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Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * Real-Time Simulation* Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options

Rev 1.14/4/2010

PowerFactory V14

Basic Software Features & Calculation Functions Advanced Functions and Features

Protection Coordination * Distribution Network Optimization * Harmonic Analysis * Optimal Power Flow Reliability Analysis * State Estimation * Dynamic Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * Real-Time Simulator * Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options

Rev 1.16/7/2011_E

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 6 2 PowerFactory Overview .................................................................................................................... 8 2.1 Functional Integration and Applications ...................................................................................................... 8 2.2 PowerFactory Software Concept ................................................................................................................ 8 3 Network Models .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment ............................................................................................. 11 3.2 Built-in Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions ............................................................................. 15 3.3 Load and Generation Profiles ................................................................................................................... 15 4 Data Management ........................................................................................................................... 16 4.1 V14 Standard Data Model ........................................................................................................................ 16 4.1.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders ............................................................................................... 16 4.1.2 Study Time ........................................................................................................................................ 17 4.2 Data Organisation ................................................................................................................................... 17 5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities ...................................................................................... 19 6 Results and Reporting ..................................................................................................................... 22 6.1 Text Reports........................................................................................................................................... 22 6.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views)....................................................................................................... 22 6.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams ............................................................................................................... 23 6.4 Result File Management .......................................................................................................................... 23 6.5 Plots and Diagrams ................................................................................................................................. 23 6.6 Additional Features ................................................................................................................................. 25 7 External Data Format Support ........................................................................................................ 26 7.1 Standard Data Formats ........................................................................................................................... 26 7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS)............................................................................................ 26 8 DPL- DIgSILENT Programming Language ....................................................................................... 27 9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation .................................................................................................. 29 9.1 Standard Windowing Mode ...................................................................................................................... 29

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Table of Contents

9.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode ............................................................................................................. 29 10 Power Flow Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 30 11 Fault Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 33 11.1 Supported Standards............................................................................................................................. 33 11.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults ........................................................................................................... 34 11.3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods)........................................................................................................ 35 12 Network Reduction ....................................................................................................................... 36 12.1 General Features .................................................................................................................................. 36 13 Voltage Stability Analysis .............................................................................................................. 37 13.1 PV Curves ............................................................................................................................................. 37 13.2 Q-V Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 37 14 Load Flow Sensitivities .................................................................................................................. 38 15 Contingency Analysis .................................................................................................................... 39 16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation .......................................................................... 41 16.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation ..................................................................................................... 41 16.2 Cable Parameter Calculation .................................................................................................................. 41 17 Distribution Network Analysis ...................................................................................................... 42 17.1 Feeder Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 42 17.2 Low-Voltage Network Analysis ............................................................................................................... 42 17.3 Stochastic Load Modelling...................................................................................................................... 42 17.4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization.......................................................................................................... 43 17.5 Feeder Tools......................................................................................................................................... 44 18 Protection Functions ..................................................................................................................... 45 18.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality .............................................................................................. 45 18.2 Output & Graphical Representation ........................................................................................................ 47 18.3 Overcurrent-Time Protection .................................................................................................................. 48 18.4 Distance Protection ............................................................................................................................... 48 19 Distribution Network Optimization ............................................................................................... 50 19.1 Optimal Capacitor Placement ................................................................................................................. 50

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........................... 62 22..... 72 25....2 DC Optimization ............................ 53 20................................................................................................................................. 58 22.............................. 59 22.........................................................2 Tracing of Individual Cases .............................................1 Failure Models ......................................................................................1 General Capabilities..............................................6 PowerFactory Real-Time Simulators ................................ 68 25...................................................................................... 54 20................................................................... 76 PowerFactory V14 4 ........... 63 22................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 26 Small Signal Stability .................. 64 24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL) ........................................................................................................... 54 21 Optimal Power Flow ................................2 Open Tie Optimization ..............................................................................................................................................................................................2................................................................1 High Flexibility .. 60 22.........................................5................................ 66 25 Power System Dynamics .....2 Stability Analysis Functions ....................................4 System Indices and Results .................................................................................................5 Development of Indices over Years ...................................4 Contribution to Reliability Indices ..........................................................................................................................................5......... 62 22............................. 74 25......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 22 Reliability Analysis . 62 22....................1 AC Optimization ........................... 71 25.......5.......................5 Dynamic System Parameter Identification ..............................................................................................................................1 Harmonic Load Flow.........5 Special Features.......................................................................................................................................................2 Long-term Stability .........................................5............................................................................................................................ 52 20............................................................... 71 25.............. 55 21........................ 63 23 State Estimation .............................................................................................................................3 Powerful Output Tools for Result Representation .......................................................................................................2..................................... 62 22........................ 52 20............................................................................................................Table of Contents 19........................2 Frequency Sweep.....................................................................3 Transient Motor Starting ................. 55 21..................................................3 Ripple Control Signals ....................4 Filter Rating .......... 68 25......................... 59 22..............3 Failure Effect Analysis ........1 RMS Simulation with a-b-c Phase Representation ..............................................................................................................................4 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) .............. 50 20 Harmonic Analysis Functions .....................................5.................................................................. 58 22....................................................................................................................... 71 25.............................................2 State Enumeration ................................................................................................................. 73 25...............................................................................................

...............2 OPC Interface .........2 PowerFactory ..... 92 31 The DIgSILENT Company .............................................Table of Contents 27 PowerFactory Interfaces ........................ 81 28......... 91 30...................... 79 28 Interfacing PowerFactory ..... 90 29..................... 83 28.......................................3 License Overview ........................................................................ 78 27.........................................4 Installation Requirements .......................................................................................1 PowerFactory Workstation License ...............................) .......................................................................................................................................................................................1 PowerFactory ............................................. 84 28....................4 PowerFactory ................................................................................................................................ 81 28..............................................................2 PowerFactory Server License .......... etc.........................................................................................A/D Signal Interfacing Capability......................................... 84 29 PowerFactory Installation Options ...........3 Shared Memory Interface .................................................................................................. 93 32 History of the DIgSILENT Software ................................................................ 86 29...................................................... 90 30 PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices ................................Simulation Interface (SIMULINK......................................... 85 29.........1 DGS Interface .............................................................. 78 27..................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 PowerFactory Prices .................................................................. 91 30................................. 85 29...............3 PowerFactory ................................................. 94 PowerFactory V14 5 ........... 78 27...................GIS integration ......................................1 PowerFactory Function Definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SCADA integration ......

This increases the demands on software tools in terms of data quality. as data handling. and the analysis of these grids’ interactions.and industrial grids. DIgSILENT presents a further step towards seamless integration of functionality and data management within a multi-user environment. flexibility and manageability. scenarios. distribution. transmission-. analysis and simulation for more than 25 years. and switch and component modelling Integrated overview diagrams. With PowerFactory Version 14. expansion of interconnections and distributed generation. planning processes and operation processes are becoming increasingly complex due to market unbundling.and multi-user project data administration environment Database with historical data storage and auditing functionality. modelling capabilities and overall functionality replace a set of other software systems. The all-in-one PowerFactory solution promotes highly-optimized workflow. thereby minimizing project execution costs and training requirements. PowerFactory V14 6 . Time-stamped data model Management of operational scenarios Baselining. simplified and detailed single line diagrams Fast contingency analysis tools (AC and DC load flow) Contingency-constrained economic dispatch including quad booster optimization Distributed/embedded power generation modelling New models for wind power and virtual power plants DIgSILENT PowerFactory is the most economical solution. Electrical grids. its applicability to the modelling of generation-. The building and organizing of schemes. Version 14 Key Features Single. The proven advantages of the PowerFactory software are its overall functional integration.1 Introduction 1 Introduction DIgSILENT has set standards and trends in power system modelling. versioning and publishing of models Integrated node and branch. versions and running arrangements has been added for improved handling.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory v14 integrated features overview PowerFactory V14 7 . the PowerFactory engine can be smoothly integrated into GIS.1 Introduction DIgSILENT PowerFactory is easy to use and caters for all standard power system analysis needs. In addition to the stand-alone solution. including highend applications in new technologies such as wind power and distributed generation and the handling of very large power systems. DMS and EMS supporting open system standards.

2. graphics or userdefined models.and industrial system design and simulation Modelling and simulation of railway systems Simulation of any kind of wind turbines and wind parks Smart Grid modelling including virtual power plants and distributed generation such as PVpanels. distribution. No need for tedious organization of several files for defining the various analysis aspects and project execution workflows. battery storage. diagrams and visualization options or software operation sequences. calculation options.2 PowerFactory Overview 2 PowerFactory Overview 2. scenarios.1 Functional Integration and Applications Implemented as a single software solution allowing for fast 'walk around' through the database and execution environment No need to reload modules and update. CHP. storage of settings. non-redundant data model supporting all calculation functions PowerFactory V14 8 . Comprehensive. run conditions. outputs. variants. transfer and convert data and results between different program applications Vertically integrated power equipment model concept allowing models to be shared by all analysis functions Support of transmission-. etc. Saving a project includes everything required to rerun all defined cases at a later stage. object browser. micro turbines. Access to all data via a comfortable and powerful data manager. single-line graphics.2 PowerFactory Software Concept Single Database Concept Optimal data organization and project definitions for performing any type of calculation. Database environment fully integrates all necessary data. such as that required for defining cases. plus various types of diagrams and wizards.

loads.. project versions and derived projects (virtual projects).. This automatically addresses the handling of power system components according to their commissioning and de-commissioning dates Multi-Level Models Data describing network models such as cables. etc. minimizing the need for manual recalculation and conversion of data. Support of version control including rollback functions and merge/compare tools. Management of multi-user data editing via the definition of a base project. All data to be entered are grouped into basic data (data required for all calculations) and function level data (data required only for executing specific calculations). Multi-User Operation and Team working Multi-user data administration supporting MS-SQL or ORACLE databases Support of user accounting. are subdivided into element data and type data which point to libraries. Network Variations. Expansion Stages Management and Operational Scenarios Support of time-stamped network variations. machines. access rights and data sharing. with detailed warning and error messages PowerFactory V14 9 . This is especially useful for libraries and network base cases which should be administrated only by authorized personnel. Variation scheduler for easy handling of sub-projects Definition of study cases and operational scenarios Activation of network stages according to study time. Data are simply entered in physical quantities rather than in per unit values. Verification of input data. transformers. featuring the powerful option of allowing several users to work on the same project in a coordinated way. This demonstrates the concept of nonredundant data management in PowerFactory.2 PowerFactory Overview User Roles Access to user information through a user accounting system Protection of data through different types of access rights Folder sharing between users with “read-only” access.

cable data and tower configurations Batch Mode. etc. SCADA and realtime control systems via OPC. DGS (CSV. ODBC). Hybrid operation switching between background and windowing mode according to users’ needs Data exchange via CIM.2 PowerFactory Overview Integrated calculators for asynchronous machines. Engine Mode and Interfaces Fully interactive windowing mode according to the latest. PSS/E. UCTE and many other file formats PowerFactory V14 10 . proven standards Engine mode for background operation Various communication features to exchange data with other applications such as GIS. shared memory.

terminal strips. 1½ busbar systems and flexible busbar configurations according to user-specific needs. including pre-configured protection schemes Generators and Sources Synchronous and asynchronous generator Doubly-fed induction generator Static generator (for PV. Complex substation models with the provision of various standard busbar configurations such as single. 2-. marshalling panels. etc. joints and junctions.) PowerFactory V14 11 . 3-. bypass busbars.and double busbars with/without tie-breakers. Templates for holding any type of user-specific busbar configuration.3 Network Models 3 Network Models 3. terminal blocks. battery storage. wind generator. and 4-phases Meshed and radial DC systems Combined AC and DC system modelling Model validity from LV up to ultra-high voltage Phase Technologies Single phase with/without neutral Two-phase with/without neutral Bi-phase with/without neutral Three-phase with/without neutral Substations Simple terminal models to be used for “node and branch” representation. fuel cell.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment Grid Models Meshed and radial AC systems with 1-. clamping bars.

series capacitor and common impedance DC Models 1-terminal and 2-terminal DC voltage source and DC current source DC/DC converter Inductive DC-coupling PowerFactory V14 12 . 2-N-winding transformer and auto transformer 3-winding transformer. line couplings. booster transformer Series reactor. RLCCRp) Branch models Overhead line and cable models (π-models and distributed parameter models) Circuits and line sub-sections Mutual data. RL.3 Network Models Loads External grid AC voltage source AC current source 2-terminal AC voltage source General load model (for HV and MV-feeders) Complex load model (for feeders with a large number of induction motors) Low voltage load (can be assigned across line and cable sections) Reactive Power Compensation Static Var Compensator (SVC) Shunt/Filter (RLC. RLCRp. tower geometries 2-. C.

3 Network Models Power Electronics Devices Thyristor/Diode converter models Self-commutated converter models (VSC-converter) DC valve (for building individual converter topologies) Softstarter Switches and Substation Equipment Circuit Breaker and Disconnector Load-Break-Disconnector Load-Switch Grounding Switch Fuse NEC/NER. representing complex substations Composite branch models Template library for handling composite models Parameter characteristics Time characteristics and discrete characteristics Scalar. e. grounding devices Surge arrester Composite Models Composite node models.g. vector and matrix characteristics File references and polygons Continuous and discrete triggers Frequency and time scales PowerFactory V14 13 .

f. bay Operator.) Fourier source. station. VT and various measurement transducers (P. area. sample & hold. etc. owner Boundaries Operational Library Others Protection relays with over 30 basic protection function blocks Manufacturer-specific relay library with relay models from all major manufacturers CT.3 Network Models Controllers Station controller. Q. sample & hold noise generator Substation running arrangements CB ratings Thermal ratings Library of faults/contingencies Library of (planned) outages PowerFactory V14 14 . branch. harmonic source. virtual power plant Tap controller. FFT Clock. substation. zone Feeder. shunt controller User-definable capability diagrams and controllers Organisation and Grouping Site. secondary controller (SCO).

