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Neuroscience: The Science of the Brian
This is the Arabic language translation of the public education booklet. This translation was
made for IBRO by:
Khaldoun Mozahem, M.DA. Senior consultant, neurology division, Shaikh Khalifa
Medical city, PO Box 51900, Abu Dhabi,United Arab Emirates
Djazouli-Alim Fatma zohraB, Teacher and researcher in neuroscience, Department of
Biology, Faculty of agro-veterenary and biological science, University Saad Dahleb,
Blida, Algeria.
A: Chapters 1- 11 & 14-20. B: Chapters 12 & 13.
The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) commissioned the booklet for the purposes of
teaching young people in the UK about their Brain and Neuroscience the science of the brain.
The booklet contains short explanatory chapters on different subjects written by experts in
each topic. The original booklet was published in 2004.
In 2005 the International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) purchased the copyright of the
booklet. We have commissioned members of our organisation to translate the booklet in
multiple languages. In addition to the Arabic version that you are now reading the booklet is
available in a further sixteen languages also contained on this CDROM.

We hope that you will use these translations for the purpose of improving public understanding
and awareness of the brain and the importance of brain research. IBRO and the BNA are happy
for you to make printed copies or clone theses PDFfiles. However this should not be done for
profit. For more information please read the additional information that is appended at the end
of the booklet.

Contents
Pages 2-59: Neuroscience The Science of the Brain (Arabic version)
Page 60-70: Additional information (English).
An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM:

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‫ا
م ا‬

-‫  درا اغ‬   
‫ﺏ ا
م ا ای‬
‫ دا ا"وروﺏ  أ اغ‬#$%

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‫أُ‪ ,-‬ه*ا ا)('
ا&‪ %‬ر‪ $#‬رد 
ر‪    "#‬اد! و ري اّن      اآ
رد     ا
م ا‬
‫ا!‪  %#‬وﺕ‪ 4 5‬دا ا‪3‬ورو ‪  2‬أ‪ 1‬ا‪ ,‬غ‪ .‬ﺹ=< ا‪3‬ﺵ) ل  ‪!9 #‬ا‪  !8‬ا&(
د‪!9
#‬ا‪ –!8‬د‪
=#‬ر ‪ 2‬اد! ‪.‬‬
‫! ‪ -‬ا(  = ه= ت ا‪G‬ء ‪ 2‬ﺵ ا
م ا‪ E - ،‬ا‪
() CD3‬ر‪ ،1 #‬و‪!9‬ه<  ا=‪ 
=(A‬م‬
‫ا‪ -3‬ب ‪ 2‬اد! ‪ .‬آ= ‪ !)$‬ا   ‪ <J 2‬ا‪   2  

#‬أآ
رد‪ ،‬و ‪ I‬ﺹ آ 
‪G‬آ=
ر‪ ،‬و‪!9‬ه< ‬
‫ا‪G‬ء ‪ 2‬ا=‪ &L‬ت ا‪!D3‬ى‪.‬‬
‫  ا
م ا ا!‪ I( &L  %#‬ﺕ=‪ 1M‬ا=‪ 
=(A‬م ا‪ A(=A ،‬ﺕ‪  =8 (! 5‬ا ‪2‬‬
‫ا‪ 5‬وا=!ض‪  .‬أ‪ R-‬ء ا  ﺡ‪ 2M#,‬ا‪ 
,A‬م ا آ‪G%‬ب ا‪,‬را& ت ا  ‪ ،‬و‪ P  <A‬ع ‪ 2‬ه*ا ا=‪ 8‬ل‬
‫آ‪ &U‬ﺕ*ة ا‪  8‬ت وا = ء ‪! 2‬اآ ا‪ 5 3‬ث‪ .‬ﺕ‪ ,‬ا  آ‪ 1‬ر ‪ X‬ا(= ‪ ً# 
& ً-‬ﺕُ‪,‬م ‪ P‬أ‪!V‬وﺡ ت ‪ =-‬أ&(‪  ,8‬أ ‪ 5‬ث‪.‬‬
‫   ‪ -
=8‬ت ‪ 2  5‬أ‪ 5‬ء ا‪G‬د ﺕ‪, ,‬وات وﺕ[< ‪ V $‬ت    آ‪ #‬رة ا=‪,‬ارس وإ‪   J‬رض ‪ 2‬ا=( ﺡ‪.4‬‬
‫ه‪,‬ف ﺕ‪ 4 5‬دا ﺕ
‪ -‬ا  وﺹ ع ا!ار ‪U‬ه= أ ‪ 5‬ث ا‪ ,‬غ‪ ،‬و‪  
!$‬ت ‪ -‬ا‪ ,‬غ ‪ 2‬ا‪ 5‬وا=!ض ‪1)$‬‬
‫] و&‪ 1A‬ا= ل‪ .‬ﺕ' ا‪!3‬اض ا وا ‪ #G‬ا‪3‬ﺵ‪ I‬ص  آ‪ 1‬ا‪ =-3‬ر وﺕ‪'- 1)$‬ء ‪ E -‬ا^‪ (J‬د ا
‪2V‬‬
‫؛ =‪ A 8‬ه* ا=‪ $‬آ‪ 1‬و‪ < - 70 XJ‬أورو ‪ - 2 2‬م ‪ ً  1997‬ﺕ‪,A‬وا ‪ P‬ز‪ #‬دة ا
‪!U 2-‬اض ا‪ ,‬غ وأه= ‪
-‬م‬
‫ا‪ -3‬ب‪ .‬ﺽ< ا(‪ ،4 5‬ﺡ(‪ - E‬م ‪ XV‬ا)(' ‪ ،2003‬أآ‪
R- 125  !M‬ا ‪
M=#‬ن ‪ 24‬دو أورو ‪.‬‬

‫ﺡ
ق ا‪ X%‬وا‪   m 
5 !$‬ا
م ا ا!‪ %#‬‬
‫ا‪  D 2 1)$‬ا‪  
- 1M=# 5‬ت  ‪ !$J‬ا‪ ,‬غ أ) رؤ‪ , A(#‬ﺡ أﺹ‪ D l‬ﺹ ‪ 2‬ا‪ #GI‬ا=‪ 8‬ورة‬

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‫ا
م اــ ‪  
:‬درا اــغ‬
‫ا*
"‬
‫ا=‪ KC‬ا‪K&
+‬‬

‫ا
*‪K-‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2222222‬‬
‫‪222‬‬

‫ا‪ &
+‬ت وآ‪C‬ن ا‪"C+‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ا‪C‬ا" ا)‪C‬ﺉ‪K‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ا‪E‬دو‪ K‬و اغ‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫ا‪ ,C‬و ا‪(E‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ا& 

‫‪14‬‬

‫ا‪-‬آ‪K‬‬

‫‪19‬‬

‫ا=‪ KC‬ا‪R J K&
+‬ر ا‪/‬ر‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫< ا'اءة‬

‫‪25‬‬

‫ا'رة‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫ا‪ (+‬و ا‪9‬اآة‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫ا‪U‬ة‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫ا=‪ KC‬ا‪KC‬‬

‫‪37‬‬

‫ام‬

‫‪39‬‬

‫ﺕ 
اغ‬

‫‪41‬‬

‫ا‪E‬د‪ K3‬ا 
‪ K+‬وا‪)&U‬ت‬
‫اﻝ‬
‫ ﺕ‪-‬ث ‪K)U‬‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫أ‪l4#‬ت ا‪+‬م ا‪K&
+‬‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫ارب وا‪
-‬ل ‪"C A‬‬

‫‪54‬‬

‫اﺝ‪' %‬اءة و ﺕ)(‬

‫‪56‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫'&‪ %‬دا‪ "#‬رؤو   ه ن ا آام و 
و ‬
‫رات ا‪ 45‬ا
‪3‬ة‪ ،‬ﺏا‪ ,- ./‬ا‪  (+‬و *) و )(‪ .‬أ ‪ .‬اغ ا‪9‬ي‬
‫‪  +‬أآ? أء ا=<( ‪ -‬وﺏ‪  C‬وﺝ ‪ A‬ه‪ F9‬ا‪E‬رض‪ -‬ﺕ‪'+‬ا‪ .‬هف ه‪9‬ا‬
‫ا)‪ I‬ا‪ +‬ﺏ‪+< ..‬ض ‪+  .J‬ف  آ*‪ "C K‬اغ‪ ،‬و زال ‬
‫‪..J+‬‬
‫‪ (S‬ﺏرا‪ K‬اغ ‪C‬ء وأ‪&R‬ء  ‪J‬وع ‪ ،AP‬ﺕاوح ﺏ ( ا‪E‬ء ا=‪N‬‬
‫و( ا*‪ ,‬ا=&‪ ،‬ورا ﺏ‪+‬م ا‪ TU‬وا*ﺝ وا‪E‬دو‪..،K‬ا‪ .V‬وّ ه‪9‬ا‬
‫ا‪Y‬ه‪C‬م ا‪UC‬ك  ‪ A‬ا
م ا ‪ ،‬أو ا‪ (+‬ا‪9‬ي رس اغ‪.‬‬
‫'م اغ ﺏ)?‪ ،‬و) ‪ ,‬آ" ‪P‬ء‪- .‬ي اغ ‪ ،K& 
4#‬أو  ت‪،‬‬
‫ه واﺕ‪ .‬ا&‪ .K‬ﺕﺏ[ ه‪ F9‬ا‪)&P 45‬ت ‪ K+J K J‬آ‪S‬ﺏ‪ K‬وآ‪C‬و‪K‬‬
‫<‪C‬ة‪ .‬ى اغ و‪,-‬؛ ‪ ,-‬ا‪ (E‬ﺏ‪ C‬ﺕ<‪ A+‬ا=ﺏﺕ‪ .‬ا)‪C‬و‪ K‬إ‪ A‬ا‪*5‬‬
‫ اﺙ ا‪ .(_ `C‬ﺝ ‪ bR .J‬ة =ة <‪ b‬آﺕ ‪= Y‬ز أ‪+J‬ل‬
‫‪'+‬ة‪ Y .‬ﺕ اغ ا‪C‬ود ﺏ‪ F9S‬ا‪e‬ﺉ ﺝهًا ﺏ" ‪/‬ر ﺕر=ً‪ .‬ﺏ‪ f+‬ا‪C‬رﺙت‬
‫ا‪  KN<C‬ه‪ F9‬ا‪/‬ر ‪+‬و‪ ،KJ‬ووث ‪h SJ "#‬دي إ‪ A‬أاض ‪،K‬‬
‫آ‪ <+‬ا'اءة ‪j .‬ت ﺕ‪/‬ر اغ ‪ J‬ا= وا‪ K*/‬ا‪)&C‬ة ﺕ‪ .&U‬ا‪i‬ت ا‪KN<C‬‬
‫ ﺕ&" ا‪Y‬رﺕ&‪R‬ت ﺏ ا‪ 45‬ا‪ CJ K&
+‬ﺏ‪ ،+‬أو  ‪ "A‬ا)*‪ K‬ا‪."K &
+‬‬
‫‪ '+‬أن )*‪ K‬دور ‪ J‬ا‪ (+‬وا‪9‬آ‪9 .‬آ اغ أر‪l‬م ا‪S‬اﺕ و ‪J m+J‬‬
‫ا‪ +‬ا‪C‬ﺽ‪ ،‬و)‪ Y _ .‬آ" أو ‪U‬ب  =‪- .+‬ودًا ﺏ‪ f+‬ا‪U‬ء‪ 
.‬ب‬
‫اغ ﺏ)ب آ‪ "+* C‬ﺝ‪/ .ً+C‬ق أً &‪ f+‬ا‪i‬ت ا‪ K S‬ا=ﺉ‪ K‬ا‬
‫ﺕ‪h‬دي '‪ b‬ا‪ ،U‬آ‪- C‬ث ‪   +‬ﺝ‪E .‬داء ا‪ -Y‬ت‪ 9ٍ N .‬ﺕ&ز‬
‫أه‪ KC‬ام ‪ J‬إ‪/‬ﺉ‪ .‬اا‪ K‬ا ‪-‬ﺝ‪ 
l .S‬ب اغ ﺏ‪C‬ض وا‪E‬ذى‪.‬‬
‫ا'ت ا=ة‪ ،‬آ‪<C‬ري ا)‪S‬ﺏ‪ K‬ا‪5‬ﺹ‪ K‬ا ﺕ‪ T/ ,4‬ا‪ ،45‬أﺝ‪S‬ة‬
‫ا 
ا‪ ،KC‬ور‪l‬ﺉ‪ b‬ا<)ن ا ﺕ‪-‬ي دارات ﺹ‪ K+‬أﺙ‪ m‬ﺕ‪3‬اٌ ﺝ‪9‬رٌ‬
‫‪ J‬ا‪+‬م ا‪ K&
+‬ا‪/ .K?-‬ق إ‪ % S‬ا‪+‬ض _ر ا‪ Kl4#E‬وا‪Y‬ﺝ‪KC‬‬
‫ا‪C‬ﺕ&‪ K/‬ﺏﺏ‪-‬ث اغ‪.‬‬


 أ‪:‬‬
‫ اﻝ ‬
‫ﺏﻝ ‪:‬‬
‫ه‪ /‬آ‬

‫‪www.bna.org.uk/publications‬‬
‫‪The British Neuroscience Association, c/o: The Sherrington Buildings,‬‬
‫‪Ashton Street, Liverpool L68 3GE‬‬
‫‪44 (0) 151 794 4943/5449; 44 (0) 794 5516/5517‬‬

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‫‪The Nervous‬‬
‫‪System‬‬

‫ا
ــــ اـــــ‬
‫اــ اـــ‬
‫ﺕ‪ U‬ا; ا(   ا غ ‪ ،‬ا‪ P3‬ع اآ ‪،‬‬
‫وا ب ا 
) ‪،‬وﺕ‪5‬آ‪&  7‬ی  ‬
‫ﺕ‪ V‬ا( ﻥ ت و&ی دا ﺕ‪ V‬ا‪P‬ی اﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫( ﻥ ت ﺙﺙ أﻥاع ر‪ .Y‬ا‪3‬ع اول ه‬
‫ا( ﻥ ت ا 
ا ﺕ‪5‬ﺏ‪ Q‬ﺏ ت & ﺹ‬
‫ﺕ‪ 2‬وﺕ‪5‬ﺕ‪( 42‬ا ا‪ 0 ,P‬اﺱ‪ Q‬اا&‬
‫وا‪ P‬رﺝ‪ .‬ا ت ا 
ﺱ ‪5Z‬ات ا'ء و‬
‫ات‪ ،‬وا‪ K 3‬ت ا
‪5‬آ وا‪ 2‬وی ﺕ‪P‬م ﺡاس‬
‫ا ‪ ،5‬ا‪ ،b‬ا‪ ،4‬ا‪ ،.‬وا‪H‬وق‪ 3 .‬ی; ز‬
‫ا‪ / 3‬ا
‪5‬آ‪ ،‬ا
‪5‬اري ‪،‬أو ا‪ 2‬وي ; ﺵة‬
‫(‪ 3‬ی 
ث أذى ‪ 0‬ا‪ d3‬وﺕ‪  (,‬ت & ﺹ‬
‫ﺕ‪  V‬ت اذی‪ .‬ی‪  .;3‬ذ‪ M‬ا‪ 2(3‬ت‬
‫اا] وا‪C‬ﺡ س ﺏ ‪ ..‬ا‪3‬ع ا‪ A‬ﻥ  ا( ﻥ ت‬
‫ه ا( ﻥ ت ا
‪5‬آ ا ﺕ
‪  (0 .2‬ا('ت‪،‬‬
‫وﺕ' ‪ Q‬آ أﺵ‪ 2‬ل اك ﺏ ‪ 0‬ذ‪ M‬ا‪2‬م‪ .‬ا‪3‬ع‬
‫ا‪ h A‬ه ا( ﻥ ت اﺱ) ا ﺕﺽ‪ b‬ﺏ‬
‫ا‪ 3‬او‪ .‬ه اآ‪ 5A‬دًا ‪ 0‬ا غ ا ‪5‬ي‪.‬‬
‫ﺕاﺱ‪ Q‬ا‪ 2(3‬ت ا )‪ ،‬آ ﺕُ( ‪ i‬‬
‫ا‪ Y -‬ا(  غ‪.‬‬

‫ا غ وا
 اآ‬

‫ا غ وا
 اآ  ﺏ  ت ا 

‫وا('ت  &ل 
ور ‪#‬ی ﺕ  ا ب‬
‫ا 
)‪  
.‬اآ و‪ ,-‬ن؛ ‪ /0‬ﺕ‪ .‬ا‪ 2(3‬ت‬
‫ا ) آ‪ 42(3‬ا‪5‬آ  ا‪ ،',3‬و‪ 42(3‬ﺱ
‪7‬‬
‫ا)‪5‬ف ‪ 3‬ا(‪5‬ض ;‪ .‬ﺡ ر أو &= ﺏﺏس‪،‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪C‬ﺽ ‪ 2(3 0‬ت اآ‪ 5A‬ﺕ(ًا‪ .‬ا‪ ,-‬ا‪ A‬ﻥ‬
‫‪ /‬آ‪ ( 5‬ت ﺏ ا غ وا;‪ 0 .‬آ‬
‫ا‪F‬ﺕ; ه‪.‬‬
‫ﺏُ‪ 3‬ا; ا(  ا‪H‬آرة أ‪ I‬ه ﻥ‪ 0 K,‬آ‬
‫ا‪ ,‬ری ت‪  .‬ی= ا غ ا ‪5‬ي ه ﺡ;‪ /‬ا‪5 2‬‬
‫ﻥ  
;‪ .‬ا;‪ ..‬ﺱ ‪ 7‬ذ‪ M‬ه ا(د ا‪ 5 2‬‬
‫ا( ﻥ ت اﺱ) ا‪H‬ي ی() ا ‪ 5‬دا ‪F‬‬
‫ﺡ‪  / 5‬ا‪ P‬رات ‪ 3‬ا‪F‬رﺕ‪ 2‬س  
‪.Q‬‬

‫ ‪#‬ی ‪ ُ-‬أن و‪ ,-‬ا‪P‬ی اﺏ  
رة ‪0‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ا( ﻥ ت‪ ،‬و‪ 332‬ا‪j‬ن ﻥ(‪ .‬أن ‪ K‬دور ‪0 .K‬‬
‫ﺕ)ر ا; ا(  وو‪ F . K,Y -‬ﺕ‪ 3‬ا( ت‪،‬‬
‫ر‪ .k‬آ‪5A‬ﺕ‪ ، K‬آ ﺕ‪ (,‬ا( ﻥ ت‪ .‬ی‪ U‬ا( ن‬
‫ ﺝ‪ & .‬وﻥ  ا‪C‬ﺱ) ‪F‬ت‪ .‬اول ه‬
‫ا 
ر وو‪ /,-‬ﻥ ا( ت إ‪ V‬ا( ﻥ ت‬
‫ا&‪5‬ى اّ ﺏ‪ ./‬ا‪ A‬ﻥ ها‪ 3Z‬ت وو‪ K,-‬‬
‫ﺕ ا( ت ا‪ 
 3‬ور  ﻥ ت أ&‪5‬ى‬
‫ ‪ 5‬ا ﺏ‪ ،M‬ﺱ‪U‬ﺕ ﺕ‪ 0 K,‬ﺏ(‪ .‬ﺕ‪5‬ﺕ‪7‬‬
‫ ‪5‬ی‪5‬‬
‫ا( ﻥ ت ‪ 0‬ﺵ ‪ 2‬ت (ة ﺕ‪ 2‬ﺱ ً‬
‫ا( ت ‪ 0‬ا; ا( ‪.‬‬

‫یـ اﻡـغ‬
‫ی‪ U‬ا غ  ﺝ‪H‬ع ا غ وﻥ‪ ,‬ا‪52‬ة ا‪.ّP‬‬
‫یُ‪ .‬ﺝ‪H‬ع ا غ إ‪ 5&  V‬ا غ‪ ،‬ا غ اﺱ‪،Q‬‬
‫وا غ ا ‪ 5&  .3‬ا غ ه ااد 
‬
‫اآ‪ /0 ،‬ﺵ ‪ 2‬ت  ا( ﻥ ت ﺕ  ‪5‬اآ=‬
‫' ‪ Q‬ا‪ Y -‬ا 
ی آ ‪ 4,3‬وا'‪ QZ‬اي‪.‬‬
‫ی‪ U3‬ا‪  [P‬ﺱ  &‪ 5‬ا غ‪ ،‬و‪ /‬دور ‪0‬‬
‫اازن ﺏ' ‪ Q‬ا
‪5‬آ وﺕ]‪. K‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

