................................................................................ 7 1.2.4 The menu ................................................................................................................................ 8 1.2.4 The tabs .................................................................................................................................. 9 1.2.5 The side bar .......................................................................................................................... 10 1.2.6 The status bar ....................................................................................................................... 10 1.2.7 The object and parameter tables ......................................................................................... 11

1.3 General structure of dialogue windows ............................................................................. 11 1.4 General functions for tables ............................................................................................... 12 1.5 Hot keys .............................................................................................................................. 13 2 File handling .......................................................................................................................... 15 2.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 15 2.2 File types............................................................................................................................. 15 2. 3 Complete model export into StruCad ............................................................................... 16 2. 4 Complete model export into Tekla Structures .................................................................. 18
2.4.1 Joint export limitations......................................................................................................... 19

3 Model view ........................................................................................................................... 21 3.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 21 3.2 Model views ....................................................................................................................... 21 3.3 Selection ............................................................................................................................. 22 3.2.1 Partial Model Management ............................................................................................ 23 3.4 Object names and labels .................................................................................................... 24 3.5 Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 25 4 Drawing geometry ................................................................................................................ 27 4.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 27 4.2 Coordinate systems ............................................................................................................ 27 2
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 M E M BE R S 5..................................................................... 36 5 Structural modelling .........................2 L I N E M E MB E R S ...............0 USER MANUAL 4............................................................................................................ 59 7..........6 C O N N E CT I O N S ...........................................................4..........................2 Line load .......................................................................... 59 3 WWW..........................................................................................................2...............................................1 Basics ....4........6 Prescribed displacement .............................................................................................................5 S UP P O R T S ...............................................................................................................................4 Drawing ............ 45 5...................................................................4...................................................... 57 6.........2......................................................1 Basics ............3 Local coordinate system of surface elements ..........................................6 Earthquake ............................................................................ 30 4.......... 52 6............................................................................4..........3 S UR F AC E ..................................................................2 Local coordinate system of bar elements ........................ 53 6..................................................... prestrain......... 34 4........................................................................................................................................... 58 7 Structural analysis...................................... 57 6..............................................................................................6 Moving ....................... 51 6.................................................................. 52 6................ 35 4................................ 29 4................ 44 5....7 Layers.....................................2 Load cases and load groups .....................................1 B A SI CS ...............................5 Temperature load ..5 Initial sway ........................................CONSTEEL.....1 User coordinate system................................................................................................................7 Prestress.......... 28 4.............................. 56 6....................................4..........................................................................................5 Modifying ............................................3 Surface load ....................................................................................................................................1 Point load.............. 49 6................................................ 45 5.......4 M AT ER I A LS ................................................... 32 4....... 31 4................................ 53 6................................ 38 5......................................... 49 6...............................................................................................................HU ....................................................................................................... 52 6...........2.........3 Load combination ............4...........................................................................................................4 Load types ........................5.................... 38 5........................................................ 48 6 Structural Loads ..........................................................................4 Load transfer surface........................................................................ 49 6..........................................3 Defining action points .................................................... 58 6.........................................4..................

..2............... 66 7.........................................HU . 66 7....................................................................2..............................................................................1..1 Basics ............................ 62 7...... 83 4 WWW..................3 Surface elements ................................................................................................................4 Mesh generation .................................3........................................................2.................2 Line elements ...........................5.....................................2 The documentation tab ........................................5. 63 7.. 80 10 Section Module .........2.........................................................................................................................1 First order ..........................................................................................3................................................................................... 75 9...........2..........4 Table of dominant values .................................................................................................................. 81 10....... 79 9...........2.............................2....................4 Dynamic eigenvalue – vibration analysis......................................................................................................................... 82 10......................................5.................. 59 7.... 66 7.................... 81 10.......................5................................................2.. 70 7..............................................................................................................................................................................................1 Start documentation .....................................................0 USER MANUAL 7....... 74 9 Documentation ........... 62 7.....................1 Result types ..............................................................2 Finite elements ........5 Earthquake ......................................................................4.................... 82 10................................ 75 9................................................................................................................................................................ 60 7........................4...... 72 8 Standard Design ............................3 Section modelling ................................2........ 81 10.......................................................................................................................... 62 7..............................3 Model check (diagnostics) ..............3 snapshot manager ..........................2 The GSS model ..........................2 Section administration ................................................................ 64 7..............................4...4..................3 Result markers ................................................4 Analysis types ...............CONSTEEL....................2 Second order ............................... 59 7..............................................................................................3 Static eigenvalue – buckling analysis....................................................1 Basics .................. 64 7......................................................................................5.........................................................4 Model information ............................................................................................ 65 7................................ 66 7................................................................. 75 9.................................................................................................................2 Visualization options ................................................... 77 9......................................................................................................................................... 69 7.............4... 75 9.....................................................1 The EPS model ...................................................................................1 Documentation module ..............................1 Basics ..................................2 Creating snapshots ........................5 Analysis results ...................... 79 9................................................

......... 107 13................................................................ 99 12...................................................................................4.......................................................................................................................................... 110 13...........................3 Global vertical deflection check ................................................................ 88 11.....................................................2 Global horizontal deflection check........................................................................................3........................1 Create joint without model ...................................................................... 108 13...... 96 11.......................................................................................5 documentation ...........................5 Results and documentation ......................................... 109 13........................................2 Manipulating Connections .............................................................................. 105 13 Serviceability ........................... 88 11.4............................... 85 10............................................................................................2 Joint Types ....... 95 11........................................................................................................................................................... 84 10...................................................4 Effective cross section .......................................... 88 11.............................................. 111 5 WWW..............4................................................................................................................. 84 10............................................................................2 Individual Member Design ..3 Stresses ............... 99 12................................. 92 11.3 Member Group Design ....................................................4 Analysis of connections .........................................................................................................................................................................................4................................ 87 11 Joint Module ................................................................................................... 99 12.1 Geometrical calculations ............5 Relative deflection check for 2 points ...............................................................................................0 USER MANUAL 10..............................................4.... 90 11...........................2 Create joint by model ................... 107 13.........................4 Local deflection check by members ...................................................3 Create Joint............................................................ 91 11........5.....................4 Section Tools ........7 Joint Export ................................................. 86 10...........................................1 Basics ......HU ...................... 84 10................................................2 Loads......... 98 12 Member Design.........................1 Basics .......................................................................CONSTEEL............................ 97 11........................................................................ 90 11.................................1 Basics ....6 Structure-Joint interaction .................................................................................................................. 86 10............5 Standard resistance calculations ....................................................3........................3..............................................

The installing program will copy the elements of the software into the Directory you have specified. which are indispensable for the system. During installation the instructions of the setup shall be followed step by step. This has no progress signal.5. 1. so you will have to wait while it finishes.1 I NSTALLING THE SOFTWARE In the followings we give those hardware and software requirements the ConSteel software cannot be run without. but you may switch to another language later. The graphical window is the area for the 3D structural modeling. or their lack may result in a slow operation: Minimum hardware requirements: Processor: Intel Pentium IV or equivalent Memory: 2 GB HDD: 100 MB Video-card: 128 MB non-integrated Operating-system: MS Windows 2000 / XP Recommended hardware: Processor: Memory: Video-card: Intel Core 2 Duo or equivalent 4 GB 512 MB non-integrated You will need to have administrative or power user rights for the installation. then it will position the Menu of the program onto the selected place of the „START”-menu.0 USER MANUAL 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1. Finally the install shield will place the starting-icon onto the desktop. You will have to set the language of setup. The ConSteel will use this language for the first time you start. Without administrative rights you cannot install the hard lock driver and those dll files.2 T HE MAIN WINDOW The main window consists of six separate parts containing different functionalities. the tabs lead the engineer through the steps of structural design from 6 WWW.HU .CONSTEEL. The last step of the setup is the hard lock driver installation. the menu contains some important commands.

The graphical window helps the modeling by the global coordinate system (GCS) and a moveable. civil engineers build targets. The latest models can be opened without browsing folders.2. the status bar makes the drawing phases easy and the object and parameter tables at the right gives always sophisticated information about the model making fast modifications possible. Q: What's the difference between mechanical engineers and civil engineers? A: Mechanical engineers build weapons.2 THE GRAPHICAL WINDOW The structural model appears always in the graphical window.5. however there are lots of viewing possibilities in this single window. 1. There are no other window opening options.CONSTEEL. which is the main area for drawing. The coordinate system 7 WWW.HU . They are sorted by the last modification date as a default setting but it can also be sorted by name or by model path.0 there is a startup dialog window which allows creating and opening models easily. rotatable and size adjustable grid. 1.0 USER MANUAL left to right.2. the side bar contains functions of views and selections.1 THE STARTUP WINDOW After starting ConSteel 5. The two big icons are for creating a new model and for opening model from folder.

the ”+” and ”-” buttons on the keyboard or ALT+right mouse button Window scaling: window drawing by the left mouse button while pressing SHIFT+ALT 1.CONSTEEL. In F I L E menu the Model attribute can be found. updating and language setting) and H EL P . O PT I O NS (connected with saving.4 THE MENU In ConSteel 5.HU . language. and diagnostics.bak extension. styles. 8 WWW. update.0 USER MANUAL at the left bottom corner denotes always the unchangeable GCS. If backup is clicked ConSteel creates a backup file after manual save is performed. some E D I T options (undo-redo). the origin of the user coordinate system (UCS) takes place at the middle point of the grid which is always the plane “XY” of the UCS. The backup model file can be used as a normal model by removing the . the center of rotation is always adapting the actual model view Scaling: by middle mouse button spin. V I EW and diagnostics. In O PT I O NS menu the following settings can be found: save. If Autosave is clicked the program automatically performs a save periodically. It is possible to edit the model description and change the National Annex. The following moving possibilities should be used during the structural model manipulation: Move: by the middle mouse button or the arrow buttons on the keyboard Rotate: by the ALT+left mouse button.0 the menu does not contain many commands since the main functionality is placed to the structured tabs and side bars and the applicability and modeling efficiency does not really need function duplication.2.5. These parameters can be set when creating new model. However five important function groups appear here: the F I L E handling.

CONSTEEL. It can be turned off and a check can be performed by clicking on the Search Updates now icon. The error limit and the warning limit can be also set.4 THE TABS 9 WWW.0 USER MANUAL ConSteel looks for a new version in the web at every startup.5. It is possible to set the limit distance for the diagnostics.2. The language of the graphical user interface is changed after restarting the program. 1.HU .

HU . The slide makes the refined sizing of the different objects possible by moving or clicking on it with the right mouse button. Y. The G EOM ET R Y tab holds all important CAD drawing and modifying functions. On the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab the functions connected with cross-sections. load groups. fit view) there are four visualizing options for the objects used (structural members. The functions on the D OC U M E NT A T I O N tab allow of the creation of the flexible and detailed statical documentation. L” for polar coordinates). All types of loading including load cases.2. coordinate systems. object names and labels setting the validation for all the tabs or only for the current tab. 1. The S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab contains the design options. absolute or relative values. beams. There are many options for moving the UCS and accordingly the grid. b. 1. and a model check option indicating the possible modeling mistakes.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL The tabs contain systematically all the active – model creating and forming – functions in a chronological order of the normal way of developing a structural model. A wide range of possibility exists for the definition of drawing action points and snap points. slabs and walls. Every icon representing certain functionality has a tooltip – which appear when the mouse is approaching the icon – with the name of the function on it. supports. load combinations and unique loads placed on the structure can be created on the L OA D S tab. front view. adjusting the range and partition of the grid.) making the modeling more clear and unambiguous. Beyond the usual model views (top view.5 THE SIDE BAR The side bar contains the functions of coordinate system settings. model viewing and selection options. and result viewing possibilities. The sophisticated visibility options can be applied to graphic symbols. 10 WWW.5. dimensioning and measuring. side view. The coordinates can be set as global. On the A NA L Y S I S tab the structural analysis types can be set and executed. perspective view. structural columns.2. local. supports and connections are collected. Z” for coordinate axis. “a.6 THE STATUS BAR On the status bar the coordinates during drawing actions can be set manually by pressing the appropriate letter (“X. The F I NI T E EL EM E NT tab contains functions connected with finite element mesh generation and modification. the results can be viewed and labeled in various forms. and contain a model information tool. loads etc.