2 Built-in Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions PowerFactory provides a number of functions which assist users in entering data which may have come from datasheets or product catalogues. The alternative definition via the slip-torque/current characteristic requires entering data such as characteristics at nominal operation point.3 Load and Generation Profiles Load and generator parameter characteristics can be defined on a per-element basis for parametric studies. This alternative data entering method will then determine the electrical machine parameters. organizing and storing users’ grid definitions and project settings. refer to predefined discrete cases. This includes the determination of the torque-/speed characteristic.3 Network Models PowerFactory supports 500 different objects for defining. magnetisation reactance. The above-listed objects are a summary of those most frequently used. 3. All operational data (generation and demand patterns. locked rotor torque and other parameters typically available from manufacturer handbooks or test reports. Not only do these functions greatly simplify data entry. Calculation of Overhead Line Parameters and Cable Parameters Please refer to section 16. 3. etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operation Scenarios. stator resistance and reactance. Parameter characteristics can be imposed on each input parameter. switch positions. torque at stalling point. or result from external sources. such as the rated mechanical power. They may be timedependent. but they also provide valuable output and results. PowerFactory V14 15 .. Identification of asynchronous machine parameters Support of two different parameter input modes: (a) electrical parameters and (b) slip-torque/current characteristic When entering electrical parameters. etc. all electrical parameters which precisely define and describe the asynchronous machine are then calculated.

Circuits. protection devices. Routes.1 V14 Standard Data Model 4. converters. PV panels. zones. outages. transformers. Comprehensive network topology handling defining: Nodes. PowerFactory V14 16 . circuit breakers. Operation Scenarios and Study Cases.4 Data Management 4 Data Management 4. generators. etc. Operators and Owners.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders All data required for grid modelling. Typical entries include specific device Mvar limits and capability curves. conductors. feeders. wind turbines. Libraries Libraries contain equipment types. specific thermal ratings. variations can be seen as expansion plans composed of different stages which are activated chronologically. circuits. routes. Sites. motors. DPL scripts. allowing non-redundant grid variation management. folders for boundaries.1. Network Models All network data are organized and stored in various folders such as grid. special operation information. etc. templates and userdefined models. Boundaries. Operational Libraries help organize standard settings and operational structures of grids. Substations. fault conditions and sequences. In other words. Planned grid expansions are organized by time-stamped Expansion Stages which are considered depending on the selected Study Time. simplified single line diagrams and detailed single line diagrams are automatically organized in a separate diagram folder Grid Variations are linked to the original grid data.and area folders. etc. Expansion Stages are stored in Variations and handled via the Variation Scheduler. Easy and non-redundant handling of grid expansion alternatives. The Equipment Type Library can store manufacturer and standard data for cables. running arrangements. Graphical information such as overview diagrams. project organization and project execution are arranged in project folders. Network Models. Project data are structured into Libraries.

4 Data Management Operation Scenarios Definition of operation and dispatch conditions. The model may span a period of months or years considering network expansions. trigger settings.1. grid loading. results and DPL scripts to be executed are all stored in Study Cases Study Cases can be activated to reproduce any grid condition and its associated calculation results 4. fault sequences. daily load variation pattern. ambient temperature. etc Definition of triggers for easy selection of certain conditions to be analysed Comparison of Operation Scenarios Study Cases Grid configurations. The Study Time automatically determines which expansion stages of a variation will be considered. Selection of Study Time along with the operational conditions will automatically create grid expansion scenarios 4. temperature dependencies.2 Study Time PowerFactory V14 extends grid modelling into the dimension of time. calculation options. Versioning Project Versions constitute a snapshot of a project at a specific point in time Project versions are under full control of owner rights Rollback functions allow a controlled “Undo” of a project’s execution steps. operation conditions. solar radiation pattern. wind conditions.2 Data Organisation Simultaneous use of grid data takes place when two different parties work with the same project. planned outages and other system events. The period of validity of a project therefore specifies the time span that the of the model’s validity. thereby “rolling back” to a specific stage of the project PowerFactory V14 17 . etc Organisation of characteristics to generate ranges of values such as daily load curves. This kind of situation occurs most frequently in larger companies where software-based teamworking capabilities are a basic requirement.

This allows the consolidation of independent and parallel model modifications introduced by different users. Only the differences to the original version are stored Derived Projects are always linked to their original Master Project The users will be automatically notified if a new version of their Master Project is available Comprehensive tools for merging several derived projects and/or their versions into a new project via the Merge Tool.4 Data Management Reporting facilities for Derived Projects which depend on a certain version Derived Projects Master Projects can be published in a public area of the database Derived Projects are “virtual” copies of a Version of a Master Project that can be developed by any number of users simultaneously. PowerFactory V14 18 .

region or composite model Zoom-in or zoom-out of area networks or composite model graphics Initiate calculation events directly within the graphical environment. Utilize several graphical representations of the same system simultaneously.5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities 5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities Categories of Network Diagrams Simplified Single Line Diagrams with various options for a schematic view of substation topology and switching status Detailed Single Line Diagrams showing all switches (circuit breakers and disconnectors) Intelligent Overview Diagrams providing a node and branch representation of the network. including circuit breaker switching. Spread large diagrams over several pages PowerFactory V14 19 . geographically or semi-geographically arranged General Features Handle mixed representations of Detailed Single Line Diagrams. Can be schematically. All program variables and signals can be displayed according to a highly flexible user definition for various object categories and analysis functions Display any calculation result to be defined on various functional levels and categories for any object Insert freely-configured result displays Provision of auxiliary graphics editing for enhanced documentation Perform copy/paste operation on single objects and groups View and operate several graphic windows with different layers and grid sections simultaneously. fault implementation and other data changes Option to immediately reflect any editing activity on the graphical level Display any calculation results immediately in result boxes in single line diagrams. Simplified Single Line Diagrams and Overview Diagrams Access equipment editing menus in the single line diagram via cursor selection of the appropriate element.

operators. hydro units. PV panels. HVDC structures. energizing status. use your own symbols for wind turbines. Composite Graphics Elements can be grouped together and stored as Composite Graphics.bmp).g. routes. station connectivity. PowerFactory V14 20 . Colouring options to display voltage levels.wmf. circuit breakers. zones. Colouring of Network Diagrams Provision of various colouring modes according to topology criteria such as areas. equipment loading and operation ranges Define colouring based on AC/DC equipment category and phase technology Display of grid modifications and variants. switchboard configurations.5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities Support of pre-defined and user-defined graphical layers Placement of user-definable icons as buttons for executing DPL scripts. Results may be displayed in the form of bar graphs. etc. Typical applications are standard busbar arrangements. or even tables of values. etc. missing grid connections Provision of feeder colouring and path definitions User-defined filters based on complex equations or DPL scripts User-definable Symbols Support of user-definable symbols based on standard graphical formats (. isolated grids. Composite Graphics can be easily handled via the Template Manager. E. recording of expansion stage modifications.. typical wind turbine configurations or complete wind parks. shunts. with all of these representations being completely user-definable. This way users can create custom panels of frequently-executed DPL-initiated commands. boundaries/interior regions. Templates can be populated with type and element data. Define specific graphical representations for transformers. For drawing Composite Graphics. the Template Manager is operated as Drawing Tool Box. PV panels. Virtual Instruments DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for displaying any calculated result or variable. isolators to fit individual needs. plotted curves. owners.

scaling.5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities VIs are used to display protection curves. Many VIs provide additional built-in functionality such as curve labelling and measuring. phasor diagram Bitmaps. distance-time diagrams. bar diagrams. and any model variable during RMS and EMT simulations. harmonics analysis results or to view electrical variables from any location in the network single line diagram. waveform diagram Eigenvalue diagram. DPL-command buttons. Typical Virtual Instruments Available x-t and x-y plots. curve fitting. filtering and digitizer functions. vector diagram. harmonic distortion diagram Overcurrent-time-diagrams. path diagram Voltage sag diagram. digital display Curve-digitizing diagram Text label PowerFactory V14 21 . buttons.

Flexible selection of network components for documentation Flexible selection of calculation module. such as load flow. contingency calculation. such as transformers. lines. report only input data required for load flow and shortcircuit 6. clipboard and clipboard with column headers for use in spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel PowerFactory V14 22 . Tabular view of any combination of input parameters/ calculation results Several “Flexible Data Page” definitions (variable selections) may exist concurrently Independent variable selections for every calculation Sorting facilities for tabular views Automatic statistical summaries for values in tables Flexible filters for selecting elements for output Output facilities to: Output window. etc.1 Text Reports Automatic reports for calculation results.g.6 Results and Reporting 6 Results and Reporting 6. harmonic calculations. e.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views) Numerous predefined spreadsheet reports for all key calculation functions via “Flexible Data Pages” User-definable setup of “Flexible Data Pages”. relay settings. short-circuit. etc. reliability analysis. Numerous predefined reports for all key calculation functions Flexible selection of elements for reporting Reports can be user-configured allowing user-definable formatting Automatic reports for documentation of network components. generators.

6 Results and Reporting 6. etc…) Accessible by post-processing through DPL Export functionality to export result data to: Output window Clipboard (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL) Text file (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL) COMTRADE (for transient data) PowerFactory measurement file (ASCII) 6. e.Harmonic analysis results Many VIs provide additional built-in functionality such as curve labelling and measuring.4 Result File Management More complex calculation results can be stored in “Result Files”. harmonic analysis results.5 Plots and Diagrams DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for visualizing calculation results as plots and diagrams.Results of RMS and EMT simulations (any pre-selected monitoring variable/signal) . filtering and digitizer functions. curve fitting. relay characteristics.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams Concept of “result boxes” in network diagrams to flexibly display any element/type parameter. reports. etc. contingency results. scaling. VIs are used to display (for example): .g.Protection configurations and results (R-X diagrams. as well as any calculation result Easy-to-configure “result box” format on both component and calculation levels 6. etc) . for calculations such as transient stability results. Selected List of Most Common Virtual Instruments: Plots for simulation results PowerFactory V14 23 . Allows easy configuration of outputs (plots. automatic time-distance diagrams.

: Bar diagrams Vector diagrams Path diagram x-y diagrams Voltage sag diagram Eigenvalue calculation Eigenvalue diagram Phasor diagrams and bar diagrams (controllability.6 Results and Reporting Monitored variables/signals over time Trajectories Harmonics Harmonic distortion diagram FFT diagrams Waveform plots Protection Time-overcurrent diagrams Time-distance diagrams Relay characteristic diagram Additional diagrams for results of load flow. observability.dxf) Bitmaps (*.wmf) AutoCAD graphic file (*. short circuit. harmonics. Supported file formats are: Windows metafiles (*. etc.bmp) Curve-digitizing diagram PowerFactory V14 24 . participation) Measurement VIs Digital display Metering device (vertical/horizontal scales) Combination of both Picture box for displaying graphic files.

dxf. offer the following functionality: Printing or plotting to any device supported by the Windows Print Manager to produce high quality graphical documents from within the program.Bitmap (*.gif. *.tiff. etc.bmp) Conversion of graphic files between several file formats such as *.Windows Metafile (*. plots. and block diagrams.eps. PowerFactory V14 25 .6 Results and Reporting 6.wmf) with high precision coordinates .6 Additional Features The PowerFactory graphic windows such as the single line graphic. Export to standard file formats such as: . *.png. *. *. This is achieved via an external tool which is shipped with PowerFactory.

MS-SQL and ODBC System DSN File formats supported: ASCII Text (CSV).org) NEPLAN (BCP) ISU (SAP. MS-Excel and MS Access Available for PowerFactory Interactive Window Mode and PowerFactory Engine Mode PowerFactory V14 26 . User-specific definition of objects and object parameters Supported objects: elements. NEPS ( I+P Consult) and ReticMaster (Inspired Interfaces) Foreign file Export is supported for PSS/E and UCTE. or to interchange data with any other power system software. PowerFactory already supports CIM import and export: CIM 61970 (CIM for Transmission) 7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS) DGS is PowerFactory’s standard bi-directional interface specifically designed for bulk data exchange with other applications such as GIS and SCADA. migration of data from other power system software is required. PowerFactory therefore supports foreign file Import of several versions from the following software packages: PSS/E. graphics and results Import and export of complete network models as well as incremental data for updating existing models Database support for: Oracle. XML. PSS/U and PSS/Adept (Siemens) DVG and UCTE (ucte. types and libraries. and for example. CIM object and format definitions are increasingly used for standardized data exchange. Although the CIM standards are still under development.1 Standard Data Formats In many cases.7 External Data Format Support 7 External Data Format Support 7. DGS (“DGS”=DIgSILENT-GIS-SCADA) does not feature the exchange of PowerFactory execution commands. for exporting calculation results to produce Crystal Reports. billing data) NETCAL (STZ Konstanz).

penalty factor calculation) Automatic protection coordination and device response checks Specific voltage stability analysis via PV-/QV-curve analysis. object-oriented syntax Flow commands such as "if-then-else". etc. support of vectors and matrices Access to any PowerFactory object and parameter including graphical objects Definition and execution of any PowerFactory command Object filtering and batch execution PowerFactory object procedure calls and DPL subroutine calls New: Calling of external libraries (DLLs) for linking and executing other applications PowerFactory V14 27 . transfer capability analysis. output/export and reporting routines Mathematical expressions. wind profile load flows) Implementation of user-specific commands (e. sliding fault location.g.like. The basic set of commands includes: C++.8 DPL. Typical examples of user-specific DPL-scripts are: Parametric sweep calculations (e.DIgSILENT Programming Language The DPL-Programming Language offers a flexible interface for automating PowerFactory execution tasks. The DPL scripting language adds a new dimension to PowerFactory software by allowing the implementation of new calculation functions. Contingency screening according to user-specific needs Verification of connection conditions Data pre-processing including input/output handling Equipment sizing and dimensioning Report generation The DPL object-oriented scripting language is intuitive and easy to learn. "do-while" Input/import.g.DIgSILENT Programming Language 8 DPL.

