CONSTEEL 5.

0 USER MANUAL

Version 5.0 20.04.2010.
www.consteel.hu

5.0 USER MANUAL

1
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL

CONTENT
1 General description ................................................................................................................ 6 1.1 Installing the software .......................................................................................................... 6 1.2 The main window ................................................................................................................. 6
1.2.1 The startup window ............................................................................................................... 7 1.2.2 The graphical window ............................................................................................................ 7 1.2.4 The menu ................................................................................................................................ 8 1.2.4 The tabs .................................................................................................................................. 9 1.2.5 The side bar .......................................................................................................................... 10 1.2.6 The status bar ....................................................................................................................... 10 1.2.7 The object and parameter tables ......................................................................................... 11

1.3 General structure of dialogue windows ............................................................................. 11 1.4 General functions for tables ............................................................................................... 12 1.5 Hot keys .............................................................................................................................. 13 2 File handling .......................................................................................................................... 15 2.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 15 2.2 File types............................................................................................................................. 15 2. 3 Complete model export into StruCad ............................................................................... 16 2. 4 Complete model export into Tekla Structures .................................................................. 18
2.4.1 Joint export limitations......................................................................................................... 19

3 Model view ........................................................................................................................... 21 3.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 21 3.2 Model views ....................................................................................................................... 21 3.3 Selection ............................................................................................................................. 22 3.2.1 Partial Model Management ............................................................................................ 23 3.4 Object names and labels .................................................................................................... 24 3.5 Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 25 4 Drawing geometry ................................................................................................................ 27 4.1 Basics .................................................................................................................................. 27 4.2 Coordinate systems ............................................................................................................ 27 2
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

45 5.................................................................................................................... 59 7.1 User coordinate system................................................................................................................................................................................................4....................................7 Layers..........................5 Modifying .....7 Prestress..........................................3 Surface load .................................................4................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 44 5....................................................................................6 Prescribed displacement ... 56 6...........................................................3 Defining action points ......................................3 Local coordinate system of surface elements ............................................................................. 28 4.....4..5 Temperature load ....................................................................................................................................6 Earthquake ............................................................................................................................................4...................................................................................... 51 6.. 35 4...............2.................1 B A SI CS ...................... prestrain..................................................................................................... 38 M E M BE R S 5....................................................................................................................................................... 45 5....................................................... 38 5..................................................................2 L I N E M E MB E R S ........ 49 6.......HU ............................................................4..................................5 Initial sway . 31 4...... 32 4............................................................................................................................................................3 Load combination .......................................0 USER MANUAL 4...................................... 58 6..................................................................................2 Local coordinate system of bar elements ............. 53 6.........2 Line load ....................................................1 Basics .............................................................. 58 7 Structural analysis..............................................................4 Load types ............. 57 6........6 Moving ................................................................4 Drawing ........................................... 52 6.............. 52 6............... 49 6................................ 34 4.......................6 C O N N E CT I O N S ... 38 5..........................................................................4....4 Load transfer surface........... 49 6...................................................................... 29 4....1 Basics ................................................................................................................2.......................................CONSTEEL..................................................................................................................................................................3 S UR F AC E ............... 30 4..4............................................................2 Load cases and load groups .......................................5...........................................................................................................................................................5 S UP P O R T S ............... 57 6........ 36 5 Structural modelling ...........2...........1 Point load................. 48 6 Structural Loads ............ 52 6........... 53 6.....................................................4 M AT ER I A LS ................................... 59 3 WWW..

.........3 Surface elements ......................................... 70 7................................................................................................................4............2.......................................................................1 Result types .........5............................... 72 8 Standard Design ...... 77 9......................... 81 10............ 66 7............1 First order ............................................... 66 7.......... 66 7.................. 75 9.............................................CONSTEEL..............................................................................................................................................................................4 Analysis types ...... 60 7................3 Model check (diagnostics) ....................................................................................................................................................... 64 7.......................................................................3...............4 Model information .......................4 Table of dominant values ................................ 63 7.........................................5.........5 Analysis results ...... 62 7..............5 Earthquake ...................................................................HU ....................4..........................................................4 Dynamic eigenvalue – vibration analysis...................2..........................................2...................1 Documentation module ................ 75 9...............................2.......................................................... 81 10...............................................1 The EPS model ..........................................................2............................... 80 10 Section Module ...................0 USER MANUAL 7...................2 Creating snapshots ......... 59 7............................ 82 10..................3 Static eigenvalue – buckling analysis.......................................2...........2 Finite elements .................................................................................................................4 Mesh generation .................................................................................................................................................................4. 83 4 WWW.......... 65 7..3 Result markers ................................................ 81 10...............................3 Section modelling ...................................................1 Basics ....................................... 75 9................................... 75 9............................................. 79 9......................................................................................................................5..................................................................................................... 79 9..................................................................................................................2..........................4.............................................................................................................2 The GSS model .............................1......................................4...............3 snapshot manager ................................................ 62 7............................................................................. 82 10.........................2 The documentation tab .............................................. 69 7............... 62 7..5.................... 66 7.............2 Section administration ...............................2...............................................2 Line elements ......2 Visualization options ...........................3................................................ 59 7.....................2 Second order ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 7..............................................................1 Basics ..................... 74 9 Documentation .......................................................................................................................................................................................1 Start documentation .................1 Basics ..........................5.2.......

..........................................................3 Stresses .............5 Standard resistance calculations .................................5 Relative deflection check for 2 points ........................ 110 13...................................................................................................................................................4 Local deflection check by members .......................................................................................................................................................5................................................................. 107 13............. 111 5 WWW........................................................................CONSTEEL............ 108 13............5 documentation ...................................................... 85 10.......................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Analysis of connections ................... 84 10... 86 10.....................................................3.......... 95 11........................................................ 87 11 Joint Module .......................................................................................................2 Individual Member Design ..................3 Member Group Design . 109 13...... 92 11.................................................................................................................................1 Basics ..... 90 11................. 97 11...................... 99 12...... 84 10................................... 86 10.......... 88 11................................ 96 11......................................2 Joint Types ..... 88 11..........................................................4 Effective cross section .....................................3 Global vertical deflection check ............................................................................................................................... 88 11.........4............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Structure-Joint interaction ................................1 Create joint without model ................................................... 90 11...............................4........2 Manipulating Connections .............2 Global horizontal deflection check................................7 Joint Export ...... 91 11........................ 99 12..............3.........................0 USER MANUAL 10.................................................................................................................. 98 12 Member Design........2 Create joint by model ..................1 Basics ......................3 Create Joint.............................. 105 13 Serviceability ...... 84 10..................4.................................1 Basics ................................................................................................................................4 Section Tools .............HU ............................. 99 12......................................................1 Geometrical calculations .......................................................................4..........................................3................................................5 Results and documentation .... 107 13..............................................................................................................4.................................................................2 Loads.......................................

which are indispensable for the system.0 USER MANUAL 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1. During installation the instructions of the setup shall be followed step by step. then it will position the Menu of the program onto the selected place of the „START”-menu. but you may switch to another language later. so you will have to wait while it finishes. The installing program will copy the elements of the software into the Directory you have specified. The last step of the setup is the hard lock driver installation.5.2 T HE MAIN WINDOW The main window consists of six separate parts containing different functionalities. 1. Without administrative rights you cannot install the hard lock driver and those dll files. or their lack may result in a slow operation: Minimum hardware requirements: Processor: Intel Pentium IV or equivalent Memory: 2 GB HDD: 100 MB Video-card: 128 MB non-integrated Operating-system: MS Windows 2000 / XP Recommended hardware: Processor: Memory: Video-card: Intel Core 2 Duo or equivalent 4 GB 512 MB non-integrated You will need to have administrative or power user rights for the installation.1 I NSTALLING THE SOFTWARE In the followings we give those hardware and software requirements the ConSteel software cannot be run without. the menu contains some important commands. The graphical window is the area for the 3D structural modeling. Finally the install shield will place the starting-icon onto the desktop. The ConSteel will use this language for the first time you start. the tabs lead the engineer through the steps of structural design from 6 WWW. This has no progress signal. You will have to set the language of setup.HU .CONSTEEL.

the side bar contains functions of views and selections. There are no other window opening options.2. The graphical window helps the modeling by the global coordinate system (GCS) and a moveable. The two big icons are for creating a new model and for opening model from folder.CONSTEEL. the status bar makes the drawing phases easy and the object and parameter tables at the right gives always sophisticated information about the model making fast modifications possible. The coordinate system 7 WWW. rotatable and size adjustable grid. The latest models can be opened without browsing folders.5. Q: What's the difference between mechanical engineers and civil engineers? A: Mechanical engineers build weapons. 1.0 USER MANUAL left to right. civil engineers build targets. which is the main area for drawing.2 THE GRAPHICAL WINDOW The structural model appears always in the graphical window. however there are lots of viewing possibilities in this single window. They are sorted by the last modification date as a default setting but it can also be sorted by name or by model path.HU .2. 1.1 THE STARTUP WINDOW After starting ConSteel 5.0 there is a startup dialog window which allows creating and opening models easily.

The backup model file can be used as a normal model by removing the . the center of rotation is always adapting the actual model view Scaling: by middle mouse button spin.HU . updating and language setting) and H EL P . If backup is clicked ConSteel creates a backup file after manual save is performed. language. update. some E D I T options (undo-redo). 8 WWW.0 USER MANUAL at the left bottom corner denotes always the unchangeable GCS. In O PT I O NS menu the following settings can be found: save. styles. O PT I O NS (connected with saving. These parameters can be set when creating new model.0 the menu does not contain many commands since the main functionality is placed to the structured tabs and side bars and the applicability and modeling efficiency does not really need function duplication.4 THE MENU In ConSteel 5. If Autosave is clicked the program automatically performs a save periodically. the origin of the user coordinate system (UCS) takes place at the middle point of the grid which is always the plane “XY” of the UCS. In F I L E menu the Model attribute can be found. It is possible to edit the model description and change the National Annex.2. and diagnostics.bak extension. the ”+” and ”-” buttons on the keyboard or ALT+right mouse button Window scaling: window drawing by the left mouse button while pressing SHIFT+ALT 1. However five important function groups appear here: the F I L E handling. The following moving possibilities should be used during the structural model manipulation: Move: by the middle mouse button or the arrow buttons on the keyboard Rotate: by the ALT+left mouse button.5. V I EW and diagnostics.CONSTEEL.

0 USER MANUAL ConSteel looks for a new version in the web at every startup.4 THE TABS 9 WWW. It is possible to set the limit distance for the diagnostics. 1.2.5.HU .CONSTEEL. The error limit and the warning limit can be also set. It can be turned off and a check can be performed by clicking on the Search Updates now icon. The language of the graphical user interface is changed after restarting the program.

b. The slide makes the refined sizing of the different objects possible by moving or clicking on it with the right mouse button.CONSTEEL. the results can be viewed and labeled in various forms.5 THE SIDE BAR The side bar contains the functions of coordinate system settings. “a. load groups. local. The coordinates can be set as global.2. and result viewing possibilities. 10 WWW. object names and labels setting the validation for all the tabs or only for the current tab. L” for polar coordinates). supports and connections are collected. On the A NA L Y S I S tab the structural analysis types can be set and executed. 1. The functions on the D OC U M E NT A T I O N tab allow of the creation of the flexible and detailed statical documentation. Beyond the usual model views (top view. load combinations and unique loads placed on the structure can be created on the L OA D S tab.HU . and contain a model information tool. A wide range of possibility exists for the definition of drawing action points and snap points. slabs and walls. model viewing and selection options. front view. The F I NI T E EL EM E NT tab contains functions connected with finite element mesh generation and modification. side view. On the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab the functions connected with cross-sections.0 USER MANUAL The tabs contain systematically all the active – model creating and forming – functions in a chronological order of the normal way of developing a structural model. 1. coordinate systems. perspective view. loads etc. All types of loading including load cases.5. The S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab contains the design options. Every icon representing certain functionality has a tooltip – which appear when the mouse is approaching the icon – with the name of the function on it. Z” for coordinate axis. supports. The sophisticated visibility options can be applied to graphic symbols.2. The G EOM ET R Y tab holds all important CAD drawing and modifying functions. beams. absolute or relative values.6 THE STATUS BAR On the status bar the coordinates during drawing actions can be set manually by pressing the appropriate letter (“X. There are many options for moving the UCS and accordingly the grid. adjusting the range and partition of the grid. fit view) there are four visualizing options for the objects used (structural members. structural columns. and a model check option indicating the possible modeling mistakes. Y.) making the modeling more clear and unambiguous. dimensioning and measuring.

loads members.3 G ENERAL STRUCTURE OF DIALOGUE WINDOWS Several dialogue windows – especially the most important ones on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S and L OA D S tabs – show same structure in order to make easy the orientation in the labyrinth of tools and functions. and after expanding one object.HU . All the parameters are set to the same as for the selected object – coordinate systems in which the object is considered 11 3 WWW. however the different ones can also be changed to identical. The usual parts of these dialogues are described below: 1 5 2 3 4 6 1 2 – the method of placement (assign to element or draw) – information extraction from object has been placed earlier. sections.7 THE OBJECT AND PARAMETER TABLES In the upper table all the created or used objects (materials.2.0 USER MANUAL 1. Multiple selections of objects are possible in this tree. In the lower table all the selected objects (and sub-object) appear.CONSTEEL.5.) appear in a structured arrangement. supports etc. all the parameters of it can be seen. and modified if possible. 1. In case of multiple objects selection only the identical parameters appear.