7 THE OBJECT AND PARAMETER TABLES In the upper table all the created or used objects (materials.3 G ENERAL STRUCTURE OF DIALOGUE WINDOWS Several dialogue windows – especially the most important ones on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S and L OA D S tabs – show same structure in order to make easy the orientation in the labyrinth of tools and functions. all the parameters of it can be seen. Multiple selections of objects are possible in this tree. In case of multiple objects selection only the identical parameters appear. 1.HU . sections.) appear in a structured arrangement. supports etc. The usual parts of these dialogues are described below: 1 5 2 3 4 6 1 2 – the method of placement (assign to element or draw) – information extraction from object has been placed earlier.CONSTEEL.2. however the different ones can also be changed to identical.5. and after expanding one object. loads members. All the parameters are set to the same as for the selected object – coordinate systems in which the object is considered 11 3 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 1. and modified if possible. In the lower table all the selected objects (and sub-object) appear.

HU .0 USER MANUAL 4 5 6 – auxiliary drawing functions if the placement is by drawing – the main parameters of the object – this field gives always information about the next required step of the placement Every icon on the dialogues representing certain functionality has a tooltip – which appear when the mouse is approaching the icon – with the name of the function on it. 1. Input tables (used in the L OA D C OM BI NA T I O NS and A NA L Y S I S PA R A M E T ER S dialogues) have the following common features: clicking on the heading cells the whole column below will be selected if the there is checking option in the table cells multiple checking is possible for the selected cells clicking on the right mouse button if the there is value entry option in the table cells multiple value entry is possible for the selected cells clicking on the right mouse button and defining the common value Output tables (used on the A NA L Y S I S and S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tabs and in the D OM I NA NT VA L U ES and M OD E L I NF O R M A T I O N dialogues) have the following common features: the rows of the table can be ordered according to a column (increasing.CONSTEEL. decreasing or ABC order) clicking to its heading cell the actual table can be saved to file for Excell the actual table can be saved for the own documentation which can be inserted into the final report in the documentation module (Chapter 9) 12 WWW. Since tables are usually used for working with large amount of data. both table types have special features making the data managing more comfortable.4 G ENERAL FUNCTIONS FOR TABLES Basically there are two types of tables in ConSteel: the input tables and the output tables.5.

CONSTEEL.HU . In ConSteel the following hot keys can be used: CTRL+N: new model CTRL+O: open model CTRL+S: save model CTRL+Z: undo last action CTRL+Y: redo CTRL+A: select all CTRL+I: inverse selection CTRL+1: switch to XY view CTRL+2: switch to XZ view CTRL+3: switch to YZ view CTRL+4: switch to XYZ view ESC: unselect all or terminate (or abort) the last action Delete: delete selected objects F1: open Help system X: manual definition of X coordinate value Y: manual definition of Y coordinate value Z: manual definition of Z coordinate value a: manual definition of alpha polar coordinate value b: manual definition of beta polar coordinate value L: manual definition of length from the previous point in a defined direction R: switch between the global and last defined user coordinate system Middle mouse button: move model ALT+left mouse button: rotate model 13 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 1.5 H OT KEYS The hot keys can significantly speed up the modeling work.5.

0 USER MANUAL ALT+right mouse button: sizing model ↑: move model up ↓: move model down →: move model right ←: move model left middle mouse button: scale model +: scale up model -: scale down model SHIFT+left mouse button: unselect SHIFT+ALT+left mouse button: window scale 14 WWW.CONSTEEL.HU .5.

csm. Normally the . Open and save. .dxf: AutoCad text file type. If necessary . . It can be opened with or without results.sc1: BoCad text file type.CONSTEEL. . The saved files contains all information about the model. . . . Backup file is created at every manual save and stores the previous saved version of the model. 2.csf: Old ConSteel version binary file type (Consteel 2. Open and save. these files can be opened by double click. .0 USER MANUAL 2 FILE HANDLING 2. Backup save settings can be edited in the O PT I ONS menu. 15 WWW. Only open. 3. The file is functionally identical to the ConSteelModel and ConSteelResults files. The result file is saved to a separate file with .csm: the ConSteelModel file. AutoSave settings can be edited in the O PT I ONS menu.anf: StruCad text file type.bak: the ConSteelModel backup file. Only open. .5. own binary file type.2 F ILE TYPES The following file types are handled in ConSteel: . Open and save. it can be relocated to other folder and opened.csm~: the ConSteelModel file created by autosave functionality. Open and save.csr (ConSteelResult) extension. Only open.1 B ASICS The file handling in ConSteel follows the same usual and simple way of the MS Windows standard.x). but this file cannot be opened solely.asc: Tekla Structures ASCII file. Open and save.xml: general set up own file. transparently structured and manually modifiable.csm file extension is associated with the ConSteel.snf: StruCad text file type. .x.HU .bak extension can be deleted and backup model used as a normal model.

other joint parameters which are needed for the StruCad joint macro but not necessary for the joint calculation in csJoint. When only the joints are exported then you can choose the destination folder. To use this highly developed complete model export function the ConSteel-StruCad interface module must be purchased which is not part of the complete ConSteel package because it also contains StruCad files.CONSTEEL. These parameters can be different for each connection if you click on the S A VE S ET T I NG S F OR S E L EC T ED C O N NEC T I O NS . Using this unique feature not only the wireframe of the structural model can be exported to StruCad but all the created joints. First click on the F I L E menu and select S A VE A S option. the export process identifies these joints and the model will appear with their completely developed and detailed connections in StruCad. If there are joints in the model in the next dialog the joints to export can be selected. A special dialogue window appears for every joint type where the following settings can be made: name of the exported joint macro file. The other option is the S A VE S ET T I NG S FO R A L L C O NN EC T I O NS button. Then the parameters will be saved ONLY for the selected connection. 3 C OMPLETE MODEL EXPORT INTO S TRU C AD A special interface option has been developed in order to make the StruCad export functionality complete.5. follow the steps below. 16 WWW. Add the name of the model but be sure that the name is not longer than 8 characters and does not contain spaces or non-English alphabet letters (for example letters with accent).HU . Moreover if a joint is placed to the structural model. The next step is the Connection Export. Select the SNF file as a file type and click on the S A VE button.0 USER MANUAL 2. To export the complete model into StruCad. in this case the parameters will be the same for all the connections in the list. When there are placed joints on the model these are automatically selected.

HU . After the export the files should be sent to the detailer or you can use them in your own computer.) The number next to the prefix can be changed but must be 6 characters long maximum. 17 WWW. Afterwards these joints will appear among the Local Macro endtypes.CONSTEEL. This prefix calls the relevant macro in StruCad. If not the complete model need to be exported but the joints then the exported macro files must be copied into the relevant StruCad model’s mac folder.0 USER MANUAL The name of the StruCad macro file can also be changed but bear in mind the following naming conventions: The name of the exported joint macro file has a prefix (for example csb-).5. Each macro name should be unique. In order to import the model click on the dedicated ConSteel icon in StruCad or use the C S I M P OR T command. Do not change or delete this prefix! (If you do so a warning appears on the screen. This suffix should contain only numbers! Make sure not to use a macro file name more than once in a model.

18 WWW. provides an interface for third party applications to interact with model in Tekla Structures. After selecting the reference point in Tekla the Section export manager window appears. It is possible to change the conversion file for grades and for sections. slabs. walls) all the joint models appear in ConSteel have the corresponding Tekla component. therefore the ConSteel has a high level interface module to the Tekla Structures. beams. or edit the section name and grade manually. columns. Besides the export of the global structural model (ie. ConSteel export to Tekla Structures can be used from version 14 onward. Then click on the FI L E menu and select E XPO R T then select Tekla Structures.HU .CONSTEEL. A dialog window opens asking for selecting model parts to be exported.0 USER MANUAL 2. Therefore both applications need to have installed in order to export model from ConSteel to Tekla Structures. The next step is to select a reference point and click on the export button. 4 C OMPLETE MODEL EXPORT INTO T EKLA S TRUCTURES The smooth and quick transition from the structural model to the detailing model can save significant time and cost. Bear in mind that only those joints will be exported which are placed in the model and selected before exporting. also known as the . This unique interface can save significant detailing time and therefore can appreciably reduce the project costs. so the designed structural model with the placed joint models can be converted in one piece easily into detailing model without additional modelling efforts on the joints. To export a model from ConSteel it is important to run both program at the same time and to have a model opened in Tekla Structures.5.NET API. ConSteel uses Tekla Open API (Application Programming Interface).

HU .1 JOINT EXPORT LIMITATIONS Base Plate (1042) No haunch can be exported Anchor rod type must be set manually in Tekla (ConSteel settings has no effect on the export) Anchor rod properties which have effect on the export are the followings: diameter.4. 2.0 USER MANUAL If manual changes have been made then the list can be saved and can be used as a conversion file in future exports. After clicking OK the model will be exported. grade 19 WWW.CONSTEEL.5.

0 USER MANUAL Foundation will not be exported Upper and lower flange weld thickness would be the same in Tekla model(different ConSteel settings has no effect on the export) Haunch (40) Upper and lower haunch dimensions are the same (upper haunch dimensions come from the lower) No shear stiffeners are exported into Tekla only supplementery web plate Flange stiffeners are not exported into Tekla Apex haunch (106) No upper haunch Stiffened end plate (27) There is no web stiffener plate in Tekla 20 WWW.HU .CONSTEEL.5.

Accordingly the first and most important objective of the model views is to feedback the user about the objects placed. side view.CONSTEEL. the bars are represented by a single line. the supports are line types. Recommended to use in the model building phases.5. since the clear visualization of the member snap points making the placement of supports and loads easier. the supports are line types.HU . fit view) there are four visualizing options for the objects used: line view: the simplest model view.2 M ODEL VIEWS The model viewing options can be found on the left side bar.0 USER MANUAL 3 MODEL VIEW 3. perspective view. Beyond the usual model views (top view. 3. the surfaces by a two-dimensional figure without thickness. front view.1 B ASICS The transparent and multipurpose model views are very important to the engineer. since these views provide the first graphical model survey opportunity. 21 WWW. wireframe view: on the line view the lines of the cross sections and plate thickness appear. yield a visual proof that the right objects are on the right place.

3 S ELECTION Objects can be selected on the graphical window.g. solid view: the cross section and plate thickness appear in a solid form with shading and sparkling effects. The basic selection modes and their operation are the followings: 22 WWW.HU . If the full model tends to be more complicated and parts of the model are in focus the Submodel view should be applied. analysis and design results).5. As a general rule only the visible objects can be selected graphically. Every graphical select modes change to unselect by pressing the SHIFT button during the operation.0 USER MANUAL hidden line view: the cross section and plate thickness appear in a solid form without shading and sparkling effects. or by the additional selection options. the supports are solid types. only the member will be selected). 3.CONSTEEL. the supports are solid types. The ESC button always unselects all objects. accordingly the same action can result in different selection on different tabs or model views (e. finite element model. This option shows only the selected parts of the model in every stage (modeling. in the object tree. clicking on a member line with line load on it both the member and the load will be selected. but if the load visibility is set off.

Portions can be arranged into folders. Before do so. New portions can be added by clicking the N EW P OR T I O N icon. etc.5. To modify a previously defined model portion first select the parts in the model then click on model portion icon. Renaming the model portion is also can be done by clicking the name of the portion and click on R ENA M E . select parts which will belong to the portion. place a thick into the box next to the name of the portion. unselect all. 3. In case first the left-hand top-corner is given. This function can be used by clicking the dedicated icon (#1) among the vertical icons on the left side of the screen. The actual size of the window is continually seen on the screen. More portions can be turned on at the same time. bracings. If the option at the bottom of the window is clicked then the hidden parts of the model is also shown but those parts a translucent. then only those members are selected that are within the window with their full size (inclusion window selection). selection by property: this option can be reached on the left side bar or by right mouse button click on the graphical window. The additional generalized selection options (select all. The selection can be made by choosing the desired object and further narrowing is possible by sorting the appropriate parameters out. But if the right-hand corner is placed down first then every member is selected no matter with how little part is found in the rectangle (section and inclusion window selection).HU 1 . All the objects are selected whose graphical symbol intersects the imaginary line set up perpendicular to the viewing (camera) plane at the clicking point. It means that the selection depends on the size of the graphical symbol of the objects and note that the hiding objects can be selected as well! window selection: holding down the left button and moving the mouse will create the window. 23 WWW. inverse selection) can be found on the left side bar or they can be reached by right mouse button click on the graphical window.2. floors.0 USER MANUAL simple graphical selection: click on the object on the graphical window by the left mouse button. It is completed when the mouse button is released. select the model portion by clicking the name of it and click M OD I FY .1 P ARTIAL M ODEL M ANAGEMENT Partial model management is a great tool to manage different but related parts of the model ie. columns.CONSTEEL. To turn on portions. beams.