New reports can be defined and written to the output window. reliability assessment. Such tasks may include renaming objects. This includes not only the load flow and short-circuits calculation commands. but also the commands for transient simulation.DIgSILENT Programming Language Easy Development DPL’s basic syntax allows for the quick creation of simple high-level commands to automate tasks. Existing commands can be combined to quickly create more complex commands. deleted and edited. Standardizing Commands The DPL language can be used to create new 'standardized' DPL commands that can be used over and over again. and can be executed for specific selections of objects. Transparency All parameters of all objects in the network models are accessible. harmonic analysis.8 DPL. post-processing calculation results and creating specific reports. New objects can be created by DPL in the database. DPL commands allow input parameters to be defined. and existing objects can be copied. Proven DPL commands can be safely stored in DPL command libraries and be used from there without the risk of damaging the scripts. PowerFactory V14 28 . new graphs can be created and existing graphs can be adjusted to reflect a user-defined selection or the current calculation results. Modularity A DPL command may contain other DPL commands as subroutines. This modular approach allows the execution of subroutines as independent commands. search and replace. etc. Control DPL commands can configure and execute all PowerFactory commands. DPL can be used to query the entire database and to process all user-input and result parameters without restrictions.

execution of analysis functions and DPL scripts. Temporary activation/popup of the “Windowing Mode” featuring interactive windowing operation until the windowing mode is closed and the engine mode resumes (“Hybrid Operation Mode”). Remote-execution of any PowerFactory command including activation of projects. PowerFactory is executed as an OPC-Client. generation of output and reports. In principle. PowerFactory V14 29 . When using OPC.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode The standard execution of DIgSILENT PowerFactory is via the classical windowing mode operated via mouse and keyboard. The “Engine Mode” permits the remote control of all PowerFactory functions with fast data and execution command exchange. high-speed exchange of data via “DIgSILENT Shared Memory Interface” or via “OPC” (OLE for Process Control). ASPENTECH’s process simulation tool or other software systems requiring interaction with network analysis procedures. The engine mode also features parallel processing with other PowerFactory processes. a number of additional application features may be operated as background processes in situations where it is integrated into GIS/NIS or SCADA systems or linked with other simulation tools such as Matlab/SIMULINK. Hybrid operation mode is supported by activating the Windowing Operation mode for combined operation.1 Standard Windowing Mode 9.9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation 9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation 9. modification of data. etc. When operated in “Engine Mode” PowerFactory is executed as a background process featuring a number of additional application options: Bi-directional.

Neutral conductors can be modelled explicitly. PowerFactory V14 30 . The implemented algorithms exhibit excellent stability and convergence. no iterations required). the accurate representation of a variety of network configurations and power system components is possible.g. etc. Any combination of meshed 1-. or inertial response. as dispatched. such as voltage-dependent loads and asynchronous machines with saturation and slip dependency. for all AC and DC voltage levels. Various active power control modes. including a full AC Newton-Raphson technique (balanced and unbalanced) and a linear DC method. grids with variable neutral potentials. 2-. DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a new. PQ. HVDC systems. typically yields round-off errors below 1 kVA for all buses. PV. More Load Flow Analysis Features Consideration of reactive power limits: detailed model for generator Mvar capability curves (including voltage-dependency). Supports device characteristics. SVSs and FACTS devices. PowerFactory simply provides the control mechanisms and device characteristics which are found in reality. from HV transmission systems. Comprehensive area/network power exchange control features using Secondary Controllers (SCO) with flexible participation factors.. Practical station control features with various local and remote control modes for voltage regulation and reactive power generation.10 Power Flow Analysis 10 Power Flow Analysis Within the Load Flow analysis environment. AS. down to residential and industrial loads at LV voltage levels. Reactive power is automatically adjusted to ensure that generator output remains within its capability limits. according to secondary or primary control. adjustable speed drives. generation. The enhanced non-decoupled NewtonRaphson solution technique with current or power mismatch iterations. e. is extremely fast and robust (linear system. and 3-phase AC and/or DC systems can be represented and solved simultaneously. The DC load flow. etc. PI. intuitive and easy-to-use modelling technique which avoids the definition of bus types such as SL. with optional automatic relaxation and modification of constraints. The Load Flow tool accurately represents unbalanced loads. solving for active power flows and voltage angles. DC loads. DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a selection of calculation methods. etc. Several iteration levels guarantee convergence under all conditions.

g. Support of the Virtual Power Plant model for generator dispatch based on merit order algorithm. reactive power flows and voltage-drop compensation (LDC) within distribution systems. switch positions. thyristor/diode converters or integrated FACTS devices. Load Flow Results Implicit calculation of a large number of individual result variables and summary figures Display of any variable within the single line graphic. Special transformer controller model for parallel transformers. Further Special Functions Analysis of system control conditions Consideration of protection devices Determination of ‘Power at Risk’ Calculation of Load Flow Sensitivities. Automatic and continuous control of TCR and TSC switching is performed within component ratings to hold the voltage at a given value. Transformer tap adjustment supports discrete and continuous methods. Shunts can be connected to busbars and feeders or to the remote ends of cables and lines. Full support of any parameter characteristic and scale to allow parametric studies or easy definition of loading scenarios or load profiles. Evaluation of expected active/reactive power flow and voltage changes in the network based on the effect of demand/generation or transformer tap change. etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operational Scenarios. to perform load balancing. e. Device controllers for shunts. Correct representation of transformer vector groups and phase displacement. All operational data (generation and demand patterns. Feeder load scaling to control power flows at feeder entry point – including nested and parallel feeders. determination of penalty factors or any other parameter required. Filters may consist of any number of shunt combinations. and automatic shunt switching can be included in the automatic voltage regulation. reactors and resistors. station diagram. Local and remote control mechanisms for SVCs. Support of DPL scripts. doubly-fed asynchronous machines and other power electronics elements such as self-commutated converters (VSC). and a tabular Flexible Data Page PowerFactory V14 31 .10 Power Flow Analysis Transformer OLTC able to control local or remote bus voltages. Shunts can be modelled to consist of a combination of series and/or parallel connected capacitors.

out-of-service components. and more Detailed textual output with pre-defined or user-defined filters and levels DPL interactivity with all results Result export to other software applications such as MS-EXCEL PowerFactory V14 32 . area summaries. which can list overloaded system elements.10 Power Flow Analysis Various colouring modes for the single line graphic to visualize quantities such as calculated loading and/or voltage levels Detailed analysis reporting. unacceptable bus voltages. system islands. voltage levels.

11 Fault Analysis 11 Fault Analysis DIgSILENT PowerFactory features fault calculation functionality based on international standards as well as the most accurate DIgSILENT General Fault Analysis (GFA) method. Calculation of the initial symmetrical peak current Ik" and short-circuit power Sk". 2 or 3 nodes from the faulted node 11. Calculation of short-circuit quantities at a selected busbar or along a defined section of line/cable. peak short-circuit current ip.1 Supported Standards IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103 PowerFactory provides a strict and complete implementation of the most frequently used standard for component design world-wide. symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib. Both minimum and maximum short-circuit currents can also be calculated based on network voltage c-factors Support of all fault types (three-phase. with all equipment overloads available in a summary text report Calculation of Thevenin impedances as seen from the faulty node Calculation of apparent phase impedances (magnitude and angle) at any location along a transmission line/cable or busbar. User-definable fault impedance Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams including all quantities typically required by the protection engineer Thermal overloads highlighted on the single line graphic for busbars and cables. according to the most recently published versions. two-phase to ground. single-phase to ground) Calculation of Ik with selectable “Decaying Aperiodic Component” PowerFactory V14 33 . including all branch contributions and busbar voltages Calculation of all symmetrical components as well as phase quantities. and thermal equivalent current Ith (IEC 60909-0 2001). the IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103 fault calculation standard. two-phase. or 1. The following features and options are supported by all implemented fault analysis methods: Calculation of fault levels at all busbars. for all branches. selected subsets thereof.

It provides the required algorithms and precision for determining the “true” or “operational” short-circuit currents without considering the simplifications or assumptions typically made in standard fault analysis.5 fault calculation standard according to the latest published version.5 PowerFactory provides a thorough implementation of the IEEE 141/ANSI e37.11 Fault Analysis Selectable method for calculating the peak short-circuit current in meshed networks User-definable fault impedance. Combination with IEC60909 principles for the calculation of aperiodic components and peak short-circuit currents Calculation of peak-break and break-RMS currents Consideration of a complete multi-wire system representation.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s Complete Method is especially designed for protection coordination purposes or for analyzing observed system contingencies. conductor temperature and c-voltage factor. Special features are: Transformer tap positions can be included in the fault current calculation User-defined fault impedance and pre-fault voltage can be included in the fault current calculation Other Standards G 74 and IEC 61363 11. Applicable to single-phase or two-phase networks. The Multiple Fault Analysis executes a complete network analysis based on subtransient and transient representations of electrical machines taking into account all specified network devices with their full representation and pre-faulted load conditions. In addition to the high precision network model. Fault calculation can optionally include or exclude motor contribution to the fault current Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams required by the protection engineer for protection coordination and design IEEE 141 / ANSI e 37. Analysis of multiple fault conditions PowerFactory V14 34 . multiple faults which occur simultaneously in the system or unusual fault conditions such as inter-circuit faults or single-phase interruptions can be analysed.

3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods) PowerFactory offers many reporting options.11 Fault Analysis Calculation of any asymmetrical.and double-phase line interruptions. a specific report for a particular fault type. including detailed reporting on all short-circuit levels for all faults. or alternatively. unacceptable bus voltages. Special protection reports can also be generated to include impedance. system islands. out-of-service components. area summaries and more Detailed text output with pre-defined or user-defined filters and levels DPL interactivity with all results Result export to other software applications such as MS-EXCEL or MS-ACCESS PowerFactory V14 35 . voltage levels. 11. current and voltage information. single or multiple fault condition with or without fault impedance. including single. Display of any variable within the single line graphic. which can list overloaded system elements. station diagram and Flexible Data Page Fully flexible filter mechanisms to display objects in colour mode Detailed analysis reporting.

peak-make and peak-break currents The reduced network can be created in a network variation. for example when the calculation time would increase significantly. . reduced network matches for the current operating point as well as for network sensitivities Implicit result verification feature PowerFactory V14 36 . Various features such as colouring of boundaries and topological checks Network Reduction can be calculated at any appropriate boundary Support of Standard Ward (PQ-equivalent). In this case. This allows for simple comparison and swapping between reduced and non-reduced cases. The equivalent network is valid for both load flow and short-circuit calculations. one option is to model both networks in detail for the calculation. or when the data of the neighbouring network is confidential.Following this. Extended Ward (PV-equivalent) and equivalent loads Support of short-circuit equivalents for transient. whereby the full representation of the portion of network that has been reduced is replaced by the equivalent. In such cases it is good practise to provide a representation of the neighbouring network which contains the interface nodes (connection points) which may be connected by equivalent impedances and voltage sources.1 General Features Flexible definition and maintenance of network boundaries.e.12 Network Reduction 12 Network Reduction The typical application of the network reduction tool is a project where a specific network has to be analyzed but cannot be studied independently of a neighbouring network of the same or of a higher or lower voltage level. subtransient. i. a model variation can be optionally created in the PowerFactory database. as defined by a boundary. Robust reduction algorithms based on the sensitivity approach. there may be situations in which it is not desirable to perform studies with the complete model. The objective of Network Reduction is to calculate the parameters of a reduced AC equivalent of part of a network. 12. However. This boundary must completely split the network into two parts.

PowerFactory provides scripts for the calculation of Q-V curves. Diagrams are automatically created.1 PV Curves PowerFactory supports the calculation of PV curves by applying specifically implemented scripts. 13. PowerFactory V14 37 .13 Voltage Stability Analysis 13 Voltage Stability Analysis 13.2 Q-V Analysis For analyzing the required reactive power reserve at individual busbars. These scripts perform the calculation of voltage variations against: Load variation in a selected area Load shift across boundaries (keeping the total load constant) Generator shift across boundaries (keeping the total generation constant) PV curves can be calculated for a selected set of contingencies.

14 Load Flow Sensitivities 14 Load Flow Sensitivities Supplementing PowerFactory’s voltage stability analysis suite is the Sensitivity Analysis tool. and branch/bus sensitivities can be displayed for each mode.Eigenvalue calculation on the ∂v/∂Q sensitivity matrix. It is often required to not only know the critical point of a system. . with a user-defined number of eigenvalues to be calculated. PowerFactory’s Sensitivity Analysis tool performs a static voltage stability calculation according to the following options: Sensitivity to a single busbar (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to variations in power (P and Q) at the selected busbar). Sensitivity to a transformer tap position change (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to changes of a transformer/quad booster tap). . but also how this critical point is affected by changes in system conditions. PowerFactory V14 38 . Option to calculate sensitivities with respect to all busbars simultaneously.Identification of “weak” and “strong” parts of the network based on modal transformation of the ∂v/∂Q sensitivity matrix. Modal analysis .Results of eigenvalues are displayed (in descending order according to magnitude).

busbar) as ‘Fault Cases’ supporting user-defined events to model post-fault actions (re-switching. n-k. load shedding) Clustering of ‘Fault Cases’ into ‘Fault Groups’ for efficient data management Special Operational Libraries to manage ‘Fault Cases’ and ‘Fault Groups’ for future re-use Automatic creation of contingency cases based on Fault Cases. Corresponding reports are available that list the generator and quad booster effectiveness on a per-case basis. both of which offer automatic or user-defined contingency creation based on events.DC load flow calculation .Time-Phase calculations.and Multiple.time-phase contingency analyses are available. Calculation Options for Contingency Analysis: Support of three calculation methods: .15 Contingency Analysis 15 Contingency Analysis The new Contingency Analysis tool in DIgSILENT PowerFactory has been designed to offer a high degree of flexibility in configuration.and multiple. re-dispatching. n-2. and the consideration of controller time constants and thermal (short-term) ratings. considering current network topology PowerFactory V14 39 . Multiple time-phase contingency analysis facilitates userdefined post-fault actions within discrete time periods.e. calculation methods and reporting options.AC load flow calculation . Ultimate Performance via Grid Computing: Possibility to perform the contingency analysis calculation in parallel (on multi-core machines and/or clustered PCs) Management of Contingencies/Fault Cases: User-friendly definition of contingencies (n-1.Combined DC/AC calculation. i. full DC load flow calculation and automatic recalculation of critical contingencies by AC load flow Single. tap adjustment. the possible impact of individual generator re-dispatch or transformer tap changes on overstressed lines is evaluated. Generator Effectiveness and Quad Booster Effectiveness calculation: This calculation feature assists the planner in defining appropriate measures for overstressed components in critical contingency cases: During contingency analysis. Single.