5. Since tables are usually used for working with large amount of data.HU . decreasing or ABC order) clicking to its heading cell the actual table can be saved to file for Excell the actual table can be saved for the own documentation which can be inserted into the final report in the documentation module (Chapter 9) 12 WWW. both table types have special features making the data managing more comfortable.4 G ENERAL FUNCTIONS FOR TABLES Basically there are two types of tables in ConSteel: the input tables and the output tables.0 USER MANUAL 4 5 6 – auxiliary drawing functions if the placement is by drawing – the main parameters of the object – this field gives always information about the next required step of the placement Every icon on the dialogues representing certain functionality has a tooltip – which appear when the mouse is approaching the icon – with the name of the function on it. Input tables (used in the L OA D C OM BI NA T I O NS and A NA L Y S I S PA R A M E T ER S dialogues) have the following common features: clicking on the heading cells the whole column below will be selected if the there is checking option in the table cells multiple checking is possible for the selected cells clicking on the right mouse button if the there is value entry option in the table cells multiple value entry is possible for the selected cells clicking on the right mouse button and defining the common value Output tables (used on the A NA L Y S I S and S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tabs and in the D OM I NA NT VA L U ES and M OD E L I NF O R M A T I O N dialogues) have the following common features: the rows of the table can be ordered according to a column (increasing.CONSTEEL. 1.

HU . In ConSteel the following hot keys can be used: CTRL+N: new model CTRL+O: open model CTRL+S: save model CTRL+Z: undo last action CTRL+Y: redo CTRL+A: select all CTRL+I: inverse selection CTRL+1: switch to XY view CTRL+2: switch to XZ view CTRL+3: switch to YZ view CTRL+4: switch to XYZ view ESC: unselect all or terminate (or abort) the last action Delete: delete selected objects F1: open Help system X: manual definition of X coordinate value Y: manual definition of Y coordinate value Z: manual definition of Z coordinate value a: manual definition of alpha polar coordinate value b: manual definition of beta polar coordinate value L: manual definition of length from the previous point in a defined direction R: switch between the global and last defined user coordinate system Middle mouse button: move model ALT+left mouse button: rotate model 13 WWW.5.0 USER MANUAL 1.CONSTEEL.5 H OT KEYS The hot keys can significantly speed up the modeling work.

5.HU .CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL ALT+right mouse button: sizing model ↑: move model up ↓: move model down →: move model right ←: move model left middle mouse button: scale model +: scale up model -: scale down model SHIFT+left mouse button: unselect SHIFT+ALT+left mouse button: window scale 14 WWW.

own binary file type.x). transparently structured and manually modifiable.HU .bak: the ConSteelModel backup file. The result file is saved to a separate file with . If necessary . AutoSave settings can be edited in the O PT I ONS menu. .xml: general set up own file. . these files can be opened by double click. Open and save. 3. 15 WWW.2 F ILE TYPES The following file types are handled in ConSteel: . it can be relocated to other folder and opened.csm~: the ConSteelModel file created by autosave functionality.0 USER MANUAL 2 FILE HANDLING 2. 2. The file is functionally identical to the ConSteelModel and ConSteelResults files. .CONSTEEL. Open and save. but this file cannot be opened solely. . Open and save. It can be opened with or without results. . Backup file is created at every manual save and stores the previous saved version of the model.csm.x. Open and save. .asc: Tekla Structures ASCII file.1 B ASICS The file handling in ConSteel follows the same usual and simple way of the MS Windows standard.csm: the ConSteelModel file. Only open. .5.bak extension can be deleted and backup model used as a normal model.sc1: BoCad text file type. Open and save.csr (ConSteelResult) extension. Backup save settings can be edited in the O PT I ONS menu. The saved files contains all information about the model.snf: StruCad text file type. . .dxf: AutoCad text file type.csf: Old ConSteel version binary file type (Consteel 2.csm file extension is associated with the ConSteel. Only open.anf: StruCad text file type. Normally the . Only open.

A special dialogue window appears for every joint type where the following settings can be made: name of the exported joint macro file. Add the name of the model but be sure that the name is not longer than 8 characters and does not contain spaces or non-English alphabet letters (for example letters with accent). To use this highly developed complete model export function the ConSteel-StruCad interface module must be purchased which is not part of the complete ConSteel package because it also contains StruCad files. 16 WWW. 3 C OMPLETE MODEL EXPORT INTO S TRU C AD A special interface option has been developed in order to make the StruCad export functionality complete. Moreover if a joint is placed to the structural model. When only the joints are exported then you can choose the destination folder.CONSTEEL. To export the complete model into StruCad. in this case the parameters will be the same for all the connections in the list. Select the SNF file as a file type and click on the S A VE button. These parameters can be different for each connection if you click on the S A VE S ET T I NG S F OR S E L EC T ED C O N NEC T I O NS . other joint parameters which are needed for the StruCad joint macro but not necessary for the joint calculation in csJoint. follow the steps below. The other option is the S A VE S ET T I NG S FO R A L L C O NN EC T I O NS button. When there are placed joints on the model these are automatically selected. Then the parameters will be saved ONLY for the selected connection.HU . The next step is the Connection Export. First click on the F I L E menu and select S A VE A S option.0 USER MANUAL 2.5. the export process identifies these joints and the model will appear with their completely developed and detailed connections in StruCad. Using this unique feature not only the wireframe of the structural model can be exported to StruCad but all the created joints. If there are joints in the model in the next dialog the joints to export can be selected.

CONSTEEL. Each macro name should be unique. Do not change or delete this prefix! (If you do so a warning appears on the screen. This prefix calls the relevant macro in StruCad. Afterwards these joints will appear among the Local Macro endtypes. This suffix should contain only numbers! Make sure not to use a macro file name more than once in a model.5. 17 WWW. If not the complete model need to be exported but the joints then the exported macro files must be copied into the relevant StruCad model’s mac folder. In order to import the model click on the dedicated ConSteel icon in StruCad or use the C S I M P OR T command.0 USER MANUAL The name of the StruCad macro file can also be changed but bear in mind the following naming conventions: The name of the exported joint macro file has a prefix (for example csb-).HU .) The number next to the prefix can be changed but must be 6 characters long maximum. After the export the files should be sent to the detailer or you can use them in your own computer.

The next step is to select a reference point and click on the export button. beams. also known as the . ConSteel uses Tekla Open API (Application Programming Interface). It is possible to change the conversion file for grades and for sections. columns.0 USER MANUAL 2. This unique interface can save significant detailing time and therefore can appreciably reduce the project costs. A dialog window opens asking for selecting model parts to be exported. provides an interface for third party applications to interact with model in Tekla Structures. After selecting the reference point in Tekla the Section export manager window appears. Besides the export of the global structural model (ie. To export a model from ConSteel it is important to run both program at the same time and to have a model opened in Tekla Structures.NET API. slabs. Then click on the FI L E menu and select E XPO R T then select Tekla Structures.5. or edit the section name and grade manually. 4 C OMPLETE MODEL EXPORT INTO T EKLA S TRUCTURES The smooth and quick transition from the structural model to the detailing model can save significant time and cost. Bear in mind that only those joints will be exported which are placed in the model and selected before exporting. therefore the ConSteel has a high level interface module to the Tekla Structures. so the designed structural model with the placed joint models can be converted in one piece easily into detailing model without additional modelling efforts on the joints.HU . 18 WWW.CONSTEEL. ConSteel export to Tekla Structures can be used from version 14 onward. Therefore both applications need to have installed in order to export model from ConSteel to Tekla Structures. walls) all the joint models appear in ConSteel have the corresponding Tekla component.

CONSTEEL.HU . After clicking OK the model will be exported.0 USER MANUAL If manual changes have been made then the list can be saved and can be used as a conversion file in future exports.4. grade 19 WWW.5.1 JOINT EXPORT LIMITATIONS Base Plate (1042) No haunch can be exported Anchor rod type must be set manually in Tekla (ConSteel settings has no effect on the export) Anchor rod properties which have effect on the export are the followings: diameter. 2.

HU .5.0 USER MANUAL Foundation will not be exported Upper and lower flange weld thickness would be the same in Tekla model(different ConSteel settings has no effect on the export) Haunch (40) Upper and lower haunch dimensions are the same (upper haunch dimensions come from the lower) No shear stiffeners are exported into Tekla only supplementery web plate Flange stiffeners are not exported into Tekla Apex haunch (106) No upper haunch Stiffened end plate (27) There is no web stiffener plate in Tekla 20 WWW.CONSTEEL.

Recommended to use in the model building phases. the supports are line types. wireframe view: on the line view the lines of the cross sections and plate thickness appear. Beyond the usual model views (top view.2 M ODEL VIEWS The model viewing options can be found on the left side bar. Accordingly the first and most important objective of the model views is to feedback the user about the objects placed.0 USER MANUAL 3 MODEL VIEW 3. since these views provide the first graphical model survey opportunity. the supports are line types.CONSTEEL.1 B ASICS The transparent and multipurpose model views are very important to the engineer. front view.HU . yield a visual proof that the right objects are on the right place. the surfaces by a two-dimensional figure without thickness. side view. since the clear visualization of the member snap points making the placement of supports and loads easier.5. 21 WWW. fit view) there are four visualizing options for the objects used: line view: the simplest model view. perspective view. 3. the bars are represented by a single line.

the supports are solid types. in the object tree. only the member will be selected). Every graphical select modes change to unselect by pressing the SHIFT button during the operation. or by the additional selection options.5. finite element model. This option shows only the selected parts of the model in every stage (modeling.0 USER MANUAL hidden line view: the cross section and plate thickness appear in a solid form without shading and sparkling effects. clicking on a member line with line load on it both the member and the load will be selected. but if the load visibility is set off. 3. accordingly the same action can result in different selection on different tabs or model views (e. The basic selection modes and their operation are the followings: 22 WWW. If the full model tends to be more complicated and parts of the model are in focus the Submodel view should be applied. As a general rule only the visible objects can be selected graphically. solid view: the cross section and plate thickness appear in a solid form with shading and sparkling effects.3 S ELECTION Objects can be selected on the graphical window. The ESC button always unselects all objects. the supports are solid types.g.HU .CONSTEEL. analysis and design results).

place a thick into the box next to the name of the portion. Renaming the model portion is also can be done by clicking the name of the portion and click on R ENA M E . In case first the left-hand top-corner is given. This function can be used by clicking the dedicated icon (#1) among the vertical icons on the left side of the screen. To modify a previously defined model portion first select the parts in the model then click on model portion icon.CONSTEEL. If the option at the bottom of the window is clicked then the hidden parts of the model is also shown but those parts a translucent.5. The actual size of the window is continually seen on the screen. select the model portion by clicking the name of it and click M OD I FY . New portions can be added by clicking the N EW P OR T I O N icon. The selection can be made by choosing the desired object and further narrowing is possible by sorting the appropriate parameters out. floors. beams. 23 WWW.1 P ARTIAL M ODEL M ANAGEMENT Partial model management is a great tool to manage different but related parts of the model ie. But if the right-hand corner is placed down first then every member is selected no matter with how little part is found in the rectangle (section and inclusion window selection). More portions can be turned on at the same time. unselect all.0 USER MANUAL simple graphical selection: click on the object on the graphical window by the left mouse button. columns. All the objects are selected whose graphical symbol intersects the imaginary line set up perpendicular to the viewing (camera) plane at the clicking point. It means that the selection depends on the size of the graphical symbol of the objects and note that the hiding objects can be selected as well! window selection: holding down the left button and moving the mouse will create the window. etc. inverse selection) can be found on the left side bar or they can be reached by right mouse button click on the graphical window. bracings. Portions can be arranged into folders. To turn on portions. Before do so. select parts which will belong to the portion. then only those members are selected that are within the window with their full size (inclusion window selection).2.HU 1 . selection by property: this option can be reached on the left side bar or by right mouse button click on the graphical window. 3. The additional generalized selection options (select all. It is completed when the mouse button is released.