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‫اغ ا
‪3‬ي  ا ‪  ،0‬ا‪ ،%.R‬و ا‪F"R‬؛ "‪ F‬اﺕ(‪0‬‬
‫ 
 
 اغ‬

‫ي اغ ا ت  ا  
ت‬
‫ﺕ‪  !"#‬ﺏ ﺏع ال ا)(وي ا&‪%‬‬
‫‪ ،(/‬وﺕ‪3‬ك ﺏ‪  1‬ﺕ‪ . / 0‬ا)ة ا‪,(#‬‬
‫ﺡ(‪ :‬ﺕ‪3 / 89‬ط ا  
ت ‪ /‬اآ‪ 5‬اغ‬
‫ا"( ا و?>! =‪ %‬ام‪ ،‬ا@  
‪ ،A‬وا=اب‪.‬‬
‫ُ‪ H&I‬اغ ا
( إ‪ F‬اد وا ء‪ 0" .‬اد‬
‫دور ‪ ,M‬وﺹ‪ %‬ﺏ( ا
(ت ا&(‪ ,‬و‪ 3K‬اغ‪،‬‬
‫وه ﺏور‪ % A‬دُ‪/‬ت إ‪ F‬اد‪ .‬ا ‪I‬ل ا"ت‬
‫‪ >8‬ا ‪ 0‬أ  "‪ " .0‬ء دور ‪ /‬‬
‫ا‪S‬ا>‪ %= 5‬ا‪R‬آ‪ ،%‬ا‪3‬ب‪ ،‬وا‪.Q‬‬


آة ‬
‫ا  ‬
‫ ‪g‬ع اغ‬

‫‪ [MI‬ﺽ "غ‬
‫‪& /‬ى اد‬
‫وا ء‬
‫اد‬
‫اء‬

‫‪ [MI‬ﺽ "غ‬
‫‪& /‬ى اى‬
‫ا‪,I‬‬

آة ‬
‫ا ا‬
‫اى ای‬

‫‪ H" Q9‬ا‪R‬ب‬
‫ا‪ ،:‬ران آ ل‪،‬‬
‫أم ‪ A‬م ‪.1890‬‬

‫‪ /‬ا‪ &R‬ﺹرة‬
‫"  
ت‬
‫وﺕ‪S‬ﺕ‪ ،‬و‪ /‬‬
‫ا‪ R‬ر‪I H‬‬
‫  
ت ا‪n(#‬‬
‫ﺏا‪ ,M‬آ ل‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺕ‪ ! !1‬ا)ة ا‪  ,(#‬اى ا‪ / ,I‬‬
‫اآ‪ ،5‬و‪ 3K‬اغ ‪ /‬ا(‪" .‬ى ا‪ ,I‬دور‬
‫@‬
‫‪ /‬ﺏء اآ‪ ,‬وﺽ
‪" .M‬ى ا‪ 3I‬ﺹدًا و ‪5‬و ً‬
‫ ‪& X(M‬ﺡ‪ ,‬آ
(ة &
(ً ‪ /‬ف ا‪,‬‬
‫اود‪ .‬ا‪ 3I‬أآ= ا ‪ Z‬ﺏوزًا وﺕ‪ً(I‬ا ‪ /‬‬
‫اغ ا
‪3‬ي‪ ،‬أآ 
ﺏ‪1‬رﺏ[ ات  =("‪ X‬‬
‫ا‪S‬ر\‪ H&Iُ .‬ا‪ 3I‬إ‪ Z  F‬دة ﺕ 
ً ‪I
M‬ﺕ‬
‫واﺕ@ﺕ‪ ،‬آ=(  وف ا?(‪,.‬؛ ‪ /‬‬
‫‪ ^#‬ﺏ&[‪ ،‬ا 
‪ ،‬ا‪ ،H3‬أو ﺡ‪ Q‬ا"؛ و ‬
‫ 
اآ‪ .,‬ﺕ‪ 0‬ا&
‪ %‬ا ﺕﺏ ا‪3I‬‬
‫ﺏ(‪ !/ ،‬ا)ة ا‪ ,(#‬ا‪%
I& R‬‬
‫ا_ﺡ&ت  ﺵ‪ Z‬ا&‪ H‬ا‪ &R‬و 
ﺡآ‪X‬؛‬
‫وا)‪ Q‬ﺏ)‪ ! % @ .Q‬ا)ة ا‪ ,(#‬ﺏ‪5‬ل‬
‫ ا‪R‬ﺥ‪/ ،‬ك اﺕ@ت ﺏ( أه ا&‪H‬‬
‫ا=‪. .‬‬
‫ا‪ 3I‬ا‪ i‬ﺽوري ‪/h‬ل ا_راد‪ ،,‬ا"‪,S‬‬
‫وا)\م‪ ،‬وا?>! ا"( =‪ %‬ا‪ ().‬وا‪ g‬آ‪H .‬‬
‫ا?>!  ﺕ=(‪ / %‬ا(؛ ﺏ( ا 
‪ j‬أﺡدي‬
‫\ ‪ H /‬اس ﺕ)ن ‪ /‬ا‪.&R‬‬
‫ا ‪ ،0‬آ"‪ً = ,S‬‬
‫ﺏ‪  Hi‬آ‪ H‬ا"ت ا)
( اوف  ‪3K‬‬
‫اغ‪l/ ،‬ن ا)=( زال ﺏ ‪ ,‬إ‪ F‬ا)‪3‬ف‬
‫وﺕﺽ(‪ %( 
F" ،m‬ا=ل ا ‪.‬‬

‫‪Internet Links: http://science.howstuffworks.com/brain.htm http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html‬‬
‫‪http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html‬‬

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‫اــت وآ ــن ا ــ‬
‫ا‪ ،‬وار و ی
ا‪ ،‬ا ا إ‬
‫أ! م اﺱ ل‪ ،‬ﻡ آ‪ ،‬وإرﺱ ل‪ .‬ﺏ‪ , -‬م ا‪ )*+‬ت‬
‫ ‪ -‬و‪ /‬ا یم ﺏ  آ وا ور ‪0‬ﺱ‪ --‬ه‪2‬ا‬
‫ﻡ یُ‪ ,5‬ا‪8‬ﺱ‪ 7‬ب ?ن ا=ﻡ ت ;
< ا ; ‪ :‬واﺡ‪.5‬‬
‫ﺥ ﻡ‪ C‬ا‪B‬‬
‫ﺥ ه‪0‬ﻡ ‪*,‬ن ﺡ‪0‬آ ﺵآ ﻡ‪ -Q‬أي ﺏ) ء‪ , ،‬ا=*ن أن ی ﺱ‪ ^ّ+ .X‬أ‪ 
b‬‬
‫ا ر‪ /‬ا*)‪ ,‬ﻡ‪ C‬ﻡاد دﺱ ا‪ -‬اي ا)‬
‫ﻡ‪ V! C‬ن ﺏ‪0‬و )‪ ،‬ﺥ‪ 7‬أو أﺏ‪ < 5 ،‬ا ور‬
‫وا‪ )*+‬ت ‪ ,‬ااء‪ .‬ی
ه‪2‬ا ! ش ا)‪ d‬ا‪5‬ود‬
‫‪ ,‬ا‪ -‬ا?ﺏ ‪ .‬ن ا?! م ا‬
‫=*ن < ﺡ  ﺡ‪0‬آ وإ‪ ,‬دة )‪ M‬ﻡ‪0‬ة =‪N‬‬
‫‪Cell Body‬‬
‫<=  و <=  ‪0/‬ا ‪ 0+ .‬ا‪ )*+‬ت ﺵ ﻡ‪ O‬ر‬
‫‪Cell Body‬‬
‫ﻡر ‪ /‬ﺥ‬
‫ار  [ ت ‪5/‬ی‪5‬ة واﺥ ء أﺥ‪0‬ى و ‪  0M‬ور  ی ت‬
‫ﻡر‬
‫ﻡر‬
‫‪5/‬ی‪5‬ة ﺏ) ی <‪ e‬ا=*ن  [ ‪ :0b‬أ‪ R! ,‬أو‬
‫أﺥ‪ < .R! f‬داﺥ‪ -‬ا=* ت ی‪ 5/‬أ! م داﺥ‬
‫أاع ﻡ ﻡ‪ C‬ا=* ت‬
‫‪5,‬ی‪5‬ة‪ ^_ .‬ه‪ :2‬ﻡ‪ C‬ﺏ‪0‬و ) ت *)‪/ <  b O‬‬
‫ا‪ ،‬و )‪[ , -‬ل ا‪ -‬اي‪0 .‬ز ‪g‬ات د!‬
‫ ‪0‬ك ا=* ت ﺡ آ ‪ G‬أو ﺡ‪0‬آ‪ ،‬آ‪0‬ة أو‬
‫ﻡ‪ C‬ا‪ )*+‬ت ‪ ,5‬أﺵاك ا‪ )*+‬ت‪ ،‬ﻡ= ین ﻡ=‪M‬‬
‫ﺹ‪0+‬ة < أ ذات  ط آ‪0‬ﺏ وآ وي ﻡ= ٌ‪.‬‬
‫ار  [ ت ا ور‪ .‬ا‪0‬و ) ت ا) إ ا?ﺵاك  ‬
‫ = ون و ) <‪ N‬ا=* ت < ﺏ) )‪ M‬ا;‬
‫دور ﻡ < إی; د ا‪ * 8‬ل ﺏ‪ C‬ا=* ت وا ظ ‪. 
,‬‬
‫ا=* ﻡ‪ Q‬ی=‪ -‬أ<‪0‬اد ا;‪ 5), O‬ا  ذ ا‪0‬ارات‪.‬‬
‫ی ‪5‬ی‪ -‬ه‪ :2‬ا‪0‬و ) ت ﺏ ﺱ‪0‬ار‪ .‬آ‪ -‬ه‪2‬ا ا) ط ﺏ ‪/‬‬
‫  ‪ )*+‬ت ‪*,‬ن إﺵ رات آ وی ﻡ‪ C‬ﻡر‬
‫!د‪ 5ُ ،‬ا‪ < ! 7‬داﺥ‪ -‬ا < ا‪5‬رات‪d; .‬‬
‫ی‪R‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ی ی ‪T‬ﺵ رات آ‪0‬ﺏ ‪ Vُ S‬ف إ أو‬
‫ ی ت ا ور ;‪j‬ی‪ i‬ت ‪, ,5‬اﻡ‪ -‬ا)‪ kُ .‬ه‪:2‬‬
‫ ُ‪07‬ح ﻡ‪ C‬إﺵ رات ! دﻡ ﻡ‪ C‬ﻡ ﺏ‪ X‬أﺥ‪0‬ى ﻡ ی‪0‬ر‬
‫ا=اﻡ‪5 -‬اﺥ‪ -‬ﺙ )‪ -‬إ ‪ /‬ا ﺡ‪g m‬ﺙ‪, 0‬‬
‫< إذا آ ‪ G‬ا‪T‬ﺵ رة ﺱ‪0‬ر =*ن ا  ‪C,‬‬
‫ﻡ‪5‬ى =‪ 0‬ﻡرﺙ ت ا=* ت‪ ،‬وﺏ   *)‪O‬‬
‫[‪0‬ی‪ Z‬ار وا‪ X‬ا=*‪ ،‬وه‪2‬ا دوا‪.X‬‬
‫ا‪0‬و ) ت ا;‪5‬ی‪5‬ة‪ .‬ه ‪ C‬ا=* ت ﻡ‪ C‬إ ء‬
‫ ‪ )*+‬ت أ[ل أو أﺡ‪5‬اث ‪0+‬ات دی) ﻡ 
أو‬
‫ان اﻡ‪:‬‬
‫و
‪ .‬ی‪= Z<5 5/‬ﻡ ت وا‪2+‬ی ت وا‪0‬ﺱ‪ -‬ﻡ‪C‬‬
‫ =‪ N‬ﺏ) ا=*ن ا‪2‬ي ی_^ ﻡ‪ )*+ C‬ت‪ / ،‬وا ‪ /‬ا [ل ا!‪.G‬‬

‫‬

‫ر‬

‫أرﺱل‬

‫
‬

‫ت‬

‫آ‬

‫اﺱل‬

‫ﺵ&‪$ %‬ﺱ ‪ #‬ﻝ" ! اﻝن‬
‫أﺵاك ا‪ )*+‬ت‪  :‬رزات د! ‪[ ,‬ل ا‪ )*+‬ت‬

‫‪4‬‬

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‫ا ل وا
ذ اار‬
‫ﺕ‪ :2D‬ﻡ
ور ا> ‪
3‬ت ‪
? 3‬ت آ‪ ! +‬ﺕ‪ 0-1‬آ‪
3‬ت ا>‪:‬‬
‫‪ .‬ﺕ‪ :2D‬ه‪S 0- 67‬ل ا‪ 
R‬ف ا> ! آﺝ! ﺕ‪0- :2D‬‬
‫ ‪ :‬ا‪ . )2‬ي ‪
,V‬ء ار ‪D9‬ات 
رد! ﺕ‪ U‬و ﺕ‪T‬‬
‫‪ 
HI + ،‬ارد ﻡ‪ !3,‬آ‪+ 
?> .
ً +‬ر ارد‬
‫ا دم ‪ 
D‬ا >‪ Y‬ا‪ +IR‬ﻡ‪, XP‬ارد ا ﺕ 
‪.‬‬
‫‪1D‬ﻡ
ﺕ‪ T‬ا‪D2‬ات &[ن ارد ا دم و ا ﺕ 
م ﺕ‪:2D‬‬‫ ‪ +‬ﻡ
ل آ‪ ' +‬و آ
وي ﻡ?
د ‪1 ،‬ا‪ :I‬و ‪
I‬رج ا‪، !P‬‬‫آ 
‪)D !
%‬ع ا‪
42‬ب آ‪
, ' +‬ء ‪.‬‬

‫ ك ا 

ل  ﻡ ار  ‬
‫ 
ى &‪%‬ة ‪ !"#‬ﺕ  ا' ‪ +,-‬ﺝ)ءًا ﻡ‬
‫ﻡ
ر ﺝ)ء ﻡ ا‪ .+‬ﺕ‪ !423 0-1‬ا‪5‬ﺕ
ل ه‪ 67‬ا ‪19 .‬‬
‫;‪ : 2‬ﺕ  ﻡ
ور ﻡ ‪ -‬ن وا‪
3 - !>? ،1‬ت‬
‫أو ‪B 0‬ف ﻡ‪ . 
D‬ﺕ ‪1‬و ا‪ +,9 
HI '& F
,‬ا‪1‬ﻡ
غ‬
‫آ‪
;%‬ت د‪" !29‬ﺕ " ‪ -‬ا
رات ‪ . !>#‬ااﺹ‪ :‬‬
‫ا‪ 
HP‬ا> ! &' ‪
23‬ط ا
س ه‪ 0-1 67‬ا ا ‪،‬‬
‫و? ‪ !Q1‬آ
و! ‪ '& 
D‬ا ‪ :‬ا 
' ‪.‬‬

‫ آ
و ً
أ‪ + - US‬ا‪F ,‬‬
‫‪1D‬ﻡ
‪ 02‬ك ا  ﻡ‪ً 
+‬‬‫&[ن ﺕ
رًا آ‪
ً  +‬ﺹ‪ً+‬ا ‪ [,D‬دا‪ :I‬ا‪,‬ك‪ 02 .‬ا ‬
‫أﻡاﺝ ً
ﻡ ه‪ 67‬ا
رات‪ ،‬ﻡ‪ 
D‬اﺝ_ وﻡ‪ 
D‬ا; 
_‪ ،‬ﻡ‪ 
D‬‬
‫ا) وﻡ‪ 
D‬ا‪+ ،` a‬ره
إ‪ 0‬ﺝ; ا‪ .!P‬إذا ﺕ‪
%‬وزت‬
‫ﻡ ! ا
رات ‪ ! -‬ﻡ>‪[& !D‬ن ا> ن ‪+‬ر ر 
! ‪+ -‬‬
‫ﻡر‪ > 6‬ن ‪ ،+IB‬وإ ‪.e I‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ :a‬ا> ن ﻡ‪ 
:a‬ب ?‪ f‬و ‪+4‬ح 
‪+‬ار ا‪ 
+‬ﺉ‪:‬‬
‫ا' ‪
2‬ه
ﻡ ‪
3 -‬ت أ‪+I‬ى ‪ Y> .‬اﺹ‪H‬ت ﺕ‪ iD‬إ‪
Q‬رة‬
‫و ا‪+IR‬ى ﺕ‪ . ` a‬ﺕ‪+‬ﺝ! ه‪ 67‬ا‪ 
5‬رات ;
س ‪+j& ،‬ة ‪ ،‬أو‬
‫‪+‬آ! >‪ :j, 1‬أ 
' ‪ 0-‬ا‪ !j ,‬ا' ﺕﺝ‪ 
& 1‬‬
‫ا> ‪
3‬ت‪.‬‬

‫أ‪!D9‬‬
‫ا ﺕ 
م‬
‫ﻡ!‬

‫آن ا‪+‬ا!‬

‫آن ا‬
‫ﻡ' ‪!3
Q‬‬

‫ ر ار ه ا‪4P‬ة ا‪R‬و‪
235 0‬ل ا‪ 
5‬رة ﻡ ‪ -‬ن‬‫‪  fj& ،+Ik‬ذ‪ F‬؟  ه‪7‬ا ;‪ +P‬ا‪ !9
4‬ا‪'& !D&1‬‬
‫ا 
ت ا‪ 
j‬و! و ا)
ﺉ! و ﺕ?
&‪ +‬ه‪ 67‬ا‪2‬ى ‪:j,‬‬
‫ﻡ‪.iD‬‬

‫آن ا>‪:‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫أ‪!D9‬‬
‫ا دم‬
‫ﻡ!‬

‫ﻡ'‬
‫&‪e‬‬

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‫
اث‬

‫أف  ‪$ُُ& :‬ى ا"ور  ن ا‪ ،‬و ی‬
‫(ان  ن اﺡ"‪ .$‬اان ا‪$‬ى ه ﻡاد‬
‫آ"وی ﻡ‪ 56"& 378‬ﻡ‪$ 234‬و&‪ ،‬ی‪1‬دي أ‪$./‬ا‪-‬‬
‫إ= ﻡ‪$‬ض ی‪28‬ى ;"ر ا‪ ;4‬ت‪.‬‬

‫‪ &7‬ی‪7‬أ آ‪$‬ن ا‪ RA $C‬ﺝ‪ 1d‬ا‪bA ,)!-‬ن أول & ی‪M#‬‬
‫ه أ‪ ,)Q‬ا‪5‬دیم‪ A7 .‬آ‪ %& ,)$‬ارد ا‪5‬دیم‬
‫‪7‬اﺥ ا‪ ,)!-‬و ﺥ‪:‬ل &)!‪ R‬ﺙ )‪ ,‬ی ‪ b‬وﺽ &ازن ﺝ‪7‬ی‪.7‬‬
‫ی‪7‬ل ﺥ‪:‬ل = ‪A ,‬ق ا>‪$‬ن  ا ء ‪8‬ا‪100 R‬‬
‫&)!‪ q)8 ،"A R‬ی!‪A O‬ق ا>‪$‬ن داﺥ ا ء &‪%‬‬
‫‪8 ،R!2‬ا‪ ،"A R!)& -70 R‬إ‪ .‬إی‪8 ،R‬ا‪30+ R‬‬
‫&)!‪ ."A R‬ه‪H‬ا ا‪7‬ل ی‪Q M#‬ات ا‪`& 1)2‬دیً إ‪.‬‬
‫ا ‪A7‬ع آ‪ %& ,)$‬ارد ا‪ 1)2‬إ‪ .‬ﺥرج ا‪ ،,)!-‬یً‬
‫‪ v#‬ا‪ ,d‬ا‪ R‬ا ‪ W "CA7‬ارد ا‪5‬دیم إ‪.‬‬
‫ا‪7‬اﺥ‪ .‬ی`دي ذ إ‪ .‬دة آ‪$‬ن داﺥ ا ء إ‪.‬‬
‫‪ U$)Q‬ا‪Y‬ﺹ!)‪ ,‬ا‪ .,)!d‬ی‪7‬وم آ‪$‬ن ا‪ $C‬ز&ً أ‪%& Q‬‬
‫ا(&‪ %‬ا‪H‬ي =ﺝ‪ i  U‬زر ا‪5$‬ح ا‪ R($‬آ‪R‬‬
‫)‪ G‬ﺙ‪& Ua#F 1‬ة‪.‬‬