15 Contingency Analysis Result File Management: Recording of results in (sparse) result file. accessible for any kind of export and/or customer-specific post-processing Predefined and user-definable monitoring lists for recording of results. voltage limits. Any available calculation result for a standard load flow calculation is accessible during contingency analysis. while viewing updated results in the single-line graphic Support of component-wise Short-Term Ratings based on pre-fault loading and post-fault time Special “Contingency Analysis” toolbar for user-friendly configuration. voltage step change) Reports: A wide range of standard reports is available. selection of individual components. User-defined limits for recording of results (thermal loadings. calculation and reporting PowerFactory V14 40 . facilitating summary views or the presentation of results on a percontingency basis: Maximum Loadings Report Loading Violations (per case) Report Voltage Ranges Report Voltage Violations (per case) Report Generator and Quad Booster Effectiveness Report Other key features: Tracing Facilities: Use of the new ‘Trace’ function to step through events in a multiple time-phase contingency. component classes and their associated variables to be recorded.

including conductor sags. including sub-conductors for phase circuits and earth wires Skin effect Equivalent impedance and admittance matrices in natural.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation Any combination of line circuits (1-. 16.and 3-ph). 2. cross-bonding PowerFactory V14 41 . semi-conducting and insulating layers Compact and hollow core shapes. The calculation is applicable over a wide range of frequencies and supports the step-up process of highly accurate line and cable models for harmonic analysis. filling factor for stranded conductors Consideration of skin effect Calculation of layer impedances and admittances in natural. including sheath and armour reduction. with/without automatic reduction of earth wires A flexible definition of tower types and tower geometries. neutral conductors and earth wires. allowing a multiple combination of tower geometries and conductor types that avoids entry of redundant data Circuit-wise. The supported options are described below. including conducting.2 Cable Parameter Calculation Multi-phase single core and pipe type cable systems Flexible definition of cable layouts. reduced and symmetrical components 16. frequency sweep and EMTsimulation among others. symmetrical and perfect transposition and user-defined phasing for the definition of any non-standard transposition scheme Solid and tubular conductor types. reduced and symmetrical components.16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation 16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates the automatic calculation of the electrical parameters of any cable/overhead line configuration starting from layout and geometric characteristics which are typically available in manufacture’s datasheets.

17. Feeder Load Scaling: A load flow calculation feature that allows the automatic adjustment of individual bus loads to match a specified total feeder load.3 Stochastic Load Modelling On the basis of defined ‘customer units’ the user may specify a number of customers connected to a line. Displayed result variables are freely configurable. Full interactivity is given via the VI to access all relevant data of the components belonging to the feeder. Schematic Visualization of Feeder: Automatic generation of single line diagram to visualize components of the feeder with distance/index view. The selection of loads which are to participate in the feeder scaling procedure is user-defined. Load flow options are provided to define the load per unit customer according to: Power per customer unit PowerFactory V14 42 . to represent a realistic network 17.2 Low-Voltage Network Analysis PowerFactory integrates enhanced features designed especially for the analysis of LV networks. or to provide a report of recommendations Perform voltage drop and cable loading analysis Perform statistical calculations of neutral currents caused by unbalanced single-phase loading and load diversity.17 Distribution Network Analysis 17 Distribution Network Analysis 17.1 Feeder Analysis Feeder Plots: Graphical display feature (Virtual Instrument. VI) to increase transparency in grid loading and voltage profile analysis along the feeder. These functions enable the user to: Define loads in terms of numbers of customers connected to a line Consider load diversity Perform a load flow analysis that considers load diversity for calculating maximum voltage drops and maximum branch current Perform cable reinforcement optimization to either automatically reinforce selected cables. This method allows for complex scaling scenarios with nested and parallel feeders.

the maximum circuit loading is calculated using maximum currents. the user may select one of two methods for considering the stochastic nature of loads: Stochastic evaluation (theoretical approach.Admissible voltage band limits . Constraints for the optimization are the admissible voltage band and cable loading limits for the planned network. maximum voltage drops.Maximum voltage drop limit at the end of the feeder . and minimum voltages at every bus bar. operational costs and insurance fees).4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization PowerFactory’s Cable Reinforcement Optimization determines the most cost-effective option for upgrading overloaded cables. also applicable to meshed networks) Maximum current estimation (application of stochastic rules for estimating maximum branch flow and maximum voltage drops) The Load Flow with stochastic load modelling then provides maximum currents for each branch component.e. Optimization along pre-definable feeder User-definable library of available cable/OHL types with costs that can be used for reinforcement Consideration of: . The objective function is to minimize annual costs for reinforcing lines (i.Maximum admissible Cable/OHL overloading Various plausibility checks for final solution Calculated results: report of the recommended new cable/overhead types for lines and cost evaluation for the recommended upgrading Report mode to propose cable/OHL type changes or automatic type replacement PowerFactory V14 43 . The usual variables for currents and voltages in this case represent average values of voltages and currents. Losses are calculated based on average values.. 17. ‘simultaneity factor’) In addition.17 Distribution Network Analysis Power factor Coincidence factor for an infinite number of loads (i. investment.e.

phase technology or to optimize phasing from a particular point downwards. lines.17 Distribution Network Analysis 17. loads and motors) according to preconfigurable type mapping tables – including automatic creation of new compatible types if necessary Auto-Balancing Tool Automatic balancing of feeders such that voltage unbalance at terminals is minimized Reconfiguration of phasing of loads. lines. Voltage and Phase Technology Change Tool Automatic change of the voltage level and/or phase technology inside a pre-defined feeder Automatic replacement of type data (for transformers.5 Feeder Tools The PowerFactory Feeder Tools comprise a set of tools for radial systems to change voltage levels. or transformers and combinations thereof Supports fixed phasing elements Colouring modes to visualize phase technology before and after change PowerFactory V14 44 .

RMS and Instantaneous Values (EMT) simulation. Fuses are represented by their melting curves. following which the settings in both the database and the simulation environment are also updated. including load flow calculation. Additionally. RMS and EMT simulation modes. fuses and more complex protection schemes including userdefined modelling capabilities. PowerFactory V14 45 . relays. for modifying protection settings in the graphical environment. This last feature is especially useful.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality The DIgSILENT PowerFactory protection analysis tool contains a comprehensive protection device model library. The definition of relay types is highly flexible via block diagrams. For RMS and EMT simulation purposes. VTs.18 Protection Functions 18 Protection Functions The basic functional model library of DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s protection analysis tool has been extended to include additional devices such as CTs. All protective devices are fully-functional under steady-state and transient conditions. more importantly. fault analysis. PowerFactory’s main protection features are: Extensive relay database Accurate steady-state relay checking via short-circuit and load flow (balanced & unbalanced) Precise dynamic relay checking with RMS and EMT simulations Consideration of current transformer saturation Diagrams for overcurrent and distance coordination: o o o Time-overcurrent diagrams R-X characteristic diagrams Time distance diagrams Automatic Protection Coordination Wizard for time-overcurrent protection schemes 18. relays may be extended and adopted to cope with user specific requirements via the PowerFactory DSL language The features of the protection model library are listed below. load flow). All relays are modelled for steady-state calculations (short-circuit. as coordinated settings between different protection schemes can be modified via the cursor in the graphical environment. there are specially designed interactive VIs (Virtual Instruments) for displaying system quantities and. It is possible to take minimum and maximum melting curves into account. allowing device response assessment under all possible simulation modes.

Additionally. the relay characteristics can incorporate the following standards and solution methods: IEC 255-3. ground and negative sequence time over-currents. Different characteristics are available for distance relay zones including: MHO. Directional Relays for overcurrent. offset polygonal Tomatoes.18 Protection Functions Time-Overcurrent Relays for 1-phase. Additional devices such as: Breaker Fail. Distance Relays for phase. lens and circle R/X Blinders and quadrilateral Support of various polarizations such as: Self-polarized Cross polarized (90ø connection) Positive. Additionally. and Out-of-Step Relays. ANSI/IEEE and ANSI/IEEE squared ABB/Westinghouse CO (Mdar) Linear approximation. Optional: with voltage memory. ground current. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. instantaneous voltage. voltage and current polarization is used for the detection of negative and zero sequence components considering also dual polarization. and any combination of time and instantaneous overcurrent relays. ground and negative sequence time over-currents. PowerFactory V14 46 . 3-phase. Generator Protection. voltage balance and unbalance. 3-phase. Differential Protection. offset MHO Polygonal. Motor Protection. Provision is available for incorporating overcurrent and under-impedance starting units (U-I or Z) as well as angle under-impedance. negative sequence polarized Optional: voltage memory Zero sequence and parallel line compensation Voltage Relays for under-voltage.phase. Hermite-spline approximation Analytical expressions via built-in formula editor and analyzer (DSL) Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays for 1. ground and zone distance protection. power. Reclosing Relays.

18 Protection Functions In addition to these protection functions and relays. cable overload curves and inrush peak current modelling Transformer damage curves (ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. cable damage curves. and any user-defined curves All protection device models are implemented within the composite model frame environment. This allows users to easily design and implement their own models. Double-click on curves to change relay settings Additional axis for voltage levels R-X Characteristic Diagrams Display branch impedances with several options Automatic display of calculated impedances PowerFactory V14 47 . DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides further devices and characteristics for more detailed protection system modelling. cold and hot stall.2 Output & Graphical Representation Time-Overcurrent Diagrams Overcurrent curve adjustment using drag & drop Display of tripping curve tolerances during drag & drop User-defined labels Tripping times are automatically displayed for calculated currents in time-overcurrent diagrams Display of an unlimited number of overcurrent curves in diagrams Simple creation and addition of diagrams via single line graphics Display of motor starting curves. by utilizing the graphical user interface for constructing block diagrams. 18. etc.109-1985) and inrush peak current modelling Motor starting curves. in-rush peak current modelling. such as: Current and voltage transformers that include saturation effects Conductor. conductor/cable and transformer damage curves Balloon help showing name of relay.

Therefore.4 Distance Protection For distance protection coordination. reactance. 18. Relay settings are modified using drag & drop to move characteristics. are shown in the diagram as a vertical line.18 Protection Functions - Adding relays with offset Flexible display of zones (starting zones. currents are automatically based on the leading voltage level. two powerful graphical features are integrated.) Time Distance Diagrams Different methods for calculating curves: kilometrical or short-circuit sweep method Forward and/or reverse diagram Selectivity check of distance and overcurrent relays/fuses in same diagram Separate overreach zone representation Additional axis showing relay locations and busbars/terminals Selectable x-axis scaling (length. the corresponding tripping times of the relays are displayed. Coordination between relays at different voltage levels is available. etc. Several relays can be visualized in the same R-X diagram. impedance. relay tripping times Display of relay tripping times in result boxes Additional text boxes for relay settings Relay Setting Report Relay Tripping Report 18. In addition. which can be selected by the user.3 Overcurrent-Time Protection The coordination of overcurrent-time protection is performed graphically using the current-time diagram as the basis. Short-circuit currents calculated by the short-circuit command. This can be useful for the comparison of two relays that are located at different ends of the same line. The relay characteristics and the impedance characteristic of the connecting line PowerFactory V14 48 . The first of these features is the R-X diagram for displaying the tripping zone of distance relays and the line impedances. 1/conductance) Single Line Diagram Colouring of switches according to relay locations.

The relays on a coordination path can be displayed in diagrams for forward. The breaker opening time can be optionally ignored. Following short-circuit calculations. and the impedance characteristic of the relays. Two different methods for calculation of the tripping curves are provided. it is very easy to check the selectivity of the relays along a coordination path. PowerFactory V14 49 . Both the kilometric and the short-circuit method consider breaker opening times in the calculation of tripping times. which is used for checking the selectivity between relays along a coordination path. The starting signal of a relay is also considered. the measured impedances are visualized with a marker in the shape of a small arrow or cross. Short-circuit method: This is the main method for checking the selectivity. measured impedances of the relays can be displayed. thereby visualizing the functioning of power swing blocking or out-of-step tripping relays.18 Protection Functions will be shown in the same R-X diagram. Kilometric method: The reach of the zones is calculated from the intersection of the given positive sequence impedance of the lines. For dynamic simulation. reverse or for both directions. The tripping times for the time-distance curve are determined using the calculated impedances. Consequently. Short-circuits (user-defined fault type) are calculated along the coordination path. The second powerful graphical feature is the time-distance diagram. A special feature of the distance protection is the consideration of blocking signals or POTT (permissive overreach transfer tripping). which are also taken into account. the curves of overcurrent relays can be displayed and coordinated in the same diagram using the short-circuit method. In addition to tripping curves of distance relays. These are the kilometric and the short-circuit method. From the location of the marker the user can see the tripped zone and its associated tripping time. PUTT (permissive under-reach transfer tripping).

types and sizes of capacitors to be installed in radial distribution networks.19 Distribution Network Optimization 19 Distribution Network Optimization In order to reduce network unbalance and improve quality of supply. which type of capacitor(s) should be installed at each site. which results in a radial topology while maintaining all thermal limits.Benefits due to loss reduction .1 Optimal Capacitor Placement PowerFactory’s Optimal Capacitor Placement determines the optimal locations. This feature includes: User-definable library of proposed capacitor candidates together with annual installation costs Consideration of: . and whether or not a switched capacitor is proposed.2 Open Tie Optimization PowerFactory’s Open Tie Optimization finds a loss-minimal switch configuration of the network.Maximum total investment costs Support of load profiles Calculated results: set of locations where capacitors should be installed. User-friendly presentation of results with fully-integrated post-processing features 19. DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates features to assist the user in distribution network optimization: Optimal capacitor placement Open tie optimization Cable reinforcement optimization Feeder tools for voltage/technology change Auto-balancing to minimize voltage unbalance 19. This feature includes: PowerFactory V14 50 . The economic benefits due to energy loss reduction are weighted against the installation costs of the capacitors while keeping the voltage profile within defined limits.Voltage limits .