CONSTEEL. The following name options are available: numbering of finite element points – point numbering in the automatically generated finite element mesh 24 WWW.HU .4 O BJECT NAMES AND LABELS Names and labels are used for the better model transparency and documentation. they identify the structural objects. The automatic names can be set on the bottom status bar. There are two possible sources for names and labels: an automatic allocation for certain objects and manual definition.0 USER MANUAL 3.5.

CONSTEEL. and a direction can be set in which the renumbering is made.Y. projection dimension of a line projection dimension of two points 25 WWW. The dimensioning tool can be found at the end of the G E OM ET R Y tab.Z) Additionally arbitrary text can be assigned to structural elements manually on the D I M E NS I O NI NG dialogue using the last tool. 3. column. Using this function a specific prefix and a start number can be defined.0 USER MANUAL names of structural element – these are generated unique names for each structural element objects (beam. it allows a great number of different dimensioning options.HU . names of structural supports. The following label options are available: material – the used material name of structural members (for instance: “S235”) shape – the name of the used cross-sections of structural bar members (for instance: “HEA 200”) thickness – the thickness of the used structural plates or walls load intensity units – the units of load and thickness if set (for instance: “kN” or “mm”) initial crookedness – the value of the initial crookedness on structural bar members coordinate system – the names of the local coordinate axes (X. The names can be modified by the R E NU M B ER M EM BE R S tool on the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab. they denote some important parameters of the placed structural objects.5. These names appear on the object tree in the right side table. wall) consisting of a prefix and a number (for instance: “R1” for a bar element).zz. plate. releases and links – these names show the type of the placed support.w”) names of joints – these names show the user defined names of a placed joint (for instance: “Beam-to-column 01”) The automatic labels can be also set on the bottom status bar. release or link objects (for instance: “Fixed” or “yy. On the finite element view these names denote the numbering of the finite elements of the members.5 D IMENSIONS For the documentation of the calculated structural model it is very important to be aware of the exact dimensions of the model.

CONSTEEL.HU . 26 WWW.0 USER MANUAL lengthwise dimension of a line lengthwise dimension of two points diameter or radius of a circle angle of two lines height dimension The placement consists of two general steps: selecting the object to be dimensioned and determine the place of the dimension sign.5.

1 B ASICS The first step of the modelling phase is the geometry drawing of the structure. Among the basic CAD drawing.0 USER MANUAL 4 DRAWING GEOMETRY 4. The polar coordinate system is less frequently used so the rest of this section describes the Descartes system. All the CAD functionality is placed on the G EOM ET R Y tab.5. and “L” denotes the distance from the origin.2 C OORDINATE SYSTEMS For the appropriate modelling and interpretation of the analysis and design results it is of high importance to be aware of the applied coordinate systems. supports and loads. This rule is valid for the definition of geometry and loads as well. selection and snap options are on the side and status bar. In ConSteel all the geometrical objects can be easily created and modified in a 3D space. In the polar system “ ” denotes the angle between the axis “X” and the vertical plane defined by the axis “Z” and the point. x z y x As a general convention all the Descartes coordinate systems (axes directions and rotation signs) follow the most commonly applied right hand rule. In the further text the following denotations are used: 27 WWW. This section summarizes in detail all the coordinate systems used in the ConSteel 4. modifying and moving functionality advanced snap options make the modelling efficient. the further viewing. z L y Two different type coordinate systems can be used: the rectangular Descartes system (XYZ) and the polar system ( L). Additionally all the relevant drawing functions are placed on the dialogues of structural members. “ ” denotes the angle between the section line of that plane and the coordinate plane “XY” and the line from the origin to the point.0. The positive moments and rotations are defined as counter clockwise about the axis if it is viewed in front (towards the origin) in both the global and local system. 4.HU .CONSTEEL.

y. The following creation options are available (from left to right): Switch to global system Set new origin for the UCS 28 WWW.5.0 USER MANUAL In case of global geometry (3D structural modelling): X.1 USER COORDINATE SYSTEM The user coordinate system (UCS) is used for making the modelling easier and fast. and it can be switched on (or switch back to the global system) at the bottom status bar. z: local coordinate system In case of cross sections (2D modelling of sections): v. the creation tools can be reached by the topmost button on the side bar.Z: global coordinate system x. The UCS is a specially positioned Descartes system (XYZ). Z: section edit coordinate system with its origin in the centre of gravity of the section y.CONSTEEL. Y.HU . w: section edit coordinate system Y.2. z: section principal coordinate system 4.

In this case the direction of local axes “y” and “z” are identical to the global axes “Y” and “Z”.2 LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM OF BAR ELEMENTS The reference line of bar members defines the axis “x” of the local coordinate system.2. and the section “YZ” system coincides with the local “yz” system of the bar. Z Y z J y x K X In the basic case the local coordinate system of a bar can be determined considering its reference line (“x”) identical to the global axis “X”. The direction of the axis “x” is given by the start (J) and end (K) node of the reference line. Z z J Y y x K In case of a generally positioned beam member (not column with vertical reference line) the plane defined by the local “xz” system takes always vertical position and the axis “z” points towards the positive “Z” direction.HU . the direction of axis “Y” Set the standing of the UCS identical to the local coordinate system of the selected plane with origin placed into the first node of this plane Set the direction of the axis “X” Set the direction of the axis “Y” Set the direction of the axis “Z” Reverse the direction of the selected axis 4. the direction of axis ”X”. The position of the cross section on the bar is the following: the reference line goes through its centre of gravity.0 USER MANUAL Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “XY” Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “XZ” Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “YZ” Set the UCS by 3 points: the origin.CONSTEEL. For beams with (single) curvature the axis “x” is always the tangent.5. X 29 WWW.

and it points towards the positive “X” (or if “x” is perpendicular to the “X” than positive “Y”) direction the axis “y” points towards the positive “Z” direction X 30 WWW. In case of the local plane “xy” is parallel to the global plane “XY” the position of the local coordinate system is identical to the global one.HU . the direction of the local axis “z” depends on the placement of the column (position of the start and end points). X X The interpretation and signs of the inner forces on a member is defined by its local coordinate system and the mentioned general sign convention as described in the following figure: Mz J Vz My Vy N Mx K 4.0 USER MANUAL Z K x z y J Z y z Y x J K Y In case of vertical reference line (column members) the local axis “y” has the same direction as the global axis “Y”.CONSTEEL.2.3 LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM OF SURFACE ELEMENTS For surface elements the local plane “xy” is defined in the plane of the surface.5. the axis “z” is perpendicular to that plane and points towards the positive “Z” direction. For arbitrary situated surface element the following two rules is applied to the local “xy” system: Z z y x Y the axis “x” is parallel to the section line of the global “XY” plane and the plane of the surface.

31 WWW. the most used ones are turned on by default.0 USER MANUAL In case of surface elements the local coordinate system can be modified using the tools presented in Section 4. 4.HU .5. The action points (snap points) are the following: Endpoint: Subsequent point selections will snap to nearest end of line or bar Dividing points: Subsequent point selections will snap to the dividing points of selected item Intersection point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest point of intersection of entities. There are different types of snaps.CONSTEEL.1.2.3 D EFINING ACTION POINT S Action points can be set by moving the cursor on the icon on right side of the bottom status bar.

Raster grid: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest raster grid point.0 USER MANUAL Parallel: The Parallel snap helps you to draw parallel lines and bars to other lines or bars Nearest element point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest element point. These snap points appear only if the mouse approaches the line. percent of length (”%”). 32 WWW. Step is used if the Lengthening snap is turned on. line loads.CONSTEEL.5.”%” or “d”) the type of the division can be set: number of dividing parts (“n”). Lengthening: The Lengthening action point helps you to snap to a point which is not on a line but it is on the lengthen line Point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest point. and fade away three seconds after stop of movements around the line. surface loads. 4.4 D RAWING Draw line Lines can be used for construction purposes or can be selected as a bar`s axis. Tangent: Snaps to the tangent of an arc or circle. surface supports) by red rectangles. line supports or edge line of surface members. Perpendicular: Subsequent point selections will snap to be perpendicular to entity Center point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the centre of an arc or circle At the bottom right corner of the status bar additional functions can be found in order to help editing and construction of the model. In this case the length of the Lengthening is increased by the added value. A special line snap can be activated which visualizes snap points on lines (reference line of bar members. In the last case the count starts at the line end first approached by the mouse.HU . and length from one end (“d”). In the first button (“n”.

Select third point. Select the radius of the circle. 33 WWW. Select the corner point. Select end point of the side of the rectangle. Select the other point of the tangent. Select first point. Press Esc to interrupt line drawing. First select the start point. Select the end point. Select a point in the arc. Select the end point. Then select the next point.HU . Continuous line drawing. Then select the end point. Draw circle by diameter. Select second point. Draw Arc Arcs can be used for construction purposes.5. Select the corner point. Select the center of the arc. Select the center of the circle. Select the opposite corner.0 USER MANUAL Simple line drawing. Select the start point of the arc. Select the end point.CONSTEEL. Draw Circle Circles can be used for construction purposes. end point and tangent. Select the start point. Select the angel of the arc or type it to the dialog window Draw arc by 3 points. Select the start point. Draw leaning rectangle. First select the start point. Draw circle by 3 points. Draw rectangle. Select third point of the rectangle. Draw rectangle Rectangles can be used for construction purposes. Draw circle by radius. Select the start point. Draw arc by center point. Draw two-dimensional figure Two-dimensional figures can be used for construction purposes. start point and angle. Draw arc by start point.

CONSTEEL. The type of the two-dimensional circle can be selected: draw circle by radius. Set the scaling reference point. Refract the selected line element. Draw hole.5. Select the edge to refract. Select objects to scale.HU . Draw polygon. Set the direction with the second point. or circle by 3 points.0 USER MANUAL Draw two-dimensional figure. Select the surface. Select the part to chop. Select the surface. Set the opposite corner point of the rectangle. Set the first point. Sizing of the selected objects. Set the end point of stretch. Divide selected object by section point. 4. Set one corner point of the rectangle. Select cut edge. To close the polygon press right click on the mouse. Select the point and (or) edge to be moved. Set the next point. 34 WWW. Select the start point.5 M ODIFYING Move point and edge. Cut the selected element by cutting edge. Set the scaling multiplier. Select the line to which connected lines will be stretched! Set base point of stretch. Select the corner point of the figure. by diameter. Set the new position of the point (edge). Set the insert point. Select the edge for bend. Select the opposite corner point of the figure. Stretch. Set the scaling center. Select objects to chop. The type of the rectangle can be selected: rectangle or leaning rectangle. Set the insert point. Curve selected line element.