‫ﺡز أ@ هدﺝ‪ @A‬واﻥ‪2‬رو‬
‫ه‪ =   A‬ﺝ
‪E‬ة ﻥ‪5‬‬
‫‪I‬آ‪ K "FGH8‬أﻥ‪38‬ل‬
‫ا‪4G2‬ت ا‪ . 4‬اﺱ‪ "48‬‬
‫‪& G‬ر‪ "F‬ا"ور‬
‫ا‪  M "4‬ر‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫&‪ %‬ا‪  ! "#!$‬أن  ارد   ا ء
ز ذ‪،‬‬
‫وأن آ)( ارد ا‪5‬دیم و ا‪ 1)2‬ﺽ‪ %$‬ه)‪ .‬ا‪+ ,)!-‬‬
‫ی‪7‬ل  > &!=ظ ﺥ‪:‬ل &ة وا‪78‬ة‪ .! .‬ا‪7$‬ى ا‪ 7)C‬یُ=‪@A‬‬
‫!‪ .‬ازن ه‪ GH‬ا ارد ا‪-& ,F2‬ت ردی‪)$> A7 ,‬ت‬
‫ا(ا‪7J‬ة &‪ %‬ارد ا‪5‬دیم إ‪ .‬ﺥرج ا‪ .,)!-‬ی‪ )L$ %>$‬ذ‬
‫رب ا‪ GCQ RA R‬ﺙ‪ O‬ﺹ )‪ ،‬اُ‪ $C2‬د ‪ M‬ا‪$‬ء &‪%‬‬
‫داﺥ!‪
U‬ء ارب ‪.ً)AT‬‬
‫ ا‪)Y‬ف ا‪ ,)5C‬آا‪Q‬‬
‫آ‪$‬ن ا‪78 $C‬ﺙ)‪ ,‬آ‪7C& ,)W‬ة‪ُ L& .‬‬
‫ا>‪ ,)W‬و>‪ W‬أ‪ %& ,)CA Q‬ا‪:2Y‬ك ا‪(C$‬و‪ .,‬ی‪ 7‬آ‪$‬ن ا‪$C‬‬
‫‪ %& +‬ا‪ 7W‬ا>‪ [T& %) RW‬ا ء ا‪ R‬أﺹ=" ‪,CA‬‬
‫&‪ً $‬‬
‫وا‪ [T$‬ا‪$‬ورة ا‪& R‬زا" ‪ ,8 RA‬را‪ A7)A ,8‬آ‪$‬ن ا‪$C‬‬
‫ &ﺝ‪( %& ,‬ع ا‪F2+‬ب  &‪7 %‬ای‪ ,‬ا!)\ ا‪R5C‬‬
‫‪W‬ی‪ .U‬ی‪ %>$‬ا‪= H )L$‬آ‪ ,‬ا‪ O)Q  ,QF‬ا‪CY‬ب‬
‫اری‪ 7C ,‬إ‪ .UC‬ا 
‪C‬ل ی`دي إ‪ .‬ارات &ﺽ‪2 ,)C‬ی‪,C‬‬
‫ﺝ‪7‬ا‪ ,aA>& ،‬ین ا ارد ‪7‬اﺥ وﺥرج ا‪=$‬ر ‪& RA‬ﺽ‬
‫آ‪$‬ن ا‪7 $) ،$C‬م &ﺝ‪ ,‬ا ر  > أ‪ .bF‬ا‪()$‬ة ا‪7$‬ه ‪,‬‬
‫‪)c‬ف ا‪ ,)5C‬أ ‪A 7C W‬ة وﺝ)(ة &‪ %‬ا‪ ،"$5‬ز&‪ %‬ا‪)5C‬ن‪،‬‬
‫ی‪ 7)Cd‬ا ء ‪7Q‬ر‪ b)W& U‬ا‪=$‬ر >‪$‬ن ا‪ $C‬ا‪.R‬‬
‫ُف ه‪H‬ا &‪8 H‬ا‪ # ,2 50 R‬ارب اا‪.! ,CJ‬‬
‫ا‪ 5C‬ت ا>)ة ا‪$‬ﺝدة ‪)8 RA‬ا ت =ی‪ .,)C& ,‬ا=‪1‬‬
‫ا>) ‪ GHW‬ا‪ 5C‬ت &>‪ %‬ا‪$!C‬ء &‪ %‬إدﺥل أ‪:2‬ك د‪W)A ,)Q‬‬
‫)س  )ات ا‪ 7W‬ا>‪.RW‬‬
‫‪ ً)8‬ی‪$!C! %>$‬ء ا‪78 ,) ,F2‬ی‪ )d! ,L‬ا>‪RW‬‬
‫ﺥ‪:‬ل ‪Q‬ة ردی‪".7 RA ,‬ر‪ i‬ا‪ ",CQ‬درا‪8 ,2‬آ‪ ,‬ا ارد‬
‫أي ع &‪ %‬ا‪ 5C‬ت‪ ،‬و ‪ R‬ی‪ 1W>$‬إﺝاء ‪2)Q‬ت د‪ ,)Q‬ﺝ‪ً7‬ا‬
‫‪ GHW‬ا)رات ‪ RA‬أد& ‪Q ,‬ی‪ %& ,‬أد& ‪.‬‬


ل اور ‪:‬‬
‫ی‪7‬م آ‪$‬ن ا‪ jC RA ًa)F $C‬ا‪=$‬ور )‪ WC RA $‬ا‪k‬ﺥ‬
‫ی‪2 (#‬ی‪T .! ًC‬ل ا‪ RA .O5C‬ا=‪ ,‬ا‪Y‬ﺥ)ة ی>ن ا‪=$‬ر‬
‫&=‪:  ًT‬ف زل د‪ U!>  12‬ا‪ %& ,F2‬أ‪ ,) l‬ا‪ ,)!-‬ا‪،,)7‬‬
‫ی‪  .7‬ا ‪ .‬ا‪=Y‬ث ا=‪7‬ی‪ ,L‬آ ‪& "#‬ه)‪ ,‬او)ت‬
‫ا‪ \` R‬ه‪H‬ا ا ‪ .7$‬ه‪H‬ا ا ‪:‬ف ی‪ $‬ا)رات ا ردی‪%& ,‬‬
‫ا‪d‬ب ‪ RA‬ا‪>$‬ن ‪ )l‬ا‪l$‬ب‪ $) ،‬ك ا‪:-‬ی ا‪,)7‬‬
‫‪A‬ات ﺹ )ة ‪ RA‬أ&آ‪7 %‬ی‪7‬ة !‪T .‬ل ا‪=$‬ر آ( ‪W)A‬‬
‫أ‪ ,)Q‬ا‪5‬دیم وا‪C$ $C .1)2‬ت ا‪ ,)QY‬ه‪ GH‬آ‪$‬یت‬
‫إرة ي آ‪$‬ن ا‪ " $) $C‬ی‪T .! "(#‬ل ا‪7Q .O5C‬‬
‫‪ ,2 5‬آ‪$‬ن ا‪ RA $C‬ا‪ 5C‬ت ذات ا‪ %)-‬إ‪100 .‬‬
‫&‪ /‬ﺙ )‪.,‬‬
‫آ‪$‬ن ا‪ $C‬إ& أن ی>ن أو ‪ +‬ی>ن‪ $>A ،‬ت ا‪RA \!- + $C‬‬
‫ا=‪ 1‬و>‪7& RA %‬ى >اره‪bA H .‬ن ا‪F‬ی‪ ,‬ا‪7)8‬ة &)(‬
‫‪Q‬ة &‪ & U‬أو ‪ UA‬ا(&)‪ RA ,‬ﺥ!)‪ ,)C& ,‬ی‪ ))  1‬ا‬
‫آ‪ $‬ت ا‪ .$C‬أآ‪ L‬ا‪=$‬ور ‪  ,)CA‬آ‪ $‬ت ‪ $‬ا ‪.8‬‬
‫‪& 1000‬ة‪ /‬ﺙ )‪.,‬‬

‫‪Internet Links: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html‬‬
‫‪http://www.neuro.wustl.edu/neuromuscular/‬‬

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‫ااـــ ا ویـــــ‬
‫ ُ آ‪!.‬ﻥت ا ‪!^ >G .‬ل ا‪.‬ور إ ا‪ .:;.‬‬
‫ ‪ W 6/H‬ا‪ /‬رات ا‪  ,*B‬ا‪ 
G !_H.‬م آ‪!.‬ن ا ‪.‬‬
‫‪!^ >G‬ل ا‪.‬ور ‪!)G‬ر ‪!\#‬ة ا‪ `/ .:);.‬ا ‪ ,)G‬ه‪aV‬‬
‫ا‪!\C‬ة !ا‪, 60‬ا‪  0‬آ ‪.‬و ُ
‪ ،G‬اا ا‪.‬‬

‫ا"!ن وای‬
‫ ُ ّ&ن ا!ا ا )  ‪ "#‬أآ س آ‪,‬و د  !‪!1‬دة ‪"#‬‬
‫ﻥ*ت ا‪.‬ور‪ ! G
ُ ،‬ت ا‪
1! .:);.‬‬
‫! ت >&ن‪ ،‬و! ت ‪1‬ه&ة >‪!B ,,/‬ن‬
‫أ‪,‬ب * ا ‪ .L‬وﺹ!ل آ‪!.‬ن ‪Q .G‬دي إ ‪N/#‬‬
‫!ات ﺵرد ‪!; N.H‬ارد ا‪! HB‬م 
ﺥ!ل‪ ّ Cُ .‬ه‪V‬ا‬
‫ﺥ‪Q ,X.‬ﺙ‪,  G!.\ >G ,‬و ت  ) ا‪، :);.‬‬
‫أ‪ O 6G‬أ‪.0‬ء ‪, F‬ة ‪0" F‬ر"‪." C," ،" .1 " ،‬‬
‫ه‪ aV‬ا)‪,‬و ت ‪, /‬ف ‪, >G‬و ت ‪ "#‬ا! ت‪،‬‬
‫‪Q‬د إ ا‪/‬م ! ت ا‪ W :);.‬ا‪;U‬ء‪ ،‬ﺙ`‬
‫اﻥ‪ */C‬و ‪ ,,‬ا‪0,.‬ل ا‪. B‬وي  ﻥ* ا ‪.L‬‬
‫
ه ‪ ;C/‬ا‪0,.‬ل ‪ ,)G‬ا‪!\C‬ة ا‪ 20 9  "/‬ﻥﻥ!‪,/‬‬
‫وا‪ ،G
"/‬ﺵ‪ E‬ا‪  .:);.‬د ;‪  B‬ا! ت ‪ 
G‬‬
‫" )‪ "W>/‬أ‪ 
*/ ;i‬اﺥ ﻥ* ا ‪    L‬د >_*‬
‫ ا )" ا‪V‬ي >‪ jC‬رة أﺥ‪,‬ى‪ ،‬وه‪VB‬ا دوا ‪"# :‬‬
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ﺙ  ‪,B/‬رة ‪,./H‬ة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .‬وﺹ ا‪0,.‬ل إ ا\* ا‪k‬ﺥ‪,‬ى‪ ،‬وذ‪ 
:‬ث‬
‫‪V G,H‬ه>   ‪,U/H‬ق أ   >" ﺙﻥ ‪!*# ،‬‬
‫‪ $ _&1  W GC/‬ﺥﺹ ‪ G
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‫‪;i "#‬ء ا )!ن ا‪! ."/‬م ا ا  
!ل ا;‪E‬‬
‫ا‪!/   "B);.‬ي ‪HB >G‬ت د ‪G
،‬‬
‫ات‪ `> ،‬ا  ا;‪ E‬ا‪ ) ،"B);.‬وﺹ!ل آ‪!.‬ن‬
‫ا ‪ .‬ا‪."/‬‬

‫‪,‬و  ج‬

‫ﻥ‬

‫‪)/H‬‬
‫‪)/H‬‬

‫ﻥ‬
‫ﺥرج ا> ‬
‫ا‪;U‬ء ا* !"‬

‫داﺥ ا> ‬
‫‪0,‬ل‬
‫ﺙﻥ"‬

‫‪Q‬ﺙ‪,‬‬

‫ا‪)/H.‬ت ا‪&ُ  /0‬اوج ‪, W‬و  ج ا‪!1!.‬د‬
‫داﺥ ا> ‪ ،‬وا‪V‬ي 
ور‪  a‬ا‪.0,‬‬
‫ا‪)/H.‬ت ا;رد * ة ‪ * ,.‬ا;!ارد‪ ،‬و ‪4R/‬‬
‫ ‪ 5‬و
ات ‪ >G 46‬ﺵ‪ B‬دا‪,X‬ة‪.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ 
ث ه
ر   أن ا ا  

ا إ‬
‫ا*ت ا )   د ﺥ&ﻥ‪ "# $‬ا! ت ‬
‫أ‪ 1‬ا‪ $. /0‬رة أﺥ‪,‬ى‪" .‬ا‪! "4 5/‬ا‪60‬‬
‫ا ا  
 ‪ 9‬ا‪ ,6‬ا!
ة ‪8‬زا ا!ا‬
‫ا )   ا‪ .:);.‬أ ﻥً !م ا ا ) ‬
‫>‪) *.‬ﺵ‪ً ,‬ة إ ﻥ* * ا ) ‪ .‬وأ ﻥً ُ‪:BC‬‬
‫ا !ا‪! 60‬اد آ ‪.‬و !‪!1‬دة ‪ "#‬ا;‪E‬‬
‫ا‪."B);.‬‬

‫   ا  رة ت‬
‫ا" !ه ة اغ اه  ا ا‬

‫اا ا  اات ا ردی‬
‫‪ F‬ا‪   GC/‬ا!ا ا )  وا‪)/H.‬ت ‪F‬‬
‫ا‪/C.‬ح وا‪ .C‬ا‪ /‬ق ا‪ ،‬ا‪/C.‬ح‪،)/H. ،‬‬
‫ا‪ L)H ،C‬اﻥ‪/C‬ح ة ﺵرد‪:> G
.‬‬
‫ا‪)/H.‬ت ‪)/H.‬ت ا;رد‪ ،‬أﻥ‪ ,5‬ا;‪ .B‬إذا‬
‫آﻥ‪ O‬اة ‪!;> N.H‬ارد ا‪ ،)1!.‬ا !د!م أو‬
‫ا‪! HB‬م‪ 
،‬ﺥ!ل ‪R#‬ن ‪,1‬ن ا‪ /‬ر ا‪Q L1!.‬دي‬
‫إ ا‪F/0‬رة‪Q .‬دي ه‪V‬ا إ ‪R‬ر‪ "# N1‬آ‪!.‬ن ا‪;U‬ء‬
‫
‪!.B G‬ن  
ا‪ :);.‬ا‪ .$)ُ.‬ا;‪ WX‬أن ‪
G‬د‬
‫آ) ‪  ,‬ا‪!) G >G "*/ :;.‬ن‪ ،‬و‪ 5 "#‬‬
‫ وا) ‪ . Y‬إذا وﺹ \‪!.‬ع‬
‫‪!B‬ن  ‪ً  # *Z‬‬
‫آ‪!.‬ﻥت  
ا‪ :);.‬إ ‪ )/G‬آ‪^8  #‬ق ) ‪$‬‬
‫‪R#‬ن آ‪!.‬ن ‪ R; 

1 .G‬و ‪,.‬ر ا‪8‬ﺵرات ‪!^ >G‬ل‬
‫!ر ا )!ن ا‪.">/.‬‬

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‫ا (‪ A‬ا ‪ /@2‬ا ‪%‬ث ا &>=  ا "غ ه
ا ‪
7C‬ت‪ .‬ا "(‪9‬‬
‫ا ‪&/H‬ة  ا 'ط ا ‪ E7F /@2‬ا ع ‪I23  ./‬‬
‫ا ‪
/@2‬ت  ‪ J23  +/6‬ا‪  .&K‬ا '‪ 13‬ا ُ‪9F/6‬‬
‫‪S‬دي ‪ A2P‬ا ‪/QM‬ت إ ‪ #‬ا‪P‬ح (
ات ﺵرد‪L M 9‬‬
‫‪ 
"3‬ل ﺵ
ارد ‪ 9/7,‬ا '‪S   9%‬دي إ ‪  &C #‬آ
ن‬
‫ا ‪'C‬ء‪ #:"  ،‬ا ‪
H‬ن  ‪ "23‬ا '‪ H/‬ا ُ‪2 .+/6‬آ= ه‪V‬ا‬
‫‪X‬ع ا‪FQ,‬ب ا ‪'C‬ء و‪ "
 3‬آ
ن ‪97 YM  A :‬‬
‫ا ‪
/@2‬ن ا ‪ .A/QM‬ا ‪ 3C‬وا ‪ M7C‬ه  (ن ‪F/6‬ن‪.‬‬
‫ا ‪ AQ‬ا '‪ H/‬ﺡ"ﺙ‪ً" 92&, 9‬ا‪ .‬ا ‪ X‬ا ‪P‬ﺹ‪ 3 A‬وﺹ
ل‬
‫آ
ن ا ‪ A 2‬إ ‪ #‬ا '‪ 1/‬و
" آ
ن  ‪ "23‬ا
ﺹ‪ A‬ا ‪ ./‬ه

‫ﺡ
ا ‪X‬ء  أ ] ‪X‬ء  ا ‪ #7: .96‬ا ‪
/@2‬ت‬
‫ا *‪ 9P7‬إ@ل ا ‪
7C‬ت إ ‪
/@: #‬ن ‪  2‬و(‪8‬‬
‫‪Q‬رب ﺡ‪  ^ُ #‬آ 
ت  ‪ "23‬ا
ﺹ‪ A‬ا ‪S 9/‬د‪ 9‬إ ‪#‬‬
‫‪ ،"" ./ I&%‬و‪ =P‬ا ' ء ‪ #7: _/F‬ﺡ ‪ 9‬ا ‪.+/6‬‬

‫اا ا
ُل‬
‫ا ‪ 9&2 2M‬ه 
‪ 9‬ا 
ا(‪ A‬ا ‪ 9/@2‬ا ‪ 9/‬وا ‪3 9F/6‬‬
‫و
د ‪":‬د آ‪  &/‬و‪ +>,‬آ و‪ 9‬أ&ى ‪ _7F‬‬
‫ا ‪
/@2‬ت‪  "":.‬ه‪ aV‬ا
‪S +>,‬ﺙ& ‪ #7:‬ا ‪
/@2‬ن ‪A:P 3‬‬
‫ ^
‪&3  9P7* 9:‬و ت ا ‪'C‬ء‪ ،‬وا  "‪#:‬‬
‫ا ‪/QM‬ت ا‪ .93Q,b‬ه‪ aV‬ا ‪/QM‬ت ‪ 
% b‬ي (
ات‬
‫ﺵرد‪ ،9‬و‪  
b‬دا> ً  ‪ 9QF‬ا '‪ ،1/‬واه‪ Y‬أ ‪b‬‬
‫‪S‬دي إ ‪ "
#‬آ
ن ‪ "Q2 .A :‬أن ه‪ aV‬ا ‪/QM‬ت ‪"2‬ل‬
‫ا ‪"%‬ﺙت ا ‪ H‬و‪ 9‬ا
ا(‪ 92‬دا‪ A‬ا ‪
/@2‬ن‪ #:"  ،‬ا ‪A"2‬‬
‫ا ‪ 
. /@2‬ا" ا ‪/QM‬ت ا‪: 93Q,b‬د ًة  د(>_ ‪"Q2‬ة‬
‫&‪ +3‬رج ا *‪ &> *3 97‬دا‪S 7‬ﺙ& ‪ #7:‬ا‪": .3Q,‬‬
‫‪&2‬ف ا ‪ /@: A( #7: A/QM‬و&‪e .F3‬ن ‪dX‬ت ‪9&M‬‬
‫"‪&3 #:‬و ت ج و >& أ&ى & ‪'C 3 9F/‬ء ُ‪.A2P‬‬

‫ ‪ ./' H‬ار ‪/‬ط ا (‪/QM 3 A‬ت ا‪P 3 93Q,b‬ح‬
‫'‪ AC‬ا ‪M‬رة‪
'7 ً33 LP b 
،‬ارد  ا ‪'C‬ء‪ ،‬آ  ‪A2P‬‬
‫ا ‪/QM‬ت ا 'رد‪ ،9‬وإ  ‪&%‬ض &ا‪ A,‬ﺙ 
‪ 9‬‬
‫ا *‪"3 #7: 97‬ء ‪  97M7,‬اﺡ"اث ا ‪ H‬و‪ 9‬ا ‪F .9 
%‬ل‬
‫‪e‬ﺙ&ات ا ‪ A"2‬ا ‪ 
( /@2‬ات ﺵرد‪/QM ،9‬ت‪ 
،‬ا(‪ A‬أو‬
‫ﺡ‪ &/2 #‬ا
رﺙت؛ و ‪
H‬ن ا ‪&C‬ات ا  ‪ 9‬ذات ‪"3‬ء‬
‫‪ F3‬ء وا‪& ,‬ار‪ 9‬أآ‪Q ،&6‬ر‪ 76  9‬ا ُ‪9 &%‬‬
‫ي‬
‫‪  
3‬ا(‪ A‬ا ‪ 9F/6‬وا ‪ ،9/‬و‪"2‬ى ‪e‬ﺙ&ه ا '‪S b .1/‬د ِ‬
‫ه‪ aV‬إ ‪"3 #‬ء آ 
ت ‪ ،A :‬و ‪e  H‬ﺙ& وا ‪#7: L‬‬
‫ﺡ&آ‪ 9‬ا‪k‬ﺵرات ل ا '‪H/‬ت ا ‪.9/@2‬‬