19 Distribution Network Optimization Heuristic algorithm which explores all potential meshes in the grid to evaluate the optimal tie-points to open Consideration of loading limits User-definable section of the network where optimal open tie-points should be determined Report mode to propose switch status changes or automatic switch reconfiguration PowerFactory V14 51 .

rectifier or inverter. DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides two harmonic analysis functions.g. For analyzing the impact of harmonics in power systems. The built-in rectifier models inject the spectrum of ideal 6-pulse rectifiers if no other injection has been defined. 19th etc. as defined by relevant IEEE standards. distribution and industrial networks for filter design. The analysis of inter-harmonics or unbalanced harmonic sources is based on a complete abc-phase network model. DIgSILENT PowerFactory supports any type of characteristic harmonic. SVC (TCR injection). 17th. ripple control signal simulation or for the determination of network resonance frequencies. displacement and power factor PowerFactory V14 52 . single-phase rectifiers) are also fully-supported.20 Harmonic Analysis Functions 20 Harmonic Analysis Functions The harmonic analysis functionality is ideal for applications in transmission. un-characteristic harmonic (even harmonics etc. harmonic currents) is modelled correctly. Unbalanced harmonic sources (e. Harmonic voltage sources can be modelled using the AC voltage source model or the PWM AC/DC converter model. both in magnitude and phase including inter-harmonics. including harmonic current indices and harmonic losses. the superposition of harmonic currents injected by 6-pulse rectifiers (via Y-Y and Y-D transformers leading to a reduction in 5th. The harmonic sources can be located at any busbar in the power system and may be implemented within any network topology. It allows the modelling of any userdefined harmonic voltage or current source. DIgSILENT PowerFactory calculates all symmetrical and asymmetrical harmonic indices for currents and voltages. 7th. Because of the phase correct representation of harmonic sources and network elements. such as: THD and HD ((Total) Harmonic Distortion) TAD (Total Arithmetic Distortion) IT product Harmonic losses Active and reactive power at any frequency Total active and reactive power.) and non-integer (inter-) harmonics. Harmonic current sources can be associated with any load. 20.1 Harmonic Load Flow The DIgSILENT PowerFactory harmonic load flow features the calculation of harmonic voltage and current distributions based on defined harmonic sources and grid characteristics.

filter banks etc. cables. The most common application is the calculation of self. THD versus busbars) The frequency dependent representation of network elements such as lines. Frequency sweeps can either be performed with the positive-sequence network model (very fast) or the complete three-phase abc-network model. continuous and switching operation) . Nyquist or magnitude/phase forms.and mutual network impedances for identifying the resonance points of the network and for supporting filter design. two. the calculation time of frequency sweeps is very low while the resolution around resonance points remains very high (typically 0. Calculation of self. Plt (Short-. Since DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses a variable step-size algorithm.2 Frequency Sweep The frequency sweep performs a continuous analysis in the frequency domain.20 Harmonic Analysis Functions Network impedances at selected buses RMS values Unbalance factors Integer and non-integer harmonic order values Flicker Assessment: .and three-winding transformers. machines. 20.1 Hz).g. and long-term Flicker Disturbance Factors. loads.Relative voltage change value Results can be represented: In the single line diagram (total harmonic indices) As histograms (frequency domain) As waveform (transformation into the time domain) As profile (e. All impedances are calculated simultaneously in the same run.and mutual network impedances Calculation of voltage amplification factors Impedance plots may be created in either Bode. PowerFactory V14 53 . for considering skin effects is fully-supported.Pst.

the output window or the browser. PowerFactory V14 54 . Network Modelling The skin effect is considered by associating frequency characteristics with line or transformer resistances and inductances. frequency dependent effects. 20. L. All relevant voltages across all components are calculated and made available in the ‘Filter Sizing’ report. The calculation of damping and undamping torques is supported by special scripts. easy-to-use function for calculating the rating of all components of a filter. and C values. Lines are modelled either by approximate PI sections or by the highly-accurate distributed parameter line model that should always be used for long lines or high frequency applications. DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses cubic splines or hermite polynoms for appropriate interpolation. These characteristics can be specified by either setting the parameters of a polynomial expression or by entering the characteristic point by point using tables. ‘Layout’ parameters are typically the rated reactive power.3 Ripple Control Signals DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides full support for analyzing and dimensioning ripple control systems. Filters can be specified by either ‘layout’ parameters or ‘design’ parameters. In addition to the explicit specification of frequency dependent resistance or inductance via parameter characteristics. The level of the ripple control signal in the entire network is calculated and reported in the single line diagram. ‘Design’ parameters are the actual R. The skin effect can be included in both line models. PowerFactory’s Frequency Sweep function can also be used for subsynchronous resonance studies. are automatically calculated and considered by the model.20 Harmonic Analysis Functions In addition to common applications relating to harmonic distortion. the resonance frequency and the quality factor. In such cases. such as the skin effect or frequency dependent earth return. 20. Series and parallel coupling of ripple control systems can be modelled including all necessary filter elements.4 Filter Rating DIgSILENT PowerFactory features a special. overhead lines can be modelled by defining the tower geometry and cables can be modelled by specifying the cable layout.

e. controls (i. transformer tap positions. All controls and constraints can be flexibly-defined on a component level. Building on the load flow calculation. In this way. etc.).1 AC Optimization Supported Objective Functions: Minimization of system losses Minimization of costs (based on arbitrary (non-linear) cost curves for generators and load tariffs for external grids) Minimization of load shedding Control Variables: Generator active power dispatch Generator reactive power dispatch Transformer tap positions Switchable shunts Load consumption (for optimal load shedding) PowerFactory V14 55 . the OPF also calculates the “best possible” values for optimizing a user-specified objective function and a number of user-defined constraints. the OPF adds intelligence and consequently improves efficiency and throughput of power system studies significantly. system variables to be optimized). OPF in PowerFactory allows easy configuration of the optimization task via the simple selection of an objective function. 21.21 Optimal Power Flow 21 Optimal Power Flow The PowerFactory Optimal Power Flow (OPF) serves as the ideal complement to the existing load flow functions. Where the standard load flow calculates branch flows and busbar voltages based on specified “set points” (active/reactive power generation. and constraints. PowerFactory offers two calculation methods: AC optimization based on a state-of-the-art interior-point algorithm DC optimization based on linear programming using simplex methods. also supporting contingency constrained optimization. generator voltage. The optimal solution for the selected objective function is calculated under the consideration of a number of possible constraints with which the final solution must comply.

21 Optimal Power Flow Supported Constraints: Branch flow limits (loading) Voltage limits (min/max) for busbars/terminals Active power limits of generators Reactive power limits of generators Transformer tap changer limits Adjustable shunt limits Boundary flow limits (min/max limits for active and reactive power flow along any user-definable boundary) Since the OPF can dispatch the active power of generators considering reserve limits and considering fuel cost minimization (which is based on non-linear fuel cost functions). and the solution is globally optimal and guaranteed to be feasible over all contingency cases (i. the PowerFactory OPF is also a highly advanced economic dispatch function. i. Supported Objective Functions: Feasibility check Minimization of costs (based on arbitrary (non-linear) cost curves for generators and load tariffs for external grids) Minimization of generator dispatch change. finding a feasible solution with minimal re-dispatching Minimization of pre.2 DC Optimization The DC Optimization builds on a sensitivity-based linear programming approach. i. 21. it allows a contingency constrained optimization to be carried out for any predefined list of contingency cases. Most notably.to post-fault transformer tap change (available for contingency constrained optimization only). finding optimal dispatch for the base case and each contingency case such that the change between the base case and each contingency case is minimal Minimization of pre.e.to post-fault generator dispatch change (available for contingency constrained optimization only).e. i. finding optimal transformer tap settings for the base case and each contingency case such that the change between the base case and each contingency case is minimal PowerFactory V14 56 . not violating any constraints in any of the contingencies).e. The optimization simultaneously considers all contingency cases.e.

for base case and all contingency cases Transformer tap positions .21 Optimal Power Flow Control Variables: Generator active power dispatch .for base case and all contingency cases Load consumption Supported Constraints: Branch flow limits (loading) – for base case and all contingency cases Active power limits of generators – for base case and all contingency cases Transformer tap changer limits – for base case and all contingency cases Boundary flow limits (min/max limits for active and reactive power flow along any user-definable boundary) – for base case and all contingency cases Maximum number of tap changes per contingency PowerFactory V14 57 .

generators/external grids and busbars Independent second failures ("n-2") Common mode failures PowerFactory V14 58 . Load forecast and growth curves can be imposed via time-varying load characteristics. The approach combines fast topological analysis for fault clearance. 22. Finally. The basic calculation method used is analytical state enumeration. cables. PowerFactory’s Reliability Analysis tool enables the comparison and justification of alternative investment proposals on a financial basis. produces exact results and is flexible for addressing a wide range of reliability calculation problems. transformers.22 Reliability Analysis 22 Reliability Analysis Reliability calculations are essential for the evaluation and comparison of electrical power systems in terms of both design and operation. this data is entered in per-length terms. fault isolation and power restoration. Failure models are defined using mean yearly failure frequency and repair duration data. All failure and load models can be represented either by the Markov method. The network reliability analysis can be carried out on the basis of a simple connectivity check (primarily intended for distribution networks) or on the basis of AC load flow calculations which consider load curtailments due to overloading or voltage constraints (for bulk power system analysis). For lines and cables. The DIgSILENT PowerFactory Reliability Analysis tool incorporates standard reliability assessment features together with sophisticated modelling techniques that enable all forms of reliability assessment to be carried out. The Weibull-Markov model also has the unique property that annual interruption cost indices such as load and process (industrial) interruption costs can be calculated both analytically and quickly. the results of all reliability assessments can be presented in text format. Although non-stochastic contingency analyses (i. where simple mean repair durations are modelled.1 Failure Models The failure models for network reliability assessment include: Failures of lines. with maintenance and common mode models also available. This method is very efficient. n-1) are able to highlight obviously unacceptable operational events. or within the single-line graphics environment.e. where repair duration variance is additionally modelled. and each can be assigned its own interruption cost using one of the following cost functions: cost/customer/interruption. Detailed models are available for generators that enable de-rated states to be represented. or by the sophisticated Weibull-Markov method. Consequently. load transfer and load shedding. they cannot rank these events in terms of either frequency or duration. with AC load flow and optimization techniques for addressing energy at risk. cost/kW/interruption or cost/interruption. as user-defined graphs. Load models are additionally available for hard-to-predict industrial situations.

In addition. The Maintenance feature simulates the effects of network reliability under predefined planned outage scenarios. Special failure models can be used by various network components to share failure data. transient and earth faults on a per km basis. thereby reducing the overall number of load states Using linear approximation techniques to improve performance in the case of large numbers of load states 22. as well as mean repair durations). through the use of the following techniques: Clustering of load states in the state enumeration algorithm Analysing load variation correlations.3 Failure Effect Analysis The Failure Effect Analysis (FEA) simulates both the automatic and manual reactions to faults of installed protection and of the system operators during each reliability assessment. PowerFactory’s user-interface allows for both an easy setup. the user can model load forecast and growth curves by imposing time-varying load characteristics. as well as for simple modification of input data for various studies. The failure models hold stochastic failure information (mean yearly failure frequency for sustained. The FEA can be checked and finetuned in an interactive way to exactly match the real system and operator reactions.2 State Enumeration Based on the network model and the given failure data. The Failure Effect Analysis comprises: Automatic fault clearance by protection devices Automatic or manual fault isolation PowerFactory V14 59 . planned outages such as scheduled maintenance can also be considered.22 Reliability Analysis Double earth faults Protection/circuit breaker malfunction Transient fault model (for momentary interruption indices) In addition to the above-listed failure models. PowerFactory has a very efficient handling of the reliability assessment over time with varying load data. Maintenance of individual network components can be modelled on an hourly basis. the reliability analysis generates and analyses the resulting contingency cases. 22.

22. under consideration of load priorities and the amount of load that is available for shedding. the overload alleviation can be omitted and a fast network connectivity analysis is sufficient. Customer Average Interruption Duration Index ASIFI.22 Reliability Analysis Automatic or manual power restoration by network reconfiguration. it is assumed that post-fault overloads may occur. A full AC load flow. incorporating basic generator re-dispatch and automatic tap changing. Average System Interruption Frequency Index ASIDI. is used to analyse post-fault system conditions.Phase 3: Full system restoration Sectionalizing supports serial or parallel switch actions (based on station access times).4 System Indices and Results PowerFactory’s Network Reliability Assessment calculates all common reliability indices. load transfer and load shedding. In cases where it can be assumed that system restoration will not lead to any overloading. Average Service Availability Index ASUI. Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index SAIDI. zones. System Average Interruption Duration Index CAIDI. Average Service Unavailability Index PowerFactory V14 60 . This includes sophisticated sectionalizing and strategic power restoration methods that operate in three distinct phases: .Phase 1: Sectionalizing by remote controlled switch devices . Among others. Average System Interruption Duration Index ASAI. the following indices are available: System indices (also available for user-defined feeders. and areas): SAIFI. Additional load transfer and/or load shedding will then be simulated. Under-voltage load-shedding For classical bulk power system analysis. Overload alleviation by optimized generator re-dispatch. System Average Interruption Frequency Index CAIFI.Phase 2: Sub-sectionalizing of strategic areas .

Load Point Energy Shed PowerFactory V14 61 . Load Point Interruption Time LPIF. Load Point Interruption Frequency LPENS. Load Point Customers Not Supplied LPPNS. Average Customer Curtailment Index EIC. Load Point Expected Interruption Costs LPCNS. Loss of Energy Expectation LOLF. Load Point Power Shed LPES. Load Point Power Not Supplied LPPS. Load Point Energy Not Supplied LPEIC. Loss of Load Duration MAIFI. Loss of Load Frequency LOLD. Average Customer Interruption Time LPIT. Expected Interruption Cost IEAR. Energy Not Supplied AENS. Momentary Average Interruption Frequency Index Load Indices: AID. Average Interruption Duration ACIF. System Energy Shed LOLE.22 Reliability Analysis ENS. Average Customer Interruption Frequency ACIT. Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate SES. Loss of Load Expectancy LOEE. Average Energy Not Supplied ACCI.