Select the objects for rotation. The selected objects can be moved or copied. Cut the proper part of the selected element. Select any point from the second straight line. Select objects to be mirrored. Set the direction point or type in the rotation angle and click on Apply. If the Join points box is checked then the end points of the copied objects will be connected. The radius of the fillet can be set. Lines and bars can be divided into equal or unequal parts. Set the end point of the segment to chop.0 USER MANUAL Adjust the selected element to the limit line.6 M OVING Move selected objects. Chamfer of the two selected line element. Set base point of moving. Move selected objects. The number of copies can be set. Select the object to adjust. Select the edge for the segment cut. 35 WWW. The number of copies can be set. Rounding of the edges of the section of two line element. Set reference point of rotation. Select any point from the second straight line. If the Join points box is checked then the end points of the copied objects will be connected.5. Select limit lines. Select any point from the first straight line. Set end point of moving. Set the center of rotation. If To equal parts is selected then the number of the number of the segments or the length of the segments can be set. Then define the mirror-line by pointing to two points on it.HU . Divide selected objects. Copies of the selected objects will be made symmetrically across the mirror-line. Set end point of moving. Set base point of moving. Rotate selected objects. The selected objects can be moved or copied. 4. Mirror selected objects. Select the objects for moving. Select any point from the first straight line. Set start point of the segment to chop. Select the objects for moving.CONSTEEL.

roof bracing. thickness etc. line style. and it is recommended that layers are used wherever possible. Set the center of rotation. Divide selected objects. Copies of the selected objects will be made symmetrically across the mirror-line.0 USER MANUAL Mirror selected objects. Set the direction point or type in the rotation angle and click on Apply. line style.5. Objects are placed on appropriate layers as a convenient way of managing the information within the model database. etc. All CAD systems have a layer concept of some sort. Then define the mirror-line by pointing to two points on it. Lines and bars can be divided into equal or unequal parts.e. Set reference point of rotation. Select objects to be mirrored. 36 WWW. color. slabs onto separate layers for floors. If To equal parts is selected then the number of the number of the segments or the length of the segments can be set.CONSTEEL. side bracing. If own style turned OFF then all the objects on the layer use the selected color. columns. You determine what layers you are going to use. Rotate selected objects. For example it is useful to be able to isolate bars. 4. Select the objects for rotation.HU .7 L AYERS The layers dialog window can be used to the following: Create new layers Copy layers Delete layers Edit properties of existing layers (i. thickness and transparency) Turn the visibility of layers on and off Freeze layers from activity whilst keeping them visible Turn on and off own style. If it is turned ON (default setting) then all the objects use the global style.

CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL Styles If you click on the Styles icon you can set the representation of the model. transparency) of the lines. thickness.HU . line style. layers. steel. etc can be set. 37 WWW.5. The styles (colour.

is completely separated from the calculation model. which is an automatically generated sophisticated finite element model used by the structural analysis and design. 5.0 great emphasis is taken on the user friendly structural modelling in which the engineer can build the structural model using real structural elements.2 L INE MEMBERS 5.). he/she can concentrate solely on the direct productive labour building the real structural model.HU . POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE APPLIED ANALYSIS MODEL ALREADY AT THE MODELLING STAGE BECAUSE THE MISUNDERSTANDING OF THE MODELLING OPPORTUNITIES CAN LEAD TO UNEXPECTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN RESULTS. tension braces. Accordingly the user model. built by the engineer using whole structural members (haunched beams.0 USER MANUAL 5 Structural modelling 5. which is always vertical. The column is a special position line member. The members – depending on the placement – can be columns or beams. so the placement is simpler. because only the height should be defined.5. The line member defining dialogue allows the following modelling options: 1 Global geometry: drawing the reference line of the member or select an existing line for reference line 38 WWW. All the functionality connecting with the structural modelling are placed on the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab. It follows that the engineer does not need to deal with the calculation model.2. Due to the high importance and wide range of modelling possibilities the functions of the cross-sections and joints are collected in separate modules C S S EC T I O N (Chapter 10) and C S J OI NT (Chapter 11).0 version only line members with steel thin-walled cross-section can be modelled. slabs etc.CONSTEEL.1 B ASICS In ConSteel 5. IT SHOULD BE KEPT IN MIND THAT THE ENGINEER SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE FEATURES.1 CREATING LINE MEMBERS In the ConSteel 5. tapered columns.

and the section can be rotated about the local coordinate “x”.CONSTEEL. IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT NOT ONLY THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCE PRODUCES INFLUENCE IN THE ANALYSIS (ADDITIONAL BENDING MOMENTS) BUT THE ECCENTRIC BENDING AND TORSIONAL MOMENTS (ADDITIONAL BENDING AND TORSIONAL MOMENTS AND BIMOMENT)! 39 WWW.HU . 1 4 2 3 5 Direction of section: the position of the section can be normal and mirrored (causes difference only in case of unsymmetrical sections).0 USER MANUAL 2 Receiving member parameters from other members.5. Eccentricity: member eccentricity can be defined in the local coordinate system (“y. the sign convention follows the right hand rule (see section 4.z”) of the member.2 C O OR D I NA T E S Y S T EM S ). If no section has been loaded in advance the S EC T I O N dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo. and the appropriate section can be selected from the combo including the loaded sections. and assigning those to the one to be created 3 Line drawing options 4 Defining member parameters Section: before creating a beam or column member cross-sections should be loaded.

40 WWW.2. If new element group is needed the G R OU PS OF S T R U C T U R A L M EM B E R S dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo. 5 Command area 5. if it got compression the analysis neglects its effect. The beam-column with warping is a special element with 14 degree of freedom. HEA. It is important in case of structures with usual steel profiles. Number of finite elements: the required number of finite elements used on this member in the analysis can be set. If new release type is needed the R EL EA S E dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo. flange width (b). welded I) sections. by using haunches. Initial crookedness: half-sine wave shaped initial crookedness can be defined in the two local direction perpendicular to the member reference axis (“y.5. On the dialogue panel the length (L). these types influence the finite element type to be used in the analysis. including the warping of the thin-walled cross section.).z”) with the given amplitude at the mid-length Element type: two choices are possible: beam-column with warping and tension bar. and the shape of the haunch is considered as half of a welded I section (with one flange) with decreasing web height. flange thickness (tf) and the characteristics of the haunch should be set. The tension bar can only resist tensional axial force (no bending or torsional moments and shear). dominant results. web thickness (tw). height (h).2 HAUNCHED MEMBERS The created members can be strengthened. The haunch can be only used for members with I type (IPE. sensitivity analysis etc.0 USER MANUAL Release: predefined release types can be assigned to the ends of the members. Element group: the members can be sorted out into element groups for various purposes (selection. if necessary.HU .CONSTEEL.

In the case of usual beam position it results the followings: lower upper 41 WWW.CONSTEEL.5. for instance at a beam-to-column connection point) then this point should be approached and clicked on the member to be haunched. It should be noted that if the start point is a common end point of more members (this is the usual case.HU .0 USER MANUAL The position of the haunch is set by simply clicking on the member the start point (where the height of the haunch is full) and the direction point of the haunch. The characteristics of the haunch denote the appropriate side of the haunch on the member according to the direction of its local “z” axis.

THIS ECCENTRICITY CAUSES ADDITIONAL EFFECTS IN THE ANALYSIS RESULTS DUE TO THE ECCENTRIC POSITION OF THE SECTIONAL FORCES (FOR INSTANCE AT THE BEAM-TOCOLUMN CONNECTION POINT OF A FRAME WITH HAUNCHED BEAMS AND/OR COLUMNS THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENTS EXISTS ONLY IF THE ADDITIONAL MOMENTS FROM THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCES ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT) 5. AND IN CASE OF SELECTING A HAUNCHED MEMBER THE HAUNCHES ARE SELECTED AUTOMATICALLY. With the option of tapered member the web height of these sections can be set to linearly varying along the member length.5. 42 WWW. so the fast and simple modelling of tapered members is of high importance. box or cold formed C section should be created. IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT FOR THE HAUNCHED PART OF THE MEMBER NEW SECTIONS ARE CREATED DURING THE AUTOMATIC FINITE ELEMENT GENERATION WHICH CONSIST OF THE ORIGINAL SECTION AND THE HAUNCH WITH APPROPRIATE WEB HEIGHT. THESE NEW SECTIONS ARE PLACED ECCENTRICALLY ON THE REFERENCE LINE OF THE MEMBER (EXCEPT THE SYMMETRICAL HAUNCH TYPE).3 TAPERED MEMBERS Tapered members are frequently used in the economic design of steel framed structures.0 USER MANUAL symmetric THE HAUNCHES CAN BE SELECTED AND MODIFIED IN THE PARAMETER TABLE AS SEPARATE OBJECTS .2. For the definition of tapered member first a line member with welded I or H.CONSTEEL.HU .

lower upper symmetric IN CASE OF SELECTING A TAPERED MEMBER THE TAPERING IS SELECTED AUTOMATICALLY AND CAN BE MODIFIED IN THE PARAMETER TABLE AS SEPARATE OBJECT. The form of the tapering can be lower.HU . upper denotes the positive direction.CONSTEEL. upper or symmetric. The start value for web height applied at the start point of the member (lower end in the local coordinate system) the end value applied at the other end. IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT FOR THE TAPERED MEMBER NEW SECTIONS ARE CREATED DURING 43 WWW. These definitions denote the directions of the offset of the given height values along the local “z” axis: lower denotes the negative direction.0 USER MANUAL After selecting the member to be tapered on the T A P ER ED M EM B ER dialogue the start (H1) and end web height (H2) of the section can be defined – independently of the original web height of the cross-section.5.

Two options are available for surface member modelling: the arbitrary shaped and positioned plate member. 44 WWW. the position of the reference plane (recently only the middle position can be chosen).3 S URFACE MEMBERS In the ConSteel 5.CONSTEEL. THIS ECCENTRICITY CAUSES ADDITIONAL EFFECTS IN THE ANALYSIS RESULTS DUE TO THE ECCENTRIC POSITION OF THE SECTIONAL FORCES (FOR INSTANCE AT THE BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION POINT OF A FRAME WITH TAPERED BEAMS AND/OR COLUMNS THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENTS EXISTS ONLY IF THE ADDITIONAL MOMENTS FROM THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCES ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT) 5. and the vertical and square wall member.5. Arbitrary shaped holes can be defined in existing surface members. Four parameters can be set: the thickness. The latter one is a modelling aid for the frequently used definition of walls since only the reference base line and the two height values should be defined. the material and the finite element size of the surface member. THESE NEW SECTIONS ARE PLACED ECCENTRICALLY ON THE REFERENCE LINE OF THE MEMBER (EXCEPT THE SYMMETRICAL TAPERING). In the P L A T E definition panel the drawing functions are collected in order to create the plate with the desired shape.0 version plane surface members with uniform thickness can be modelled.HU . The finite element size is an approximate target maximum size for the finite element mesh used for the calculation of surface members.0 USER MANUAL THE AUTOMATIC FINITE ELEMENT GENERATION WITH APPROPRIATE WEB HEIGHTS.

IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT IN CASE OF BAR MEMBERS (BEAMS. and surface support. In the ConSteel 5.CONSTEEL. The material parameters are taken from the appropriate Structural Eurocode chapters (EN 1993-1-1 for steel and EN 1992-1-1 for concrete and reinforcement).G. Line supports can be assigned to existing lines (line members or edge of surface members) or to lines drawn for the support only (for instance on a surface). Poisson factor. local (#2) or user (#3) coordinate system.HU .5 S UPPORTS There are three types of supports in ConSteel: point support.5.4 M ATERIALS Three types of material can be defined: steel.0 version). 45 WWW. concrete and concrete reinforcement. The latter is only used for the rebar reinforcement of concrete or composite structures. ACCORDINGLY IF IDENTICAL CROSS SECTIONS WITH DIFFERENT MATERIAL ARE LIKED TO BE USED IN ONE MODEL THEN MULTIPLE CROSS SECTION DEFINITION IS NEEDED! 5. density (if the self weight of the structure is considered) and temperature expansion factor (if temperature load is applied).0 USER MANUAL 5. COLUMNS) THE MATERIAL IS THE PARAMETER OF THE CROSS SECTION OF THE MEMBER. Supports can be placed according to the global (#1). Point supports can be placed on any part of a line member or surface member (predefined points are not needed. so the calculation results are only affected by the elastic modulus. THIS FEATURE ALLOWS THE DEFINITION OF CROSS SECTIONS WITH MULTIPLE MATERIALS (E. and the default – indelible – material types are set with the standard values.0 version only elastic material is considered in the analysis. COMPOSITE SECTION) IN THE FUTURE VERSIONS. SO THE OCCURRENT MODIFICATION SHOULD BE APPLIED FOR THE APPROPRIATE CROSS SECTION. and considered only in the concrete cross section design (not included in ConSteel 5. In case of concrete material the Effective elastic modulus is used in the analysis as it defined in the EC 2. New materials can also be created with arbitrary parameters. line support. Surface supports can be assigned to existing surfaces. end points or snap points can be used).

5.0 USER MANUAL

1

2

3 5 4

Placing supports according to the member local coordinate system is very useful feature when working with sloping members. The visibility of the local coordinate system can be turned on and also the name of the axes.