The following name options are available: numbering of finite element points – point numbering in the automatically generated finite element mesh 24 WWW. There are two possible sources for names and labels: an automatic allocation for certain objects and manual definition.5.HU .CONSTEEL. they identify the structural objects. The automatic names can be set on the bottom status bar.0 USER MANUAL 3.4 O BJECT NAMES AND LABELS Names and labels are used for the better model transparency and documentation.

Y. release or link objects (for instance: “Fixed” or “yy.w”) names of joints – these names show the user defined names of a placed joint (for instance: “Beam-to-column 01”) The automatic labels can be also set on the bottom status bar. names of structural supports.Z) Additionally arbitrary text can be assigned to structural elements manually on the D I M E NS I O NI NG dialogue using the last tool.0 USER MANUAL names of structural element – these are generated unique names for each structural element objects (beam. The following label options are available: material – the used material name of structural members (for instance: “S235”) shape – the name of the used cross-sections of structural bar members (for instance: “HEA 200”) thickness – the thickness of the used structural plates or walls load intensity units – the units of load and thickness if set (for instance: “kN” or “mm”) initial crookedness – the value of the initial crookedness on structural bar members coordinate system – the names of the local coordinate axes (X. releases and links – these names show the type of the placed support. projection dimension of a line projection dimension of two points 25 WWW. On the finite element view these names denote the numbering of the finite elements of the members.zz. 3. column.CONSTEEL. plate. The names can be modified by the R E NU M B ER M EM BE R S tool on the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab. These names appear on the object tree in the right side table.5. and a direction can be set in which the renumbering is made. Using this function a specific prefix and a start number can be defined.5 D IMENSIONS For the documentation of the calculated structural model it is very important to be aware of the exact dimensions of the model. wall) consisting of a prefix and a number (for instance: “R1” for a bar element). it allows a great number of different dimensioning options. they denote some important parameters of the placed structural objects.HU . The dimensioning tool can be found at the end of the G E OM ET R Y tab.

5.CONSTEEL. 26 WWW.0 USER MANUAL lengthwise dimension of a line lengthwise dimension of two points diameter or radius of a circle angle of two lines height dimension The placement consists of two general steps: selecting the object to be dimensioned and determine the place of the dimension sign.HU .

HU . the further viewing. In ConSteel all the geometrical objects can be easily created and modified in a 3D space. Additionally all the relevant drawing functions are placed on the dialogues of structural members. This section summarizes in detail all the coordinate systems used in the ConSteel 4. Among the basic CAD drawing. supports and loads.0. and “L” denotes the distance from the origin. x z y x As a general convention all the Descartes coordinate systems (axes directions and rotation signs) follow the most commonly applied right hand rule. The positive moments and rotations are defined as counter clockwise about the axis if it is viewed in front (towards the origin) in both the global and local system. 4. In the polar system “ ” denotes the angle between the axis “X” and the vertical plane defined by the axis “Z” and the point.1 B ASICS The first step of the modelling phase is the geometry drawing of the structure. The polar coordinate system is less frequently used so the rest of this section describes the Descartes system. In the further text the following denotations are used: 27 WWW. All the CAD functionality is placed on the G EOM ET R Y tab.2 C OORDINATE SYSTEMS For the appropriate modelling and interpretation of the analysis and design results it is of high importance to be aware of the applied coordinate systems. “ ” denotes the angle between the section line of that plane and the coordinate plane “XY” and the line from the origin to the point.0 USER MANUAL 4 DRAWING GEOMETRY 4. z L y Two different type coordinate systems can be used: the rectangular Descartes system (XYZ) and the polar system ( L). selection and snap options are on the side and status bar.CONSTEEL. modifying and moving functionality advanced snap options make the modelling efficient. This rule is valid for the definition of geometry and loads as well.5.

5.2. The UCS is a specially positioned Descartes system (XYZ).Z: global coordinate system x. y. the creation tools can be reached by the topmost button on the side bar. z: local coordinate system In case of cross sections (2D modelling of sections): v. w: section edit coordinate system Y. Z: section edit coordinate system with its origin in the centre of gravity of the section y. z: section principal coordinate system 4.0 USER MANUAL In case of global geometry (3D structural modelling): X.CONSTEEL.1 USER COORDINATE SYSTEM The user coordinate system (UCS) is used for making the modelling easier and fast. Y. and it can be switched on (or switch back to the global system) at the bottom status bar. The following creation options are available (from left to right): Switch to global system Set new origin for the UCS 28 WWW.HU .

Z Y z J y x K X In the basic case the local coordinate system of a bar can be determined considering its reference line (“x”) identical to the global axis “X”. In this case the direction of local axes “y” and “z” are identical to the global axes “Y” and “Z”.2.HU . the direction of axis ”X”.CONSTEEL. and the section “YZ” system coincides with the local “yz” system of the bar. the direction of axis “Y” Set the standing of the UCS identical to the local coordinate system of the selected plane with origin placed into the first node of this plane Set the direction of the axis “X” Set the direction of the axis “Y” Set the direction of the axis “Z” Reverse the direction of the selected axis 4. X 29 WWW. Z z J Y y x K In case of a generally positioned beam member (not column with vertical reference line) the plane defined by the local “xz” system takes always vertical position and the axis “z” points towards the positive “Z” direction. For beams with (single) curvature the axis “x” is always the tangent. The direction of the axis “x” is given by the start (J) and end (K) node of the reference line.5. The position of the cross section on the bar is the following: the reference line goes through its centre of gravity.2 LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM OF BAR ELEMENTS The reference line of bar members defines the axis “x” of the local coordinate system.0 USER MANUAL Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “XY” Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “XZ” Set the plane “XY” of the UCS to identical position as the global plane “YZ” Set the UCS by 3 points: the origin.

and it points towards the positive “X” (or if “x” is perpendicular to the “X” than positive “Y”) direction the axis “y” points towards the positive “Z” direction X 30 WWW. X X The interpretation and signs of the inner forces on a member is defined by its local coordinate system and the mentioned general sign convention as described in the following figure: Mz J Vz My Vy N Mx K 4.0 USER MANUAL Z K x z y J Z y z Y x J K Y In case of vertical reference line (column members) the local axis “y” has the same direction as the global axis “Y”. For arbitrary situated surface element the following two rules is applied to the local “xy” system: Z z y x Y the axis “x” is parallel to the section line of the global “XY” plane and the plane of the surface.HU .5. In case of the local plane “xy” is parallel to the global plane “XY” the position of the local coordinate system is identical to the global one. the direction of the local axis “z” depends on the placement of the column (position of the start and end points).CONSTEEL. the axis “z” is perpendicular to that plane and points towards the positive “Z” direction.2.3 LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM OF SURFACE ELEMENTS For surface elements the local plane “xy” is defined in the plane of the surface.

CONSTEEL. 4.5. The action points (snap points) are the following: Endpoint: Subsequent point selections will snap to nearest end of line or bar Dividing points: Subsequent point selections will snap to the dividing points of selected item Intersection point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest point of intersection of entities. the most used ones are turned on by default.2. There are different types of snaps.HU .0 USER MANUAL In case of surface elements the local coordinate system can be modified using the tools presented in Section 4.3 D EFINING ACTION POINT S Action points can be set by moving the cursor on the icon on right side of the bottom status bar.1. 31 WWW.

surface supports) by red rectangles. In the last case the count starts at the line end first approached by the mouse. and length from one end (“d”). Raster grid: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest raster grid point.0 USER MANUAL Parallel: The Parallel snap helps you to draw parallel lines and bars to other lines or bars Nearest element point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest element point.CONSTEEL.4 D RAWING Draw line Lines can be used for construction purposes or can be selected as a bar`s axis. Step is used if the Lengthening snap is turned on. These snap points appear only if the mouse approaches the line. and fade away three seconds after stop of movements around the line. 4. A special line snap can be activated which visualizes snap points on lines (reference line of bar members.HU . Perpendicular: Subsequent point selections will snap to be perpendicular to entity Center point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the centre of an arc or circle At the bottom right corner of the status bar additional functions can be found in order to help editing and construction of the model. line supports or edge line of surface members. In the first button (“n”. Tangent: Snaps to the tangent of an arc or circle. 32 WWW. In this case the length of the Lengthening is increased by the added value. surface loads. Lengthening: The Lengthening action point helps you to snap to a point which is not on a line but it is on the lengthen line Point: Subsequent point selections will snap to the nearest point. percent of length (”%”).”%” or “d”) the type of the division can be set: number of dividing parts (“n”). line loads.5.

Draw Circle Circles can be used for construction purposes. First select the start point. Draw two-dimensional figure Two-dimensional figures can be used for construction purposes.HU . Select the corner point. Select the other point of the tangent. Draw arc by start point. Draw leaning rectangle. Select the corner point.0 USER MANUAL Simple line drawing. Draw circle by diameter. Select the center of the arc. Select the end point.CONSTEEL. Draw rectangle Rectangles can be used for construction purposes. Select the start point. Press Esc to interrupt line drawing. Draw rectangle.5. Select the angel of the arc or type it to the dialog window Draw arc by 3 points. Select a point in the arc. end point and tangent. Select the end point. Draw Arc Arcs can be used for construction purposes. 33 WWW. Continuous line drawing. Select end point of the side of the rectangle. Draw circle by 3 points. First select the start point. start point and angle. Select the opposite corner. Draw circle by radius. Select third point of the rectangle. Select the start point of the arc. Select the radius of the circle. Draw arc by center point. Select the center of the circle. Select the end point. Then select the next point. Select the start point. Select second point. Then select the end point. Select first point. Select the start point. Select third point.

Select objects to scale. Curve selected line element. Select the part to chop. The type of the two-dimensional circle can be selected: draw circle by radius. Set the scaling reference point. Set the next point. The type of the rectangle can be selected: rectangle or leaning rectangle. Set the scaling multiplier. Set the scaling center. To close the polygon press right click on the mouse. Set the direction with the second point. Select cut edge. Select the point and (or) edge to be moved. Set the insert point. Set the opposite corner point of the rectangle. Draw hole. Select the edge for bend. or circle by 3 points. Select the edge to refract. 34 WWW. Divide selected object by section point. Set the first point. Stretch. Select the surface.HU . Refract the selected line element. Set the end point of stretch. Select the corner point of the figure. Set the insert point. Cut the selected element by cutting edge. by diameter. Select the start point.0 USER MANUAL Draw two-dimensional figure. Draw polygon.5. Select objects to chop.CONSTEEL. Select the line to which connected lines will be stretched! Set base point of stretch. Select the opposite corner point of the figure. Sizing of the selected objects. Set the new position of the point (edge). Set one corner point of the rectangle. Select the surface.5 M ODIFYING Move point and edge. 4.