Total Customer Interruption Frequency TCIT.22 Reliability Analysis LPIC.5.2 Tracing of Individual Cases The user can examine the results of a single fault by running the fault case of interest in the trace mode. Total Customer Interruption Time Busbar Indices: AID. By default. The switching actions and load shedding/generator dispatch events created by the reliability calculation will then be applied to the network and the results can be viewed and analysed after each time step.e. Average Interruption Duration LPIF. a stepby-step analysis that sweeps over the individual actions of the FEA. the events are created automatically by the reliability calculation algorithm. The reliability calculation will then consider the user-defined events for the FEA instead of creating them automatically. thus profiting from the extremely flexible data management and data handling for setting up individual studies. Yearly Interruption Time 22. 22. This allows the user to analyse. adjust and fine-tune the individual cases in a very flexible manner.5 Special Features The Network Reliability Assessment is fully-integrated into PowerFactory. 22. generator re-dispatch events).5.5. 22.1 High Flexibility Each contingency case is created and analysed based on events (i. switch events. load shedding events.3 Powerful Output Tools for Result Representation Results can be viewed in a variety of ways: Formatted reports Tabular result views (integrated into the PowerFactory Data Manager) Graphical result representations PowerFactory V14 62 . Yearly Interruption Frequency LPIT. Load Point Interruption Costs TCIF.

22 Reliability Analysis

Various colouring modes

**22.5.4 Contribution to Reliability Indices
**

Post-processing tools allow the calculation of individual components’ contributions to system indices. In this way the user can study the impact of certain network components (such as lines/cables, transformers, etc…) on the overall system indices. Likewise, loads can be grouped into load classes (industrial, agricultural, domestic, etc…) and their contribution to, for example, energy indices can be evaluated.

**22.5.5 Development of Indices over Years
**

Taking into account the evolution of the network model and the failure data over time, PowerFactory supports the calculation and visualization of the reliability indices over years.

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23 State Estimation

**23 State Estimation
**

The PowerFactory State Estimator provides an accurate real-time analysis of the full operating system based on the information provided by selectively monitored data, e.g. that of an installed SCADA system. The objective of the state estimator is to assess the generator and load injections in a way such that the resulting load flow solution matches as closely as possible the measured branch flows and busbar voltages. The features of PowerFactory’s State Estimation tool include: Flexible definition of external measurement devices in the network model supporting the following measurement types: Active and reactive power branch flows Branch current (magnitude) Busbar voltage (magnitude) Breaker status Transformer tap position

User-definable selection of system states to be estimated/optimized: Loads: Active and reactive power demand, or alternatively the scaling factor Generators and static generators: Active and reactive power generation Asynchronous machines: Active power generation Static Var Systems: Reactive power injection Transformers: Tap positions

High-precision estimation of full system state that minimizes deviations from measurements Fast-converging non-linear optimization algorithms Observability check based on a novel sensitivity analysis approach - Detection of unobservable system states - Grouping of unobservable states in equivalence classes - Detection of redundant measurement locations

Innovative patch strategies for unobservable areas; usage of automatically created pseudomeasurements Bad data detection in the loop Measurement plausibility checks as pre-processing, such as: - Node sum checks for active and reactive power - Check for consistent active power flow directions at each side of branch elements - Check for unrealistic branch losses and unrealistic branch loadings

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23 State Estimation

- Check for negative losses on passive branch elements - Check for large branch flows on open-ended branch elements Statistical report and colouring modes to visualize measurement qualities Fully featured, large scale AC/DC system representation

The PowerFactory State Estimator is supporting a variety of communication options such as OPC (OLE for Process Control) or Shared Memory Interface for implementing data interchange with any kind of SCADA system.

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relay components. PowerFactory V14 66 . long-term and electromagnetic). DSL syntax elements are algebraic and differential equations as well as intrinsic functions such as signal limiting blocks. e. functions and models.g. A/D converter. power system stabilizers. generators. result files or display objects are at the user’s disposal. RMS signal transducer. real time clock. interrupt procedures. logical blocks. PTn or even complete physical subsystems such as HVDC valve groups or excitation systems can be defined as macros or high-level functions. FFT devices. algebraic loop detection. Basic control elements such as PID. busbars. parameter identifiers. Any existing PowerFactory object can be plugged into a Composite Model Frame Slot. transformers. power plant control components. RPC links). Automatic calculation of initial conditions utilizing various iterative procedures for initializing complex. it is a non-procedural language as the sequence of elements can be chosen arbitrarily. motors. The fundamental level of flexibility level is provided by graphical object wiring diagrams called Composite Model Frames. CTs. They provide a user-friendly means to configure functional block relations (Slots) using object signal connections. prime movers. motor driver machines. voltage controllers. DSL models are considered by the PowerFactory EMT/RMS simulation. In cases where additional functions are required which are not included in the built-in model.and macros-library. measurement files. DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) main features: Flexible definition of macros. DSL is dedicated to common control and logic diagrams. Multi-level modelling is provided for the different steady-state descriptions and transient time domains (short/mid-term.24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL) 24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL) DIgSILENT PowerFactory features unmet flexibility in implementing user-specific modelling needs for stability analysis (RMS & EMT) purposes. Provision of various formal procedures for error detection and testing purposes. controllers. Hundreds of objects such as power system components (e. relays. VTs. nonlinear equations of coupled systems. tables and curve approximation. Frames can be lumped and nested to any degree of complexity. DSL is a Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL) featuring a complete syntactical description of continuous linear and nonlinear as well as digital systems. etc.g. reporting of unused and undefined variables and missing initial conditions. delay. lines. these can be created using the DSL language. which is not limited to the use of predefined blocks of a block-oriented simulation language (BOSL).

Output and Monitoring: Conditions may trigger an output to be displayed in the output window and stored in the simulation log file. their state variables and integration algorithms internally. User defined intrinsic functions are to be linked to PowerFactory via the DLL “digexfun”. “sin”.mode. “time”. Complete user-defined models of any modelling level. etc. and DSL special functions such as “lapprox”. “file”. “cos”. “picdro”. a macro or any sequence of DSL syntax. PowerFactory V14 67 . Advanced Features DSL models feature the direct interaction with external processes such as DAQ interfaces. The DSL-editor will then generate the DSL description automatically and will also provide direct model testing functions such as eigenvalue analysis or stepresponse tests of the complete DSL model or of sub-models only. “lim”. Interrupts: Conditions derived by DSL models can cause interrupts to be sent to the simulation kernel where they are scheduled within the event queue. or models which incl.and output signals defined for all PowerFactory objects as well as any variable defined in a DSL model can be accessed in their corresponding read. DSL Implementation The DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) is fully-integrated into the PowerFactory program kernel via the graphical interface. 1. “limstate”. 2.or write. “flipflop”. simulation models being implemented via difference equations. SIMULINK modules or other software systems via time-synchronized communication channels Support of OPC Client and shared memory communication Procedures written in C++ code can be directly linked via appropriate interface mechanisms Encryption of DSL models to conceal confidential data User-specific C++ Code The user has two options for combining the PowerFactory DSL modelling approach with externally developed C++ code. User-defined intrinsic functions can be linked via external DLL for extending the already broad range of DSL standard intrinsic functions such as: “abs”. Any “block” may contain another DSL model. linked via the DLL “digexdyn” is supported for any discrete system. etc. Typical applications are digital control systems which are executed via clocksynchronized calls. “delay”.24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL) DSL models can be created by drawing a “block diagram”. Signals: Specific input. “exp”.

provides a flexible and powerful platform for solving both. Grid Modelling Capabilities Simulation of radial and meshed 1-. inverter and rectifier. direct driven synchronous generator and asynchronous generator with static compensation (STATCOM). complemented by a comprehensive model library and a user-definable. PowerFactory V14 68 . bus voltage and frequency dependence is represented. Generic wind turbine models with doubly-fed induction generator.25 Power System Dynamics 25 Power System Dynamics 25. 3. In general.and 4-phase AC and/or DC systems Modelling validity ranging from low-voltage (LV) up to ultra high-voltage (UHV) Distributed generation modelling and simulation capabilities High precision wind power models of various technologies Balanced and unbalanced grid loading conditions Simulation of railway systems Advanced Simulation Models High precision models for both solid and salient pole synchronous machines. and was developed on the basis of comprehensive system tests.and EMT -simulation kernel.1 General Capabilities PowerFactory’s high precision time-domain RMS. all available power system elements are also supported for stability simulations. 2-. Manufacturer-specific high-precision wind turbine models are available upon request. The capability of modelling motor stall effects is included. asynchronous machine model including a doubly-fed induction machine model with integrated or externally connected PWM converter. VSD (Variable Speed Drives) systems. PWM converter and other power electronic elements such as the softstarter. graphical modelling function (DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL)). General load models where load inertia. system stability and electromagnetic simulation tasks. a special lumped load model to accurately represent feeders containing a high percentage of motor load (RMS only).

RMS Simulation Algorithms Highly accurate. PowerFactory V14 69 . EMT Simulation Algorithms The calculation of initial conditions is carried out prior to the EMT simulation. This is applicable to all or any individually selected model featuring error-controlled automatic step-size adaptation. A-stable simulation algorithm for the efficient handling of stiff systems. including precise handling of interrupts and discontinuities. algorithmic stability and time range validity. Highly accurate. featuring precise definition of any unbalanced grid fault condition including single. ranging from milliseconds up to minutes or even hours. automatic voltage regulators (AVR) and power system stabilizers (PSS). and is based on a solved load flow (symmetrical or asymmetrical).the classical RMS representation for stability studies RMS and EMT simulation a-b-c phase RMS representation supporting unbalanced grid loading initialized by a balanced or unbalanced load flow. protection devices).and double-phase line interruptions. there is no need for saving steady state conditions being reached after transients are damped out aiming in simulation re-starting under steady state conditions. This system representation mode avoids tedious handcalculations of equivalent fault impedance and allows access to any a-b-c phase quantity for plotting or precise modelling purposes (e. Consequently. Support of the comprehensive DIgSILENT Protection Library in stability mode. Special numerical integration methods have been implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory in order to avoid numerical oscillations caused by switching devices and other non-linear characteristics. RMS Grid Representation Based on a converged load flow. fixed or variable step-size integration technique for solving AC and DC network transients and dynamic model equations. the calculation of initial conditions is carried out prior to the start of a dynamic RMS.g. fixed or variable step-size integration technique for solving AC and DC network load flow and dynamic model equations. This is combined with a non-linear electromechanical model representation to enable a high degree of solution accuracy. This is combined with a non-linear electromechanical model representation to enable a high degree of solution accuracy. algorithmic stability and time range validity.25 Power System Dynamics Large library of IEEE controller models covering prime movers.or EMT-simulation offering the following grid representation options: RMS simulation only Positive sequence only .

providing a detailed analysis of manually entered or automatically initiated events. . Plotting files may be retained for re-plotting in comparison with subsequent runs. or any quantity identified in the transmission network.Modification of integration step sizes.Definition and introduction of inter-circuit events. feeder loads or generators. checking the bus voltages. . most PowerFactory commands such as displaying or printing power flow results. may be selected for simulation observation or for later plotting within x/t or x/y diagrams or any other VI (Virtual Instrument) provided. . any type of fault can be implemented.Generation of message.Opening and closing of circuit breakers – e. or when simulating the synchronization of isolated areas via synchro-check relays. can be executed. or by accessing and modifying PowerFactory variables. simulating load shedding. Output window log of all simulation events. calculating eigenvalues or analyzing the controller status. either manually.Introduction of “Parameter Change Events” featuring the modification of any built-in and DSL model parameter. . by a scheduled interrupt time or automatically via interrupt conditions.. By activating predefined fault types.25 Power System Dynamics Faults and Interrupt Handling The user can interrupt the simulation at any time. via DSL models or by reference to external measurement files. . In addition to these variables. Simulation results are stored in a proprietary binary PowerFactory file format which can be directly converted into COMTRADE files. built-in dynamic models or DSL models.Application and clearing of faults at substations or along lines. transformers. When the simulation is interrupted. PowerFactory V14 70 . shunt switching.g.Tripping of any power system element such lines. . the DSL algebraic expression interpreter and logical expression evaluator can be applied to generate further signals or any user-defined quantity. . Simulation Output Processing Any PowerFactory variable. etc.Event-driven modification of variables and signals either manually.and outage-events. starting/tripping of synchronous and asynchronous machines. Typical faults are: .