Local eccentricity can also be defined to the supports (#4). This feature can be used for modelling the support of the bracing which is not connected to the reference line of the member but supporting the flange of the section.

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5.0 USER MANUAL There are several point support types predefined. The support type names can be clearly understood. For instance ‘x,y,z, xx’ means any movement is fixed in x, y and z direction and the rotation around x axe is also fixed. All the rest DOFs (Degrees of Freedom) are free.

WARNING! WARPING! BE AWARE THAT SINCE THE FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE STEEL BEAMS AND COLUMNS HAS 7 DOFS TH THE POINT SUPPORT ALSO HAS 7 DOFS, THE 7 DOF REPRESENTS THE WARPING OF THE CROSS SECTION. ACCORDINGLY IF A CROSS SECTION ON A CERTAIN PLACE IS CONSIDERED TO FIXED FOR TH WARPING (FOR INSTANCE IN HEAVILY STIFFENED JOINTS) THE 7 DOF SHOULD BE FIXED. IN JOINTS CONSISTING SEVERAL MEMBERS (ESPECIALLY WHEN MEMBER ECCENTRICITIES ARE PRESENT) IT IS ADVISABLE TO APPLY WARPING SUPPORT!

If any special supports are needed during the modelling process which are not among the predefined support types then click on the support definition icon (#5). Here you can define new supports. 7 DOFs can be set to free, fix or semi-rigid. In the last case stiffness must be also set.

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5.0 USER MANUAL

5.6 C ONNECTIONS
The link element icon Link element can be used to connect elements which are not directly connected to each other.

For example if there is a cantilever on a relatively high tapered column (see image below) it is advisable to connect it not directly to the reference line of the column but with the link element. If it is connected the way like that the analysis and design results are more accurate and the modelling is more exact.

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An error message: “Press any key to continue or any other key to exit…” 49 WWW. All the loading functionality connecting with the load modelling is placed on the L OA D S tab. These factors can be edited manually or by clicking the ‘Standard values of factors’ icon. Here typical cases can be selected which are provided by the EuroCode.1 B ASICS The definition of loading on a structural model is one of the most important modelling phases. 6. In a Load group several load cases can be defined. For each load group safety and combination factors must be given. Meteorological.CONSTEEL. In ConSteel 5.0 several types of loading options help the engineer in this work. Accidental and Seismic. Transient.HU . In accordance with the modelling of structural member the engineer can work with the load types and options defined and handled in the structural standards and the applied loads are automatically converted into finite element loads for the calculation model. There are 4 different load group types in ConSteel: Persistent. Contrary to the modelling of structural members the load modelling is minutely controlled and supported by the structural codes and standards since the appropriate definition of loads ensures the major part in the reliability of structural performance.5. Factor values are dependent from the selected NA. Precise load groups needed to automatically generate load combinations.2 L OAD CASES AND LOAD G ROUPS Before place any loads in the model load cases and load groups must be defined.0 USER MANUAL 6 STRUCTURAL LOADS 6.

5.CONSTEEL.HU . In order to do so please select the appropriate load case at the bottom right corner of the dialogue. 50 WWW.0 USER MANUAL ConSteel can add the structure’s dead load to a selected load case if necessary.

CONSTEEL. The white ones are manually edited. If the automatic load combination feature is used in ConSteel it is advisable to delete those rows which cannot be relevant. Load combinations can be created manually by giving the safety and combination factors manually for each load case or can be created automatically by using the automatic load combination generation function of ConSteel. So it is good to keep the number of the load combinations to the minimum. 51 WWW.5.3 L OAD COMBINATION According to the actual structural design code load combinations must be set from load cases.HU . It is possible to edit multiple safety factors at a time: select safety factors and right click over it. The yellow rows in the load combination table are the automatically generated combinations. Huge number of load combinations needs long period of time to calculate in the analysis. It is important to set the limit state correctly because design checks will be made to Resistance load combinations and also serviceability check are performed for SLS combinations. To do so select the load combination (multiple LC-s can be selected with using CTRL and SHIFT buttons) and click on the Delete Load Combination icon.0 USER MANUAL 6.

4.1 POINT LOAD Any placed load will belong to the load case selected from the list.4. 52 WWW. local or the user defined coordinate system.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 6.4 L OAD TYPES 6.HU .5. 6. In order to place a line load you can either click on the member using the select function (#1) or set the start point and the end point of the line load using the draw function (#2). The 5th icon from the left (#3) is the ‘Global Projection System’ which is commonly used when modeling the snow load.2 LINE LOAD Line loads can be placed along a member. If just a partial line load need to be applied along the member then the partial line load function (#4) can be used. Point loads can be placed according to the global.

CONSTEEL. 53 WWW.4.5.4 LOAD TRANSFER SURFACE Load transfer surface is special surface which distributes surface loads to members as line loads. After clicking on the dedicated icon on the L OA D S tab a dialog window appears.4. This is very useful in those situations when surface load need to be distributed to members.HU . etc. snow and wind load. 6. like floor loads.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 3 4 6. No surface moment loads can be placed.3 SURFACE LOAD Surface loads can be defined using the same method like in point or in line loads.

draw leaning rectangle. draw polygon.5.HU . If none of the options is clicked. There are two options: distribute load to the selected members or distribute load to all members in the surface plane. 54 WWW. It is also possible to chose the second option and remove from the selection by using the Shift + Left mouse click on the member. then the second one will be applied as a default. If second option is clicked then the appropriate members will be highlighted.0 USER MANUAL Just like in the two-dimensional figure drawing there are different possibilities to draw the surface: draw a rectangle. After the corresponding members have been selected and OK is clicked then the surface is created.CONSTEEL. After drawing the surface it is possible to select the members which the surface distribute the load. draw circle.

5. It is possible to highlight the previously selected members by clicking on the blue thick. Select the members which it distributes loads to or accept the default setting which is distribute loads to all planar members. Converting surface loads to line loads is performed by a meeting the following requirements: line load is linear on member the value is the same on a node for all incoming members project equilibrium The basic working method can be used as described below. There are two visibility options: view the surface load or view the distributed load.0 USER MANUAL Surface load can be placed by using the method described in chapter 6.HU .1 MODIFYING LOAD TRANSFER SURFACE Load transfer surface can be modified by selecting it and changing the properties in the property bar.4. First create the load transfer surface.4. Changing the views is possible by clicking on the dedicated icon which can be found among the visibility of graphics symbols setting. Apply surface loads to the surface at every load case. 6.3.4.CONSTEEL. Member selection can be easily modified from the planar members to selected members. 55 WWW.

6.0 USER MANUAL If selected members option is chosen and then the black arrow is clicked then previously selected members can be removed from the selection or new members can be added. Then add the reference temperature (construction temperature) and the upper and lower temperature of the cross section.4. 56 WWW. First choose the type of the temperature load: the temperature is changing along the cross section’s height or the width.CONSTEEL.HU . The last step is to select the member where you would like to apply the load.5 TEMPERATURE LOAD Temperature loads can be defined in members or in surfaces.5.

6 PRESCRIBED DISPLACEMENT Prescribed displacement can be applied for point supports.4. PRESTRAIN The change of the original member system length can be set and applied as a load. 57 WWW. 6.4.0 USER MANUAL 6.7 PRESTRESS.HU .5.CONSTEEL.

HU .5 I NITIAL SWAY Initial sway can be set for the whole model.5.0 USER MANUAL 6.CONSTEEL. 6.6 E ARTHQUAKE TO B E PR E PA R ED 58 WWW.

The considered displacements. shape functions. torsional-.0 USER MANUAL 7 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 7.2. The great variety of calculation possibilities includes first and complete second order (not only P. On the other hand the engineer should be aware of the important characteristics of the used finite elements already at the model building phase in order to avoid the nonexpected structural behavior and calculate the mechanical performance of the imagined structure as accurate as possible. The ConSteel applies the finite element method for all the calculations using two beam-column element types (traditional 12 DOF Timoshenko and 14 DOF thin-walled including warping of the section) and two shell elements (triangle and quadrilateral). there are no options for special reduced degree of freedom calculations (plane frames. Usually this step can be skipped since the in the first step of the analysis the finite element mesh generation is automatically performed. local buckling analysis of slender steel members built from shell elements. and additionally the modern structural standards usually define the appropriate and required analysis type for the used design formula.effect) analysis. plate or membrane surfaces etc.1 BASICS The mechanical performance of the calculated model is always highly influenced and limited by the applied finite element type.5. and lateral-torsional buckling solutions. second order effects within the finite element model basically determine the quality of the analysis. 7.2 F INITE ELEMENTS 7. static and dynamic eigenvalue analysis and earthquake calculation based on elastic response spectrum and modal analysis.1 B ASICS The analysis of the structural model can be the most “black box” type phase of the design process for the engineer. On the F I NI T E EL EM E NT tab mesh generation options are available for surface elements.HU . forces. and the generated finite element model can be viewed. The functionalities connected with the structural analysis are placed on two tabs: the F I NI T E EL EM E NT and A NA L Y S I S tab. the expectable results and accordingly the applicable standard verification methods. In ConSteel all the finite elements model always the real 3D behavior.) if it is required appropriate support and/or load 59 WWW. The exceptionally fast and robust equation solvers yield optimal calculation time even for unusually huge models.CONSTEEL. flexural-.

no forces or supports are considered along the finite elements.5. torsion or any interaction of these. bending moment.2 LINE ELEMENTS There are two options for line elements: a 7 degrees-of-freedom (7DOF) beam-column element for the bars subjected to axial force. a tension-only (TO) element for bars subjected by tension force. 7. The subsequent sections do not intend to introduce the deep theory behind the applied finite elements – it can be found in the literature – only the most significant features are presented and explained which are important to know for the appropriate interpretation of the results. The 7DOF element is specially developed for thin-walled members where the warping of the cross-section is of high importance in the behavior.2.0 USER MANUAL system should be applied. this feature is taken into account during the automatic FE mesh generation. In the following figure the considered nodal displacements are illustrated: Ux x Uy Uz y ’x z 60 WWW.HU . this effect is considered by the 7 th DOF. All the defined loads and supports are converted to nodal forces by load cases and nodal supports.CONSTEEL.

fl.5. It is a quite important and advantageous feature in the stability design of these members but since the accurate calculation of all the torsional modes is highly dependent on the 7th warping DOF it is essential to consider this effect already in the modeling phase (see chapter 5 S T R U C T U R A L M O D E L L I NG for the modeling warnings). Uz) and rotations ( x. A first order analysis is performed foremost considering all the TO elements modeled by one finite element. The next figure illustrates the warping effect of I shaped cross-section when the flanges step out of the original plane of the section. Next a force check is 61 WWW.u z ’x fl. y. all modes can be calculated by the 7DOF element. Uy. lateral-torsional buckling and any interactions of these.2 C O OR D I NA T E th S Y S T EM S ). z) according to the local coordinate system of the member (see section 4.0 USER MANUAL The first 6 DOF are the conventional displacements (Ux. The TO elements have only 1 DOF which is the longitudinal displacement (Ux).l z In this case the warping DOF can be considered as a dual and opposite rotation of the flanges about the axis perpendicular to their width (in this case the local axis “z”). What needs more explanation is the 7 DOF which is mathematically the first derivative of the twist about the longitudinal axis ( 'x).HU .CONSTEEL. Since steel members are usually relatively slender various modes of global stability failure can occur: flexural buckling. mechanically it represents the warping of the section which is straight consequence of torsion on thin-walled members. These elements are considered in the calculation only if they are subjected to tension accordingly the calculations are iterative in nature. torsional buckling.

line loads and line supports 62 WWW.E.3 M ODEL CHECK ( DIAGNOSTICS ) In ConSteel there is a possibility to perform a model check previous to executing any calculations. the other part is performed on the generated finite element model (pre-calculation check). W A R N I N G : the warnings allow the calculations but notice the possible errors. This function automatically runs before starting the finite element mesh generation or analysis but can be initiated any time (switching the “Diagnostics” on the View menu and run) examining the recent state of the model. 7. SINCE THE EIGENVALUE CALCULATIONS CAN NOT BE PERFORMED ITERATIVELY IT MAY HAPPEN THAT IN THE EIGENSHAPE THE TO ELEMENT GETS COMPRESSION I. It is continued until all the TO elements has tension. IN THIS CASE IF THIS EFFECT IS SIGNIFICANT AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED A NEW EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS SHOULD BE RUN WITHOUT THE TO ELEMENT. these are basic requirements for the normal performance of a model. The following basic checks are performed: existence of load on the structure existence of support on the structure length of bars.5. There are two kinds of diagnostics messages: E R R OR : the errors make the calculations impossible or meaningless to execute so the detected errors stop further calculations.2. ITS LENGTH SHORTENS.CONSTEEL. This model configuration is taken into account in the eigenvalue calculations.0 USER MANUAL executed on the TO elements and the compressed ones are neglected from the model and a new calculation is initiated. Part of the model checks is performed on the user model (basic check).2.4 MESH GENERATION TO B E PR E PA R ED 7.HU .3 SURFACE ELEMENTS TO B E PR E PA R ED 7.