‫ اا ‬
‫ا‪ A,b‬آ 
‪ ،‬ا "و‪ ،3‬وا 
رادر  ه ‪I23‬‬
‫ا &ا‪ A,‬ا ‪""2‬ة ا  ‪ #7: A 2‬ا ‪/QM‬ت ا & ‪9F/‬‬
‫‪&/ 3‬و ت ج‪ .‬ا ‪
/@2‬ت ا  ‪&%‬ره‪ aV‬ا 
ا(‪ A‬‬
‫‪e‬ﺙ&ات 
‪ #7: 9:‬ا * و  ‪  l3 X‬ا '&‪، %‬‬
‫&‪": 97( Ym‬ده ‪e‬ن ‪%‬وره ذات ا'ر وا‪  ,‬ا "غ‪.‬‬
‫ 
" ‪
/@: 1600 +Q‬ن "
رادر "  ا "غ‬
‫ا ‪&'/‬ي‪% A,& H ،‬ور إ ‪ #‬آ‪ A‬أ(‪M‬م ا "غ وا *ع‬
‫ا '
آ ‪ 
.‬ا(‪ A‬ا ‪ A"2‬ا ‪ /@2‬ه‪
72 A,& b aV‬ت ﺡ‪9M‬‬
‫د(‪ 9Q‬وإ  ‪"2‬ل ‪
l‬ت ‪Q k 9' 9
/@:‬ن أدا>‪.‬‬
‫ُ‪&%‬ر ا 
رادر  ا‪ 93^,‬ﺵ‪H‬ل *‪  9P7‬ا '"ة‬
‫ ‪ Yl  ":M‬ا‪ 93^,‬ا ‪&P‬د ا ‪"Q2‬ة ‪ 17‬ا ‪"%‬ت‪"": .‬‬
‫ ا '‪H/‬ت "‪%‬ج" ‪ 9&2‬أن ا ‪ 8% 9
J2‬ا '"ة‪ PJ .‬‬
‫ا "و‪ #7: 3‬ﺡ‪b‬ت ‪ 92‬ﺵ‪
2‬رًا ُ^‪e 3 ًX‬ﺙ& ‪#7:‬‬
‫&اآ‪ X‬ا "غ ا ‪b2Pb3 92‬ت ا‪ ،93^k‬ا‪.4 A@ &l‬‬
‫‪ A 2‬ا‪ A,b‬آ 
‪ ،‬وه
أول  أُآ']  ا 
ا(‪A‬‬
‫ا ‪ _&t : ،9/@2‬ا ‪/QM‬ت ا 'رد‪ 9‬وا‪.93Q,b‬‬
‫‪ A 2M‬ا‪ K‬ت ا 'رد‪ AQ 9‬ا‪k‬ﺵرة ‪ &/:‬ا
ﺹ‪ A‬ا ‪ /@2‬‬
‫ا ‪  7J2‬ا ‪
/@2‬ت ا ‪&%‬آ‪ 9‬إ ‪ #‬ا ف ا ‪97J2‬‬
‫ا *‪ A 2 .9FF‬أ‪ ًJ‬آ ‪"2‬ل ‪6 ، /@:‬ل ذ ‪ 1‬ﺡ‪b‬ت‬
‫&آ‪ X‬ا‪ +/Jُ ": a/b‬ا ‪
/@2‬ت ‪/Q,b‬ل ‪+Q‬‬
‫ا ‪
72‬ت ا > ‪' 9‬ط ‪"%‬د‪.‬‬

‫‪ 7‬‬
‫
‪8‬‬
‫‪./‬‬

‫‪./ 9/:‬‬

‫ﺡ ‪9‬‬
‫ا &اﺡ‪9‬‬

‫ ا 
رأدر   

دة  ا
 ازرق‪ ،‬و 
زع‬
‫ا ‪%‬ور إ ‪ #‬ا "غ ا 
‪ ،+,‬ا *)‪ ،‬و('& ا "غ‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪ : epsp‬آ
ن ‪ "23‬ا '‪ 1/‬ا ُ‪./‬‬
‫‪ : ipsp‬آ
ن ‪ "23‬ا '‪ 1/‬ا ُ‪+/6‬‬

‫‪An excellent web site about synapses is at: http://synapses.mcg.edu/index.asp‬‬

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‫ا
ــــغ وادو ــــ ‬
‫ آ  ا
س ا
ل ادو    
ا‬
‫ ه‪ .‬ا& ( " ' ا &‪
%‬ت آ ﺕ" 
ه *) ا&‪
,‬ء‬
‫‪ ،/,‬وا& ( " ' ا ‪
- %‬ت  ‪ - %‬أ‪
1‬ﺏ‪،%‬‬
‫و‪45‬ون " *ن ‪7  6
,‬ﺏ أ‪
89‬ل ﺝ  ة ‬
‫ا وﻥ"
ن <
آ*‪ %‬ا‪.‬ﺕ ‪ '
B‬ه‪ @A‬ادو ﺏ?ق‬
‫‪ C B* D‬اا‪ '6‬ا ‪ &1‬وا ا' ا‪ 
8‬و ‪E‬‬
‫ا 
غ‪ 
/ F E ،‬ت ا 
غ ا?&  ا  ﺏ 
*‪A‬ة‬
‫وااب‪ ،‬وا‪ H‬ﺙ
ت ا"‪8‬ﺝ ا ‪
?*  %‬م‪ ،‬ا<اب‪،‬‬
‫ا‪ ،L7‬و ) ا * وا‪A‬اآة‪.‬‬

‫‪b4‬ل ﺕ?ر ا‪ 
Q‬د ا وا‪ ]8  -‬ا& ن وا 
غ ﺏ&‪c‬ء ‪C‬‬
‫ا ض ا ‪8‬ر * واء‪ 8 ،‬ﺕ&‪ 
),‬ه ا ات ‪E‬‬
‫ا 
غ ‪ًP‬ا‪ .‬ﺕ‪ ]* D‬ا‪ Cd‬ﺕ‪F‬ﺙ أدو ا‪U‬د
ن‪ ،‬و‪
%8‬‬
‫‪ Q‬آ
وً
ه ا وﺏ 
‬
‫ﺕ< ك ‪ E‬ﺕ‪H‬ه

ً‬
‫ا‪ E   Cd‬ا 
غ‪   Q .‬ه‪A‬ا ﺏ 
‪f‬ورة أﺙ
رة ‪5‬‬
‫ا<ة‪ ،‬و‪ /‬أن ﺕ‪ H‬ا وﺏ 
ه &' ﻥ‪ < -
%‬ك‬
‫ه
م  ‪ g,H‬ا<ة ‪ E‬ا 
غ‪ ،‬وﺏ  


‪ًPE‬ا 
ﺏ  ء‬
‫ا
ل ا واء‪ .‬ﻥ" ض ‪ * 
E‬ﺏ ( أدو ا‪U‬د
ن‬
‫ ?‪ 6‬إ) ‪
%*  5‬و‪h
D‬ه
‪.‬‬

‫ا  إ اد ن واد‬
‫ادو ا  ﺕ‪M‬ﺙ *) ا 
غ أو ﺕ ‪ N‬ا  ‪ 6‬ﺕ‪8‬ن‬
‫‪ B‬ة‪ ،‬آ 
دو ا ‪ .O *P‬ﺕ" ' ادو ا <? ‪E‬‬
‫‪Q
7‬ت ‪ ،B* D‬وا <‪ *8‬ﺕ‪ E  8‬أﻥ‪
"ُ 6
%‬ء ا 

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ن‪ .‬ﺏ ‪7‬د ا‪Q‬ﻥ‪
?,‬ع ‬
‫ا واء 
ﻥ ا   أاض ‪8 H‬ﺝ وﺏ ﻥ‬
‫‪  '1H .7P‬ا  ر& 
ر‪،‬ﻥ‪E ، %‬‬
‫ا‪1H‬ل *) ا واء ﺏ 
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‫وﺹ‪ N H‬وأﺕ‪ ،B* D .N‬وا <‪ *8‬ﺕ‪ E  8‬أﻥ‪
"ُ 6
%‬ء‬
‫ا 
‪M E
%‬دي إ) ا‪ 
Q‬د *‪
%‬أو ا‪U‬د
ن‪ .‬ﺏ ‪7‬د‬
‫ا‪Q‬ﻥ‪
?,‬ع  ا واء 
ﻥ ا   أاض ‪H‬‬
‫‪8‬ﺝ وﺏ ﻥ ‪  '1H .7P‬ا  ر&‬
‫
ر‪،‬ﻥ‪ E ، %‬ا‪1H‬ل *) ا واء ﺏ 
 ﺕ‪F‬ﺙ@‬
‫ا  *)  *‪ N‬وﺹ‪ N H‬وأﺕ‪ E .N‬ﺏ ( ا‪Q
H‬ت ‪6‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ا  إ) ارﺕ‪
8‬ب ﺝ   ) ‪ )* '1H‬دوا‪.N-‬‬
‫‪ "H‬ا‪ L ZH‬آ'  ‪ A4F‬دواء <?ً
‪ً  \&1‬ا‬
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ل  وث ا‪ 
Q‬د *‪
%‬؛‬
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‪ ،-‬ا‪%‬و‪ ،‬وا‪8‬ﺕ؛‬
‫ه 
ٍ‬
‫و‪ E (BD‬أدو ' ا‪H8‬ل‪ ،‬ا‪ ،a<H‬وا‪.
BQ‬‬

‫ال‬
‫‪M‬ﺙ ا‪H8‬ل *) اا‪ '6‬ا ‪ E &1‬ا 
غ ﺏ‪ D iH‬‬
‫ا
‪ '-‬ا &‪ %‬و&‪ c‬ا<
ط ا ‪ .&1‬ﺏ ا "
ء آ‪F‬س‬
‫ ا‪    D‬ا<
رب ﺏ?ر ا ‪
4‬ء و‪P‬اج ﺝ  & ‪N‬‬
‫ﻥم و‪A% .* ,E‬ا ا"& ﺕ 
' ‪6‬اﻥ ا ور ﺏ‪PH‬م‬
‫‪,   9‬د ا"
رة وه ‪ D‬ر‪ ،‬و‪ M‬ا 
ذ‪.l‬‬
‫‪ ' 7‬ا‪  D‬ﺏ ( ا
س  واﻥً
‪ .‬وا  أﺹ' <ة‬
‫  <ﺏن ا‪  D‬ﺏ
ﻥ ‪
/‬م ‪ً  \&1‬ا *) ا‪H8‬ل‪.‬‬
‫‪9‬ب ا‪  D‬ا  ‪M‬ذي ا‪ ،"7‬ﺏ<‪
4 '8‬ص ا‪ ، &8‬و‪6‬‬
‫ى دا‪ E
ً -‬ا 
غ‪ * H  .‬وه  
ت *‪ D‬‬
‫"& أذ ً‬
‫‪ % * 6‬أ‪
Bh‬ل ﺏ‪F‬د  ‪F‬ذ‪ ،‬و ‪B*D‬ن ‪ .
ً*,‬أآ ‬
‫ﺙ‪b‬ﺙ أ‪ 
B‬ﺕن ً
‪ E‬ﺏ?
ﻥ
 ااض ا
ﺝ ‬
‫ ا‪. D‬‬

‫‪32%‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪15%‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪9%‬‬

‫ا

‫‪9%‬‬

‫ادو ﺏ  ‬
‫ا ت‬

‫‪17%‬‬

‫اآ ‬

‫‪23%‬‬

‫او‬

‫ﻥ اﻡ 

‫‪76%‬‬
‫‪92%‬‬
‫‪46%‬‬
‫‪13%‬‬
‫‪16%‬‬
‫‪2%‬‬

‫ﻥ اﺏ‬

‫‪9‬‬

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‫ا‬
‫ا  ه ا‪,‬دة ا ) ( آ& ‪$" %‬ت ا"! ‪ ،‬ی  ‬
‫‪0!1" %‬ت ا‪%/‬غ ا"( ")ف   ا‪3‬ﺱ"& آ‪ .‬یُ ‪5ّ7‬‬
‫ا‪A‬ت ا‪ @! ,‬ا?!)‪ ،‬وه=ا ی  إدء ا‪ :/,‬ن أن‬
‫ا ‪/  F$‬ه‪   E‬ا"آ‪ ،D‬و@ ‪/@% C‬ئ‪, .‬‬
‫ا‪ (  7,‬ا‪ ,"3‬ا) ‪G‬د‪%‬ن‪/) ،‬ی‪ % /‬ا‪ %/,‬‬
‫ی "‪ ( ,‬ا"‪C J , 51 :/‬ات ا ‪ HI‬ا‪ ،$D,‬أ‪%‬‬
‫"ا ‪7‬ة" ‪ 0‬ی!‪% @ 1‬ن‪:/ L .‬ن ا"! ‪N C‬ر‬
‫‪!%‬ﺵ   ا‪%/‬غ‪ ،‬و ‪ S‬یذي ﺏ‪/7‬ة ا‪ ،"F‬وا")ض‬
‫ا‪/,‬ی‪ /U /‬یدي إ ﺱ‪W‬ن ا‪ F‬ﺏ‪ NV‬إ أ‪%‬اض ر‪F‬ی‬
‫و‪ ! U‬أ‪:‬ى‪ .‬أآ‪ Y% % Z‬أ[ ﺵ]\ ی‪,‬ن ﺱ ی (‬
‫ﺏی? 
‪ %‬ا^‪%‬اض ا ‪  ,‬ا"‪.:/‬‬

‫ا  أو " ا"‬
‫  ن 
ن ن خ‪1885 ،‬‬

‫ا‪ `7I‬دواء ‪/$  Z%‬ل ^
‪ S‬ی   ‪)!W %a %‬‬
‫ه‪ ( %‬ا‪%/‬غ  ")‪
&,‬ا‪7% !b &U‬ﺏ@ ‪ ( S‬ا"آ‪H‬‬
‫ا‪,‬وي‪ .‬ه=‪ d‬ا‪ &, 5!c %a ,‬ا)‪0c‬ت و ‪Ea‬‬
‫ا‪ I‬ﺱ ‪ /U .Ee‬ین ا‪ `7I‬دوا ًء ‪/ %‬ا إذا اﺱ")‪&,‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ ,I‬و‪ gI‬إﺵاف ‪ .(!W‬ه ‪%‬دة ﺱ‪C % %‬ا@‬
‫ا‪)7‬ر ﺏ ‪7‬ة وا‪3‬ﺱ"‪:‬ء‪ ،‬وا‪U‬ع (  ذه  آ‪E I‬‬
‫ی"‪ @ k‬أدراك ا^ﺹات‪ ،‬ا^ان‪ ،‬وا‪ E .%D‬یُ=آ ‪/‬وث‬
‫وت ‪  %‬ول ت  و 
ﺏت ‪:‬ف ‪/U $D%‬‬
‫‪/I‬ث‪ [b
.‬ﺵ!ب ﺏی? 
‪ , gI‬ا‪ 0Z‬ﺏ‪% S‬ة‬
‫وا‪/‬ة   ا^‪ .&U‬ا!)‪ o‬ی‪"1‬ح ا ‪,‬ح ﺏ")‪ S b  ،SW‬‬
‫ا^دوی ا‪@,‬ﺏ ا^آ‪?: Z‬رة‪  .‬ء ا‪ pI‬ا"‪&Z% ،:/‬‬
‫ا ‪ ،‬ه ا?ی‪ 1‬ا‪ S:/  Z,‬ا‪ .E $‬ی‪"I‬ي د‪S 
:‬‬
‫‪ ً? :‬ﺱ‪7% ً%‬ﺏ@ً ‪:/‬ن ا ‪ ،F$‬و‪ % !q‬یُ‪ :/‬ن ‪.ً )%‬‬
‫‪ :/ُ%‬ا‪)% `7I‬ض ‪G‬ﺹﺏ ﺏ‪%C‬اض ا‪F‬؛ ورﺏ‪,‬‬
‫ﺱ‪W‬ن ا‪ ،F‬ا^‪ %‬ا=ي ‪ E‬یُ‪ g!Z‬ﺏ)‪ ./‬وا‪ % /‬أﺹ& ‪7‬ة‬
‫ی‪َ/,")% s!b‬ا   ا‪/‬واء‪ ،‬ا^‪ %‬ا=ي ی)‪/ S‬ا ا!‪)F‬ن‪3 .‬‬
‫ی"ا‪ v‬ا‪3‬ﺱ")‪,‬ل ا‪ ,‬ط وا‪",‬ر ‪U J%‬دة ا رة‪ ،‬وأ!"‪g‬‬
‫ا"‪$‬رب أن ا‪ ,, ",‬ﺏ‪U q S‬دری   ا
‪$‬ز ا^‪,‬ل‬
‫ا=ه  ا‪/1),‬ة‪"1 .‬ح ﺏ)‪ o‬ا^د أن ا‪3‬ﺱ")‪,‬ل ا‪ ,‬ط  ‪/‬‬
‫ا‪!7‬ب ‪ /U‬ی‪I‬ض ‪/‬وث ا ‪b‬م  ‪ /‬ا‪/)" ,‬ی ‪ ،S‬ا^‪%‬‬
‫ا=ي ‪ %‬زال ﺏ‪!V I‬ت‪.‬‬

‫ه ‪%‬دة آ‪,‬وی ﺹ ) ‪ (!
}" % % 1"7%‬ه ا‪,‬ر‪.‬‬
‫آ‪ ( ,‬ا‪ `7I‬ی "‪ C‬ا@وی ﺏ‪ %a ,‬د‪/,") q%‬‬
‫  
ا‪ / !b &U‬ا‪/
3‬ور ت‪ @ ،‬دور ( ‪5!N‬‬
‫ا^‪ |= ،E‬ن ا^دوی ا‪7,‬ﺏ@ @ ﺏ"‪ C‬ه( أدوی ‪.,U‬‬
‫‪!%‬ﺵة ﺏ)‪ 1 /‬أو ‪ :/‬ا@وی ی‪ &bI‬أ س‬
‫ﺏ ‪7‬ة‪ ،‬ﺏ"‪ C‬ا‪/
3‬ور ت   ~ت "ا‪Z‬اب"‪ .‬ا"‪,‬ل‬
‫ا‪V‬د‪%‬ن ﺏ‪ S‬لٍ‪ ،‬و‪ ,‬ی"?ر ا‪,"3‬د یُ "!‪/‬ل ﺵ)ر‬
‫ا ‪7‬ة ﺏ‪)7‬ر ‪ % ," %‬ا @‪ .E‬ه دواء ‪ ?:‬ی‪ &"1‬ﺏ"‪S?!Z‬‬
‫ ‪ ) ,‬ت ا" ‪.‬‬

‫ات‬

‫اآ‬

‫ه( ‪%‬اد آ‪,‬وی ‪ @ % ) bُ%‬ا‪/‬ی ‪/‬ری‪" ،‬ا "‪،‬‬
‫و‪ %" %Z,  v"7%‬ی‪" /‬ا ‪7‬ة"‪ (  .‬ا‪%/‬غ ‬
‫‪W‬ی‪I v‬ی 
‪!b  U‬؛ ا^ول ه ا‪/‬وﺏ‪ %‬ا‪Y ,‬ل‬
‫ ا‪ Ib‬ا‪/7‬ی‪ /‬وا ‪7‬ة‪ ،‬وا‪ ( 
Z‬ه ا و  ا‪ ,‬ول‬
‫ ا‪)7‬ر ﺏ ‪7‬ط وا‪ Ib‬و آ‪,c" /U E I‬‬
‫ا‪V‬ه‪0‬ﺱت‪ .‬ا‪/‬ی ‪/‬ری و"ا " ‪C‬ه‪ ,‬ا‪y LF‬‬
‫‪I‬ی ا‪/‬وﺏ‪" .%‬ا ‪7‬ة" وا‪ L @,‬ا‪1‬ي "أل‪ ،‬أس‪ ،‬دي"‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ی]"‪b‬ن ﺏ و ‪ .‬ﺏ‪ &7‬م ا‪ %" %3‬ت ‪@! %‬ت ‪U‬ی‬
‫و‪%‬اد ‪?:‬ة‪ .‬ا"‪$‬رب   ا‪I‬ا 
ت ﺏ ‪ g‬أن "ا ‪7‬ة"‬
‫ی !‪/% b1
H‬ی‪/‬ا‪ ،‬و‪ /U‬ین دا‪0: ( ،,F‬ی ا و ‪،‬‬
‫‪ /U‬ی  ه=ا ﺱء ا‪D,‬اج ا‪I‬دث ( ‪ [b" %‬ا^ﺱ!ع  ‪/‬‬
‫‪ %‬ی ")‪@
( S 
,‬ی ا^ﺱ!ع‪ .‬ی‪,‬ت ا)‪7‬ات ‪ %‬ا‪!7‬ن‬
‫ﺱ ی ‪ %‬اء اﺱ")‪ /U .S,‬ی !‪ H‬ا‪/‬ی ‪/‬ری و"ا "‬
‫ 
س ‪%‬ی‪ J‬ی‪ S!7‬ا ‪b‬م‪k /U .‬ی| ة أن " ا  "‬
‫ی ‪ ( /‬ا‪I"%3‬ن‪ ،‬ه=ا ‪.C?:‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫اوی‬

‫ه ‪ :~ (!
v"7%‬یدي إ إ س ﺵ‪/‬ی‪ /‬ﺏ ‪7‬ة‬
‫ﺏ‪ dC" NV‬آ‪ S! ,‬ﺵ‪/‬ی‪ ./‬ی‪7‬ﺏ‪ S‬ا‪ %" %3‬ت ﺏ"‪I‬ی‬
‫‪D%‬ی‪ % /‬ا‪/‬وﺏ‪ %‬وا و  ( ا‪%/‬غ‪ ،‬و ‪ S‬دواء‬
‫‪/ ?:‬ا آ@وی‪ .‬ا‪ E, ",‬ﺏ‪: ،S‬ﺹ ا‪ &7‬ا‪S % :/ُ,‬‬
‫وی‪" /‬ا‪7‬خ"‪ ،‬ی‪/ s!b‬وا 
ون ‪/@% S‬دة‪.‬‬
‫ا"‪,‬ل ‪/‬وث ا‪,"3‬د لٍ‪ ،‬و"‪1
?k‬ت ا‪V‬د‪%‬ن ی ‪$‬‬
‫ا)‪/‬ی‪$  E@ % /‬ی‪.,‬‬

‫‪Related Internet Sites: www.knowthescore.info, www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ecstasy.html,‬‬
‫‪www.nida.nih.gov/MarijBroch/Marijteens.html‬‬

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‫ﺡﺱــ ا ــ‪ -‬وا‪,‬ــــ‪+‬‬
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ن؛‬
‫!*  ی‪ %‬ی < اﺕ‪ #G‬اول ‪ J‬ا< ا‪E‬ر‪ .0‬ﺕ ‪61L‬‬
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‫ا_ ه ! ﺽ‪ /‬اﺏ^ ﺽ‪ *$‬ا‪ <,5‬وا غ‪.‬‬

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j‬ﺱت‬
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‪ $‬ﺕ‪_9#‬‬
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‫ا‪ 9X‬ی‪ * /‬ا ‪ 6‬ا‪2‬آ‪.‬‬

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‫آ‪$‬ن !‪ 6$‬ی‪ *L$‬ﺕ‪ A5,‬ﺏ‪SC‬ب د‪O+ * ./%‬ل‬
‫ﺕ‪5‬رب ه‪ /2‬أ‪ 0‬اه ا‪$A‬ء !‪ IA‬أ‪ <9,1‬ﺏ‪e‬د‪+‬ل‬
‫أ‪S‬ب ﺽ‪ A0 *$‬ه< ‪ * 65, A‬ا!‪G‬ب ا ‪ ،/,‬أو‬
‫!‪ IA‬ا ات ا‪ E$‬رة؛  ف ام أن ا‪*!#‬‬
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‫ا‪Z‬ي ی ‪ g‬ﺏ‪ 7
،/! ,‬ا'ه ‪T‬از وا'رﺕش‪،‬‬
‫وأ اص آ‪ 6‬ﺕ‪2  5 ,‬ی ‪ 7
، $ ,‬ا‪،^g‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ $#‬ﺕ‪9 5 ,‬یت رو‪2 A #.‬ی ا‪.ْS‬‬
‫ا ‪ 6%‬ا'ﺱ ‪ %‬ه ‪91‬م هم ﺕ^ ﺏ‪O% ,$‬ت‬
‫ا ‪ /,‬وی‪ #‬ا‪ * /%S#$‬ا‪ A5‬ا  ی‪6% , 9Sg‬‬
‫ﺏ‪$,5 .#‬ت ﺏ‪ 6%
#‬اآ ﺏ‪6%
* iL‬‬

‫ت ﻡی‬
‫ور‬
‫ص ﻡآ ‬
‫ ة
‬

‫ﻥیت رو‬

‫ت ‬

‫ات ا‬

‫ا‪ $‬ور ا‪ /#$‬ﺏ‪ 7$A‬أف آ ة ‪ /#!E‬ﺕ‪6%#‬‬
‫ا‪ A$‬ت * ا‪ ^ $‬ﺏﺕ‪ 2 b5‬ا غ ﺏ‪./%l. /! ,‬‬
‫أ
‪,‬ﺱت ا ودة‪ ،‬ا فء‪ ،‬وا< یُ‪ I#‬ﺏ‪ 9‬أف ر‪/.‬‬
‫ذات ‪9‬یت !ری‪ ،/‬ا‪ 9. 6%#‬ی‪L‬ن أﺏ‪ .CS‬ﺕ ي ‪O% ,‬ت‬
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‫ﺕ ي ! د ا‪ 6‬ﺏ‪ * iL‬ا‪O% ,$‬ت وا!‪G‬ب‪*L .‬‬
‫ﺕزع ا‪G‬ت ‪ .‬ا‪ 2%‬ا ‪ ،75 ,‬وﺏ ‬

‫ﺕ‪ # $ %‬ا"!  ارة‬
‫ادوات‪
    :‬ا وا
‪،‬‬
‫آ‪ %‬ا‪ ،"#$‬و!ء ی ي ء  ی ا ودة‪،‬‬
‫و!ء ی ي ء ﺏ* ا ا‪ -.‬وا‪ ،*+,‬ﺏ ( '‬
‫ی ق ا ‪ ،‬و ‪./.0 /12#‬‬
‫ا ‪ 5‬ﺏ‪ :/‬ا‪ 7$8‬ا ی*‪ ،‬آ‪ . 6‬و!ء‪ $ ،‬ة د‪/%‬‬
‫وا
ة‪ <= ،‬أ‪ ،$90 +‬وﺏ ﺕ‪ $9115‬ا ‪. >,‬رًا‬
‫ﺏ‪ %‬ا‪ . $‬ﺱ ‪ 2‬وآ‪C‬ن ‪ %A‬ا‪ $‬‬
‫در‪
/0‬ارة ‪ #! /1A E‬آ‪ 6‬ی ‪.‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

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‫‪"42‬ر‪  '3‬ا ‪ 1 2‬اﻡ"غ ﺕ‪+.‬ن ﻡ‪+‬ه'‪.‬‬
‫ﻡ"‪ ُ$‬ام ا ه‪ +‬ﺕ‪ :)4‬ﻡ‪8 9+‬ﻥ"ن ‪ 6$‬‬
‫ﺕ‪+‬زع ﻡ"ﻥ> ت ا)'   ا ‪.‬‬
‫‪ @.$‬اﺥ"ر ا‪D‬ﺥف ﺏ)@ ﻡ‪ ?3"#‬ا ‪ 2‬ﺕ))‬
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‫ا‪ .:1‬أﺡ)"ﻥ" ‪ 6‬ﺏأس واﺡ ﻡ‪ O‬اﻥ‪ %‬وﺥت ﺏأ )@‪.‬‬

‫ا
ــ‬
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ﻡ‪ O‬ﺡ> ا> و‪2 Z#.‬‬
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‫ا‪ $‬ا‪"$ .m4‬ز ﺏ‪p‬ﻥ‪ Z‬ﺵ‪+6‬ر ﻡ‪m4$ o‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ :.‬آ) ﺏ)@ ا
ﺵ‪"4‬ص‪ ،‬وﻡ@ اه‪ r‬أن ا‪+6‬ﻡ"ت‬
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‪ D‬ﺕ‪ 4‬إ‪ D‬ا)‪ @ :‬آ‪Z#‬‬
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‪ ،‬ا ﺕ)! ر "ت ﺡارة ‪+2‬ق ‪46‬‬
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ﻥ'‪ ،‬أو ا‪+‬اد‬
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‫ا‪ Z +‬ا‪. t H3"6‬‬

‫ا 
رة ا
  ا 
‬
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ﺏ"ث‬
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‫أوﺽ
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‫ام‪ :‬ر
اء ا   ا ا‬
‫‪ ! "#$‬ود ات ا)' ا(' &‪ %‬اء‬

‫‪12‬‬

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‫‪$‬ر‪G‬‬

‫ ﻥ<&‪G‬‬

‫ا ا‪ V‬ﻥ ‪ G &' M   4‬ا‪U‬‬
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‫ا فث وإز
ج ا ‪[\ .‬‬
‫ا&  ﺏ‪ G‬ﺡ[ ا ‬

 ا‬
‫ا‪$
$‬ن أ ‪   4‬ء  ‪  G#‬رﺝ ا!^م‬
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‫ا  
ا‪$U‬ر ﺏ`ز
ج ا ‪.‬‬

‫ﺡة  ون أ‬
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‫ه‪Q‬ا ‪    .A#‬دورًا ه ً  ﺕ اﺝ ب‬
‫ا‪L ,‬ت ا ﺕ‪F‬دي إ‪ D‬ا ‪.‬‬

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M‬ﺏ ‪-‬‬
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‫ا
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‫ 
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‫‪13‬‬

‫ ا ا
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‫< ت أ دا‪ 4 #‬ا‪$‬ر ت ا ا‪،#‬‬
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4 i‬ﻥ&[‬
‫ا^ت ا ‪ 4
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‪ D‬ا‪$,‬اﻥ ت أن ا= ا<‪4‬ﺏ‬
‫ ‪ V M‬ا دة ا د  ل ا' ‬
‫ارﺕ&
 
ا ‪$ُ ،‬ا‪ f‬ﺏ ه ﺏ‪G f‬‬
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‫‪ Gj‬ط ا‪ A‬اﻥ'& ض 
ا و‪/‬أو ز دة‬
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‫\ ب ا= ا"
‪.N‬‬
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‫ ﺡ ‪L‬ت ا ا"‪ .G‬ﺏ\ ا م ا< ‬
‫‪ n 4‬ت ا‪F‬د إ‪ D‬ط ا‪  A‬زال
^ج‬
‫ا ا"‪ / G‬ﺹًا‪.‬‬

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‫اــؤـــــــــ‬

‫ 
‪ 7-‬ا  "! ا ا‪-‬ﺽ أً‪ ،‬آ‪9* -‬‬
‫ا‪?.‬ت‪ 9* ،‬اف "! ا‪ b‬ا‪ E,-‬ﺏ‪.b‬‬
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‫ا?‪ B‬ا
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‫‪e‬دراك ﺹ‪2‬ت ا‪.-‬ت  ﺵ‪ B‬ون وﺏ‪ 7‬وﺡآ ‪.‬‬
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‫ اﻥت ﺏ‪. 2& V.U‬‬

‫ا
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‫ا‪7‬غ" ﺡ! 
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‫ و‪7, V.U‬دة‪.‬‬
‫ 
(‪ 7‬ﻥ"ن  ا‪)D?-‬ت ا
؛ اﺏ‪ #‬اآ‪7" X‬دًا‬
‫واآ‪ X‬ﺡ? ء وا‪ 9‬ﻥ‪ 9* " 7-‬اؤ
ا ‪،‬‬
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‪ [?,‬آ‪I  B‬ل‬
‫( ﺽ‪ V& .‬و دور ﺡي *‪ 9‬ﺕ‪ 5-‬اان‪.‬‬

^دي اض ا‪ 7
7-‬ن  إ! ﺕ)ؤم اﺹ_ ا‪(-‬دة‬
‫*‪ 9‬ا‪&-‬ر
‪ V* E‬إدراك ان ﺏ‪7‬ه ه ‪.‬‬

‫ا
 ا‬
‫ا
   ا ‬
‫ا
 ا ‬
‫ا ‬
‫ا ر‬

‫اء‬

‫ا ‬
‫ا"ﻥ ‬
‫ا‪ $‬ا‪"$‬ي‬
‫ﺥ
 أﻡآ"ا'‬

‫ا&‪ %‬‬

‫ا ‬

‫ا‪ 7‬‬

‫ا  ‪ 
:‬اء ا?‪ !" EF‬ا  ﺥ)ل ‪DT‬ﺕ‬
‫ا‪ B 2&-‬اﺏ‪ #‬و ا‪&-‬ر
‪ 9* E‬ا&‪V‬‬

‫ا&‪ %‬‬
‫ا ا ء‬
‫ا 
ا‪",$‬اء‬
‫ا‪ $‬ا‪"$‬ي‬

‫"أ
اء"  ا‬

‪7‬ﺥ‪ B‬اء ا " ا‪ ، F7,‬و 
‪ b‬ﺕ‪ <g‬ﺏ‪D‬ﻥ ‬
‫وا‪ !" 7‬ا  ‪ .‬ﺕ‪ E,‬ا‪5D‬ﺡ ا‪ _I-‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ . F7,‬ﺕ‪7-‬د ا‪5D‬ﺡ أو ﺕ‪ h-‬ﺕً ‪ 
?-‬ت‬
‫ا‪e‬ﺽءة *_  ا‪. F7,‬‬

‫ا ا 
‪ b
:‬ﺕ‪ g‬اء ا‪7‬اﺥ‪ B‬إ! ا ﺏ‪ 7‬‬
‫"! ا  ا‪-‬ﺽ *‪ 9‬ا&‪V‬‬

‫‪14‬‬

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‫‪An Experiment on Colour Adaptation‬‬

‫ ل اات ا وا ا
ة  اآت هﻡ‪ +, ' -‬ا*) ا ('‪ ،‬أي ﺕ" ! ا ء إ‪ 0‬أﺵرات‬
‫آ‪,‬ﺏ‪ ' -‬ا*ﺏ و ار ‪ ،A‬وا
ﺱس ارا' ‪ 0‬ا 
ان ا=‪; < +‬ب أ‪ -8*9‬ﺏ‪ - 6‬ﻡ‪ ،-‬وو‪-45‬‬
‫ﺵ*‪B‬ت ا*‪ .-B‬ﺕ* أن ا  ا‪ - F‬ﺕ‪ ' EF‬ﻥ<ن‪89   :‬ة =ًا ﺕ‪ ،%90 !B‬وا*‪ 'M‬آ*ة ه' ﻥع "م" ا'‬
‫ ‪ !B‬اﺽ‪P‬اﺏ‪ ,‬ا
ﺱس *‪S T‬ت ‪ !R‬ا‪F‬اءة‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ 'FR‬أف ا‪ *6‬ا*‪ '  6‬ا‪ W6‬ا*‪6‬ي ‪ X‬ﺕ‪ W6‬ﻥ‪ V6‬ا 
ف وﺕ‪ !B‬ﻡ‪ E‬ا‪; 46‬‬
‫ا‪ *6‬ا ‪ P‬ا*‪" .  6‬ي ا ‪ A‬ا*‪6‬ي أً ﻡ آ‪ R‬ا ﺕ‪ !F‬ا*‪,‬ت ا‪F‬دﻡ‪ -‬ﻡ ا‪ -,Y‬ا‪F‬ﺏ‪-R‬‬
‫ﻡ ا‪ -‬ا*‪ - 6‬إ‪ M 0‬اﻡغ ﺏ اﺏ\ ' ااة اآ*‪ -‬ا‪-‬؛ ‪ !*F‬ﻥ‪ V6‬ا‪B‬ة ا‪ -‬ا 

‫ا*‪,‬ت ﻡ ﻥ‪ V6‬ا‪ -‬ا*‪ - 6‬ا 
‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪ ،‬وا‪ B‬ﺏ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ VP6‬ا  ا‪ ' -*6‬ا‪ F‬ا*‪6‬ي ﺏ‪ !B‬أ<ة *^ آ! ﻡ‪ ,‬ﺏ‪ -46‬ﻡ‪ ' -‬ال‪ 0R ،‬ﺱ*! ا_ل ﺕ*^‬
‫ا  ' <د ﻡ ﻡ ا‪ -FP‬ف‪ 1‬ﺏ‪P‬ط أو اف ‪ ,‬ﻥ‪ 4‬ا‪S‬ﺕ‪ bY‬ﺏ *^ <د ﻡ‪Y‬ور ﺏ‪P‬ط ‪ ,‬اﺕ‪bY‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ ،RM VR‬وه‪ + M .b= +R‬ﺕ ! ا‪S‬ﺱ‪Y‬ﺏ‪ -‬ﺏ"‪ W‬ا*ة‪ ،‬وه ﻡ ﻥ<‪ b‬ا‪R‬وﻥ‪.-‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬ا*‪- 6‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪d‬‬

‫ا‪W6‬‬
‫ا*‪6‬ي‬
‫ا‪W6‬‬
‫ا*‪6‬ي‬

‫ﺕ‪Y‬ﺏ‪ 0R< -‬ﺕؤم ا‪R‬ن‪ :‬رآ‪ e‬ﺏ‪6‬ك ا' ‪30‬‬
‫ﻥ‪ 0R< -‬ا‪ WR6‬ا‪R‬ي‪ + ،‬أﻥ‪ WR6R ^RF‬ا‪'R4‬‬
‫ﺱ‪ Y‬أن آ! دا(ة ‪49‬اء أ‪ "*9‬ﺏ‪R‬ن ﻡ‪VR‬‬

‫ااة‬
‫اآ*‪-‬‬
‫ا‪-‬‬

‫ﺱ*!‬
‫‪FR‬‬

‫ﺕ‪Y‬ت   ا‪ F‬ا*‪6‬ي‬
‫ا' أ=اه ه*! ) ر(‬
‫و و ! ﺏ اﺕ‪W‬‬
‫ادي ‪ ،,‬و‪ M‬ﻥ‪e(= S‬ة‬
‫ﻥﺏ! ‪S‬آ‪,‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

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‫ا
آ واان‪16‬‬

‫ﺵ‪ Mh‬دارات ا‪ #‬ا‪8‬ي ا
‪#0‬ة ‪ 
,‬ء ا‪ 8,G‬ب‪.‬‬
‫  ‪ O‬أﻥ"اع ﻡ‪  -‬ﻡ) ا‪"80‬ﻥ ت ‪ #4 ,‬ت ا‪#‬‬
‫ا‪ ،‬و ‪ 1‬دارات ﻡ"ﺽ‪  0‬د‪ # L‬ﺝاً‪ ،‬ﻡ‪i‬ﺥًا أﻥ ‬
‫
‪ 0 .‬ﻡُ و‪ 0‬ﻡُ‪ .[a‬یُ‪ )P‬أن اارات ‪*+‬‬
‫ﻡ ‪8 34‬ی ﻡ‪"H  -‬ن ﻡ   ‪,‬ا اﺥ‪ +K‬ت‬
‫‪ ZH0  4‬ا‪1‬ق ا
‪  -‬ا* "اﺱ‪ 1‬ی
 ا‪#‬‬
‫ا‪8‬ي ا‪ d 0‬ا 
(* ﻡ) ﺡ" ‪ .‬ﺱ ه
‪ M‬دراﺱ ا‪-‬ع‬
‫ا‪8‬ی ‪ d + *+‬ا‪ j‬ت ا 
‪  
, ), "k‬ا‪ 89‬ر‪.‬‬


 اآ وا  ه أﻡ ه م   ‬
‫وا "اﻥ ت‪"# ،‬م أ ث ﻡ  راﺱ‪.‬‬
‫اآ ا   ‪ *+ ,‬ا
  ) ا 
( ت‬
‫آ‪/‬ﺝ م ﻡ‪ُ . -‬د ﻡ ‪ 34‬اﻡ غ ا 
‪01‬‬
‫ ‪ 89‬ر راﺱ أﻥ
ط ا‪:‬ر  ‪ 4‬ت  ) أﺝاء‬
‫اﻡ غ‪  ،‬ﺱ‪
0‬ل ‪ #‬ت ‪"8‬ی اﻡ غ اي‪،‬‬
‫و ‪ B‬ﻥ ط ا‪"80‬ﻥ ت آ‪ A, B‬ﺡة ‪*+‬‬
‫ا "اﻥ ت‪.‬‬