PowerFactory V14 71 . hardware-in-the-loop simulation) 25. In such cases.g. network exchange control or transformer tap-changer control.g.2 Long-term Stability In many cases stability calculations must be run for long periods thus taking into account effects of slower control systems such as boiler control.2 Stability Analysis Functions 25. features the fundamental frequency analysis of any asymmetrical grid operation condition.2. Real-time inter-process signal communication via OPC link A/D and D/A interfacing capabilities (e.g. Other applications are varying loads or applications of wind power where the impact of wind speed fluctuations must be analyzed.and double-phase line interruptions The a-b-c phase system representation mode avoids tedious hand-calculations of equivalent fault impedance It also allows for accessing any a-b-c phase quantity for plotting or precise modelling purposes (e. protection devices) 25. steady-state component representation of the power system. e. Initialization via balanced or unbalanced power flow Simulation of unbalanced loading conditions in 1-. short-term and mid-term dynamics have already reached steady-state but slower transients are still being observed. for simulation certain grid sections in RMS mode whilst others are simulated in EMT mode.25 Power System Dynamics Special PowerFactory Stability Simulation Features 1-click simulation utilizing PowerFactory project and study case definition Real-time simulation mode with user-defined real-time synchronisation periods (RMS only) Parallel and sequential synchronization for integrated simulation.and 3-phase AC and DC systems Simulation of any number and combination of unbalanced faults including single. 2.1 RMS Simulation with a-b-c Phase Representation The a-b-c phase. Long-term stability simulations based on adaptive step-size algorithms with accuracy-controlled step-size adaptation ranging from milliseconds to several minutes without any decrease in precision or even manipulation of transient behaviour.2.

variable rotor resistor. In such situations. Typical motors supported are: single. Support of various starting methods such as direct start. The motor starting is initiated by selecting the respective motors within the single line diagram and initiating the motor starting calculation. semi steady-state dynamics with high-precision event handling (stiff systems). Access to the model library for built-in motor driven machine characteristics (torque-speed characteristics) with flexible user-modelling support. star-delta starting. synchronous motors. double-fed induction machine. transformer softstarter. etc..and double cage asynchronous machines. variable speed drives. A complete symmetrical or asymmetrical AC/DC load flow will be computed prior to the motor starting event. tap-changer control and reactive power limits Long-term flicker analysis in cases such as fluctuating renewable generation or varying loads Secondary control analysis and optimization 25. complex motor models with built-in parameter estimation. Typical Applications Voltage stability analysis considering effects of load variations. start from any rotational speed. medium voltage and high voltage motors is provided.25 Power System Dynamics A-stable simulation algorithm which fully covers fast transients as well as slow.3 Transient Motor Starting PowerFactory’s Transient Motor Starting functionality analyses motor starting scenarios where the effect of a motor starting on the grid frequency is negligible. thyristor softstarter. A comprehensive library of low voltage. Consideration of high-precision. squirrel and slip-ring motors. pre-selected and pre-configured VIs are automatically created and scaled with full flexibility for user-configuration. the typical questions to be answered are: What is the maximum voltage sag? (This is typically not the initial voltage sag at t=0) Will the motor be able to be started against the load torque? What is the time required to reach nominal speed? How will the supply grid be loaded and which starting options should be considered? The Transient Motor Starting function makes use of the PowerFactory stability module by providing a preconfigured shortcut for easy-to-use motor starting analysis. PowerFactory V14 72 .

Flexible definition of non-linear magnetizing reactance: two-slope. DC. and 3-phase AC and/or DC systems can be represented and solved simultaneously. over-current protection. automatic restarting relays (EMR) or transformer OLTC. doubly-fed induction generator Circuit breaker models (to be modelled via DSL) PowerFactory V14 73 .or 3-phase systems. ferro-resonance effects or sub-synchronous resonance problems. consideration of protection devices such as under-voltage protection. including saturation effects Series capacitor. switching and temporary over-voltages. 2. polynomial. flux-current values Passive RLC branches. TCSCs and STATCOMs Synchronous and asynchronous machine. from HV transmission systems. UPFCs. Together with a comprehensive model library and a graphical.4 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides an EMT simulation kernel for solving power system transient problems such as lightning. IEEE models) as well as user-defined models utilising the DSL approach. IGBTs HVDC valve groups (6.and 3-winding transformers and autotransformers for 1-. tap dependent impedance and saturation effects. including calculation of energy absorption Voltage and current. Full representation of generators with exciter/AVR model support on the basis of built-in models (e. including stray capacitances. user-definable modelling system (DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL)). 25.and 12-pulse Graetz bridge configurations) and other FACTS devices such as SVCs. down to residential and industrial loads at LV distribution levels. constant and frequency-dependent. including MOV and bypass switches Discrete power electronic components such as diodes. AC-. 2-. thyristors.sources Impulse sources (to be modelled via DSL) VT. CT and PT models. Standard built-in models include: Lumped and distributed parameter line/cable models. 2. it provides an extremely flexible and powerful platform for solving power system electromagnetic transient problems.g. Any combination of meshed 1-. capacitor banks and filters of multiple layouts Surge arresters.25 Power System Dynamics Full flexibility in considering starting sequences.

The identification procedure is fully integrated into the graphical frame definition and block diagram. and also features parameter estimation for integrated models (such as loads or generators) which form part of a power system model. scaling. thereby preventing further system deterioration. locate and investigate insecure operating conditions and calculate required security margins. Calculation of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Export capability to COMTRADE-Files. WMF-files. 25. etc. PowerFactory V14 74 . The optimization procedures provided are highly generic and can also be used for optimally tuning parameters such as PSS settings according to defined model response functions. The package provides a powerful user-friendly graphical environment for the evaluation of simulation results characterized by: User-customizable plots for waveform visualisation.25 Power System Dynamics Stochastic switching (procedures to be implemented via DPL scripts). 25.5 Dynamic System Parameter Identification Built-in system identification and general optimization procedures provide an easy and accurate method to perform model parameter identification on the basis of system tests and field measurements. which are described by any type of nonlinear DSL model. including filtering options. The PowerFactory Parameter Identification tool is suitable for parameter estimation of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. spreadsheet-format. The Real-Time Training Simulator is integrated into existing SCADA systems to: train operator personnel to precisely and efficiently respond to abnormal system conditions. etc. CSV-files.6 PowerFactory Real-Time Simulators The PowerFactory stability simulation (RMS mode) can be optionally executed in real-time offering a number of additional applications.

system control and stability and protection.digsilent. Applications include: Real-time simulation of typical grids. Simulation of grid disturbance scenarios. shared memory or A/D systems. generator or superimposed control systems such as a “Smart Grid Controller”. sensitivity analysis on grid operating conditions.de/?p=Company/Latest_News&id=2004-06-20_1 Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing is often required to develop. test systems or substations including generators. tuning optimization of controllers.25 Power System Dynamics facilitate the operator in understanding phenomena such as basic system dynamics. etc. which are typically too fast for the operator to observe A report of a typical Real-Time Simulator application can be found at: http://www. PowerFactory V14 75 . Communication with existing hardware such as controllers or relays via OPC. investigation of control structures. their control systems and associated protection. analyse and tune control systems for any kind of turbine.

and is a natural complement to the time domain simulation environment.including user-defined models .26 Small Signal Stability 26 Small Signal Stability The DIgSILENT PowerFactory modal analysis tool features small signal analysis of a dynamic multi-machine system. damping ratio. Analysis of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is appropriate for applications such as low-frequency oscillatory stability studies. It also allows for the computation of modal sensitivities with respect to generator or power plant controllers. damping time constant. including controllers and power plant models. load characteristics. System representation is identical to the time domain model. FACTS. motors. determination of interconnection options and its basic characteritics. o o Calculation of all eigenvalues based on QR algorithm Selective eigenvalue calculation: computation of a certain part of the eigenvalue spectrum: calculation of a userdefinable number of (closest) eigenvalues around a complex reference point based on the Arnoldi-Lanczos method recommended as a fast approach for higher order systems for which calculation of all eigenvalues by QR algorithm is too time-consuming Calculation results include eigenvalues (together with oscillation information such as damped frequency. predefined system plant and controller models as well as DSL devices). general loads.is performed by iterative procedures. loads. From PowerFactory V14 76 . The system A-matrix is constructed automatically for the complete system (including generators. Its calculation steps are as follows: Based on a converged and adjusted power flow. PSS tuning. Alternatively. PowerFactory’s Eigenvalue Analysis is very user-friendly. or any other component used in the system representation. requiring minimal configuration of the command. Limiting devices are disabled automatically. the modal analysis starts with the calculation of the system initial conditions. SVS. Support of QR-algorithm as well as the Arnoldi-Lanczos method. System and model linearization . allowing a direct comparison/validation between time domain simulations and modal analysis results. The representation of the network model is equivalent to the simulation model. reactive compensation or any other dynamically-modelled equipment. etc) and left and right eigenvectors. any interrupted status of a time domain simulation could be used as the initial condition. It covers all network components such as generators. damping.

damping ratio.26 Small Signal Stability eigenvectors. damping time constant.g. restriction to minimum participation. convenient creation of phasor plots/bar diagrams for each mode o Mode Bar Plot Bar diagram visualization of controllability. the individual machines’ controllability. highlighting of stable/unstable eigenvalues Plot has interactive features that facilitate detailed analysis of individual modes. etc) Eigenvectors (individual controllability. Powerful post-processing tools for result visualization o Tabular result representation of: Eigenvalues (including all oscillation information such as damped frequency. and participation factors are derived with respect to each mode. observability and participation factors of individual machines for a given mode Various filter options (e. observability. damping. observability and participation factors of individual machines for a given mode Various filter options Automatic detection and highlighting of clusters for convenient identification of interarea modes PowerFactory V14 77 . and/or individual generators) o Mode Phasor Plot Phasor diagram visualization of controllability. observability. participation of individual machines for any selected mode) o Eigenvalue Plot Visualization of calculated eigenvalues in the Gaussian plane Various filter and scaling options Automatic determination of stability border.

PowerFactory OPC-implementation assumes that the PowerFactory software is executed as an OPC-Client while the OPC Server is controlled via the external source. Available for PowerFactory Interactive Window Mode and PowerFactory Engine Mode User-specific definition of objects and object parameters Supported objects: elements. and. Depending on the application. OPC server libraries are available from various manufacturers. graphics and results Import and export of complete network models Import and export of incremental data for updating existing models Databases supported: Oracle. or for a complete integration and background execution in “Engine Mode”.2 OPC Interface OPC (OLE for Process Control) is an asynchronous communication and data exchange mechanism used in process interaction and is widely applied in SCADA and control systems. Supported of the PowerFactory Engine Mode OPC-Client/Server exchange of any PowerFactory object parameter as well as any signal PowerFactory listening mode to receive any data or signal from a registered OPC Server PowerFactory sending mode to write back any data or signal to a registered OPC Server PowerFactory V14 78 . MS-Excel and MS Access 27. XML. 27. for example.1 DGS Interface DGS (DIgSILENT-GIS-SCADA) is PowerFactory’s standard bi-directional interface specifically designed for bulk data exchange with other applications such as GIS and SCADA. An example of a freeware OPC-Server is that available from Matrikon (“MatrikonOPC Simulation Server”). DGS does not support the exchange of PowerFactory execution commands.27 PowerFactory Interfaces 27 PowerFactory Interfaces PowerFactory offers a number of mechanisms and options for interfacing with external applications such as GIS and SCADA. the user may choose from the options described below. MS-SQL and ODBC System DSN File formats supported: ASCII Text (CSV). or to interchange data with any other power system software. for exporting calculation results to produce Crystal Reports. types and libraries.

e. object and model signals . Received values are processed as PowerFactory input signals or parameters and considered by running calculations in an execution loop. Each request must contain a command and can optionally contain input data and result definitions. modification of any object parameter. measurements or controller output signals) are managed by the OPC Server. Receives modified parameters and signals and immediately propagates them to all subscribed clients *) communication is asynchronous. For example: Load Flow or online State Estimation Time Domain Simulation Optionally.g. parameters or any output signal can be associated with OPC items which are sent back to the OPC Server. so neither the server nor the client waits for a response selected values returned *) 27. PowerFactory acts as a server that waits for requests. PowerFactory V14 79 . Executed in the background. Option to trigger an update of the PowerFactory database The communication is based on a request/response interaction. the PowerFactory Engine listens for signals sent by the OPC Server. The synchronization between client and server is based on OS events.3 Shared Memory Interface DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides a high-speed shared memory communication interface that allows other applications to use PowerFactory as a calculation engine. Supported of the PowerFactory Engine Mode Via the shared memory. initiation of command execution and access to any calculation result is supported. Changes to these values are propagated to connected clients.27 PowerFactory Interfaces PowerFactory Engine (Client) Selected values *) OPC Application (Server) OPC items (object parameters.

27 PowerFactory Interfaces The PowerFactory shared memory request / response interaction Request Object data contained? Copy data to PowerFactory objects Execute command Result definitions contained? Fetch results from PowerFactory objects and include them in reponse Response The PowerFactory shared memory client/server interaction Shared Memory Application (Client) Writes data into shared memory (request): Commands Input data (optional) Result definitions (optional) Processes request: Reads data from shared memory (response): Status Result data (optional) PowerFactory (Server) event _REQUEST Reads input data from shared memory Executes commands Writes result string to shared memory Writes object data results into shared memory (optional) event _RESPONSE PowerFactory V14 80 .

OLE and Shared Memory interfacing techniques. DIgSILENT PowerFactory features great flexibility in supporting any level of interfacing and integration needs.28 Interfacing PowerFactory 28 Interfacing PowerFactory Interfacing and integrating power system software with other applications such as GIS (Graphical Information Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems is an important requirement.g.GIS integration PowerFactory – GIS integration is preferably implemented via the DGS-interface. Utilizing the implemented DGS. Implementation Options Unidirectional GIS to PowerFactory data transfer via DGS format definitions (CSV or ODBC) Bidirectional data transfer (e. The following sections summarize some typical examples. As object and parameter definitions at the GIS side usually reflect user-specific needs. which features full integration of PowerFactory analysis functions and additional graphic display options in the GIS system PowerFactory V14 81 . standardized interfacing is only provided when a standard application module/standard process model provided by the respective GIS manufacturer is in use. 28. individual object mapping will be required. As soon as user-specific object and parameter definitions are applied.1 PowerFactory . via the PowerFactory shared memory interface) when running PowerFactory in “Engine Mode” or “Hybrid Mode”.

PowerFactory V14 82 . dispersed generation infeeds and SCADA readings. thereby avoiding any middleware requirement Application Aspects Sharing of data sources.28 Interfacing PowerFactory Characteristics Incremental data exchange utilizing PowerFactory’s user accounting. PowerFactory – GIS integration is often handled as a project implemented via clearly defined specification of data sources and overall workflow. thereby avoiding duplication of data entry and maintenance Utilizing key capabilities of PowerFactory and GIS while sharing data Amalgamating data from various sources at the PowerFactory level As most applications require the merging of additional data such as customer load consumption. project management and merge tools featuring GIS -to -PowerFactory team working Combines and merges several data sources via PowerFactory’s data handling capabilities.

allowing both real-time system analysis and incident analysis from previous snapshots.2 PowerFactory . or.SCADA integration Interfacing with SCADA gives direct access to dynamic and/or static SCADA data.28 Interfacing PowerFactory 28. PowerFactory’s advanced state estimation features Operator’s access to all PowerFactory functions such as load flow. spinning reserve allocation PowerFactory V14 83 . executing PowerFactory as a client Direct 1-to-1 relation between SCADA network objects due to full substation topology support of PowerFactory Utilization of SCADA manufacturer’s state estimation functions. In addition to the option of exchanging data between SCADA applications and PowerFactory. a full SCADA integration of the PowerFactory engine is supported when using PowerFactory OPC link features. optimal power flow. etc. including real-time simulation for operator training. interfacing can be done on a point-to-point basis using foreign database keys. contingency analysis.. Typical applications are operators’ access to calculations such as load flow. if not present. Support of PowerFactory Engine Mode and Hybrid Mode SCADA – PowerFactory communication via OPC. contingency analysis. As DIgSILENT PowerFactory already integrates topology processing.