Chamfer of the two selected line element. Select the objects for moving. Set base point of moving. Set the direction point or type in the rotation angle and click on Apply. Copies of the selected objects will be made symmetrically across the mirror-line. Lines and bars can be divided into equal or unequal parts. Select the object to adjust. The number of copies can be set. Select any point from the first straight line. Set end point of moving. If the Join points box is checked then the end points of the copied objects will be connected.CONSTEEL. Cut the proper part of the selected element. Set base point of moving. Rotate selected objects. The number of copies can be set. Move selected objects. Set start point of the segment to chop. 4. Select limit lines. The radius of the fillet can be set. Then define the mirror-line by pointing to two points on it. 35 WWW. Select the objects for moving.6 M OVING Move selected objects. Set reference point of rotation. Select any point from the second straight line. If To equal parts is selected then the number of the number of the segments or the length of the segments can be set. The selected objects can be moved or copied. Mirror selected objects. Divide selected objects.5. Select the edge for the segment cut. The selected objects can be moved or copied. Set the end point of the segment to chop. Select the objects for rotation. Select any point from the second straight line.0 USER MANUAL Adjust the selected element to the limit line. Set the center of rotation.HU . Rounding of the edges of the section of two line element. Select any point from the first straight line. If the Join points box is checked then the end points of the copied objects will be connected. Select objects to be mirrored. Set end point of moving.

thickness etc. Select the objects for rotation. 36 WWW. side bracing.7 L AYERS The layers dialog window can be used to the following: Create new layers Copy layers Delete layers Edit properties of existing layers (i. columns. and it is recommended that layers are used wherever possible. roof bracing.e. line style. Set the center of rotation. line style. For example it is useful to be able to isolate bars. Rotate selected objects. Select objects to be mirrored.5.CONSTEEL. thickness and transparency) Turn the visibility of layers on and off Freeze layers from activity whilst keeping them visible Turn on and off own style. All CAD systems have a layer concept of some sort. slabs onto separate layers for floors. Set reference point of rotation. Then define the mirror-line by pointing to two points on it. Lines and bars can be divided into equal or unequal parts. Divide selected objects. If it is turned ON (default setting) then all the objects use the global style. color. 4. etc. Copies of the selected objects will be made symmetrically across the mirror-line. If To equal parts is selected then the number of the number of the segments or the length of the segments can be set.HU .0 USER MANUAL Mirror selected objects. Objects are placed on appropriate layers as a convenient way of managing the information within the model database. If own style turned OFF then all the objects on the layer use the selected color. Set the direction point or type in the rotation angle and click on Apply. You determine what layers you are going to use.

etc can be set. 37 WWW.5.0 USER MANUAL Styles If you click on the Styles icon you can set the representation of the model.HU . transparency) of the lines.CONSTEEL. steel. thickness. The styles (colour. line style. layers.

0 version only line members with steel thin-walled cross-section can be modelled. he/she can concentrate solely on the direct productive labour building the real structural model. IT SHOULD BE KEPT IN MIND THAT THE ENGINEER SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE FEATURES. Due to the high importance and wide range of modelling possibilities the functions of the cross-sections and joints are collected in separate modules C S S EC T I O N (Chapter 10) and C S J OI NT (Chapter 11). tension braces. Accordingly the user model. which is an automatically generated sophisticated finite element model used by the structural analysis and design. which is always vertical. The line member defining dialogue allows the following modelling options: 1 Global geometry: drawing the reference line of the member or select an existing line for reference line 38 WWW. The members – depending on the placement – can be columns or beams.2 L INE MEMBERS 5.HU . slabs etc.0 great emphasis is taken on the user friendly structural modelling in which the engineer can build the structural model using real structural elements. It follows that the engineer does not need to deal with the calculation model. built by the engineer using whole structural members (haunched beams. 5.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 5 Structural modelling 5.).1 B ASICS In ConSteel 5. is completely separated from the calculation model.2. tapered columns. All the functionality connecting with the structural modelling are placed on the S T R U C T U R A L M E M B E R S tab. because only the height should be defined. The column is a special position line member. so the placement is simpler. POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE APPLIED ANALYSIS MODEL ALREADY AT THE MODELLING STAGE BECAUSE THE MISUNDERSTANDING OF THE MODELLING OPPORTUNITIES CAN LEAD TO UNEXPECTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN RESULTS.5.1 CREATING LINE MEMBERS In the ConSteel 5.

and the section can be rotated about the local coordinate “x”.0 USER MANUAL 2 Receiving member parameters from other members. the sign convention follows the right hand rule (see section 4. IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT NOT ONLY THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCE PRODUCES INFLUENCE IN THE ANALYSIS (ADDITIONAL BENDING MOMENTS) BUT THE ECCENTRIC BENDING AND TORSIONAL MOMENTS (ADDITIONAL BENDING AND TORSIONAL MOMENTS AND BIMOMENT)! 39 WWW. 1 4 2 3 5 Direction of section: the position of the section can be normal and mirrored (causes difference only in case of unsymmetrical sections).2 C O OR D I NA T E S Y S T EM S ). Eccentricity: member eccentricity can be defined in the local coordinate system (“y.z”) of the member.CONSTEEL.HU . If no section has been loaded in advance the S EC T I O N dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo. and the appropriate section can be selected from the combo including the loaded sections. and assigning those to the one to be created 3 Line drawing options 4 Defining member parameters Section: before creating a beam or column member cross-sections should be loaded.5.

welded I) sections. if necessary. On the dialogue panel the length (L). including the warping of the thin-walled cross section. If new release type is needed the R EL EA S E dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo. Element group: the members can be sorted out into element groups for various purposes (selection. height (h).2 HAUNCHED MEMBERS The created members can be strengthened. these types influence the finite element type to be used in the analysis.0 USER MANUAL Release: predefined release types can be assigned to the ends of the members. It is important in case of structures with usual steel profiles. sensitivity analysis etc.). by using haunches. and the shape of the haunch is considered as half of a welded I section (with one flange) with decreasing web height. 5 Command area 5.2.HU . Initial crookedness: half-sine wave shaped initial crookedness can be defined in the two local direction perpendicular to the member reference axis (“y. web thickness (tw). The tension bar can only resist tensional axial force (no bending or torsional moments and shear). The haunch can be only used for members with I type (IPE. If new element group is needed the G R OU PS OF S T R U C T U R A L M EM B E R S dialogue can be called by pressing the button next to the combo.5. The beam-column with warping is a special element with 14 degree of freedom. HEA. dominant results.z”) with the given amplitude at the mid-length Element type: two choices are possible: beam-column with warping and tension bar. flange thickness (tf) and the characteristics of the haunch should be set. if it got compression the analysis neglects its effect.CONSTEEL. flange width (b). 40 WWW. Number of finite elements: the required number of finite elements used on this member in the analysis can be set.

0 USER MANUAL The position of the haunch is set by simply clicking on the member the start point (where the height of the haunch is full) and the direction point of the haunch.5. In the case of usual beam position it results the followings: lower upper 41 WWW.CONSTEEL. for instance at a beam-to-column connection point) then this point should be approached and clicked on the member to be haunched.HU . It should be noted that if the start point is a common end point of more members (this is the usual case. The characteristics of the haunch denote the appropriate side of the haunch on the member according to the direction of its local “z” axis.

With the option of tapered member the web height of these sections can be set to linearly varying along the member length. THESE NEW SECTIONS ARE PLACED ECCENTRICALLY ON THE REFERENCE LINE OF THE MEMBER (EXCEPT THE SYMMETRICAL HAUNCH TYPE).3 TAPERED MEMBERS Tapered members are frequently used in the economic design of steel framed structures. IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT FOR THE HAUNCHED PART OF THE MEMBER NEW SECTIONS ARE CREATED DURING THE AUTOMATIC FINITE ELEMENT GENERATION WHICH CONSIST OF THE ORIGINAL SECTION AND THE HAUNCH WITH APPROPRIATE WEB HEIGHT.CONSTEEL. 42 WWW. AND IN CASE OF SELECTING A HAUNCHED MEMBER THE HAUNCHES ARE SELECTED AUTOMATICALLY.HU .0 USER MANUAL symmetric THE HAUNCHES CAN BE SELECTED AND MODIFIED IN THE PARAMETER TABLE AS SEPARATE OBJECTS . For the definition of tapered member first a line member with welded I or H. box or cold formed C section should be created. so the fast and simple modelling of tapered members is of high importance.5. THIS ECCENTRICITY CAUSES ADDITIONAL EFFECTS IN THE ANALYSIS RESULTS DUE TO THE ECCENTRIC POSITION OF THE SECTIONAL FORCES (FOR INSTANCE AT THE BEAM-TOCOLUMN CONNECTION POINT OF A FRAME WITH HAUNCHED BEAMS AND/OR COLUMNS THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENTS EXISTS ONLY IF THE ADDITIONAL MOMENTS FROM THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCES ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT) 5.2.

5. upper or symmetric. upper denotes the positive direction. lower upper symmetric IN CASE OF SELECTING A TAPERED MEMBER THE TAPERING IS SELECTED AUTOMATICALLY AND CAN BE MODIFIED IN THE PARAMETER TABLE AS SEPARATE OBJECT. The form of the tapering can be lower. These definitions denote the directions of the offset of the given height values along the local “z” axis: lower denotes the negative direction. The start value for web height applied at the start point of the member (lower end in the local coordinate system) the end value applied at the other end.HU . IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT FOR THE TAPERED MEMBER NEW SECTIONS ARE CREATED DURING 43 WWW.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL After selecting the member to be tapered on the T A P ER ED M EM B ER dialogue the start (H1) and end web height (H2) of the section can be defined – independently of the original web height of the cross-section.

the position of the reference plane (recently only the middle position can be chosen).CONSTEEL.5.3 S URFACE MEMBERS In the ConSteel 5. Two options are available for surface member modelling: the arbitrary shaped and positioned plate member.0 USER MANUAL THE AUTOMATIC FINITE ELEMENT GENERATION WITH APPROPRIATE WEB HEIGHTS. 44 WWW. the material and the finite element size of the surface member. THIS ECCENTRICITY CAUSES ADDITIONAL EFFECTS IN THE ANALYSIS RESULTS DUE TO THE ECCENTRIC POSITION OF THE SECTIONAL FORCES (FOR INSTANCE AT THE BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION POINT OF A FRAME WITH TAPERED BEAMS AND/OR COLUMNS THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENTS EXISTS ONLY IF THE ADDITIONAL MOMENTS FROM THE ECCENTRIC AXIAL FORCES ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT) 5.HU . and the vertical and square wall member. The latter one is a modelling aid for the frequently used definition of walls since only the reference base line and the two height values should be defined. Four parameters can be set: the thickness. THESE NEW SECTIONS ARE PLACED ECCENTRICALLY ON THE REFERENCE LINE OF THE MEMBER (EXCEPT THE SYMMETRICAL TAPERING). In the P L A T E definition panel the drawing functions are collected in order to create the plate with the desired shape. Arbitrary shaped holes can be defined in existing surface members. The finite element size is an approximate target maximum size for the finite element mesh used for the calculation of surface members.0 version plane surface members with uniform thickness can be modelled.

Point supports can be placed on any part of a line member or surface member (predefined points are not needed. ACCORDINGLY IF IDENTICAL CROSS SECTIONS WITH DIFFERENT MATERIAL ARE LIKED TO BE USED IN ONE MODEL THEN MULTIPLE CROSS SECTION DEFINITION IS NEEDED! 5.0 version only elastic material is considered in the analysis.0 version). local (#2) or user (#3) coordinate system.G. In the ConSteel 5. 45 WWW. Line supports can be assigned to existing lines (line members or edge of surface members) or to lines drawn for the support only (for instance on a surface).CONSTEEL. and surface support. In case of concrete material the Effective elastic modulus is used in the analysis as it defined in the EC 2. COMPOSITE SECTION) IN THE FUTURE VERSIONS. line support. New materials can also be created with arbitrary parameters. so the calculation results are only affected by the elastic modulus. COLUMNS) THE MATERIAL IS THE PARAMETER OF THE CROSS SECTION OF THE MEMBER.4 M ATERIALS Three types of material can be defined: steel. Surface supports can be assigned to existing surfaces. and considered only in the concrete cross section design (not included in ConSteel 5. density (if the self weight of the structure is considered) and temperature expansion factor (if temperature load is applied). The latter is only used for the rebar reinforcement of concrete or composite structures.HU .5. IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT IN CASE OF BAR MEMBERS (BEAMS. and the default – indelible – material types are set with the standard values.5 S UPPORTS There are three types of supports in ConSteel: point support. The material parameters are taken from the appropriate Structural Eurocode chapters (EN 1993-1-1 for steel and EN 1992-1-1 for concrete and reinforcement). Poisson factor.0 USER MANUAL 5. Supports can be placed according to the global (#1). end points or snap points can be used). THIS FEATURE ALLOWS THE DEFINITION OF CROSS SECTIONS WITH MULTIPLE MATERIALS (E. concrete and concrete reinforcement. SO THE OCCURRENT MODIFICATION SHOULD BE APPLIED FOR THE APPROPRIATE CROSS SECTION.

5.0 USER MANUAL

1

2

3 5 4

Placing supports according to the member local coordinate system is very useful feature when working with sloping members. The visibility of the local coordinate system can be turned on and also the name of the axes.