‫ا
ارات‪:‬‬
‫ی ‪ L ZH‬اﻡ غ ‪0‬ی ﻡ) ا
‪"0‬ﻡ ت ا ‬
‫ا"اردة‪  + ،‬آ
ا‪ 
,‬دا ‪ A,‬ا
‪ +0‬ا ‪#‬‬
‫وی‪8‬ر ‪L‬ارا ‪ ،‬وه" ﻡ ﻥ‪" l",‬ا ‪c0 ." H‬‬
‫ا‪#‬ارات ﻡ‪ #0‬ی ج "ﻥ ً " ‪+‬ة ﻡ) ا ‪ ، H‬و‪ 0‬‬
‫ [ و ‪ .*( #‬ه‪ O‬أﻥ ‪ 
L‬وی) ﻥ ط آ‪"8, B‬ﻥ ت‬
‫اﻡ غ‪ ،‬وه* 
‪  a‬دارات ﺡ ﺱ"ب یی ‪,‬ده ‪),‬‬
‫ا‪/ ،pG‬ﺝاء ا‪ a‬ﻥ  أﺙ ء ﻥ ‪ 4‬ا "ﻡ* ا
‪ 0‬د‪ .‬ﺱ‬
‫آ‪ d‬ه (‪ B‬ﻡ) ا
‪"0‬ﻡ ت و‪,‬د ه (‪ B‬ﻡ) ا ‪K‬ت‬
‫وا‪ -‬رات‪.‬‬
‫ون ﻡ‪ +0‬ا"ای ی‪ O08‬ا[  ) أﻥ
ط ﻥ ط اﻡ غ‬
‫وا"ك اي‪ l  + ،‬ﺵ‪ r-‬إ‪ A‬ﻡ‪ 1‬ا‪ 1#‬ر‬
‫ی
‪ B‬أﺱ ً ‪,‬یة آ  ا  أو اﺱ‪ #‬ل ﻡ ‪ +‬أو ‪[#+‬‬
‫ ج‪ .‬ی ول ‪ 
,‬ء ا‪ 8,G‬ب ‪  *+‬ر ‪ d‬إزا دور‬
‫ا‪"0‬اﻡ‪ B‬ا"آ  ری‪ O‬ا‪G‬ﺵ‪ -‬ص ‪ A,‬ا 

ﻡ ط‬
‫‪ K‬ر ً ی‪"#‬ﻥ‪ ،‬أ‪ +‬ﻡ آ ن‬
‫ا‪ X‬ﺡ‪ً
, ]8 A‬‬
‫ف  ‪  a‬ا‪:‬ه
م و ‪ Z‬ا"‪ ً1  ML‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ً#0‬ا ‪ BH‬آ ٍ‬
‫
‪   )H‬ودراﺱ‪ A, .‬ﺱ ‪ B‬ا
‪ a‬ل ﻡ‪ #‬رﻥ ‪) 0#‬‬
‫ﺽ"(  )‪ : ،‬أآ‪ *+ ،a‬ﺹ  ﻡدة و‪i‬ال  [‪ ،‬أی

‫أآ أو أ
‪ C‬أو‪...‬ا‪.v‬‬

‫ﺥع ‪8‬ی‪ *+ :‬ا‪G‬ی
) ی ‪ N /‬وﺝ"د ﻡ‪Xa‬‬
‫أ ‪"+ c‬ق ا‪G‬ﺵ‪ H‬ل ا 
ﺱ"ﻡ‪ ،‬و‪ *+‬ا‪G‬ی و‬
‫ا‪ 4K‬ت ‪  e‬ﻡ‪ de  
P‬أﻥ ﻡ‪
 1‬ﻡً ‪.‬‬
‫ا‪ O‬ه" ا ‪K,‬ت ا
‪ 1a‬و ا  
 )‬
‫ا‪"80‬ﻥ ت ا* ‪ 0‬ﻡ‪ B‬ﻡ‪ C‬ا"اف وا‪"1-‬ط‪.‬‬

‫ ا ث‬
‫ه‪I B‬ﻡ‪ H‬ن ا‪ A
,G‬أن یى؟  ‪ )H.: C1‬ا‪ G‬ث‬
‫ ‪ M‬وﺝ"د ‪L‬رات ‪8‬ی ‪ *+‬ا‪K‬و‪َ #+ )
+ ،*,‬‬
‫ا‪ 8‬ر ا‪ #‬ا‪8‬ي ا‪G‬و* یُ 
‪ , N‬ا‪O1‬‬
‫‪/‬ﺵ ء أد‪, A,‬م رؤی ‪ L‬ﻡ  ‪B0 .P‬‬
‫ار  ‪ 4‬ت  ) ا‪ )  0‬و أﺝاء أﺥى ﻡ) ا‪ #‬وراء‬
‫ذ‪, .N‬م أدراك أﺵ ء ﻥاه ه" ‪ U‬هة ی"ﻡ  ﻡ‪ 8‬د‪+‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ا س ا‪ 
+ ،) 0 1‬ء ﻡ ‪ L‬ی‪"#‬د ﺱ ر  ‪ H‬ءة‬
‫ 
اه
ﻡ ﻡ‪ A, ً8‬ای‪ X‬اا(   و ) ﻡ)‬
‫ی‪  Z‬ﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ و آ‪   [#‬ء‬
‫وﺱ"داء‪ ،‬و‪ )H‬ﻡ‪A‬‬
‫‪" M 
,‬ﺝ"د آ‪O‬‬
‫د
ﺱ* ‪ ]8‬ﺹ"ر ‬
‫واﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ی‪ B
0‬اﻡ غ ا
‪+0‬‬
‫ا ‪  *+ 4‬‬
‫ا 
‪ P‬ا*‪.‬‬

‫‪16‬‬

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‫ب‬

‫أ‬

‫د‬

‫ج‬

اآ‪:‬‬
‫أ‪ -‬ﻡ"!  ﻡغ د ی 
ا اي او "ف‪ ،"1‬وا "& "م ت" ﺡ
‪ .‬ا‪,-‬ت ا
ة *آ‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ 9" -‬أ‪,7 8  !7‬ن ا‪345‬ﺏ آ "ﺵ ل‪=/‬ب"‪ ،‬ا‪,&D‬ط ا اء ‪ @A‬آ ‪,‬ت ا‪ ،@ -‬و "‪ 9‬أﺹ>ي ‪8‬‬
‫ا‪ E3 F‬ا ‪G‬د‪.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬ﺵﺵ را‪ L‬دا‪L‬ی ‪-‬ض ط ﻡ‪ J
G‬ﻡ‪4‬آ ی ‪ 

> I‬ا‪3O‬ﻡ‪.N‬‬
‫د‪

-‬ا ‪ E3‬ﺡآ ا"ط ی داد د ﺏزدید ا‪3OF‬م‪ ،‬وا‪ 9 
"4‬ا ‪N3‬ي ‪ 7S‬ة ا
ة  وای ﻡ‪ R*4D‬ی ی‪ Q‬ا ""‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪ 8‬إﺡى ا‪34‬رب ُدر‪ \5‬ﻡ"& ‪" W7‬م ت"‬
‫أو "ف‪ 8 "5‬د ﺏ
"  ه‪ ,‬ی‪4‬ﺏ^ ﻡ‪ 7, 3‬ﻡ‬
‫ا"ط ا ‪ ،J
G‬ﺏ‪ NG-‬ی‪4‬ك ‪ `R 8‬ا‪.E3 F‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ O 

>4‬ا"ط ا "‪  3O‬وزاوی‪ 
N4‬‬
‫و ‪,‬د اﺥ‪b4‬ف ‪ 8‬در  "‪ 9‬ا‪,-‬ت‪ .‬یو‬
‫أن ‪,7‬ت ﻡ‪ "
-‬ﻡ ‪ E3 F‬ﻡ‪ .
-‬ﻡ ‬
‫ی‪ T3-* ,7‬أن "
‪ * 9‬ﻡ ا‪,-‬ت‪ ،‬و
`‬
‫ف وث ﺥ&‪

8 c‬‬
‫ا‪ 
AI‬ﻡ"‪ ،N‬آ ِ‬
‫اآ‪ .‬ی‪

Y4‬ا‪,‬ان ﺏ&ی ﻡﺏ‪.N‬‬

‫ﻡ‪:"I 
" T-I‬‬
‫ ی‪ V"* @
D‬ﻡ‪  
-I‬ﻡ‪ 
R*4D‬ﺡ‪  O‬یى ا اوی ا‪
*-‬‬
‫ا
‪O‬ى ی ﻡ"‪ 9‬أو ﺏ‪
-‬ة‪ ،‬ﺏ=‪ Y‬أن ﺥ 
ل ا‪W*7 @I‬‬
‫ا‪ Y 
I‬ی‪4‬ل‪ @ -4O .‬اﺵ‪I‬ل ا‪ 8 5,I-‬درا‪5‬‬
‫ا‪,-‬ت ا ‪ 
"-‬ﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

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‫ــ
اــ ث‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫! ل  را
ا ا ُء 
أاء ل‬
‫ ‪  , -‬و ! و‪ ( ،*+‬ا(دات و‪$
%‬و
 " ‬
‫ُ ‪
6%‬اء
آ* ‪4‬؛ ‪ 2‬أن ‪/,0‬ت ف‪ 9 ،1‬ا‪  ،$8‬‬
‫ا!‪2‬ت ‪ ،:‬أي أ= <‪ 6$‬ل ا‪-‬؛  ; ‪/,0‬ت ف‪9 ،4‬‬
‫ا‪   ، 
8‬ا!‪2‬ت (‪ ،‬أي أ= <‪B 6$‬انٍ؛ و @ ‪%‬ن‬
‫ا;‪ F‬ا ة ‪.CD‬‬

‫أرى ﺡ أؤ ‬
‫‪ *2$‬ا;‪ F‬ف‪ 5‬ا<آ آ ‪/‬و ‪O‬ه‪@ ،‬‬
‫‪ T0‬إ‪
02 - .=H+‬ا ‪/,‬ت ‪F‬أ‬
‫ا<آ ‪ 9‬ا‪
Q2‬آ<آ ‪
02‬ا;‪F‬ط‪.‬‬

‫!ه‪ I‬آ
‪H‬آر ‪ ;=9 9‬ر‬
‫ا‪ 2‬ا‪ ,/‬را! ا@‪K-‬اء‬
‫ا(
د غ ا‪ ،L‬أ‪،$‬‬
‫ ‪ H $‬ا‪K‬ارع ا‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ا‪O 
8‬ه ا<ور ا; 

‫ا‪ ،OF‬ن ا‪8‬ﺥ‪ 8 F ،‬ف‬
‫ا;  ‪ Q2‬ا‪ ،OF‬ن ا‪.F/‬‬

‫‪18‬‬

‫إذا آن ا=ف ‪ ً=/‬دد ا‪ OF‬ا‪,/‬ي ‪9‬‬
‫إذ ار؛ ‪Z‬ل ذ‪ ،%  Y % C‬ا‪ X‬ا‪.*%O‬‬
‫ ‪  ;0 *,< =O‬ى ا
ا ‪$‬ى‬
‫ ذا ﺥط ‪0‬د  ; ى ا
ا ;‪T‬‬
‫ ذا ﺥط أ‪. F9‬‬
‫‪ ;;%‬اء ا‪ T0 $‬أ‪
;; 0‬رؤ ‪\ +‬‬
‫وا!`
ا_ ت اوح 
أ‪ =$‬وا‪08‬ل‬
‫ا(;  ا;‪ 0‬ا‪8‬ﺵ‪%‬ل‪$ .‬ه‪ 9 I‬ه‪D‬ا ‪ 
H‬‬
‫ا ‪/,‬ت ءًا
‪H/F$‬ت اء ‪ 9‬ا‪%/O‬‬
‫وإ=ءًا  ‪/,‬ت <‪ 6$‬ا<آ ‪ 9‬ا;‪F‬‬
‫ف‪"
< ; /$; .5‬ى" ون ‪;0‬ء؛ ‪
%‬‬
‫ا ء  ن ‪
0 *=2  \O% 2‬‬
‫"اؤ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Internet Links: faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chvision.html‬‬
‫‪http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biol/research/psychology/nsg‬‬

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‫اــآــــــــ‬
‫‪ & ،4‬ا‪9‬ﻡغ‬
‫‪ً ) 4‬‬
‫‪ 9.‬ی‪9+‬و ا‪7‬ﻡ‪2‬ك ة ‪ً 5‬‬
‫ی‪0‬م ‪ 22‬ﻡ& اآت ا ‪9‬ث ﺵ ریً‪.‬‬
‫ﻡ ه وزن اة‪ ،‬ا@ه‪ ،‬و)‪5‬؟ ﻡ ه‬
‫اآت ا وﻡ ه ا‪ C.‬ا‪B)%‬؟‬

‫ﻡ‪2‬ى ا‪0‬ة‬

‫ ا

‫ ا
ا‬

‫‪9‬ﺥ ﻡ‪ EF%‬ﻡ ‪9‬دة ﻡ& ا@ز ا "‪@7 +‬ز‬
‫ه‪I‬ا ا  ‪ 22‬هﻡ و‪ E 2%‬ﻡ‪9 &0‬ءا ﻡ&‬
‫‪ -.‬ا‪9‬ﻡغ ﻡورًا ‪%‬ى ا‪950‬ی وا ‪J‬‬
‫وا ًء ‪%‬ع ا‪-‬آ وا‪"5‬ب ا  ‪.‬‬

‫أ‪%Z‬ء ار ی" آ  ‪95 
5 Y‬د ﻡ& ا ف‬
‫ا "‪  +‬و& ﻡ‪ S‬ا‪ C.‬یُ" ا ‪9‬د  ‪+"5 Y‬‬
‫وا‪ .9‬ی& ‪ @2‬ا‪ 9+‬ت ا  
‪4‬ت‬
‫) ل ﻡ‪] 0‬ﺵرة ‪ O‬ﻡ& )_ ا@‪ ،9‬وه ﻡ‬
‫ی‪  O59‬ا
ا‪ .‬یُ‪  2‬ه‪I‬ا‬
‫ا ‪ 0‬س ‪-‬ط ا
‪4‬ت آ ‪9 O5‬ة‪.‬‬
‫‪%‬ع ا‪-‬آ دور هم ‪ N‬ﺽ‪ +‬اآ ﻡ& ﺥ‪4‬ل‬
‫ا‪2 %‬ت‪ b %N .‬ا‪ B2‬ی ﻡ& ا‪2‬ح‬
‫ادة أو ا‪2‬ﺥ‪ ،%‬وﻡ‪ b %‬ا ‪ c‬دور ‪N‬‬
‫اﺽ ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ 
! b %‬اآ‪ +‬ه ﻡ‪d‬ل ‪e‬ﺥ ‪،‬‬
‫ی ‪+"  g‬ن ‪ 2‬ی‪F N  f b2‬ل‬
‫ا 
وی‪ ,+-‬ﻡ‪+"5 S‬ن آ ی‪ h%‬ا@اب‬
‫اآ‪ .‬ی& ﻡ‪g‬ج ‪95‬د ﻡ& ا‪2 %‬ت ﻡ ً‪،‬‬
‫‪  2‬أو ﻡ ‪90‬ة‪ 9 0  B2 ،‬اآ اﺝة‬
‫وذ‪ ,‬ازن  & ا )‪d‬رة وا‪N +d‬‬
‫ا "‪+‬ت اآ ‪.‬‬

‫ ا‪ -‬ا اآ ‬
‫ی‪ B‬ا@ز ﺝ‪g‬ء ﻡ& اآ ‪-5 5‬ات ا‪ k‬ف‬
‫ﻡ& ا‪4‬ی ‪ -. N‬ا‪9‬ﻡغ‪ ،‬ا ‪0‬م ‪2‬ت‬
‫ا‪4‬زﻡ ‪@7‬ز اآ ‪ )42‬وﻡرة‪.‬‬

‫ا  ا  ا

‫ی‪ %‬ا‪ +2‬اآ ‪ N‬ا‪%‬ع ا‪-‬آ  ‪M‬‬
‫یﺝ‪ 9‬ﻡ‪P‬ت ﻡ& ا‪4‬ی ا "‪  +‬ا"" ‪O59‬‬
‫ا "‪+‬ت اآ ‪ 0 .‬ا!‪5‬ت ا‪ %‬‬
‫ور اﺥ ة ﻡ‪95 S‬د ﻡ& ا ف ا  
‪N‬‬
‫ا 
‪ -‬ا‪ ,-‬ا "‪  +‬ا  
‪ .‬یر‬
‫‪ ً +"5 4‬ی ‪+‬‬
‫آن ا  ﻡ& یت اور ‪ً .‬‬
‫ا‪ ,+-‬وی‪ 9‬آن ‪ N 5‬ا ف ا  

‫ی‪V‬دي ‪9‬ور‪ T‬ی ﺵارد ا‪ 2‬م ﻡ& ﻡزن‬
‫ﺽ& ا  ‪ W0N‬ا ف ا  
ﻡ‪. @%‬ة‬
‫وآ‪.‬‬

‫ا"!  ا   اآ‪ ،‬ن ا‪ ،‬ه‬
‫ﻡن ار‪+‬ط ا ) آ & ار ﻡ& ا‪%‬یت‬
‫ا "‪ +.  +‬ا‪,+-‬‬

‫‪19‬‬

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‫ی ‪ 79‬ﺝ>ع اﻡغ دور 
و‪ 6 I:‬ا;‪$-‬اف ا‪R‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ IO‬ﻡ) ا‪ 9‬ﻡت ‪ $8‬ا‪4‬ع ا‪H‬آ‪ R‬و‪$HK‬‬
‫اﻡغ ا>ي ی‪O‬ر ا;واﻡ‪.$‬‬

‫ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪R‬‬
‫ا‪ $H‬ﻡ‪ I8K‬ا‪$‬آ‪R‬‬

‫ا‪ $H‬ا‪,‬اري‬

‫ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪ R‬ه ‪$5‬ی] ر‪ R' =K‬ﺱ\ اﻡغ ی‬
‫ﻡ‪$58‬ة أﻡم ا‪ $H‬ا‪ .R%‬آ' أﺝ‪V‬اء ا‪ M%,‬ﻡ_ ‬
‫'‪ R‬ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪ .R‬ی&‪ 6‬ﺱ‪9‬ل ﻡ‪$%‬ى آ)‪R$‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ 9' I,%‬آ)‪ R' $‬ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪
R‬ا‪100 R‬‬
‫ﻡ ‪ R‬ﻥ ‪ I8K‬ﻡ
‪ d‬ﻥ‪H‬ط '‪ R‬ا‪F9‬ت‪.‬‬

‫اى ا ی ‪ ،‬ا‪I1‬‬

‫ا‪W4‬‬

‫ اغ ا 
 اآ‬

‫ه‪ I‬ﺕ‪$‬ﻡّ‪1 V‬ی ا‪9'e $H‬ل أو  ‪F9‬ت؟ ‪g 9‬‬
‫ی‪ I‬ﺕ‪ 68‬أن ا;ﻡ‪ $‬ﻡ‪ i 4‬وأ  ﻡ‪ 6‬ذ‪9';' ،‬ل‬‫ﺕُد ‪ MK- I9‬ﻡ‪ 6‬ا‪8O9‬ﻥت‪.‬‬

‫  اﻝ آ‬
‫ آ   را
ا ا‪.‬‬
‫ا ب ﻡ اظ  ا ا  ‬
‫ ﺕ‪ '$‬ا&ب  ا‪$%‬ى‪ ،‬وه ﻡ‬
‫ﺱ‪ +,‬ﺱ)‪ .‬ا‪0‬ن أ‪ 7 -‬ﻡ‪ $12 345 6‬أن‬
‫ی‪ '$‬ا&ب‪ ،‬ﺱ‪ ,‬ا;ﻡ‪.89: $‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ 68‬ه>‪ +‬ا‪ $,‬أن ا‪ =-‬ا‪$‬آ ‬
‫وا‪  %‬ﻡغ ذات "درای " أآ‪  $8‬ﺕ‪D 9‬‬
‫‪ %‬ﻡرﻥ ‪H‬هﺕ ‪$1G‬ی‪ 6‬ی‪F‬ﻥ‬
‫  ا‪.I9‬‬