28 Interfacing PowerFactory 28. relays or other simulators.3 PowerFactory . supervision of grid connection conditions. The portable or cabinet-mounted Control and Monitoring Units (CMU) along with different types of high precision Signal Units (SU). The bi-directional communication link is easily implemented via the PowerFactory Frame and Slot technique with a built-in RPC interface block for Matlab/SIMULINK. etc. is featuring the configuration of highly-flexible plant measurement and grid performance analysis systems. fault recording.4 PowerFactory . Due to the superior flexibility in software setup. The PowerFactory – Matlab/SIMULINK interface is a flexible and fully synchronized link for distributed simulation of linked models. 28.A/D Signal Interfacing Capability PowerFactory’s Frame and Slot technique utilizing the real-time capabilities of built-in blocks for data acquisition has become the basis for the PowerFactory Monitoring system (PFM).Simulation Interface (SIMULINK.) Although PowerFactory offers great flexibility in controller modelling. load parameter identification. there is almost no limit in defining measurement and test applications including closed-loop operation with A/D-interfaced controllers. PowerFactory V14 84 . A typical application example might be the simulation of a large network with a number of conventionally controlled generation units together with a fuzzy-controller implemented at a specific plant. some applications may require special control toolboxes from the Matlab/SIMULINK software package. power quality observation analysis or system stability supervision. Typical application aspects of the PowerFactory Monitor are system tests for simulation model validation.

Typical Single-User Workstation Installation with remote single-user database Multiple Single-User Licenses DIgSILENT PowerFactory software offers a number of licensing mechanisms. The Workstation License is a Single-User License and is operated via a local USB port hardlock. PowerFactory V14 85 .29 PowerFactory Installation Options 29 PowerFactory Installation Options 29. Typical Single-User Workstation Installation with local single-user database Although it is technically possible to store the PowerFactory database on any network drive. this is not recommended as it requires high-speed LAN capabilities and might exhibit less reliability regarding database integrity when the LAN connection is unexpectedly interrupted. The hardlock is programmed to include those functions licensed to the user.1 PowerFactory Workstation License PowerFactory Workstation License is a standalone solution which is shipped with a free single-user database and is preferably installed locally. on the user’s hardware. thereby avoiding any LAN traffic. This is the option with the fastest performance as database access is directly managed via fast local hard disk I/O. The locally attached hardlock is only accessible by the locally installed Workstation License.

29 PowerFactory Installation Options

Typical multiple Single-User Workstation Installation

If you have purchased several Workstation Licenses, the USB hardlock installation is required on all computers where the Workstation License is to be used. Of course, if PowerFactory is installed on more computers than there are USB hardlocks available, only those installations can be used simultaneously where the USB hardlock is plugged-in at that point in time.

**29.2 PowerFactory Server License
**

PowerFactory Server License comes with additional features which are not available with the PowerFactory Workstation license: 1. Provision of a License Server which can be installed centrally managing any independent number of licensed functions. The License Server comes with only one single USB hardlock holding all licensed functions. The License Server must be accessible for all PowerFactory installations via a network IPaddress. Support of multi-user database operation, featuring the simultaneous access of all connected users to a single database. The Server License comes with database drivers for both databases; MS-SQL and ORACLE (the database servers themselves are not included). The Server License can be executed in a Client-Server (Application Server) environment such as MS Sever 2003/2005 or CITRIX, which has the advantage of centralized software installation and maintenance – a typical requirement of modern IT infrastructures.

2.

3.

Multi-User License via License Server The Multi-User License Server gives more flexibility than the single USB hardlock (holding all licenses). This solution provides a license server which is to be installed as an MS Windows Service on any computer in a network that is accessible from the users’ computers via an IP address. This computer could be one of the users’ computers but is recommended to be a separate computer located in a secured room. Upon login, the PowerFactory software on the user’s computer connects to the license server via a LAN to access the license. The license server administrator assigns certain PowerFactory functions to each user when the login procedure is executed. This facilitates the purchase of the optimal number of licenses depending on users’ needs.

PowerFactory V14

86

29 PowerFactory Installation Options

Typical Multi-User installation with License Server

An optional feature of the Multi-User License Server is the Floating License which allows the temporary transfer of a user license from the license server to a local PC. This option is typically required when a user is travelling with his/her laptop, thereby preventing him/her from accessing the license server. When downloading the floating license to a local machine, the license will disappear from the license server and will move to the local PC until the user reconnects to the license server. The floating license is time-limited and, if not reconnected to the license server, will automatically “fly back” to the license server after a defined time.

Typical Multi-User installation with License Server and Floating License Option

PowerFactory V14

87

29 PowerFactory Installation Options

Note:

A clear advantage of the License Server is its ability to host a different number of licenses for certain functions. This allows a more economical solution which considers the simultaneity of users. The allocation of functions is made upon user login and not upon the execution of a certain PowerFactory command. This philosophy is based on the notion that upon successful login and allocation of functions, those functions should be available to the user throughout the entire PowerFactory session.

Multi-User Database Centralized data handling is supported by a multi-user database featuring the simultaneous access of all connected users to a single data source. Currently, database drivers for MS-SQL and ORACLE are available. This execution option is designed for PowerFactory installations with a large number of users requiring access to the same project data and, who would benefit from the PowerFactory team-working tools such as Master Project management, Project Versioning, Project Deriving along with Project Compare- and Merge tools, which make concurrent model building and data entry very easy.

Typical Multi-User installation with License Server and Multi-User Database

In the configuration shown above, the execution of the PowerFactory software will still take place on the user’s local PC while the multi-user database resides on a special high-speed database server.

PowerFactory V14

88

29 PowerFactory Installation Options Application Server A further step often required in large companies with tens or hundreds of users is the centralized installation and execution of the PowerFactory software. This Application Server installation is currently supported for MS Server 2003/8 and other server add-ons such as CITRIX. Typical Application Server Installation with a multi-user database PowerFactory V14 89 . The figure below shows a typical example of such a centralized installation environment. the database and the License Server.

The required main memory capacity will heavily depend on the network size and the type of calculations being performed. taking into account that solving power system analysis tasks is far beyond standard office applications. PowerFactory V14 90 .g. the number of CPUs is correlated with the number of simultaneous users.x and 11. etc. fault analysis and stability for a 5000-bus system. Supported operating systems are Windows 2000.3 License Overview PowerFactory License and Installation Options Workstation License Local Installation Application Server Installation Local Hardlock License Server Floating License (optional) Local Single-User Database Central Multi-User Database [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] Server License [X] [X] [X] Educational & Research License [X] Student / Private Use License [X] 29. size of the network modelled).4 Installation Requirements PowerFactory requires no special hardware or additional software to guarantee good performance. (**) Application Server: Application Server hardware requirements are similar to those defined for workstation installations. Supported operating systems are MS Windows Server 2003/8 and CITRIX.5 -3 GB main memory available for the PowerFactory process (*) (**) Required hard disk space will heavily depend on the number of projects handled. Windows XP. Total disk space requirements are therefore determined individually. 1280x1024 pixel resolution Intel/AMD CPU with 2.x with Client 11.29 PowerFactory Installation Options 29. the following hardware is recommended: Workstation Licenses: 17-23” monitor with min.0 GB exclusively for executing PowerFactory unbalanced load flow. However. Windows Vista and Windows 7. number of scenarios.1.5-1.0 GHz or higher 1 GB available hard disk space (*) 0. number of objects (e. In addition. A typical memory requirement would be between 0. Multi-User database support is available for MS SQL 2005/2008 and Oracle Server 10. taking into account that main memory requirements will be duplicated according to the number of simultaneous users.

1-21. DSL Crypt excluded Section 25. DSL Crypt excluded Section 25.3 Section 24.1 (EMT excluded) Section 25. *.1-22. DSL Crypt excluded Section 25.seq.4 12 13 14 Transient Motor Starting Small Signal Stability (Eigenvalue Analysis) Dynamic Parameter Identification Included: Included: Included: Section 24. 25.1 PowerFactory Function Definitions PowerFactory function definitions refer to the latest issue of PowerFactory V14 Product Information to specify the content of the PowerFactory software delivery. CIM Import/Export 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Protection Functions (Overcurrent-time & Distance) Overcurrent-Time Protection Distribution Network Optimisation Harmonic Analysis Optimal Power Flow I (reactive power optimization) Optimal Power Flow II (OPF I + economic dispatch) Reliability Analysis State Estimation (SE) Stability Analysis Functions Included: Included: Not Included: Included: Included: Included: Included: Included: Included: Included: Section 18 Section 18.2 Section 27.5 Stability Analysis Functions required 15 16 17 18 19 DSL Crypting Option PSS/E Export (*. DSL Crypt excluded Section 26 Section 24.1 Not Included: Section 7.dyn) CIM Import and Export OPC Interface (Ole for Process Control) Shared Memory Communication Included: Reference: Reference: Included: Included: DSL Crypt (Section 24) Section 7.-25.1: PSS/E export.3.0 Functions PowerFactory Base Package V14 Product Information Section Reference Included: Sections 3-17 Section 27. *.2.1-18.3 PowerFactory V14 91 .1 Active Power Controls disabled Sections 21.2 Sections 20.5 Section 18.1 Section 27.6 and 28.30 PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices 30 PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices 30.1-19.raw. DSL Crypt excluded Sections 25.1-20.4 Section 21.3 11 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) Included: Section 24.1 Section 7.5 Section 23 Section 24.1 (RMS excluded) Section 25.3 and 18.4 Sections 19. Item 1 PowerFactory V14.2 Sections 22.

2 PowerFactory Prices The integrated PowerFactory v14 software is offered as Base Package with optional functional extensions allowing the user to configure the PowerFactory installation according to his specific needs.900.) and Smart Grids.- Indicated prices do not include any tax and shipping. most modern generation technologies (wind power. of nodes € 9. € 6.- unlimited no. distribution.700.100. and industrial systems. Base Package Edition Workstation Edition Server Edition 100 nodes max. etc.30 PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices 30.€7. The Base Package itself is covering a comprehensive collection of core functions for integrated analysis of transmission. PowerFactory V14 92 . photovoltaic.800.€ 4.800.300. Prices of functional extensions can be requested from DIgSILENT and respective International Representatives.- 250 nodes max. microturbines.€ 11. € 3.

Switzerland. DIgSILENT has software installations and conducted services in more than 110 countries. DIgSILENT has established a strong partner network in many countries such as Mexico.31 The DIgSILENT Company 31 The DIgSILENT Company DIgSILENT GmbH is a consulting and software company providing specialized services in the field of electrical power systems for transmission. Iran. Russia. Italy. Spain and Chile allowing to better serve the world-wide increase in its software products and services. user training and educational programs and software developments. privately owned company located in Gomaringen. Colombia. distribution.de PowerFactory V14 93 . Peru. China. DIgSILENT GmbH Heinrich-Hertz-Straße 9 72810 Gomaringen / Germany Phone: +49-7072-9168-0 Fax: +49-7072-9168-88 E-mail: mail@digsilent. DIgSILENT continued expansion by establishing offices in Australia. Special expertise is available in many actual fields of electrical engineering for the liberalized power markets and latest developments in power generation technologies such as wind power and dispersed generation. Argentina. generation and industrial plants. consulting services. DIgSILENT GmbH is staffed with experts of various disciplines relevant for performing research activities. Saudi Arabia. Germany where the new offices are in operation since early 2002. Oman. UK. Malaysia. Finland and Venezuela. DIgSILENT develops the leading integrated power system analysis software PowerFactory covering the full range from standard to highly sophisticated and advanced applications including real-time simulation and performance monitoring systems for system testing and supervision. DIgSILENT GmbH founded in 1985 is a fully independent. Brazil. Norway. India. South Africa.

composite models. RMS stability. fault analysis. 1998 First release of the new generation software Version 11: DIgSILENT PowerFactory integrating load flow.31 features (load flow. SAA standard) 1992 First version for Windows 3. protection coordination. load measurement and identification. 1997 Release of the universal model kernel for mixed. distribution features. optimization. supervision of connection conditions.31 .6. RMS stability.0 2011 Release of PowerFactory Version 14.2.1 PowerFactory V14 94 .0) 1993 Start of DIgSILENT re-design project using latest software technologies (C++. eigenvalue analysis. protection coordination. etc. harmonic load flow. harmonic analysis. etc.and 3-phase AC systems and DC systems.1 2005 Release of PowerFactory Version 13.1 and Windows NT (Version 9. electromagnetic transients.) 2001 Release of PowerFactory Version 12. network reduction. arbitrarily meshed 1-. 1999 Presentation of the DIgSILENT PowerFactory Monitor (PFM/DSM) featuring: system monitoring and fault recording.) 1994 First fully integrated power system analysis software for Windows (Version 10. 2000 Completion of re-implementation of the version 10. fault analysis. cable ampacity.2) integrating: load flow. reliability.0) 1989 First version for Personal Computer (Version 7.32 History of the DIgSILENT Software 32 History of the DIgSILENT Software 1986 First commercial product for UNIX operation systems (Version 1. reliability.for Windows 95 and Windows NT with high degree of compatibility to the Windows standard (last release of the original DIgSILENT software). protection coordination.2 2008 Release of PowerFactory Version 14.0 .1 2003 Release of PowerFactory Version 13 2004 Release of PowerFactory Version 13. fault analysis. object-oriented data base. harmonic analysis and optimal unit commitment 1995 Version 10.0. eigenvalue analysis. eigenvalue analysis. etc. RMS/EMT stability.0 2002 Release of PowerFactory Version 12.

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