Local eccentricity can also be defined to the supports (#4). This feature can be used for modelling the support of the bracing which is not connected to the reference line of the member but supporting the flange of the section.

46
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL There are several point support types predefined. The support type names can be clearly understood. For instance ‘x,y,z, xx’ means any movement is fixed in x, y and z direction and the rotation around x axe is also fixed. All the rest DOFs (Degrees of Freedom) are free.

WARNING! WARPING! BE AWARE THAT SINCE THE FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE STEEL BEAMS AND COLUMNS HAS 7 DOFS TH THE POINT SUPPORT ALSO HAS 7 DOFS, THE 7 DOF REPRESENTS THE WARPING OF THE CROSS SECTION. ACCORDINGLY IF A CROSS SECTION ON A CERTAIN PLACE IS CONSIDERED TO FIXED FOR TH WARPING (FOR INSTANCE IN HEAVILY STIFFENED JOINTS) THE 7 DOF SHOULD BE FIXED. IN JOINTS CONSISTING SEVERAL MEMBERS (ESPECIALLY WHEN MEMBER ECCENTRICITIES ARE PRESENT) IT IS ADVISABLE TO APPLY WARPING SUPPORT!

If any special supports are needed during the modelling process which are not among the predefined support types then click on the support definition icon (#5). Here you can define new supports. 7 DOFs can be set to free, fix or semi-rigid. In the last case stiffness must be also set.

47
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL

5.6 C ONNECTIONS
The link element icon Link element can be used to connect elements which are not directly connected to each other.

For example if there is a cantilever on a relatively high tapered column (see image below) it is advisable to connect it not directly to the reference line of the column but with the link element. If it is connected the way like that the analysis and design results are more accurate and the modelling is more exact.

48
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

1 B ASICS The definition of loading on a structural model is one of the most important modelling phases. Factor values are dependent from the selected NA. 6.5. These factors can be edited manually or by clicking the ‘Standard values of factors’ icon. In accordance with the modelling of structural member the engineer can work with the load types and options defined and handled in the structural standards and the applied loads are automatically converted into finite element loads for the calculation model. Meteorological. Transient. An error message: “Press any key to continue or any other key to exit…” 49 WWW. There are 4 different load group types in ConSteel: Persistent. Precise load groups needed to automatically generate load combinations. All the loading functionality connecting with the load modelling is placed on the L OA D S tab. In a Load group several load cases can be defined. Contrary to the modelling of structural members the load modelling is minutely controlled and supported by the structural codes and standards since the appropriate definition of loads ensures the major part in the reliability of structural performance.0 several types of loading options help the engineer in this work.CONSTEEL. For each load group safety and combination factors must be given. Accidental and Seismic.0 USER MANUAL 6 STRUCTURAL LOADS 6. In ConSteel 5. Here typical cases can be selected which are provided by the EuroCode.2 L OAD CASES AND LOAD G ROUPS Before place any loads in the model load cases and load groups must be defined.HU .

5.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL ConSteel can add the structure’s dead load to a selected load case if necessary. In order to do so please select the appropriate load case at the bottom right corner of the dialogue. 50 WWW.HU .

HU .0 USER MANUAL 6. If the automatic load combination feature is used in ConSteel it is advisable to delete those rows which cannot be relevant. It is possible to edit multiple safety factors at a time: select safety factors and right click over it. To do so select the load combination (multiple LC-s can be selected with using CTRL and SHIFT buttons) and click on the Delete Load Combination icon. It is important to set the limit state correctly because design checks will be made to Resistance load combinations and also serviceability check are performed for SLS combinations.5. The white ones are manually edited. Load combinations can be created manually by giving the safety and combination factors manually for each load case or can be created automatically by using the automatic load combination generation function of ConSteel. Huge number of load combinations needs long period of time to calculate in the analysis. The yellow rows in the load combination table are the automatically generated combinations.CONSTEEL. 51 WWW. So it is good to keep the number of the load combinations to the minimum.3 L OAD COMBINATION According to the actual structural design code load combinations must be set from load cases.

Point loads can be placed according to the global. If just a partial line load need to be applied along the member then the partial line load function (#4) can be used.5.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 6.4.4 L OAD TYPES 6.HU . 6. The 5th icon from the left (#3) is the ‘Global Projection System’ which is commonly used when modeling the snow load. In order to place a line load you can either click on the member using the select function (#1) or set the start point and the end point of the line load using the draw function (#2). local or the user defined coordinate system.2 LINE LOAD Line loads can be placed along a member.1 POINT LOAD Any placed load will belong to the load case selected from the list. 52 WWW.4.

HU .3 SURFACE LOAD Surface loads can be defined using the same method like in point or in line loads. After clicking on the dedicated icon on the L OA D S tab a dialog window appears.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 3 4 6. 53 WWW. like floor loads. No surface moment loads can be placed.4. 6. etc. This is very useful in those situations when surface load need to be distributed to members.5.CONSTEEL.4. snow and wind load.4 LOAD TRANSFER SURFACE Load transfer surface is special surface which distributes surface loads to members as line loads.

draw leaning rectangle.5. There are two options: distribute load to the selected members or distribute load to all members in the surface plane. then the second one will be applied as a default. draw circle. It is also possible to chose the second option and remove from the selection by using the Shift + Left mouse click on the member. If second option is clicked then the appropriate members will be highlighted.HU . If none of the options is clicked. draw polygon. 54 WWW. After drawing the surface it is possible to select the members which the surface distribute the load.CONSTEEL. After the corresponding members have been selected and OK is clicked then the surface is created.0 USER MANUAL Just like in the two-dimensional figure drawing there are different possibilities to draw the surface: draw a rectangle.

Converting surface loads to line loads is performed by a meeting the following requirements: line load is linear on member the value is the same on a node for all incoming members project equilibrium The basic working method can be used as described below.HU .4. 55 WWW.4. There are two visibility options: view the surface load or view the distributed load. First create the load transfer surface.CONSTEEL. It is possible to highlight the previously selected members by clicking on the blue thick. Changing the views is possible by clicking on the dedicated icon which can be found among the visibility of graphics symbols setting.4. Apply surface loads to the surface at every load case.3.5.0 USER MANUAL Surface load can be placed by using the method described in chapter 6. 6. Select the members which it distributes loads to or accept the default setting which is distribute loads to all planar members.1 MODIFYING LOAD TRANSFER SURFACE Load transfer surface can be modified by selecting it and changing the properties in the property bar. Member selection can be easily modified from the planar members to selected members.

5 TEMPERATURE LOAD Temperature loads can be defined in members or in surfaces.CONSTEEL. 6. Then add the reference temperature (construction temperature) and the upper and lower temperature of the cross section. The last step is to select the member where you would like to apply the load. First choose the type of the temperature load: the temperature is changing along the cross section’s height or the width.4.5.0 USER MANUAL If selected members option is chosen and then the black arrow is clicked then previously selected members can be removed from the selection or new members can be added. 56 WWW.HU .

4.0 USER MANUAL 6.4.6 PRESCRIBED DISPLACEMENT Prescribed displacement can be applied for point supports. PRESTRAIN The change of the original member system length can be set and applied as a load.CONSTEEL.7 PRESTRESS. 6.5.HU . 57 WWW.

6 E ARTHQUAKE TO B E PR E PA R ED 58 WWW.5 I NITIAL SWAY Initial sway can be set for the whole model.0 USER MANUAL 6.CONSTEEL.5. 6.HU .

On the F I NI T E EL EM E NT tab mesh generation options are available for surface elements. On the other hand the engineer should be aware of the important characteristics of the used finite elements already at the model building phase in order to avoid the nonexpected structural behavior and calculate the mechanical performance of the imagined structure as accurate as possible. The functionalities connected with the structural analysis are placed on two tabs: the F I NI T E EL EM E NT and A NA L Y S I S tab. plate or membrane surfaces etc.HU . The ConSteel applies the finite element method for all the calculations using two beam-column element types (traditional 12 DOF Timoshenko and 14 DOF thin-walled including warping of the section) and two shell elements (triangle and quadrilateral). static and dynamic eigenvalue analysis and earthquake calculation based on elastic response spectrum and modal analysis. the expectable results and accordingly the applicable standard verification methods. shape functions.effect) analysis. torsional-. and additionally the modern structural standards usually define the appropriate and required analysis type for the used design formula. The exceptionally fast and robust equation solvers yield optimal calculation time even for unusually huge models. flexural-.) if it is required appropriate support and/or load 59 WWW. Usually this step can be skipped since the in the first step of the analysis the finite element mesh generation is automatically performed.1 BASICS The mechanical performance of the calculated model is always highly influenced and limited by the applied finite element type.2 F INITE ELEMENTS 7. 7.1 B ASICS The analysis of the structural model can be the most “black box” type phase of the design process for the engineer. second order effects within the finite element model basically determine the quality of the analysis. forces. The considered displacements. there are no options for special reduced degree of freedom calculations (plane frames.CONSTEEL.2. In ConSteel all the finite elements model always the real 3D behavior. and lateral-torsional buckling solutions. and the generated finite element model can be viewed.5.0 USER MANUAL 7 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 7. The great variety of calculation possibilities includes first and complete second order (not only P. local buckling analysis of slender steel members built from shell elements.

HU . The subsequent sections do not intend to introduce the deep theory behind the applied finite elements – it can be found in the literature – only the most significant features are presented and explained which are important to know for the appropriate interpretation of the results. no forces or supports are considered along the finite elements. All the defined loads and supports are converted to nodal forces by load cases and nodal supports. this feature is taken into account during the automatic FE mesh generation. a tension-only (TO) element for bars subjected by tension force.0 USER MANUAL system should be applied. 7. The 7DOF element is specially developed for thin-walled members where the warping of the cross-section is of high importance in the behavior.2. this effect is considered by the 7 th DOF. torsion or any interaction of these. In the following figure the considered nodal displacements are illustrated: Ux x Uy Uz y ’x z 60 WWW.CONSTEEL.5. bending moment.2 LINE ELEMENTS There are two options for line elements: a 7 degrees-of-freedom (7DOF) beam-column element for the bars subjected to axial force.

HU . Uy. fl. Uz) and rotations ( x. y. These elements are considered in the calculation only if they are subjected to tension accordingly the calculations are iterative in nature. What needs more explanation is the 7 DOF which is mathematically the first derivative of the twist about the longitudinal axis ( 'x).0 USER MANUAL The first 6 DOF are the conventional displacements (Ux. torsional buckling. A first order analysis is performed foremost considering all the TO elements modeled by one finite element.5. mechanically it represents the warping of the section which is straight consequence of torsion on thin-walled members. The next figure illustrates the warping effect of I shaped cross-section when the flanges step out of the original plane of the section.2 C O OR D I NA T E th S Y S T EM S ). Since steel members are usually relatively slender various modes of global stability failure can occur: flexural buckling.u z ’x fl. z) according to the local coordinate system of the member (see section 4.l z In this case the warping DOF can be considered as a dual and opposite rotation of the flanges about the axis perpendicular to their width (in this case the local axis “z”). lateral-torsional buckling and any interactions of these. Next a force check is 61 WWW.CONSTEEL. The TO elements have only 1 DOF which is the longitudinal displacement (Ux). all modes can be calculated by the 7DOF element. It is a quite important and advantageous feature in the stability design of these members but since the accurate calculation of all the torsional modes is highly dependent on the 7th warping DOF it is essential to consider this effect already in the modeling phase (see chapter 5 S T R U C T U R A L M O D E L L I NG for the modeling warnings).

This function automatically runs before starting the finite element mesh generation or analysis but can be initiated any time (switching the “Diagnostics” on the View menu and run) examining the recent state of the model. W A R N I N G : the warnings allow the calculations but notice the possible errors. This model configuration is taken into account in the eigenvalue calculations.3 SURFACE ELEMENTS TO B E PR E PA R ED 7. these are basic requirements for the normal performance of a model. IN THIS CASE IF THIS EFFECT IS SIGNIFICANT AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED A NEW EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS SHOULD BE RUN WITHOUT THE TO ELEMENT.E.3 M ODEL CHECK ( DIAGNOSTICS ) In ConSteel there is a possibility to perform a model check previous to executing any calculations.HU . ITS LENGTH SHORTENS. the other part is performed on the generated finite element model (pre-calculation check). line loads and line supports 62 WWW.4 MESH GENERATION TO B E PR E PA R ED 7. The following basic checks are performed: existence of load on the structure existence of support on the structure length of bars.2. Part of the model checks is performed on the user model (basic check). 7. It is continued until all the TO elements has tension. There are two kinds of diagnostics messages: E R R OR : the errors make the calculations impossible or meaningless to execute so the detected errors stop further calculations.5.0 USER MANUAL executed on the TO elements and the compressed ones are neglected from the model and a new calculation is initiated.2.CONSTEEL. SINCE THE EIGENVALUE CALCULATIONS CAN NOT BE PERFORMED ITERATIVELY IT MAY HAPPEN THAT IN THE EIGENSHAPE THE TO ELEMENT GETS COMPRESSION I.