The buckling analysis can be performed for the whole model or for a model portion. If buckling analysis is clicked 10 eigenvalues are calculated.4 A NALYSIS TYPES The required analysis types can be set on the A NA L Y S I S PA R A M ET ER S panel. By using the first tab it is possible to set analysis parameters for all load combinations at the same time. length and compatibility of haunches multiple supports on the same place compatibility of tension bars The following pre-calculation checks are performed: overhang of line loads and line supports point loads and point supports are not on the model overlap of surface members overlap of bar members very small distance (< 5 mm) between points or lines of surfaces.CONSTEEL. All types can be run for all the finite elements.5. 63 WWW. For each load combination unique settings can be set on the second tab.HU . Basically the analysis types can be defined for the existing load combinations. loads or supports (The limit distance can be set in the Options menu) The object which the errors or warnings are detected on can be selected and deleted from the diagnostics results table (in the middle of the right tables).0 USER MANUAL value for the thickness and finite element size for surface members overlap. bars. 7. Load combinations can be turned off or type of analysis can be set.

Performing the whole first order analysis as described in the previous section 64 WWW.2 SECOND ORDER The second order calculations take into account that the loaded and deformed structure can behave differently than the initial configuration. prescribed displacements.CONSTEEL. The steps of the second order analysis are the following: 1. Calculation of first order (initial) stiffness matrices (Kels) of the finite elements in their local coordinate system 2.4. Compiling the global stiffness matrix (Ks) and nodal force vector (P) of the whole model by transforming the element stiffness matrices into the global coordinate system 3. Modifying the global stiffness matrix and nodal force vector considering the special boundary conditions (supports.4.2 F I NI T E EL E M E NT S for the interpretation of nodal displacements and forces): (1) 5. It is advisable to run a first order analysis in order to check the model performance before executing more costly calculations (for instance eigenvalue analysis).1 FIRST ORDER The first order analysis calculates the structural response considering the initial stiffness of the model. Solution of the basic linear system of equations which writes the relationship between the applied nodal forces – known variables generated from the loads – and the nodal displacements – unknown variables (U) – in the global coordinate system for the global model (see section 7.5.0 USER MANUAL 7. temperature loads etc. Calculation of the internal forces (and stresses) of the elements (f ) in their local coordinate system by transforming the global nodal displacements of the element into local system (uel) using their local stiffness matrices: el KsU P U K s 1P f el K el u el s (2) 7. continuity releases between the elements.) 4.HU . This effect can be considered as if the initial stiffness was changing during the loading history. The steps of the first order analysis are the following: 1.

Modifying the second order global stiffness matrix and nodal force vector considering the special boundary conditions (supports. If the difference between the new nodal displacements and the ones obtained earlier exceeds a certain limit repeat the calculations from step 2 7.3 STATIC EIGENVALUE – BUCKLING ANALYSIS In a mechanical interpretation the eigenvalue analysis approximates the elastic critical load levels where the structure is subjected to some modes of loss of stability. continuity releases between the elements.2 F I N I T E EL EM E NT S for the interpretation of nodal displacements and forces): (3) 6.5.0 USER MANUAL 2.CONSTEEL. Mathematically it means that the second order equation of (3) has no unique solution because the second order stiffness matrix is singular.) 5. Calculation of geometric stiffness matrices (Kelg) of the finite elements in their local coordinate system by the internal forces of the elements (fel) 3. Calculation of the internal forces (and stresses) of the elements (f ) in their local coordinate system by transforming the global nodal displacements of the element into local system (uel) using their local stiffness matrices: el Ks Kg U P U Ks Kg 1 P f el K el u el s 7.4. Compiling the second order global stiffness matrix (Ks + Kg) and nodal force vector (P) of the whole model by transforming the element stiffness matrices into the global coordinate system 4. temperature loads etc. 65 WWW.HU . conservative loading and that the geometric stiffness matrix depends linearly on the load factor ( ): Kg( f ) Kg(f ) (4) In this case the eigenvalue analysis can be written in the following form: Ks Kg U 0 (5) The solutions are certain critical load factors (buckling loads icr) which make the second order stiffness matrix singular and corresponding displacements (buckling shapes Ui). Solution of the basic linear system of equations which writes the relationship between the applied nodal forces – known variables generated from the loads – and the nodal displacements – unknown variables (U) – in the global coordinate system for the loaded and deformed global model (see section 7. prescribed displacements. In ConSteel linear eigenvalue analysis is performed considering one parameter.

The possible vibration shapes which can be calculated by this eigenvalue analysis are basically influenced by the considered stiffness and mass matrices which are determined by the applied finite element. lateral-torsional buckling and any interactions of these.1 RESULT TYPES For the two types of finite elements (line and surface elements) the following analysis results are available: 66 WWW. In ConSteel linear eigenvalue analysis is performed considering the second order stiffness matrix and consistent mass matrix (M) Ks Kg 2 MU 0 (6) The solutions are certain eigenfrequencies ( i) and corresponding displacements (free vibration shapes Ui).4. In case of beam-column structures the 7 DOF finite elements have the capability to consider all modes of global vibration shapes: flexural. lateral-torsional vibration and any interactions of these. 7. torsional.HU .CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL The possible buckling shapes which can be calculated by this eigenvalue analysis are basically influenced by the considered second order effects which are determined by the applied finite element. In case of beam-column structures the 7 DOF finite elements have the capability to consider all modes of global buckling shapes: flexural buckling.5 A NALYSIS RESULTS 7.5.4. 7.5 EARTHQUAKE TO B E PR E PA R ED 7.4 DYNAMIC EIGENVALUE – VIBRATION ANALYSIS In a mechanical interpretation the dynamic eigenvalue analysis approximates the eigenfrequencies where the structure is subjected to some modes of free vibration. torsional buckling.5.

HU .CONSTEEL.5. Surface elements First and second order calculations: Deformations – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system  XYZ – all components 67 WWW. Line elements First and second order calculations: Deformations – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system  XYZ – all components  X – only displacements in the "X” direction  Y – only displacements in the "Y” direction  Z – only displacements in the "Z” direction Equilibrium – signed summation of the internal nodal force components and the appropriate external force and reaction components. all the values should be zero which means the model is in equilibrium in the calculated deformed state Internal forces – on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system  N – axial force  Vy – shear force in the local “y” direction  Vz – shear force in the local “z” direction  Mx – torsional moment  My – bending moment about the local “y” axis  Mz – bending moment about the local “z” axis  B – bimoment Reactions – on the support nodes in the global coordinate system  R – all the reaction forces and moments  RR – all the reaction forces  RRR – all the reaction moments  Rx – reaction force in the in the global “X” direction  Ry – reaction force in the in the global “Y” direction  Rz – reaction force in the in the global “Z” direction  Rxx – reaction moment about the global “X” direction  Ryy – reaction moment about the global “Y” direction  Rzz – reaction moment about the global “Z” direction Static eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system Dynamic eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system 2.0 USER MANUAL 1.

middle and lower plane of the surface on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system     x y – normal stress in the local “x” direction – normal stress in the local “y” direction – shear stress 2 x y x y xy 1 – maximum principal stress 2 xy 1 2 2  2 – minimum principal stress 68 WWW.5. all the values should be zero which means the model is in equilibrium in the calculated deformed state Forces on surface – edge forces and moments per unit length on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system  mx – bending moment on the section perpendicular to the local “x” axis  my – bending moment on the section perpendicular to the local “y” axis  mxy – torsional moment  nx – normal force in the local “x” direction  ny – normal force in the local “y” direction  nxy – membrane shear force  vxz – plate shear force on the section perpendicular to the local “x” axis  vyz – plate shear force on the section perpendicular to the local “y” axis  vRz – resultant plate shear force  n – principal directions of the membrane forces 2n xy 1 arctan 2 nx n y 2m xy 1 arctan 2 mx m y n 90 n 90  m – principal directions of the plate moments 90 m m 90 Stresses on surface – on upper.HU .CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL  X – only displacements in the "X” direction  Y – only displacements in the "Y” direction  Z – only displacements in the "Z” direction Equilibrium – signed summation of the internal nodal force components and the appropriate external force and reaction components.

The two visualization options are obviously in strong connection and can be manipulated by the functions placed on the upper part of the A NA L Y S I S tab.HU . There are two main possibilities for the demonstration of the analysis results: the graphical visualization and the result tables (for the general functionality of tables used in ConSteel see section 1. There should be opportunities for global overview and for obtaining accurate.2 VISUALIZATION OPTIONS The results of the performed analysis are usually a huge amount of data so the efficient handling of it has great importance. The four combos contain the following selection options (from left to right): selection of analysis type (discussed in section 7.CONSTEEL.5.5.4 A NA L Y S I S T Y P ES ) selection of load combination or load case selection of result type (discussed in section 7.4 G E N ER A L FU NC T I O NS F OR T A BL ES ). detailed information about a certain part or problem.0 USER MANUAL 2 x 2 y x y 2 xy 2 2  HMH HMH – Huber-Mises-Hencky stress 2 x 2 y x y 3 2 xy  – principal directions of the stresses 1 arctan 2 2 x xy y 90 90 Reactions – on the support nodes in the global coordinate system  R – all the reaction forces and moments  RR – all the reaction forces  RRR – all the reaction moments  Rx – reaction force in the in the global “X” direction  Ry – reaction force in the in the global “Y” direction  Rz – reaction force in the in the global “Z” direction  Rxx – reaction moment about the global “X” direction  Ryy – reaction moment about the global “Y” direction  Rzz – reaction moment about the global “Z” direction Static eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system Dynamic eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system 7.1 R ES U L T T Y PES ) 69 WWW.5.

3 R ES U L T M A R K E R S ) All values.5.2 M OD EL VI E WS are applicable on the result graphics.HU .CONSTEEL. 7.3 RESULT MARKERS On the graphical interpretation of the results markers can be placed in order to show certain significant values. force components reaction type results (reactions. In case of partial or submodel view the graphics and the tables show only the results of the actual model part.5.0 USER MANUAL selection of type of view All the model view options discussed in section 3. displacement components force type results (internal forces. When moving the mouse along the structural elements (or more correctly the finite elements) the result markers continuously appear showing the actual values. static or dynamic eigenshapes): finite element node number. Three types of result tables can be viewed: Extreme values by members: select the maximum and minimum values for each structural members User defined values: show the values belonging to the markers defined by the user (discussed more deeply in section 7. equilibrium): finite element node number. reaction components. The result tables arrange the values according to the current result type: displacement type results (first or second order deformations. These markers can be fixed by clicking on the right mouse button and choosing the ‘Marker’ option. finite element number. 70 WWW.5. Moving the slide beside the combos the scaling of the results can be adjusted on the graphics. forces or stresses on surface): finite element node number.

5.0 USER MANUAL The fixed markers will appear on every result views where it has interpretable value: Deformation Normal force Bending moment 71 WWW.CONSTEEL.HU .