‫ی أﻡم ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪ R‬ا‪ =-‬ﻡ ‪ I8K‬ا‪$‬آ ‬
‫ا‪ 6 k%‬ا‪ ،]4‬ﺕ)‪ k‬اارات ا‪H‬آ  ‪$‬آ ‪،‬‬
‫وا‪ 6 ]$‬ا‪$‬آ ا‪ U$‬وﺕ‪ $%‬ا‪l‬یءات‪ .‬ﻡ‪6‬‬
‫ا‪m‬آ‪'H‬ت ا_‪$‬ة '‪ R‬ا‪$‬ود " ‪8O‬ﻥت ا‪2$‬ة " ا‪R‬‬
‫ﺕ‪  7,%‬رؤی ا‪$‬آ أو '‪$
،) 9‬آ ا‪ .‬یُ‪ 9‬أن‬
‫) دورًا '‪ R‬اآة و')‪ M‬ا;'‪9‬ل‪.‬‬
‫یﺝ ‪ i 1‬ا‪ $H‬ا‪$‬آ‪ R' ،R‬ا‪ $H‬ا‪,‬اري‪ ،‬ﻡ‪=-‬‬
‫ﻡ‪  4‬ﻡ‪ I_ 9‬ا‪$‬ا‪ %, Rp‬وا‪U$‬ت‬
‫وا‪ %‬ت ﻡ‪ .
6‬ﺕ‪q‬ذي ه>‪ +‬ا‪ 8H ،=-‬ﻡ_‪،‬‬
‫ی‪t‬دي إ ‪ R' q1‬ﻡو إٍﻡ‪%‬ك ‪R5‬ء أو 
إﻥ&ر‬
‫ا‪ iO‬ا‪ I‬ﻡ‪ 6‬ا‪ M%,‬أو ا‪$‬اغ 
‪ ،‬دة ا‪iO‬‬
‫ا;ی‪ K .$%‬ی&‪ $‬ا‪$‬ی‪ v‬أن ا>راع أو ا‪%‬ق ا‪$%‬ى‬
‫ﺕ‪ 9 
،DO4‬أن ی‪$‬اه‪.‬‬

‫اﻝى اﻝ ‬
‫ﺕ '‪ = R‬ا&‪$‬ة ا‪ ، 4‬وه‪ R‬ﻡ‪ ,‬ﻡ‪ 6‬ا‪=-‬‬
‫ا‪$‬ﺕ‪ ) ،) ' 8‬دور ﺝه‪$‬ي '‪ R‬ء ا‪$‬آ ‪.‬‬

‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬‫"‪..‬و‪8O K‬ﻥت ا‪2$‬ة  ‪ M‬ا‪ L‬ﺱ&ن ﻡ‪ K )H‬اﻥ  ‪ M‬ا; 
ء؛ ﺱ‪%‬ه‪ R' M‬إی‪F‬ح ﻡ ﻥ‪6 I),‬‬
‫ارات ا‪ ،  9‬وﺕ‪VK I&H‬ة ﻥ  '‪ )' R‬ﻡغ ا‪%U$‬ت"‪ 6 .‬راﻡ‪5‬ﻥران‬

‫‪20‬‬

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‫‪  B‬ذ‪  @ 9‬واﺽ>‪ .‬ﺕ " آﺵ> ﺕ &‪!  C‬ت‬
‫@ة  ا‪ G/‬ا(! & 
‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ ،‬ﺡآ‪،‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ $‬أ!‪ ،‬وﺡ؛ ‪ I‬ﺕ د  ﺱ"  !ت إ‪C‬‬
‫ا& 
ا>آ‪ .‬داء !رآن اﺽ‪-‬اب ﺡآ ﺵ!‪M#‬‬
‫   ﺝ‪!Q‬ن وﺹ   ‪2‬ء ا>آ‪ ،‬وآ‪O‬ن‬
‫اﺵ>  اى ا&!‪ 2.‬ﺕ ‪.R-‬‬

‫>‪2‬ث ﺕ‪/.  S‬ﻥ!ت " ا!دة اداء "‪ ،‬د‪R .‬‬
‫اداء  ﻥ‪ ،!$‬ا  ﺕ>ر " ا‪2‬و! " ‬
‫اى ا&!‪ .2.‬ا ‪  W‬ا‪!> V 82‬ور ا‪2‬و! ‬
‫و‪/.‬ﻥ!ت اى ا&!‪ & 2.‬ح ﺕ‪2‬اﺥ" ‪2.‬ة ﻥا‪"8‬‬
‫‪ ".   /.‬اى ا&!‪  .2.‬ﺕ ‪Z‬‬
‫ا‪2‬و! ا!‪!-.\ ]8‬ء دواء ل ـ دو! ا‪0‬ي  >ل ‬
‫ا‪!2‬غ إ‪ C‬دو!   ‪ 2‬ا‪ Z‬ﺡآ ^‪.‬‬
‫ُ &‪ 2‬أن ى ا&!‪ 2.‬دورًا  ا ‪a ،‬‬
‫!ﺹ‪!Q-‬ء ا‪! e‬ل ا‪d‬د إ‪ C‬ا‪c‬اب‪.‬‬

‫ا ‬
‫ا  ﺽوري ‪h‬ﻥ!ز ا>آ!ت ا‪ .‬وﺱ‪f‬ﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻥ ف ا‪ ^  .  c‬ا ا &‪2‬ة‪!  C&  .‬ت‬
‫@ة  ا‪e‬ﺝ‪$‬ة ا> ‪ ،‬ا>" ا 
آ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪0‬ع‬
‫ا‪!2‬غ‪ ،‬وا& 
ا>آ‪ .‬أذى ا  ‪d‬دي إ‪C‬‬
‫اﺽ‪-‬اب ا ازن‪ ،‬ﺥ"  ﺕ!ﺱ‪ V‬ا>آ‪ ،‬وﺕ ‪c‬‬
‫ا‪f‬م‪ 2 ُ .‬ا  ام ا  ﺕ‪d‬ذي ا ‪.‬‬
‫    رآ  ا   ا
 ا‬
‫(ﺱ ‪ ،!$ !-‬ا‪+‬وري (ﺱ &!ل ا ا‪  "#!$‬ا !ت‬
‫ا‪0‬ي ‪.!$ . /‬‬


 اث‬
‫اى ا&!‪2.‬‬
‫ واردات ‬‫‪ 10000‬ﻥ‪!$‬‬
‫‪
8‬‬
‫‪9 
1000‬‬
‫دو! ‬

‫ااة ا‪0‬ﻥ‬
‫ا ا ‬

‫وارد دو!  ‪-‬‬

‫‪/.‬ن ‪--‬‬

‫ا!دةاداء‬

‫  ﺕ>ر ا‪2‬و!  اى ا&!‪ 2.‬دورًا ‬
‫ا‪! e‬ل وا !دات‪ .‬ﺕ‪f& ! m‬ت ا(ﺱ &‪ f‬‬
‫ " آ>! ‪ " Q‬و ﻥ‪ SQ‬ا‪ R8‬آ
 ‪c‬اب‬
‫ ﺡ!ل ا ‪/‬ف >‪ .‬ن ﺕ> ا‪2‬و! ‬
‫ذروﺕ^ إذا آ!ن ا‪c‬اب @   ‪ ،ً! 8‬وه ! >‪2‬ث ‬
‫‪n‬ر ا  ‪!+‬ن إﻥ!ز ا " ‪ C.‬ا 
" ا‪،a >/‬‬
‫ﺡ ‪ r‬ﺕ‪ V‬ا>آ!ت  ﺕ"  ‪ M‬ﺕ> د !ت‬
‫ !‪  8‬ا‪2‬و! ‪2  .‬ه!‪ a/ !2. ،‬ا " أًا‬
‫رﺕ !ً‪ . C ُ ،‬دور ا‪2‬و! و‪ M-+‬ا ‬
‫\ﻥ!ز ا "‪ ،‬ﺥ!ﺹ إذا ﺕ‪ -‬ا‪ e‬ﺕ‪ !ً 8‬د‪.!ً& 8‬‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫  دور ه!م  ا  وا  ‪ G‬ا ‪>! V‬آ‬
‫و! ! ا‪ m+‬ا‪ !$ V 82‬و ‪ 2  .!$ 8‬اآ !ب‬
‫اا‪  .‬ا>آ!ت ‪  B C.‬ﺕ  ﺥ ﺕ‪C.2‬‬
‫ا ‪ "n m c‬ا‪ !$ ،2e‬ﺕُ&] ﺵ‪2‬ة  ‪ Z‬ا(رﺕ!‪!n‬ت‬
‫ا  
‪ .‬اُ‪ 8‬ح ‪2.‬ة ﻥ‪!W‬ت ‪ Q o‬ا ؛ ا ‪22‬‬
‫‪ C. 2  !$‬ﺕ‪/‬ر أﻥذج >!آ أو &‪ 2‬ا‪2‬ن‬
‫‪ً2  ،-  "!8‬ا إ‪ C‬ا‪2‬وﻥ ا  
 داراﺕ^‬
‫ا &‪2‬ة‪.‬‬
‫ ‪ 2‬إ‪ " C‬ا‪!h‬ك !ة "‪ ،‬وﻥ ‪/‬ر ﺕ‪ !+‬آ"‬
‫ !ت ا " ا>آ  ه‪0‬ا ا‪  " Q‬دراﺱ‬
‫ا>آ ا‪ ، #‬وا ‪> m -‬آ!ت ا‪ne‬اف‬
‫وﺕ‪ ،!$ 8‬وﺽ‪ m‬اﺽ ‪! .(! ،‬د ‪!  C.‬ﺕ‪.!$‬‬

‫‪Learn a bit about the history of how neuroscientists found out about the control of movement at:‬‬
‫‪http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/brain/‬‬

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‫ ر ا
 اــ‬

‫أ‬
‫ب‬

‫ا"; ا   =‪/‬غ ﺏ‪ H‬ﺏ? ا ﺵ>ص وﺡ‪ 4‬ﺏ?‬
‫ا‪AJ#‬ت ﺏ ‪0‬م‪ .‬ﺕ=‪ O‬ا راﺙ ا‪/‬ور ا‪$‬م ! ذ‪،K‬‬
‫وی*‪,= 4‬ط ا ‪#$‬ﺏ ! ا‪/‬غ دورًا ! ر ; ﺏ‪P‬‬
‫اﺹ ا‪ *6/‬ا"=* ﺏ ت‪ .‬ﺕ ر ا‪/‬غ ا‪,,8‬‬
‫أ‪ #‬ﺏ‪ V‬ا*‪ /‬ز‪ ,‬ﺏ‪/‬ی? ‪ ?0‬ا‪"T‬م ﺏ د‪،H*J6‬‬
‫و ? ا رة ا راﺙ ‪/0‬ت ! ا‪ ,A‬ات ا ﺥ‪#‬ة !‬
‫إﺙ‪#‬اء ‪ ,!#‬ﺏ‪X$‬ا ا> ص‪.‬‬

‫" ﺏ ﻡ   ا ا  
ت "‬

‫ج‬
‫د‬
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‫ا"‪ ?8‬ه ‪ ? 0 "8‬ا="ت ﺕ[ ﺕ>=‪ Z‬ا‪.;A8‬‬
‫ی]\ ا"‪ ? ?8‬ﺡ ا أرﺏ? أ ? ا" رﺙت‪ .‬ه‬
‫‪/ 0 "8‬ودة ? ا="ت ﺕ"? أوا‪:  #‬‬
‫أ‪ B‬ي‪ ،‬أﺡ‪ ،,‬أ!‪#‬د‪ .‬ﺕ ا"‪ 0 "8‬ا‪#‬ة ?‬
‫ا="ت ا راﺙ ﺏ‪/‬ءًا ? ا" أ
ا‪/ ً0‬دة ?‬
‫ا>‪:‬ی وا`رﺕ‪B‬ت ! ا‪/‬غ‪.‬‬
‫ ی‪ #‬ا‪/‬ه أن ا‪/‬ی‪  ? /‬رﺙﺕ‪ ,‬ی (‪! H  /‬‬
‫ذﺏﺏ ا اآ‪ ،H‬ودرا  ا ﺥ‪#‬ة أ ‪ ! ;$‬اآف‬
‫ا" رﺙت ا"‪cA‬و ‪ ?0‬ﺕ ر ا‪$8‬ز ا ا‪#‬ي‪.‬‬
‫ی‪/‬رس ا="ء ﺕ ر ا‪/‬غ ! أ
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>=  ‬
‫"‪ K‬ا‪7‬رد‪ ،‬ا‪/‬ع‪ ،‬ا ص‪ ،‬وا]ر؛  ‪7 $,‬ة‬
‫! درا  
ﺡ أو أآ‪ #‬ﺕ=‪ Z‬ﺏ ادث ا>= ی‪ .‬‬
‫‪ :‬ﺵ! " ی‪ g"A‬ﺏ‪/‬را  ﺕ ر ﺥ‪:‬یه‬
‫"‪ K‬ا‪7‬رد  ً‬
‫ﺕ‪ h‬ا"‪ .#$8‬ی‪7‬اوج ا]ر ﺏ‪ ? ?  " 0#A‬ﺕ‪/‬ی‪/‬‬
‫ا" رﺙت ! ‪ H,8‬ﺏ‪T‬ﺽ! إ‪ 4‬ﺕ‪#‬ﺕ‪ .$"E O‬ﺡ‪;8‬‬
‫ا" ا ‪ ! ً A
#‬ا‪/‬ع وا ص ی‪g"A‬‬
‫ﺏ‪#8‬اﺡت ‪#$8‬ی ‪0 "8 *,‬ت ? ا>‪:‬ی واآف‬
‫ ی‪ ?0 ;8,‬ه‪X‬ا ا‪. *,‬‬

‫ا" ات ا!و‬
‫ا 
اء ا ا  ا 
ب ا‪.‬‬
‫أ ـ  ! ا  ع ا‪.‬‬
‫ب ـ *) ! ا ا ا" ( دة ! ‪ #$%‬ا"‪.‬‬
‫ج ـ ﺏ‪/0 /‬ة أیم ﺕ ‪ #‬ا‪$,‬ی ا‪#‬أ  وﺕ‪ ,,‬وﺕ*‪ 4‬ا‪$,‬ین‬
‫ ﺡن ﺏ‪ ",‬ﺕ; ا 
‪:‬ق ا‪78‬ء ا ا‪ )6‬ﺏ‪."$,‬‬
‫د‪ ،‬هـ ‪ ،‬و ـ *‪ A ! )B‬یت >= ﺕ? ‪#‬اﺡ >=‬
‫? ا 
‪:‬ق ا 
ب ا‪ .‬أ
‪ #E‬ا ا‪.‬‬

‫ا> ة ا و‪ ! 4‬ا ر ه ا
*‪A‬م ا>‪:‬ی‪ ،‬ﺙ; ی]ﺕ‬
‫‪ B‬ر ا"ی‪ 7‬إ‪ 4‬ﺥ‪:‬ی ذات ﺹت ﺥﺹ آ]ن ﺕ ن‬
‫‪ ً
0‬أو ﺥ= دﺏ*‪ .‬ی‪c‬دي ا"ی‪ 7‬إ‪ 4‬ﺕ‪#‬ﺕ‪.  
O‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ #($‬أ
اع >= ? ا 
ت إ‪  4‬اﺽ) >=‬
‫‪ #0‬ﺡ‪/‬ی ﺕ‪ 40/‬ا ا‪ .",‬ی‪/‬أ ا ا‪! ",‬‬
‫ا  ع ا ? ا" ‪/,0 ،‬ه ﺕ ن ا" ‪c‬‬
‫? وری*? =? ? ا>‪:‬ی ا"‪."A*,‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

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‫;‪ :‬ر‪ '/8‬ﺹ‪6‬ة  ا *‪5‬ی ?‪ -‬ا ‪ >:‬ا ‪/‬ي‪ = ،‬ﺵ‬
‫ ;ب ا )!‪ ) ،A‬ا  غ وا & ا آ‪ ،-‬و‬
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‫ا & ا آ‪ ،-‬وذ ‪I) J‬ﺙ ای‪ /‬زات  ا ‪ 'E:‬أ(= ‪،‬‬
‫اﺥة  ا ‪ M/‬م وا ‪5;/‬ت‪ 2N O& .‬ت *)(' ‬
‫ا ‪2‬رﺙ ت  اﺝ‪1‬اء ا ‪ =N '()*2‬ز ا ‪ -./‬و‪12‬‬
‫ا  غ إ  أ‪ 8‬م *)('؛ ‪E‬م ا  غ‪ ،‬ا  غ ا ‪،Q)2‬‬
‫و ‪D‬ﺥ ا  غ‪ ،‬ذات و‪ '(T‬و!' ﺥی' )‪12‬ة‪.‬‬

‫ام ‪26‬‬

‫‪28‬‬

‫اف‬
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‫ا أس زاوی' ‪ 'E:!  '2Z 8‬ا ‪YN‬ع‪ >. .‬ا !‪ ':2‬أآ"‬
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‫هی' )‪12‬ة‪.‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫ب‬

‫‪49‬‬

‫د‬

‫ه‬
‫ـ‬

‫و‬

‫ ا  غ ا ي  اع ا ا وا  ‪،‬‬
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‫ا‪#‬ب ا ‪.-./‬‬

‫أ‪ M#‬ا ‪ '&(.‬ا  ‪'E‬‬

‫ا ‪12‬ا' ا ‪'./‬‬

‫ا ‪/‬ف ا ‪-./‬‬

‫‪23‬‬

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‫‪24‬‬

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‫أو ا!
‪ l1‬ﺏ أر ! &ة‪ ،‬وﺏ‪ "L = %‬ی  إ‪I‬‬
‫ا"وﺡ ‪& .‬ی  ا & وا; ‪"W‬ة آ ا ‪ $‬ﺏ‬
‫ﺏ‪ .2‬ا‪"1‬اءة ]  ردو دا ‪ ، 
%‬ه ‪ 8‬آ"ی! ن‬
‫أرن‪ ،‬أدین‪ ،‬وای‪ !%‬ی‪.‬‬

‫ااﺕ‬
‫ا ‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫ا
 ااءة واات ا ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/dyslexia.html‬‬
‫‪http://www.learningdisabilities.com/programs.shtml‬‬

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‫اوــــــ‬
‫ ‪ %‬اﻡغ ﺱ ار ﺥ ل ﺡ‪%‬ة ا[ﻥن‪ ،‬وه ﻡ‬
‫‪ IJ‬اوﻥ ‪ IJ‬ﺵآ اا&‪ %‬ا  ;‪F‬‬
‫‪%%‬ه ﺱ ار‪ %  7 .‬اﻡغ آ;( وإﻥ  ‪%‬‬
‫ا"'ﻥت  ﻡاﺡ( ا ‪L‬ر  ا‪:B‬ل‬
‫آﺱ > ‪B‬ذى اﻡغ وﺥ ل ا " ‪ .‬ﺝ ‪%H‬ت‬
‫‪J‬ة وﻥ‪ ،‬أه‪ 5‬اوﻥ ا;‪.%‬‬

‫ه ا)( ا"' ا&‪  $%‬ﻡ"! ا ا‬
‫  اﻡغ‪ 1  .‬ﻡ  ت ام  أر" أﻥاع‪،‬‬
‫‪ 6 6‬ﻡ‪ 5‬ﺵرد واا‪ 1‬اﺱ ‪  .‬ارد‬
‫ﻡ‪ 5‬آن ﻡ " ﻡ; ﻡ‪" % 9:‬ل ا‪7‬ﺱ ‬
‫ﺡ> و‪ "%‬ه@? ا‪7‬ﺱ >‪ .‬آ( ا‪B‬ﻥاع ﻡ‪ 5‬وﻥ‪،‬‬
‫;‪ F‬ﻡ"! ﻡ ﻥ"ف ‪H" CD‬ﻡ " و"ﻥا"‪ ،‬وأ‪I‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ F‬أث ‪ L‬ا‪B‬دو ا  ‪ .5%J 6K‬ا"‪N‬‬
‫‪J‬ه "ﺝ‪P9‬ت ا@اآة"‪..‬‬
‫ﻡ  ت "‪H‬ﻡ" ه ا‪B‬ﺱع‪ ،‬ﺡ ار‪5 R‬‬
‫ام ‪ T‬ا‪ %)7‬ارد ‪ J‬وﻥ ‪ S‬آن ﻡ‬
‫" ﻡ; ﻡ‪9:‬؛ وﺡ أﻥ‪ :‬ام وأز( ﻡ‪F‬‬
‫ا  اﺝ‪ 1‬آ( ه@? ا ‪%‬ات‪ (' .‬آ( ذ‬
‫ﺥ ل ﺝ‪9‬ء ﻡ‪ F‬ا‪X‬ﻥ‪ ("  .%‬اﻡغ ه@ا اع ‪J‬‬
‫اﺝ  ( ا"ﻡت ‪.J‬‬