63 WWW. 7. bars. If buckling analysis is clicked 10 eigenvalues are calculated. The buckling analysis can be performed for the whole model or for a model portion. All types can be run for all the finite elements. length and compatibility of haunches multiple supports on the same place compatibility of tension bars The following pre-calculation checks are performed: overhang of line loads and line supports point loads and point supports are not on the model overlap of surface members overlap of bar members very small distance (< 5 mm) between points or lines of surfaces.5. Basically the analysis types can be defined for the existing load combinations.HU .4 A NALYSIS TYPES The required analysis types can be set on the A NA L Y S I S PA R A M ET ER S panel.0 USER MANUAL value for the thickness and finite element size for surface members overlap. loads or supports (The limit distance can be set in the Options menu) The object which the errors or warnings are detected on can be selected and deleted from the diagnostics results table (in the middle of the right tables). By using the first tab it is possible to set analysis parameters for all load combinations at the same time. Load combinations can be turned off or type of analysis can be set.CONSTEEL. For each load combination unique settings can be set on the second tab.

Calculation of first order (initial) stiffness matrices (Kels) of the finite elements in their local coordinate system 2. It is advisable to run a first order analysis in order to check the model performance before executing more costly calculations (for instance eigenvalue analysis). Solution of the basic linear system of equations which writes the relationship between the applied nodal forces – known variables generated from the loads – and the nodal displacements – unknown variables (U) – in the global coordinate system for the global model (see section 7. Calculation of the internal forces (and stresses) of the elements (f ) in their local coordinate system by transforming the global nodal displacements of the element into local system (uel) using their local stiffness matrices: el KsU P U K s 1P f el K el u el s (2) 7. temperature loads etc.2 F I NI T E EL E M E NT S for the interpretation of nodal displacements and forces): (1) 5.2 SECOND ORDER The second order calculations take into account that the loaded and deformed structure can behave differently than the initial configuration.4.CONSTEEL. Performing the whole first order analysis as described in the previous section 64 WWW.4. The steps of the first order analysis are the following: 1.1 FIRST ORDER The first order analysis calculates the structural response considering the initial stiffness of the model.HU . This effect can be considered as if the initial stiffness was changing during the loading history.) 4.5. The steps of the second order analysis are the following: 1. Modifying the global stiffness matrix and nodal force vector considering the special boundary conditions (supports. prescribed displacements. Compiling the global stiffness matrix (Ks) and nodal force vector (P) of the whole model by transforming the element stiffness matrices into the global coordinate system 3. continuity releases between the elements.0 USER MANUAL 7.

) 5. 65 WWW.CONSTEEL. temperature loads etc.3 STATIC EIGENVALUE – BUCKLING ANALYSIS In a mechanical interpretation the eigenvalue analysis approximates the elastic critical load levels where the structure is subjected to some modes of loss of stability.HU . conservative loading and that the geometric stiffness matrix depends linearly on the load factor ( ): Kg( f ) Kg(f ) (4) In this case the eigenvalue analysis can be written in the following form: Ks Kg U 0 (5) The solutions are certain critical load factors (buckling loads icr) which make the second order stiffness matrix singular and corresponding displacements (buckling shapes Ui). Calculation of geometric stiffness matrices (Kelg) of the finite elements in their local coordinate system by the internal forces of the elements (fel) 3. continuity releases between the elements. prescribed displacements. Compiling the second order global stiffness matrix (Ks + Kg) and nodal force vector (P) of the whole model by transforming the element stiffness matrices into the global coordinate system 4.0 USER MANUAL 2.2 F I N I T E EL EM E NT S for the interpretation of nodal displacements and forces): (3) 6. Calculation of the internal forces (and stresses) of the elements (f ) in their local coordinate system by transforming the global nodal displacements of the element into local system (uel) using their local stiffness matrices: el Ks Kg U P U Ks Kg 1 P f el K el u el s 7.5. If the difference between the new nodal displacements and the ones obtained earlier exceeds a certain limit repeat the calculations from step 2 7. Mathematically it means that the second order equation of (3) has no unique solution because the second order stiffness matrix is singular.4. Modifying the second order global stiffness matrix and nodal force vector considering the special boundary conditions (supports. Solution of the basic linear system of equations which writes the relationship between the applied nodal forces – known variables generated from the loads – and the nodal displacements – unknown variables (U) – in the global coordinate system for the loaded and deformed global model (see section 7. In ConSteel linear eigenvalue analysis is performed considering one parameter.

lateral-torsional buckling and any interactions of these.5 A NALYSIS RESULTS 7.4. In ConSteel linear eigenvalue analysis is performed considering the second order stiffness matrix and consistent mass matrix (M) Ks Kg 2 MU 0 (6) The solutions are certain eigenfrequencies ( i) and corresponding displacements (free vibration shapes Ui). In case of beam-column structures the 7 DOF finite elements have the capability to consider all modes of global vibration shapes: flexural.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL The possible buckling shapes which can be calculated by this eigenvalue analysis are basically influenced by the considered second order effects which are determined by the applied finite element.5 EARTHQUAKE TO B E PR E PA R ED 7.4 DYNAMIC EIGENVALUE – VIBRATION ANALYSIS In a mechanical interpretation the dynamic eigenvalue analysis approximates the eigenfrequencies where the structure is subjected to some modes of free vibration. In case of beam-column structures the 7 DOF finite elements have the capability to consider all modes of global buckling shapes: flexural buckling. 7. lateral-torsional vibration and any interactions of these.5. torsional buckling.1 RESULT TYPES For the two types of finite elements (line and surface elements) the following analysis results are available: 66 WWW. The possible vibration shapes which can be calculated by this eigenvalue analysis are basically influenced by the considered stiffness and mass matrices which are determined by the applied finite element. torsional.HU . 7.5.4.

Line elements First and second order calculations: Deformations – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system  XYZ – all components  X – only displacements in the "X” direction  Y – only displacements in the "Y” direction  Z – only displacements in the "Z” direction Equilibrium – signed summation of the internal nodal force components and the appropriate external force and reaction components.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 1. all the values should be zero which means the model is in equilibrium in the calculated deformed state Internal forces – on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system  N – axial force  Vy – shear force in the local “y” direction  Vz – shear force in the local “z” direction  Mx – torsional moment  My – bending moment about the local “y” axis  Mz – bending moment about the local “z” axis  B – bimoment Reactions – on the support nodes in the global coordinate system  R – all the reaction forces and moments  RR – all the reaction forces  RRR – all the reaction moments  Rx – reaction force in the in the global “X” direction  Ry – reaction force in the in the global “Y” direction  Rz – reaction force in the in the global “Z” direction  Rxx – reaction moment about the global “X” direction  Ryy – reaction moment about the global “Y” direction  Rzz – reaction moment about the global “Z” direction Static eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system Dynamic eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system 2. Surface elements First and second order calculations: Deformations – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system  XYZ – all components 67 WWW.HU .5.

HU . middle and lower plane of the surface on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system     x y – normal stress in the local “x” direction – normal stress in the local “y” direction – shear stress 2 x y x y xy 1 – maximum principal stress 2 xy 1 2 2  2 – minimum principal stress 68 WWW.0 USER MANUAL  X – only displacements in the "X” direction  Y – only displacements in the "Y” direction  Z – only displacements in the "Z” direction Equilibrium – signed summation of the internal nodal force components and the appropriate external force and reaction components. all the values should be zero which means the model is in equilibrium in the calculated deformed state Forces on surface – edge forces and moments per unit length on the end nodes of each finite element in the local coordinate system  mx – bending moment on the section perpendicular to the local “x” axis  my – bending moment on the section perpendicular to the local “y” axis  mxy – torsional moment  nx – normal force in the local “x” direction  ny – normal force in the local “y” direction  nxy – membrane shear force  vxz – plate shear force on the section perpendicular to the local “x” axis  vyz – plate shear force on the section perpendicular to the local “y” axis  vRz – resultant plate shear force  n – principal directions of the membrane forces 2n xy 1 arctan 2 nx n y 2m xy 1 arctan 2 mx m y n 90 n 90  m – principal directions of the plate moments 90 m m 90 Stresses on surface – on upper.5.CONSTEEL.

There are two main possibilities for the demonstration of the analysis results: the graphical visualization and the result tables (for the general functionality of tables used in ConSteel see section 1.5.2 VISUALIZATION OPTIONS The results of the performed analysis are usually a huge amount of data so the efficient handling of it has great importance.1 R ES U L T T Y PES ) 69 WWW.4 G E N ER A L FU NC T I O NS F OR T A BL ES ). The four combos contain the following selection options (from left to right): selection of analysis type (discussed in section 7. The two visualization options are obviously in strong connection and can be manipulated by the functions placed on the upper part of the A NA L Y S I S tab.CONSTEEL. There should be opportunities for global overview and for obtaining accurate.5.0 USER MANUAL 2 x 2 y x y 2 xy 2 2  HMH HMH – Huber-Mises-Hencky stress 2 x 2 y x y 3 2 xy  – principal directions of the stresses 1 arctan 2 2 x xy y 90 90 Reactions – on the support nodes in the global coordinate system  R – all the reaction forces and moments  RR – all the reaction forces  RRR – all the reaction moments  Rx – reaction force in the in the global “X” direction  Ry – reaction force in the in the global “Y” direction  Rz – reaction force in the in the global “Z” direction  Rxx – reaction moment about the global “X” direction  Ryy – reaction moment about the global “Y” direction  Rzz – reaction moment about the global “Z” direction Static eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system Dynamic eigenvalues and corresponding eigenshapes – on the finite element nodes in the global coordinate system 7.HU . detailed information about a certain part or problem.5.4 A NA L Y S I S T Y P ES ) selection of load combination or load case selection of result type (discussed in section 7.

5. Three types of result tables can be viewed: Extreme values by members: select the maximum and minimum values for each structural members User defined values: show the values belonging to the markers defined by the user (discussed more deeply in section 7.3 RESULT MARKERS On the graphical interpretation of the results markers can be placed in order to show certain significant values. When moving the mouse along the structural elements (or more correctly the finite elements) the result markers continuously appear showing the actual values.5. displacement components force type results (internal forces.CONSTEEL. force components reaction type results (reactions. In case of partial or submodel view the graphics and the tables show only the results of the actual model part. The result tables arrange the values according to the current result type: displacement type results (first or second order deformations.0 USER MANUAL selection of type of view All the model view options discussed in section 3.3 R ES U L T M A R K E R S ) All values.HU . 7.2 M OD EL VI E WS are applicable on the result graphics. These markers can be fixed by clicking on the right mouse button and choosing the ‘Marker’ option. reaction components. Moving the slide beside the combos the scaling of the results can be adjusted on the graphics. static or dynamic eigenshapes): finite element node number. 70 WWW. forces or stresses on surface): finite element node number. equilibrium): finite element node number.5. finite element number.

HU .5.0 USER MANUAL The fixed markers will appear on every result views where it has interpretable value: Deformation Normal force Bending moment 71 WWW.CONSTEEL.

In this table the markers can be switched to disabled by uncheck the proper row. 7. Only the values at the ends of structural members are examined.5. The table is view sensitive which means that the dominant values are always selected from the current result type.0 USER MANUAL When there are fixed markers on the model the ‘User defined values’ table contains the appropriate (view dependant) values of the marked points. The markers can be deleted by: click on the proper row in the table by the right mouse button click on the marked point on the graphics by the right mouse button and chose ‘Remove marker’ Extreme values can automatically marked by the check boxes on the ‘Extreme values’ table rows.4 TABLE OF DOMINANT VALUES The last icon on the A NA L Y S I S tab activates the table of dominant values.CONSTEEL.5.HU . The functionality of the table is as follows: 72 WWW.