HU .5.CONSTEEL. Only the values at the ends of structural members are examined.5.0 USER MANUAL When there are fixed markers on the model the ‘User defined values’ table contains the appropriate (view dependant) values of the marked points. The table is view sensitive which means that the dominant values are always selected from the current result type. The markers can be deleted by: click on the proper row in the table by the right mouse button click on the marked point on the graphics by the right mouse button and chose ‘Remove marker’ Extreme values can automatically marked by the check boxes on the ‘Extreme values’ table rows. The functionality of the table is as follows: 72 WWW. 7. In this table the markers can be switched to disabled by uncheck the proper row.4 TABLE OF DOMINANT VALUES The last icon on the A NA L Y S I S tab activates the table of dominant values.

the dominant values are always highlighted by colored cells.5.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 5 3 4 7 – selection of appropriate load combinations belonging to resistance or serviceability limit states (the deformations are automatically appear for the serviceability limit state. while the internal forces and reactions for the resistance limit state) – setting the type of extreme values – sorting the values for bars (structural members). the ‘Dominant’ column contains the dominant components 8 9 10 11 73 WWW.HU .CONSTEEL. bar groups or cross sections – handle the ends of the members separately (A. B ends) or together (Both ends) – single or multiple component selection is possible.

0 USER MANUAL 8 STANDARD DESIGN TO B E PR E PA R ED 74 WWW.5.CONSTEEL.HU .

0 there is a powerful and easy-to-use documentation engine in order to create precise. the name of the engineers and the date of the creation can also be set but would appear only on the front page. 75 WWW. On the first window the name of the documentation can be set.5.2. The name appears on every page of the documentation.1 START DOCUMENTATION All icons which related to the documentation are placed in the documentation tab. Other fields like the name of the project.2 T HE DOCUMENTATION TAB 9.1 B ASICS In ConSteel 5.0 USER MANUAL 9 DOCUMENTATION 9. easily editable static documents that meet the requirements of the structural engineers. The static documentation contains the full description of the model and also the results of the analysis and design. The documentation can be generated if first icon is clicked.CONSTEEL.HU . The documentation wizard guides you through the documentation generating process. 9.

CONSTEEL. The “Header_pic. 76 WWW.0 USER MANUAL The header and the footer pictures of the document can be customized so your own company logo can be added. These files can be found in the software’s installation directory.png” and the “Footer_pic. Any of the analysis results can be chosen if had been calculated previously. the default path is the following: C:\Program Files\ConSteel 4.5.png” need to be replaced by your own images. The second step is to choose which of the analysis results need to be included in the documentation. In order to do so the default header and footer images need to be replaced.HU .0\Pic.

5.1.1 DOCUMENTATION MODULE 77 WWW.0 USER MANUAL The third window of the wizard includes the name of the chapters which can be added to or can be removed from the documentation.CONSTEEL. If you click on the Create button the program will generate the documentation.2. 9.HU .

The appendices can also be deleted from the database. IT SHOULD BE BEAR IN MIND THAT THE DOCUMENTATION NEED TO BE REGENERATED TO BE UPTO-DATE AFTER ANY CHANGES HAS BEEN MADE ON THE MODEL. IF THERE ARE SNAPSHOTS IN THE DOCUMENTATION THESE SNAPSHOTS SHOULD BE TAKEN AGAIN AND NEED TO BE ADDED TO THE DOCUMENTATION. The chapters can be moved up or down using the arrow icons if a chapter is selected. There are lot of possibilities in ConSteel where tables can be saved.0 USER MANUAL After creating the documentation it will be opened in a new window. By clicking the Pictures tab the image handling icons can be seen. The last tab is the Appendices. The third tab is the Tables. If any joint or section documentation had been generated previously. The table will be inserted below the selected paragraph. Any of the taken snapshots can be inserted into the documentation or can be deleted. 78 WWW. You can also insert page break anywhere in the document using the sixth icon. If you see the icon then that table is saveable. It is also possible to delete content from document by clicking the third icon. At the top right of the window the chapters can be seen. If you click on a paragraph which contains text then the last two icons on the right can be used to edit the paragraph content and the alignment. these can be found here and can be added to the end of the documentation. Text can be inserted anywhere in the document if you click on the fourth icon and type in the desired text into the window. Any previously saved tables can be inserted to the documentation or can be deleted from the model database. If a paragraph is clicked where there is a table the last icon can be used to delete any column from the table. The last three icons can be used for the following purposes: Edit heading and increase or decrease level of heading. The last two icons on the right are different if you click on a chapter or in a paragraph. It is also possible to insert headings by clicking on the fifth icon.CONSTEEL. If you click on a chapter then the icons are as described above.5.HU . The image will be inserted below the selected paragraph.

The size of the snapshot can be set and a dashed rectangle shows which part of the model would appear on the picture.2.2.CONSTEEL. The snapshots can be easily added to the desired part of the documentation (see 9.1 chapter for detailed information). The name of the images can also be edited by double clicking the name of the image.1.2.3 SNAPSHOT MANAGER The third icon on the documentation tab is the Snapshot manager where the taken snapshots can be exported to a file or can be deleted from the model in order to reduce model file size.5. 79 WWW.2 CREATING SNAPSHOTS The second icon on the documentation tab can be used to take a snapshot of the model. The model can be moved or rotated to fit into the dashed rectangle. 9.0 USER MANUAL 9.HU .

The model information can be shown based on the full model or on the current view if the model view shows only a part of the full model using the sub model view. surface and the length can be viewed for each section in the model. Total weight of the structure. The mass.HU . 80 WWW.2.5. etc. The model information window shows the most important features of the model like Number of bars.CONSTEEL.4 MODEL INFORMATION With using the fourth icon on the documentation tab the model information can be viewed or can be exported to a file. Number of supports.0 USER MANUAL 9.

CONSTEEL. the Elastic Plate Segment (EPS) is a thin-walled model especially for steel profiles. Two parallel modeling possibilities exist: the General Solid Section (GSS) is an accurate finite element based surface model for any kind of cross-sections. 81 WWW. This module collects all the tools relate to the creation. This can be done in the section administration dialogue.HU . These icons can be found in the S TR U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab. Here you can see all the previously loaded sections and new sections can be loaded or created by clicking the appropriate buttons on the right.0 USER MANUAL 10 SECTION MODULE 10. Section administration and Section module can be launched by clicking the icons shown above.1 B ASICS The wide functionality of the ConSteel connected with cross-sections suggested detaching a separate module: Section Module (C S S EC T I O N ).5.2 S ECTION ADMINISTRATION Section must be loaded into the model database in order to use it in the model. 10. stress analysis and standard design of a cross-section. property calculation. The steel standard design formulas are easy to evaluate on the EPS model including the real effective section generation of class 4 cross-sections based on the sectional forces resulted from the structural analysis.

which can be used and run for the same section side by side. 82 WWW.3. Multiple sections can be loaded at the same time by using the typical Windows selection tools: CTRL and SHIFT buttons.1 THE EPS MODEL The Elastic Plate Segment (EPS) model is a thin-walled simplification of the usually steel profiles from welded. hot-rolled or cold-formed sections. So called macro sections can also be created in ConSteel. Cold-Formed sections and Compound sections. If a section is selected the all the properties can be seen at the right. and the standard procedures can be evaluated on this effective section.0 USER MANUAL Sections can be loaded from the library into the model. In case of Class 4 profile the effective cross-section is automatically generated based on the proper sectional forces. These macro sections can be found in three sub-categories: Welded sections from plates.HU . torsional and shear properties and stresses and moreover it calculates the static moments and sectional classes according to the Eurocode. It is very important to know that the material grade of the member must be chosen when the section is loaded into the database. In the section library all the most used standard European sections can be found in a tree structure.CONSTEEL. The EPS model is also very suitable for the evaluation all of the standard design formulas in a very sophisticated way. 10. The model is very easy and fast to calculate and has accurate results for thin-walled sections compared with the GSS model. The model yields the same general.5.3 S ECTION MODELLING 10.

0 USER MANUAL 10. Venant and warping moment of inertia. The section can be assembled with any number of different materials and the automatic finite element mesh generates separate triangles for the certain materials controlling the mesh size according to the elastic properties of the material.HU .3. The model dissolves the section with arbitrary shape into triangle elements. and these accurate properties are used in the global analysis. etc. shear areas and factors.) the GSS model precisely calculates the torsional and shear properties like St. second moment of inertia. 83 WWW..5..2 THE GSS MODEL The General Solid Section (GSS) was created in order to model any kind of cross sections as accurate as possible. Beyond the usual properties (sectional area. and calculates the sectional properties by the finite element method. etc.CONSTEEL. The elastic normal. torsional and shear stresses can be also calculated on this model using a spectacular colored view.

1 GEOMETRICAL CALCULATIONS There are three coordinate systems in Section module: main axis system.5.2 LOADS If the section module is opened from the model.0 USER MANUAL 10. section edit system replaced in centre and the construction coordinate systems. The relevant is chosen but any other can be selected and checked. It is also possible to add load combinations manually by clicking on the New Load Combination icon.4 S ECTION T OOLS 10.HU . 10.4.4. then all the load combination from the model are automatically imported into the section model.CONSTEEL. There are two ways to open C S S EC T I O N directly for a 84 WWW. C S S EC T I O N can be launched from the model if the S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab is chosen and standard design had been run. The section properties can be viewed according to these coordinate systems.

3 STRESSES Stresses can be checked by selecting the P R OP ER T I ES tab and clicking on the S T R ES S ES icon .5. Venant torsion 85 WWW. Stresses can be viewed both in the EPS and the GSS model.y τTsv.4.0 USER MANUAL selected section. The second way is to press right click over the element in the result sheet which can be found in the bottom of the screen on the S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab and click on C A L C U L A T E S EC T I O N . 10.HU . Venant torsion Resultant shear stress due to St.CONSTEEL.z Σ τTsv Stress name Normal stress due to axial force Normal stress due strong axis bending Normal stress due to weak axis bending Normal stress due to bimoment Resultant normal stress Shear stress due to strong axis shear force Shear stress due to weak axis shear force Resultant shear stress due to shear forces Strong axis shear stress due to St. First is to press right click on S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab over the section which needs to be analysed and select C A L C U L A T E S EC T I O N . Venant torsion Weak axis shear stress due to St. The following stresses are calculated by C S S EC T I O N : Stress Symbol σN σMy σMz σB Σσ τVy τVz ΣτV τTsv.

examination of pure cases.CONSTEEL.5 STANDARD RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS The standard design procedures performed on the EPS model cover the major part of steel design methods in the Eurocode (the whole EC 3 1-1 and parts of EC 3 1-5) including the calculations of general elastic resistance. plastic and conservative interaction resistances of certain section types.4. web buckling analysis.5. is clicked and EPS model is selected then effective section take into 10.4 EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION If the first icon consideration.z Σ τTω Σ τT Σ τy Σ τz Strong axis shear stress due to warping torsion Weak axis shear stress due to warping torsion Resultant shear stress due to warping torsion Resultant shear stress due to torsion Strong axis resultant shear stress Weak axis resultant shear stress 10.HU .4. 86 WWW.0 USER MANUAL τTω.y τTω.

formula and load combination can be found there.5 DOCUMENTATION Each analyzed cross-section can be separately documented in detail for both section design including the shape parameters. 87 WWW. The way for creating documentation is the same as in ConSteel main module. mechanical and design results.0 USER MANUAL For a given loading case the module determines the necessary and possible checks. 10. geometrical. performs all the standard calculations and evaluates the dominant case. see chapter 9 for more detailed instructions. There is a short summary about the calculations on the right and also the name of the dominant case.HU .CONSTEEL.5. and the generated documents can be attached to the main documentation of the global structure.

the design tools covers practically the whole joint standard Eurocode 3 Part 1-8. A joint can be defined alone or based on the global model by the automatic joint identification tool. usually considering the claims of the users.0 USER MANUAL 11 JOINT MODULE 11. end-plate moment connection 88 WWW. end-plate moment connection on the flanges Simple shear connection on the flanges or on the web Gusset plate connection with double plate flange splice of I sections or plate splice of hollow sections on the flanges or on the web Beam-to-beam (web) joints with Bolted. and the connection stiffness is also updated modifying the global model consequently. These are the followings: Edit joint. 11.HU . A prepared joint can be placed several parts of the global model to make the joint integral part of it. At the moment the C S J OI NT module has the following joint and connection types: Beam-to-column joints with Welded moment connection on the flanges Bolted.CONSTEEL. Create joint by model. All the joint related commands can be found on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab. A placed joint is always automatically rechecked based on the current analysis results.5.2 J OINT T YPES The number of the joint types is one of the most dynamically developing parts of the software.1 B ASICS In the ConSteel design approach great emphasis is placed on the integrated modeling and calculation of the global structure and its connections therefore a powerful joint analysis engine is developed as a separate module: csJoint. A great range of different joint types can be created easily applying several special connection elements. Place joint.

shear stiffeners (supplementary web plate. single or double skew plate stiffener) etc. 89 WWW. Morrison stiffener. end-plate moment connection Simple shear connection Column base joints with Bolted.HU . transverse web stiffeners.0 USER MANUAL Simple shear connection Beam splice joints with Bolted.CONSTEEL. flange stiffeners and flange backing plates. base-plate moment connection Rigid connection with ground beam Hollow section (truss) joints with K and N connection T and Y connection Tension chord splice connection A module offers a number of strengthening possibilities such as: lower or/and upper haunch with or without flange.5.