5. the dominant values are always highlighted by colored cells.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 5 3 4 7 – selection of appropriate load combinations belonging to resistance or serviceability limit states (the deformations are automatically appear for the serviceability limit state.HU .CONSTEEL. while the internal forces and reactions for the resistance limit state) – setting the type of extreme values – sorting the values for bars (structural members). bar groups or cross sections – handle the ends of the members separately (A. B ends) or together (Both ends) – single or multiple component selection is possible. the ‘Dominant’ column contains the dominant components 8 9 10 11 73 WWW.

5.0 USER MANUAL 8 STANDARD DESIGN TO B E PR E PA R ED 74 WWW.HU .CONSTEEL.

0 there is a powerful and easy-to-use documentation engine in order to create precise. Other fields like the name of the project. The static documentation contains the full description of the model and also the results of the analysis and design.1 START DOCUMENTATION All icons which related to the documentation are placed in the documentation tab.2.1 B ASICS In ConSteel 5. On the first window the name of the documentation can be set. the name of the engineers and the date of the creation can also be set but would appear only on the front page.HU . The name appears on every page of the documentation. The documentation can be generated if first icon is clicked. 75 WWW.2 T HE DOCUMENTATION TAB 9.0 USER MANUAL 9 DOCUMENTATION 9.5. 9. The documentation wizard guides you through the documentation generating process. easily editable static documents that meet the requirements of the structural engineers.CONSTEEL.

png” and the “Footer_pic. The “Header_pic. Any of the analysis results can be chosen if had been calculated previously. These files can be found in the software’s installation directory.5.png” need to be replaced by your own images. The second step is to choose which of the analysis results need to be included in the documentation. In order to do so the default header and footer images need to be replaced.CONSTEEL.HU . the default path is the following: C:\Program Files\ConSteel 4.0 USER MANUAL The header and the footer pictures of the document can be customized so your own company logo can be added.0\Pic. 76 WWW.

2.5.0 USER MANUAL The third window of the wizard includes the name of the chapters which can be added to or can be removed from the documentation.HU .1.1 DOCUMENTATION MODULE 77 WWW.CONSTEEL. 9. If you click on the Create button the program will generate the documentation.

If you click on a chapter then the icons are as described above. The table will be inserted below the selected paragraph. The last tab is the Appendices. these can be found here and can be added to the end of the documentation. If a paragraph is clicked where there is a table the last icon can be used to delete any column from the table. It is also possible to insert headings by clicking on the fifth icon. The image will be inserted below the selected paragraph. Text can be inserted anywhere in the document if you click on the fourth icon and type in the desired text into the window. The last two icons on the right are different if you click on a chapter or in a paragraph. There are lot of possibilities in ConSteel where tables can be saved. The chapters can be moved up or down using the arrow icons if a chapter is selected. 78 WWW. The last three icons can be used for the following purposes: Edit heading and increase or decrease level of heading. If you click on a paragraph which contains text then the last two icons on the right can be used to edit the paragraph content and the alignment.HU . IF THERE ARE SNAPSHOTS IN THE DOCUMENTATION THESE SNAPSHOTS SHOULD BE TAKEN AGAIN AND NEED TO BE ADDED TO THE DOCUMENTATION. IT SHOULD BE BEAR IN MIND THAT THE DOCUMENTATION NEED TO BE REGENERATED TO BE UPTO-DATE AFTER ANY CHANGES HAS BEEN MADE ON THE MODEL. The appendices can also be deleted from the database.0 USER MANUAL After creating the documentation it will be opened in a new window.CONSTEEL.5. If any joint or section documentation had been generated previously. By clicking the Pictures tab the image handling icons can be seen. It is also possible to delete content from document by clicking the third icon. At the top right of the window the chapters can be seen. You can also insert page break anywhere in the document using the sixth icon. If you see the icon then that table is saveable. The third tab is the Tables. Any of the taken snapshots can be inserted into the documentation or can be deleted. Any previously saved tables can be inserted to the documentation or can be deleted from the model database.

The snapshots can be easily added to the desired part of the documentation (see 9. The size of the snapshot can be set and a dashed rectangle shows which part of the model would appear on the picture.3 SNAPSHOT MANAGER The third icon on the documentation tab is the Snapshot manager where the taken snapshots can be exported to a file or can be deleted from the model in order to reduce model file size.2.HU . The model can be moved or rotated to fit into the dashed rectangle. 9.CONSTEEL. 79 WWW.1.1 chapter for detailed information).2 CREATING SNAPSHOTS The second icon on the documentation tab can be used to take a snapshot of the model.2.0 USER MANUAL 9.2.5. The name of the images can also be edited by double clicking the name of the image.

surface and the length can be viewed for each section in the model.4 MODEL INFORMATION With using the fourth icon on the documentation tab the model information can be viewed or can be exported to a file. etc.0 USER MANUAL 9. The mass.2.5. Number of supports.CONSTEEL. 80 WWW. Total weight of the structure. The model information window shows the most important features of the model like Number of bars. The model information can be shown based on the full model or on the current view if the model view shows only a part of the full model using the sub model view.HU .

10. This module collects all the tools relate to the creation.CONSTEEL. stress analysis and standard design of a cross-section. Section administration and Section module can be launched by clicking the icons shown above. The steel standard design formulas are easy to evaluate on the EPS model including the real effective section generation of class 4 cross-sections based on the sectional forces resulted from the structural analysis.HU . the Elastic Plate Segment (EPS) is a thin-walled model especially for steel profiles. This can be done in the section administration dialogue. property calculation. Here you can see all the previously loaded sections and new sections can be loaded or created by clicking the appropriate buttons on the right. These icons can be found in the S TR U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab. 81 WWW.5.2 S ECTION ADMINISTRATION Section must be loaded into the model database in order to use it in the model.0 USER MANUAL 10 SECTION MODULE 10.1 B ASICS The wide functionality of the ConSteel connected with cross-sections suggested detaching a separate module: Section Module (C S S EC T I O N ). Two parallel modeling possibilities exist: the General Solid Section (GSS) is an accurate finite element based surface model for any kind of cross-sections.

0 USER MANUAL Sections can be loaded from the library into the model.5. hot-rolled or cold-formed sections. Cold-Formed sections and Compound sections.CONSTEEL. It is very important to know that the material grade of the member must be chosen when the section is loaded into the database. In case of Class 4 profile the effective cross-section is automatically generated based on the proper sectional forces. 82 WWW. The model yields the same general.3.HU . If a section is selected the all the properties can be seen at the right. 10. So called macro sections can also be created in ConSteel. and the standard procedures can be evaluated on this effective section. torsional and shear properties and stresses and moreover it calculates the static moments and sectional classes according to the Eurocode. In the section library all the most used standard European sections can be found in a tree structure. The EPS model is also very suitable for the evaluation all of the standard design formulas in a very sophisticated way. The model is very easy and fast to calculate and has accurate results for thin-walled sections compared with the GSS model. These macro sections can be found in three sub-categories: Welded sections from plates.1 THE EPS MODEL The Elastic Plate Segment (EPS) model is a thin-walled simplification of the usually steel profiles from welded. which can be used and run for the same section side by side. Multiple sections can be loaded at the same time by using the typical Windows selection tools: CTRL and SHIFT buttons.3 S ECTION MODELLING 10.

The model dissolves the section with arbitrary shape into triangle elements. shear areas and factors.) the GSS model precisely calculates the torsional and shear properties like St.. Beyond the usual properties (sectional area. etc.HU . and calculates the sectional properties by the finite element method.. 83 WWW. torsional and shear stresses can be also calculated on this model using a spectacular colored view. etc.3.CONSTEEL.2 THE GSS MODEL The General Solid Section (GSS) was created in order to model any kind of cross sections as accurate as possible. The section can be assembled with any number of different materials and the automatic finite element mesh generates separate triangles for the certain materials controlling the mesh size according to the elastic properties of the material. Venant and warping moment of inertia. second moment of inertia. The elastic normal. and these accurate properties are used in the global analysis.0 USER MANUAL 10.5.

10.4. There are two ways to open C S S EC T I O N directly for a 84 WWW.4 S ECTION T OOLS 10.1 GEOMETRICAL CALCULATIONS There are three coordinate systems in Section module: main axis system.0 USER MANUAL 10. C S S EC T I O N can be launched from the model if the S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab is chosen and standard design had been run. The section properties can be viewed according to these coordinate systems. It is also possible to add load combinations manually by clicking on the New Load Combination icon.4.5. section edit system replaced in centre and the construction coordinate systems.2 LOADS If the section module is opened from the model. The relevant is chosen but any other can be selected and checked.HU . then all the load combination from the model are automatically imported into the section model.CONSTEEL.

4. Venant torsion 85 WWW. The following stresses are calculated by C S S EC T I O N : Stress Symbol σN σMy σMz σB Σσ τVy τVz ΣτV τTsv. 10. First is to press right click on S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab over the section which needs to be analysed and select C A L C U L A T E S EC T I O N .y τTsv. The second way is to press right click over the element in the result sheet which can be found in the bottom of the screen on the S T A ND A R D R ES I S T A NC E tab and click on C A L C U L A T E S EC T I O N .0 USER MANUAL selected section. Stresses can be viewed both in the EPS and the GSS model. Venant torsion Resultant shear stress due to St.5.z Σ τTsv Stress name Normal stress due to axial force Normal stress due strong axis bending Normal stress due to weak axis bending Normal stress due to bimoment Resultant normal stress Shear stress due to strong axis shear force Shear stress due to weak axis shear force Resultant shear stress due to shear forces Strong axis shear stress due to St. Venant torsion Weak axis shear stress due to St.HU .CONSTEEL.3 STRESSES Stresses can be checked by selecting the P R OP ER T I ES tab and clicking on the S T R ES S ES icon .

4 EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION If the first icon consideration.z Σ τTω Σ τT Σ τy Σ τz Strong axis shear stress due to warping torsion Weak axis shear stress due to warping torsion Resultant shear stress due to warping torsion Resultant shear stress due to torsion Strong axis resultant shear stress Weak axis resultant shear stress 10.0 USER MANUAL τTω.CONSTEEL. is clicked and EPS model is selected then effective section take into 10. plastic and conservative interaction resistances of certain section types. 86 WWW.4.5 STANDARD RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS The standard design procedures performed on the EPS model cover the major part of steel design methods in the Eurocode (the whole EC 3 1-1 and parts of EC 3 1-5) including the calculations of general elastic resistance.y τTω.HU .4.5. examination of pure cases. web buckling analysis.

geometrical. performs all the standard calculations and evaluates the dominant case. see chapter 9 for more detailed instructions. The way for creating documentation is the same as in ConSteel main module.CONSTEEL. and the generated documents can be attached to the main documentation of the global structure.5 DOCUMENTATION Each analyzed cross-section can be separately documented in detail for both section design including the shape parameters.0 USER MANUAL For a given loading case the module determines the necessary and possible checks. formula and load combination can be found there. 87 WWW. There is a short summary about the calculations on the right and also the name of the dominant case.5. mechanical and design results.HU . 10.

the design tools covers practically the whole joint standard Eurocode 3 Part 1-8. A prepared joint can be placed several parts of the global model to make the joint integral part of it. A great range of different joint types can be created easily applying several special connection elements.HU . and the connection stiffness is also updated modifying the global model consequently. A joint can be defined alone or based on the global model by the automatic joint identification tool. Place joint. At the moment the C S J OI NT module has the following joint and connection types: Beam-to-column joints with Welded moment connection on the flanges Bolted.0 USER MANUAL 11 JOINT MODULE 11. These are the followings: Edit joint.5. end-plate moment connection on the flanges Simple shear connection on the flanges or on the web Gusset plate connection with double plate flange splice of I sections or plate splice of hollow sections on the flanges or on the web Beam-to-beam (web) joints with Bolted. All the joint related commands can be found on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab. Create joint by model. 11. end-plate moment connection 88 WWW. A placed joint is always automatically rechecked based on the current analysis results.CONSTEEL.2 J OINT T YPES The number of the joint types is one of the most dynamically developing parts of the software.1 B ASICS In the ConSteel design approach great emphasis is placed on the integrated modeling and calculation of the global structure and its connections therefore a powerful joint analysis engine is developed as a separate module: csJoint. usually considering the claims of the users.

HU .0 USER MANUAL Simple shear connection Beam splice joints with Bolted.CONSTEEL. flange stiffeners and flange backing plates. 89 WWW. base-plate moment connection Rigid connection with ground beam Hollow section (truss) joints with K and N connection T and Y connection Tension chord splice connection A module offers a number of strengthening possibilities such as: lower or/and upper haunch with or without flange. shear stiffeners (supplementary web plate. single or double skew plate stiffener) etc. Morrison stiffener.5. end-plate moment connection Simple shear connection Column base joints with Bolted. transverse web stiffeners.

0 USER MANUAL 11.5.1 CREATE JOINT WITHOUT MODEL Joint models can be created without global model by clicking on the ‘E D I T J OI NT ’ icon on the S T R U C T U R A L M EM B ER S tab.CONSTEEL. In this case the geometry and the loads need to be set manually. 90 WWW.HU .3 C REATE J OINT 11. Then the type of the connection needs to be chosen (see chapter 11. After clicking on the Create button the name of the joint must be given. The next step is to choose the geometry of the connection and then the type of connection.3.2 for the possible joint types).

use the ‘P L A C E J OI NT ’ function of ConSteel.0 USER MANUAL 11.CONSTEEL.2 CREATE JOINT BY MODEL Creating joint by the model is simple and easy. To do so. After the joint is placed ConSteel automatically import the loads from the global model.5.HU . One joint can be placed to several places in the model where the same geometry exists. Here it is possible to remove some members from the connection by removing the appropriate tick. The members will be automatically identified and the possible connection types are offered. 91 WWW. After creating the joint it is advisable to place it in the global model.3. Just click on the ‘C R EA T E J OI NT BY M OD EL ’ button and select the joint.

engineer. In the following pages we would like to give you an overview of the Joint module (C S J O I NT ) using a beam to column connection as an example. Additional connections can be added or removed if necessary. 2 part in the image below shows the general type of the connection. These properties will appear in the joint documentation and also useful to distinguish joints from each other. project.HU . 92 WWW. No.2 MANIPULATING CONNECTIONS No matter if a joint is created with our without model manipulating the joint is the same. etc. No.5.3.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 11. The #1 part in the image below contains general information about the joint: Joint name. 3 part shows a tree structure about the joint: all components of the connection can be seen and selected here. date. Joint details appear in a new window where numerous settings can be made.

HU . Furthermore the position of the reference plane is essential for the joint calculation. Setting the position of the column is also very important (#2).0 USER MANUAL 3 1 2 If the column is selected then column related properties of the connection can be set like the section size and material grade (#1).5.CONSTEEL. 1 2 3 93 WWW. The image on the right gives a visual help about the meaning of ‘Lsr’ and ‘Lc’ variables.

In the last two cases a connection must be chosen in the connection tree.HU . Additional web and flange stiffeners can also be put in (#2). Detailed results of the selected connection. Summary for the selected connection. Upper and lower stiffener plate properties can be seen in the #1 part of the image below. 1 2 3 4 End plate properties can be edited in the #1 highlighted part of the image below. Any changes made on the joint will take place either when pressing Enter on the keyboard or by clicking to another editable field on the window.0 USER MANUAL Stiffeners can be added if ‘S T I F F EN ER S ’ is clicked in the connection tree. Bolt properties can be seen on #2 part.5. In that case click on the ‘C A L C U L A T I ON ’ button to run the calculation (#3).CONSTEEL. which can be set if the ‘Beam’ is clicked in the joint tree (see #4 image). Bear in mind that the position of the stiffeners are measured from the reference plane of the beam. 94 WWW. In order to place shear stiffener in the joint click on the #3 part. In the pull down menu of the #3 highlighted part the type of the result visualisation can be set to three different types: Summary for the whole joint. If ‘Automatic calculation’ is turned on and any changes take place then the calculation of the joint is automatically rerun. It can be turned off.

5.0 USER MANUAL 1 2 3 4 The result of the joint calculation can be seen in the #4 highlighted part of the window. 11. the section strength or the appropriate component Initial and secant stiffness based on the tension and compression components and applied moment 95 WWW.4 A NALYSIS OF CONNECTIO NS All the analysis in C S J OI NT module is based on the standard procedures of Eurocode 3 Part 1-8. If the detailed result is selected then all the results of the necessary calculations can be seen according to the selected load combination or according to the dominant load case.CONSTEEL. these procedures are almost entirely covered by the module.HU . For the different types of connections the following analyses are performed: Moment connections: Moment resistance based on the plastic tension components of the individual or grouped bolt rows and compression components including the effect of axial load Shear resistance of the bolts in combined shear and tension Bearing resistance of plates Web and flange weld resistance and capacity to the applied load.

A joint is calculated for all the loads coming from different places or different combinations. 96 WWW. and the summarized and detailed results for all cases can be flexibly documented.CONSTEEL.5 R ESULTS AND DOCUMENTA TION The analysis results are displayed in two main forms: a summarized view containing the main resistances.HU .0 USER MANUAL Shear connections: Shear resistance of bolts and plates Bearing resistance of plates Block tearing resistance of plates Weld resistance and capacity to the applied load or section strength Hollow section connections: Chord face failure. shear failure and punching shear failure Brace failure Local buckling of the members 11. web failure. and a detailed view showing the components of the main results which is comprehensive enough to see what are the weakest point of the connections and what type of strengthening would be the most efficient to apply.5. and the dominant place and combination is automatically highlighted. The spectacular documentation shows the detailed geometry of the joint with its connections. stiffness and capacities.

However this approach requires a more complicated relationship between the joints and the structure and accordingly more serious modeling effort from the engineer.HU . Rerun the analysis to the changes take place. In order to place a joint to the global model click on the ‘P L A C E J OI NT ’ icon. semi-rigid or pinned) which generally makes the results more economic and realistic.6 S TRUCTURE -J OINT INTERACTION The most up-to-date structural design procedures take into account the mechanical interaction between the global structural model and its connections (rigid.0 USER MANUAL 11. In the ConSteel all the joint types can be defined freely or based on the global model geometry using the automatic identification tool.CONSTEEL. The stiffness of the connection can also be taking into account during the analysis if desired. which examines the position of the connected members and the proper cross-sections and offer the possible joint types. 97 WWW. In order to do so click on the analysis parameters and put a tick to ‘A PPL Y C O NN EC T I O N S T I F FN ES S ’. After defining the joint it can place back to the global model and the appropriate connection stiffness can be automatically used in the global analysis. and a placed joint is always rechecked based on the current analysis results.5. One joint can be placed to several places in the model if these meet the geometrical requirements.

HU .5.CONSTEEL.3 for more detailed information.0 USER MANUAL 11.7 J OINT E XPORT All joints can be exported to StruCad 3D structural steel detailing software. See C H A PT ER 2. 98 WWW.

2 I NDIVIDUAL M EMBER D ESIGN To run member design.1 B ASICS All member design related functions can be found on the M EM B ER D ES I G N tab. first the members have to be selected and then added to the list. Same like in the analysis the type of the result view can be set by three drop down menus. If a member is selected. 99 WWW.5. the corresponding row highlighted with green and analysis results are automatically loaded. 12. Only one load combination can be selected at the same time. Member design can be run if there is analysis result (first and second order) and cross check for the member. Buckling and lateral torsional buckling analysis cannot be performed for all members. It is can be performed by clicking on the Add button. Special analysis can be run by clicking on the second icon.0 USER MANUAL 12 MEMBER DESIGN 12.HU . After that one member has to be chosen and Select button is clicked. If the normal force is negligible then no buckling analysis can be run.CONSTEEL.

The dominant load combination is automatically selected and marked with a * symbol. lateral-torsional buckling) and interaction stability (interaction of buckling and lateral torsional buckling. weak axis buckling.0 USER MANUAL The next step is to choose the load combination and design type from the options: pure cases (strong axis buckling. interaction of lateral-torsional buckling and bending). 100 WWW. Depending on the member not all checks can be performed.CONSTEEL.HU . If the normal force is negligible then strong or weak axis buckling design cannot be run. interaction of buckling and bending.5.

The design parameters can be individually set for each segment by clicking on the three dots icon. Segments can also be turned off in order not to calculate them during the analysis.CONSTEEL. The program automatically identifies the supports which could have effect on the buckling check.HU . The actual segment is highlighted with green.0 USER MANUAL If strong or weak axis buckling option is selected then first the design parameters has to be set. There are two options to set the design parameters: set the effective length fact manually by typing in the appropriate value or by 101 WWW. Among the supports the member is divided to segments.5.

New cases can be defined and unnecessary cases can be deleted.5. the second one is to change load combinations and the third one is to change the buckling case. Lateral torsional buckling design is more or less the same as the buckling design in ConSteel usage. there are only small differences. 102 WWW. The corresponding case is highlighted with green in the image. The second option is possible if the special analysis has already been run. A short explanation can be read in the bottom when any of the rows is selected. There are three drop down menus in order to view different results. For each segment start and end node can be set.HU . In both cases the elastic critical axial force is automatically calculated. Results will be displayed.CONSTEEL. The first on can be used to change member. If all the design parameters has been properly set then design check can be performed by clicking on the Check button.0 USER MANUAL choosing the right critical load multiplier.

5.0 USER MANUAL

By clicking on the three dots icon the design parameters can be altered. The elastic critical bending moment can be calculated from the analytic formula or from the critical load multiplier. When the first method is used the factors can be typed in or a special automatic C factor calculator can be used by clicking on the AutoC button. The second option is to choose the corresponding critical load multiplier from the list.

103
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL Interaction stability design goes through the steps of the pure cases. After the check is made the state of the member in the list at the bottom changes to ‘Examined’ from ‘Unexamined’.

104
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.0 USER MANUAL

12.3 M EMBER G ROUP D ESIGN
By using the Select (+) button it is possible to select more members for the member design. Select (-) can be used for remove members from the selection. Member group design works nearly the same as individual member design there are just minor differences. No special analysis can be run in member group design therefore the critical load factor cannot be selected. If the members are selected then the next step is to select the design type and click Check button similar to the individual member design.

For each load combination member design can be turned off. It is important to know that not all design can be run for all members in load combinations. It depends on the analysis result.

105
WWW.CONSTEEL.HU

5.HU .0 USER MANUAL In the results tab the dominant member is automatically shown.CONSTEEL. The number next to the member number shows the capacity. 106 WWW.

The following 107 WWW.5. In order to create a new serviceability check N E W checks can be performed: Global horizontal deflection check Global vertical deflection check Local deflection check by members Relative deflection check for 2 points C H EC K button is clicked.1 B ASICS All serviceability related functions can be found on the S ER VI C EA BI L I T Y tab. The previously defined serviceability checks can be found and it is also possible to open or delete the selected checks.CONSTEEL.0 USER MANUAL 13 SERVICEABILITY 13. By clicking on the blue arrow icon a new dialog appears.HU .

0 USER MANUAL 13. Reference height can be typed in or two points can be selected and program calculates the height distance between them. Check is done after clicking the C A L C U L A T I O N button.2 G LOBAL HORIZONTAL DEF LECTION CHECK Global horizontal deflection check can be used to check the biggest horizontal deflection in the model or in the model portion. 108 WWW.HU . First or Second order analysis can be selected just like the serviceability load combinations that need to be taken into account.CONSTEEL.5. The dominant bar is automatically selected in the model to make the interpretation easier.

This can be set manually or by clicking the two end points of the bar. There is just minor difference which is the following: reference length has to be set instead of reference height.3 G LOBAL VERTICAL DEFLECTION CHECK Global vertical deflection check works similar to the global horizontal deflection check. 109 WWW.0 USER MANUAL 13.CONSTEEL.5.HU .

110 WWW.HU . Local deflection check by members is not adequate for cantilever beams just for beams which are supported by two other beams or supports in both ends. and then selects the maximum. members in YX plane.0 USER MANUAL 13. This check is suitable only for horizontal beams i.e.4 L OCAL DEFLECTION CHEC K BY MEMBERS Local deflection check by members goes through all the beams in the model.5. and checks the local deflection.CONSTEEL.

Relative horizontal or vertical check can be selected and performed.5.0 USER MANUAL 13.CONSTEEL. 111 WWW.HU .5 R ELATIVE DEFLECTION C HECK FOR 2 POINTS Relative deflection check for 2 points can be used for two clicked points.