HU .2 for the possible joint types).3 C REATE J OINT 11. 90 WWW. In this case the geometry and the loads need to be set manually.5.CONSTEEL. The next step is to choose the geometry of the connection and then the type of connection. Then the type of the connection needs to be chosen (see chapter 11.1 CREATE JOINT WITHOUT MODEL Joint models can be created without global model by clicking on the ‘E D I T J OI NT ’ icon on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab.0 USER MANUAL 11. After clicking on the Create button the name of the joint must be given.3.

To do so.HU .5.2 CREATE JOINT BY MODEL Creating joint by the model is simple and easy. After the joint is placed ConSteel automatically import the loads from the global model. Here it is possible to remove some members from the connection by removing the appropriate tick.CONSTEEL. use the ‘P L A C E J OI NT ’ function of ConSteel. The members will be automatically identified and the possible connection types are offered.3. Just click on the ‘C R EA T E J OI NT BY M OD EL ’ button and select the joint. 91 WWW. After creating the joint it is advisable to place it in the global model.0 USER MANUAL 11. One joint can be placed to several places in the model where the same geometry exists.

5.3. 92 WWW. No. engineer. No. Joint details appear in a new window where numerous settings can be made. In the following pages we would like to give you an overview of the Joint module (C S J O I NT ) using a beam to column connection as an example.HU .0 USER MANUAL 11.CONSTEEL. etc. Additional connections can be added or removed if necessary. 3 part shows a tree structure about the joint: all components of the connection can be seen and selected here. project. 2 part in the image below shows the general type of the connection.2 MANIPULATING CONNECTIONS No matter if a joint is created with our without model manipulating the joint is the same. The #1 part in the image below contains general information about the joint: Joint name. These properties will appear in the joint documentation and also useful to distinguish joints from each other. date.

Furthermore the position of the reference plane is essential for the joint calculation. 1 2 3 93 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 3 1 2 If the column is selected then column related properties of the connection can be set like the section size and material grade (#1).CONSTEEL.5.HU . Setting the position of the column is also very important (#2). The image on the right gives a visual help about the meaning of ‘Lsr’ and ‘Lc’ variables.

Any changes made on the joint will take place either when pressing Enter on the keyboard or by clicking to another editable field on the window. Additional web and flange stiffeners can also be put in (#2). Summary for the selected connection. In order to place shear stiffener in the joint click on the #3 part. 1 2 3 4 End plate properties can be edited in the #1 highlighted part of the image below.CONSTEEL. In the pull down menu of the #3 highlighted part the type of the result visualisation can be set to three different types: Summary for the whole joint. Upper and lower stiffener plate properties can be seen in the #1 part of the image below.HU .0 USER MANUAL Stiffeners can be added if ‘S T I F F EN ER S ’ is clicked in the connection tree. Bear in mind that the position of the stiffeners are measured from the reference plane of the beam. In the last two cases a connection must be chosen in the connection tree. Bolt properties can be seen on #2 part.5. It can be turned off. which can be set if the ‘Beam’ is clicked in the joint tree (see #4 image). In that case click on the ‘C A L C U L A T I ON ’ button to run the calculation (#3). Detailed results of the selected connection. 94 WWW. If ‘Automatic calculation’ is turned on and any changes take place then the calculation of the joint is automatically rerun.

HU . For the different types of connections the following analyses are performed: Moment connections: Moment resistance based on the plastic tension components of the individual or grouped bolt rows and compression components including the effect of axial load Shear resistance of the bolts in combined shear and tension Bearing resistance of plates Web and flange weld resistance and capacity to the applied load. If the detailed result is selected then all the results of the necessary calculations can be seen according to the selected load combination or according to the dominant load case. the section strength or the appropriate component Initial and secant stiffness based on the tension and compression components and applied moment 95 WWW.4 A NALYSIS OF CONNECTIO NS All the analysis in C S J OI NT module is based on the standard procedures of Eurocode 3 Part 1-8.5. these procedures are almost entirely covered by the module. 11.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 3 4 The result of the joint calculation can be seen in the #4 highlighted part of the window.CONSTEEL.

web failure. and a detailed view showing the components of the main results which is comprehensive enough to see what are the weakest point of the connections and what type of strengthening would be the most efficient to apply. and the dominant place and combination is automatically highlighted.CONSTEEL.HU . and the summarized and detailed results for all cases can be flexibly documented.5.5 R ESULTS AND DOCUMENTA TION The analysis results are displayed in two main forms: a summarized view containing the main resistances. 96 WWW. A joint is calculated for all the loads coming from different places or different combinations. The spectacular documentation shows the detailed geometry of the joint with its connections.0 USER MANUAL Shear connections: Shear resistance of bolts and plates Bearing resistance of plates Block tearing resistance of plates Weld resistance and capacity to the applied load or section strength Hollow section connections: Chord face failure. stiffness and capacities. shear failure and punching shear failure Brace failure Local buckling of the members 11.

semi-rigid or pinned) which generally makes the results more economic and realistic. The stiffness of the connection can also be taking into account during the analysis if desired.0 USER MANUAL 11. In order to do so click on the analysis parameters and put a tick to ‘A PPL Y C O NN EC T I O N S T I F FN ES S ’. Rerun the analysis to the changes take place.6 S TRUCTURE -J OINT INTERACTION The most up-to-date structural design procedures take into account the mechanical interaction between the global structural model and its connections (rigid.HU . and a placed joint is always rechecked based on the current analysis results. After defining the joint it can place back to the global model and the appropriate connection stiffness can be automatically used in the global analysis. In order to place a joint to the global model click on the ‘P L A C E J OI NT ’ icon. which examines the position of the connected members and the proper cross-sections and offer the possible joint types. In the ConSteel all the joint types can be defined freely or based on the global model geometry using the automatic identification tool.5. However this approach requires a more complicated relationship between the joints and the structure and accordingly more serious modeling effort from the engineer. 97 WWW. One joint can be placed to several places in the model if these meet the geometrical requirements.CONSTEEL.

7 J OINT E XPORT All joints can be exported to StruCad 3D structural steel detailing software.HU .0 USER MANUAL 11.5. 98 WWW. See C H A PT ER 2.CONSTEEL.3 for more detailed information.

the corresponding row highlighted with green and analysis results are automatically loaded. It is can be performed by clicking on the Add button. Member design can be run if there is analysis result (first and second order) and cross check for the member.HU . Same like in the analysis the type of the result view can be set by three drop down menus.1 B ASICS All member design related functions can be found on the M EM B ER D ES I G N tab.CONSTEEL.5. Only one load combination can be selected at the same time. If a member is selected. Buckling and lateral torsional buckling analysis cannot be performed for all members. 12. If the normal force is negligible then no buckling analysis can be run.2 I NDIVIDUAL M EMBER D ESIGN To run member design. Special analysis can be run by clicking on the second icon. After that one member has to be chosen and Select button is clicked. first the members have to be selected and then added to the list. 99 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 12 MEMBER DESIGN 12.

interaction of buckling and bending. If the normal force is negligible then strong or weak axis buckling design cannot be run.CONSTEEL. 100 WWW. interaction of lateral-torsional buckling and bending). The dominant load combination is automatically selected and marked with a * symbol.HU .5. weak axis buckling. lateral-torsional buckling) and interaction stability (interaction of buckling and lateral torsional buckling. Depending on the member not all checks can be performed.0 USER MANUAL The next step is to choose the load combination and design type from the options: pure cases (strong axis buckling.

HU . Among the supports the member is divided to segments.5. There are two options to set the design parameters: set the effective length fact manually by typing in the appropriate value or by 101 WWW. The program automatically identifies the supports which could have effect on the buckling check.0 USER MANUAL If strong or weak axis buckling option is selected then first the design parameters has to be set. The design parameters can be individually set for each segment by clicking on the three dots icon.CONSTEEL. Segments can also be turned off in order not to calculate them during the analysis. The actual segment is highlighted with green.

New cases can be defined and unnecessary cases can be deleted. The second option is possible if the special analysis has already been run. For each segment start and end node can be set. 102 WWW.CONSTEEL. The corresponding case is highlighted with green in the image.5. Lateral torsional buckling design is more or less the same as the buckling design in ConSteel usage. There are three drop down menus in order to view different results. A short explanation can be read in the bottom when any of the rows is selected. If all the design parameters has been properly set then design check can be performed by clicking on the Check button.HU . the second one is to change load combinations and the third one is to change the buckling case. Results will be displayed.0 USER MANUAL choosing the right critical load multiplier. The first on can be used to change member. there are only small differences. In both cases the elastic critical axial force is automatically calculated.

5.0 USER MANUAL

By clicking on the three dots icon the design parameters can be altered. The elastic critical bending moment can be calculated from the analytic formula or from the critical load multiplier. When the first method is used the factors can be typed in or a special automatic C factor calculator can be used by clicking on the AutoC button. The second option is to choose the corresponding critical load multiplier from the list.

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5.0 USER MANUAL Interaction stability design goes through the steps of the pure cases. After the check is made the state of the member in the list at the bottom changes to ‘Examined’ from ‘Unexamined’.

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5.0 USER MANUAL

12.3 M EMBER G ROUP D ESIGN
By using the Select (+) button it is possible to select more members for the member design. Select (-) can be used for remove members from the selection. Member group design works nearly the same as individual member design there are just minor differences. No special analysis can be run in member group design therefore the critical load factor cannot be selected. If the members are selected then the next step is to select the design type and click Check button similar to the individual member design.

For each load combination member design can be turned off. It is important to know that not all design can be run for all members in load combinations. It depends on the analysis result.

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CONSTEEL. The number next to the member number shows the capacity.HU . 106 WWW.0 USER MANUAL In the results tab the dominant member is automatically shown.5.

5.HU .1 B ASICS All serviceability related functions can be found on the S ER VI C EA BI L I T Y tab. In order to create a new serviceability check N E W checks can be performed: Global horizontal deflection check Global vertical deflection check Local deflection check by members Relative deflection check for 2 points C H EC K button is clicked.0 USER MANUAL 13 SERVICEABILITY 13. The previously defined serviceability checks can be found and it is also possible to open or delete the selected checks.CONSTEEL. The following 107 WWW. By clicking on the blue arrow icon a new dialog appears.

5.CONSTEEL. Check is done after clicking the C A L C U L A T I O N button. Reference height can be typed in or two points can be selected and program calculates the height distance between them.2 G LOBAL HORIZONTAL DEF LECTION CHECK Global horizontal deflection check can be used to check the biggest horizontal deflection in the model or in the model portion.HU .0 USER MANUAL 13. 108 WWW. The dominant bar is automatically selected in the model to make the interpretation easier. First or Second order analysis can be selected just like the serviceability load combinations that need to be taken into account.

There is just minor difference which is the following: reference length has to be set instead of reference height.0 USER MANUAL 13.3 G LOBAL VERTICAL DEFLECTION CHECK Global vertical deflection check works similar to the global horizontal deflection check.CONSTEEL.5. This can be set manually or by clicking the two end points of the bar.HU . 109 WWW.

4 L OCAL DEFLECTION CHEC K BY MEMBERS Local deflection check by members goes through all the beams in the model.CONSTEEL. and then selects the maximum. This check is suitable only for horizontal beams i. 110 WWW.HU .5. and checks the local deflection.0 USER MANUAL 13. members in YX plane. Local deflection check by members is not adequate for cantilever beams just for beams which are supported by two other beams or supports in both ends.e.

111 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 13. Relative horizontal or vertical check can be selected and performed.5 R ELATIVE DEFLECTION C HECK FOR 2 POINTS Relative deflection check for 2 points can be used for two clicked points.HU .CONSTEEL.5.

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