‫ ا

‫ ‪ %‬ا آ ‪ J:‬ﻡ‪ 1‬ا‪5!% R%‬‬
‫ا> ﻡ‪ 5‬وا‪%:‬ة ‪9‬داد )ة وا‪@ 5‬ب‪.‬‬
‫ "( ا‪7‬ﺱ > ا;‪   %5‬ا)( ا"'‬
‫  ا آ"  ة ا‪   ) .‬ا ‪%‬‬
‫`‪6 1‬ان‪ 1` ،‬د)&_‪ ،‬أو ﺡ ‪ I‬أﻡ ا‪%‬ة‪ 5 .‬‬
‫ا"ء ;( ﺥص  ‪%‬ات  ا‪B‬ﻡ ‬
‫ا ا  ‪ 5‬ﻥط ‪'J‬ﻥ وﺝ‪ ،9%‬ﻡ‪5‬‬
‫ا ي وﻡ‪ 5‬ا‪.RX‬‬

‫ة   و‬
‫ام ﺡ‪ N‬أﻡ‪ %‬ﺵ&‪ "  1‬ا> ء‬
‫او‪  (" ُ .F%‬ا‪ d: "B‬ا;‪،5‬‬
‫آم أﺡدي ا'دم‪.‬‬

‫ر ام وار   ت  ا‬
‫‪'J‬ن ﻡ" ا‬
‫ﺡ' ت ‪f‬م‬

‫‪'J‬ن ﻡ)( ا‬
‫‪%‬ر‬

‫‪f‬م‬
‫ﺵارد ﻡ‪9%‬م‬

‫ﻥ‪9‬ع اﺱ ‪L‬ب‬

‫ﻡ  ت ﻥا‬
‫ﻡ  ت اّﻡ‬
‫ﻡ ( أﺱ ‬

‫ا_ ا;‬

‫‪%‬ر )ﺵارد‬
‫ﺹدم(‬

‫‪27‬‬

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‫ﺕ‪2‬ر ‪D 7E ,‬‬
‫ت ‬

‫ا‪ 73‬ا>ﺱﺱ"‬

‫ﺕ‪ 123‬ﺵ ‪ ,‬‬
‫ ‪ F‬ﺵ!ارد‬
‫ا ?‪!,&23‬م ‪G‬‬
‫ت ا‪،‬‬
‫ود‪!E‬ل‬
‫ا!د‪!,‬م‬
‫وا‪!26‬م‬

‫ﺕ‪ 7,!H &2‬ا> ‬

‫ز‪,‬دة آءة ت ‬

‫ز‪,‬دة ‪ D‬د ت ‬

‫ت " ا " و""‪ ،‬أ  ا اﺏ‬

‫ت " ا" ودوره  ا و ‬
‫ﺡ ﺕرك ت " ا" ‪ "#‬ا!اﺹ‪ 7‬ا ‪&5, "6‬م ﺕ‪ 123‬ا ‪ 0‬ﺏ‪ +‬ة ‪.‬ت ﺱ‪ +,‬ﺕ*دي إ &ع‬
‫اﺱ‪:‬ب آ‪:, 2‬د آ‪8‬ﺏ‪ ً2‬ﺵ!ارد ا ?‪!,&3‬م ا" ﺕ ‪ 72‬إ ﺱ ا>=‪ 23‬ارد‪ ,‬آ‪  5‬ﺡول ﺕ‪ 123‬ﺏ‪":‬ء ‪.8#‬‬

‫‪28‬‬

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‫!=ﺙ ﻡ&(;‪-‬ت "ﻥا" ‪ D EF‬ﺵ‪$‬ارد ا‪$B‬د‪$‬م‬
‫وا;‪!$‬ﺱ ‪ J‬ا& ! ﻡ‪ E‬ﻥع ا‪H‬ﺱ&(‪%‬ب آ !‪G‬‬
‫‪$‬ارد ا ‪$‬م ‪$O‬ل ا‪$;BM‬ن وآ‪L‬ن ا&(;‬
‫&‪ M‬ا ط ا‪$;BM‬ﻥ ا
&‪ 5‬إ‪ P‬د
()‬
‫ﻡ‪ E‬ا ‪$‬م ‪ .‬ه>‪ S‬ا
() ‪! H‬وم أآ‪ 1‬ﻡ‪ E‬ﺙﻥ )‪E ،‬‬
‫ا ‪$‬م !;‪; W‬و! ت ﻡ&‪ ED
)MV$‬ا‪6‬ء‬
‫ ب ا;‪ YM .‬ه>‪ S‬ا;و! ت ‪;F‬رة ‪EF‬‬
‫إﻥ‪ Z‬ت !‪M‬ل آ و و! ت أ‪O‬ى ذات ار!;ط‬
‫‪  .;  7‬ه>‪ S‬ا&‪ M‬ا وي‬
‫ا‪ )9‬ا‪8‬و‪ !
P‬ا>آت‪.‬‬

‫ت " 
" ودوره
  اآ
ت‬
‫!‪ J‬ﻡ&(;‪-‬ت "‪0‬ﻡ; "
!'‪  #‬آ‪$‬ن ﻡ ‪M‬‬
‫ا; و& ا&(‪ )9$D )$‬ا‪8‬ﻡ ‪%‬ق ‪F‬ة‪،‬‬
‫ﻡ  زدة ‪F‬د ا&(;‪-‬ت‪ ،‬وﻡ  زدة آ‪#‬ء!‪.‬‬
‫ا‪= ^M‬دي إ‪ $D W ;1! P‬ا‪8‬ﻡ‪ .‬آ ه>ا  'ث‬
‫‪$ H‬ة ا; ‬

ﺵ‪$‬ك !‪ B6‬و  ﻡ; ً‬
‫ﻡ'د‪ ،‬ه>ا ا&;ل ه‪ $‬ا‪8‬ﺱس

‪ J‬ا>اآة‪.‬‬

‫"ﺕر " ا
غ‬
‫ا
!‪ Ea‬ا>آت اا) !;‪H‬ت  ‪
)$‬‬
‫اﻡغ‪  6& .‬ﺵ ا; و  ;‪ ،‬و  ‪Z‬‬
‫ﻡ; 
&‪ #‬ا;ن ‪ M‬ا‪8‬ول‪ P9F .‬ا‪^M‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ E‬ذ  !‪ 'c‬ا ا&‪ d' .W;1! P‬اﻡغ‬
‫ا‪ )V‬ا>ه ) آ !'‪ d‬ا‪-cM‬ت ا‪)V‬‬
‫ا‪ ،)  #‬ا‪ O8‬ة !  ا‪-cM‬ت وا‪8‬و‪F ! P‬د‬
‫ا و! ‪ P9F Z‬و‪ 5‬أ
‪.c‬‬

‫ز  ا ا ا
ا‬

‫‪ !" #$‬ااآ ة‬
‫  ا‪e‬ﻥن إ‪>! P‬آ ا'‪$‬ادث  أ
‪ c‬إذا‬
‫‪.‬‬‫آﻥ‪ h‬ﻡ!;‪$M )%‬ا‪  gD‬ﺵ)‪
،‬ح أو ن ﻡ‪ً 1‬‬
‫آ &‪ J9M‬أ
‪ c‬إذا أ‪  P%F‬اﻥ&;ه‪9 5‬رس‪ .‬ا;‪d‬‬
‫ه‪ '! $‬ﻡ‪HM‬ت ‪ ) ;BF‬ﻡ‪ 1‬ا‪H‬ﺱ&  آ‪ F ،E $‬‬
‫ا ‪$‬رادر  ‪،E‬‬
‫اوﻡ ‪،E‬‬
‫ا؛‬
‫ا‪H‬ﻥ&;‪S‬‬
‫واﻡ‪$‬ﻥت ا& و ) آ‪$‬ر! ول‪H
،‬ت‬
‫‪HM9 .‬ت !‪L‬ﺙ ات ‪F‬ة ‪P9F‬‬‫اة وا(‪ 9‬ﻡ‪ً 1‬‬
‫ا‪$;BM‬ﻥت‪ ،‬ﻡ  ﻡ ‪  6‬و‪ )# j‬ﻡ&(;‪-‬ت "ﻥا"‪،‬‬
‫وﻡ  ﻡ ‪ M#‬ﻡ‪$‬رﺙت !‪ k B‬و! ت !‪
F‬‬
‫ا&(‪ )9$D )$‬ا‪8‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ا(' ﺏا‪
)*%‬‬

‫ ‪#‬ي وا!  آ   دوا أث‬
‫اﻥ(‪
ً-‬دراﺱ) ا ( ا'‪$%& #‬‬
‫أدو) ﻡ‪0 1‬ب ‪
5&6 7 ،5‬ا‪8‬ﺱ‪،#‬‬
‫ا>ي =ﺙ
ﻡ&(;‪-‬ت ا‪!$96‬م‪.‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫ ‪M‬‬‫!‪ F‬ا‪9‬وﻥ) اﻡغ
ا&‪ 
M‬ﻡ‪ E‬ا‪8‬ذ)‪ً 1
.‬‬
‫ا‪ );  )7e‬أو رض رأس !& ‪ g‬ا‪$;BM‬ﻥت ا& ‬
‫ﻥ‪ h‬ﻡ‪ E‬ا‪8‬ذ) وأ ﻥً !‪ >OL‬دورًا ﻡ ً ور‬
‫ا‪$;BM‬ﻥت ا‪$(#‬دة‪$;BM
،‬ﻥت ا& ﻥ‪a‬ه ‪H‬‬
‫! ‪ $‬ﻡ‪. E‬‬

‫‪Related Internet Sites: http://www.cf.ac.uk/plasticity/index.html‬‬
‫‪http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/public/brainbasic.html‬‬

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‫اــ وااآــ ة‬
‫" ا آت ﻡ ا ‪0‬ﺹت ا ‪2‬ﻡ @‪6‬اد‪!6 ،‬‬
‫‪ U9‬ﺵن ﻥ‪ S‬ا ‪6 49‬ج أ‪3‬ه 
آت‬
‫ﻡ ( ا‪W‬ﺥ‪ 
U .‬ﻡ ﻥآ ﻡ ت‪،XY!3 ،‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ ،(B‬وﻡ‪2‬رات؛ ﻥآ "‪ 2U‬ﻡ )  

‫ﻥآ "‪ 2U‬ا‪W‬ﺥ أﻡ ا ‪9‬ة‪09 .‬ي ا ﻡغ ﺝ
‪4‬‬
‫ﻡ ا ت ^  اآة‪  
" .‬ا آت‬
‫ا ة (* ا وﻥ ا
‪  B‬آ 
‪ 16 6‬ا ‪4‬‬
‫ا ‪  `  ،X#‬ااج ا
"‪0‬ﻡت _ ﻡ‪02‬ﻡ‬
‫"‪ 0 B .‬ﻡ"‪0 
E‬ء ا اآة و  ‪ 16‬أ_‪+‬‬
‫ا‪3‬ن ‪0 C‬ﺝ ﻡ‪ !!3  B‬ا ‪ 16 J2‬أﻡاض‬
‫(  ﻡ"‪ ) .‬ﻥى ‪ #9 16‬ا اآة أﻡًا ﺝاً‪،‬‬
‫و  
!‪ ) 4‬ﻥآ أﻡ‪0‬رًا ‪  #9‬ﻥ‪#‬ﻥ‪.2‬‬

‫ا ) ﺹ هﻡ ‪ 2( J 2‬د
‪0‬ﻡ و"‬
‫ﻡ‪9‬ود‪ 16 .‬ا 
‪  
0‬آ ﻡ ﺥ
‪ S‬إ *‬
‫‪ '#‬ﻡدات  ‪0  j‬ن ﻡ"‪ JE‬أر)م ا ‪02‬ا‪ h‬ﻡ ‪7‬‬
‫أو ‪ 8‬أر)م‪0 .‬ﺝ ﺝ 
 ﻡآ ‪3  U‬آ‬
‫ا
"‪0‬ﻡت ﻡ(‪0‬ﻡ ‪ (0‬ﻡ ﻡزن ا اآة‪0 .‬ﺝ‬
‫ﻡن ﺹ‪ 10‬ﻡ' ‪ '
# !3‬ﺹﻡ&‪*3 ،‬‬
‫ا
"‪0‬ﻡت ا
!وءة ً ﻡ ﺹ‪ ً0‬ون‬
‫ﻡ‪ 16 ً)l‬ه‪ k‬ا  
ذات ا أ‪0 .‬ﺝ أ‪ً U‬‬
‫"آا " ي ‪ n9‬ﺵ ل ه أﻡم‬
‫"(‪" *3 "j‬ﻡ‪ 4‬ﻡ"‪.2‬‬
‫و‬

‫ﺕ ﺕ  ااآ ة‬
‫‪0 C‬ﺝ ﻡ! وا‪3‬ة  ا اآة‪ J#! .‬ا اآة‬
‫إ * ذاآة (ﻡ ن ا
"‪0‬ﻡت ﻡ ) ‪4 B‬‬
‫‪ 4(6‬وذاآة ‪ 0K‬اﻡ أآ  وﻡ"‪.‬‬

‫آا ا  ر ا
ن‬

‫ااآ ة ا!‬

‫ا  
ا  ا 
آ‬

‫"ﻡ‪ 4‬ﻡ' آ 
) ﻡ ا
"‪0‬ﻡت‪22 B  
.‬‬
‫‪f‬وراق ا
‪0#‬دة ا ‪ 1‬ﻥ‪ *( 2"U‬ا
‪ +‬و‬
‫ا 
ء وأر)م ا ‪02‬ا‪ h‬ا ‪ 1‬ﻥ‪9‬ﺝ‪ .0 2‬ﻡ اﻡ‪G‬‬
‫(* ا" 
‪ 2‬ا ‪#9‬ب ا ه‪ ،1‬وآ أ وﻡ*‬
‫آ ا 
‪.E9 4 ) I‬‬

‫ﻡن ا اآة ا ‪ "
#‬ا ! ‬

‫(وة ا ‪ '
#‬ا ﻡ&‬

‫ا اآة ا "ﻡ ا ! ‬

‫ﺕ   ااآ ة ا ‪ ،‬ى ا ف‪:‬‬
‫أآ‪ *( +‬ور) ‪ 9‬ﻡ
‪(0‬ت ﻡ ا‪3‬ف  أ ‪ 69‬ﻡ' ازدد (د ‪3‬و‪ ً63 26‬وا‪ً3‬ا آ‪ 4‬ﻡة ‪ (0  

12 *3‬ذات ‪ 10‬أ‪3‬ف‪،‬‬
‫ﻡ' ﻡا(ة ا" 
ل ‪3‬وف ﻡ أو ‪ +‬ﻡ> @‪3‬ف )ر ا‪A‬ﻡ ن‪ ،‬و(* أ‪ 4 B C‬ا‪3‬ف آ 
ذات ﻡ"*‪ .‬أ)أ ا 

‪(0‬ت  (ً‬
‫(* زﻡ‪ 4‬أو أآ‪ G‬و‪ 16‬آ‪ 4‬ﻡة اﻥ‪03 E‬ا ‪ 5 1‬ﺙ‪0‬ان‪ ،‬ﺙ‪ J‬أ‪ +K‬ﻡ‪ J2‬و ﻡ )أت  ‪ +‬ا ‪ I9‬ا( 
دًا (* ا اآة‪  .‬أن‬
‫ﻡ"‪ 7 *3 M  J2
E‬أو ‪ 8‬أ‪3‬ف و)‪ 4‬ﻡ‪ J2‬آ ‪ 10‬أ‪3‬ف ‪ 4 B‬ﺹ‪.I9‬‬

‫‪30‬‬

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‫ا"'اآة ا"‪%$‬ة‬

‫ی‪ H& IJ!1‬ا (اآة ا & ‪ CG ?%‬ا ‪ #EF‬ا =‪CD‬‬
‫وا 
اري‪ .‬ی=‪!E #‬ی ا
غ ) ﻥن ا !‪CFM‬‬
‫وا ‪!E1‬ی ا =!زی‪1‬وﻥ‪ IJ! C‬ا ء ا ‪D C&O‬‬
‫‪ CG‬ا‪8‬ی‪ ") O‬ی‪ I 9$F1‬اآ ا ‪QR‬م‪ ،‬ا ‪،P:1‬‬
‫واذ ا ‪+‬ار‪" IJ!1 .‬آا‪ ?6‬ا ‪ " P:1‬ا =‪E‬ي‬
‫‪ CG‬ا‪8‬ی‪.#‬‬
‫‪1" 3‬ج &‪ H‬ا "!اﻥت ا (اآة ا ‪+‬ی=? آ‬
‫ﻥ"‪1‬ﺝ‪ .D‬ی ى ه‪ 9‬ا‪1‬ﺝ‪ D‬ا‪W‬ﻥ‪O‬ن ا‪8‬ول ‪%X‬؟‬
‫د [ ا
را‪6‬ت ‪ 0%$‬ا‪F8‬ل ا ‪ZE‬ر ‪ 0%$‬دور ‪D‬‬
‫ ‪(%‬اآة ا ‪+‬ی=? ‪ %& CG‬ا ‪ I [%+ُ; D%&%G ?Z%‬ا  ‪#‬‬

‫و ‪ D‬أی_ً ﺝ‪=$  ،?F%1 9‬ه ا &‪ !%‬ت ا ‪+‬د ?‬
‫ ‪ #‬ا ‪ 9‬ا "‪ ?O‬ا ‪ aE1) 9 &  ?F%1‬یداد‬
‫‪ CG‬ا ‪ 9‬ا‪8‬ﺥة ‪+‬رﻥ? )‪8‬و ‪ 9=6 0%$ .0‬ا ‪X‬ل‬
‫
ﺥ‪ 9‬ا &‪ !%‬ت ا ? ‪ =$‬ا ‪ 9=O‬ا =‪ # C:‬ا ‪>+‬‬
‫ا ‪ P:‬إ ‪ 0‬أﻥ‪ )0O‬أي ا‪8‬ﺝاء ا
اﺥ‪ (?%‬ا ‪aF‬‬
‫ا ‪1 ?%O%6 =$ Cf
E‬ول ;‪F‬ت ا ‪،9R # C‬‬
‫ !ن‪+ ، ،‬رﻥ‪ I g1‬أ‪R‬ل &و‪... ً+)6 ?G‬ا ‪،h‬‬
‫‪ 9R> 01‬ذاآة ‪ ) ?:= g‬ن و ‪R‬ن و@!ع‬
‫ا ‪j =&1) .9&F‬ﺥ ی
رك ا
غ ا ت وی>‪D 9R‬‬
‫;!رة ن ‪&16Q‬ل ‪ .
&) G‬ه(‪ k‬ا ‪
$O ?%‬ﻥ‬
‫‪ CG‬ا ‪&1‬ف ‪ 0%$‬ا !ﺝ!‪ k‬ا ‪+%& CG ?G! l‬ت ا ‪-"E‬‬
‫ا ‪O‬ﺥة‪!R .‬ن ذاآة ا &ﻥ‪ ?)X) C‬ا ن ا ‪=R‬‬
‫ ‪X ، +"%‬ل‪) :‬ری‪G ?;$ n‬ﻥ‪ ،O‬ا ‪ C1‬ﺝ&ه‬
‫‪ =$‬ا ‪ ?= #O‬إ ‪ 0‬أ;ف )" ی‪ 9DO‬ا‪16‬اﺝ‪D‬‬
‫‪ 
$‬ا "ﺝ? إ ‪C \%:G ،D‬ء ‪ ?+O ?Gf CG‬أ‪9D6‬‬
‫)‪ D& ?Gf CG g=% # XR‬ا ‪.0J!F‬‬
‫)‪ %&1 ?GJW‬ا‪68‬ء وا "‪ +‬ی‪ \O1R‬ا‪W‬ﻥ‪O‬ن‬
‫ا ‪D‬رات وا >‪$‬؛ ‪ ?G&G‬ا =ﻥ! ‪C‬ء وا &ف‬
‫‪C g%$‬ء ‪j‬ﺥ‪ %& ،‬رآ!ب ا
راﺝ? أ  ‪ 
F‬وا‪ W‬م‬
‫)  ا "‪ 0%$ ?%1‬ا ‪:‬ی ‪ 3‬ی‪ 9+‬أه?‪\O1R .‬‬
‫ا ‪D‬رات ) ‪R1‬ار وا ‪
1‬ری\‪ \O1R .‬ا >‪9R>) $‬‬
‫أ‪6‬ع‪ ،‬ﺥ;?ً إذا ار=‪! l) [:‬ر ﻥ‪ .DG‬ی‪ ?+‬ا ‪%&1‬‬
‫‪ CG‬ا " ‪ 0$ 
#1‬ا‪W‬اط‪
& .‬ا !ى ا ‪
$+‬ی?‬
‫وا ‪rO h‬و ? ‪ #$‬ا ‪D‬رات‪ ) ،‬ا ‪!%‬زة ‪rO‬و ?‬
‫‪ #$‬ا >‪ %& .$‬ا ‪D‬رات ) ‪!"% ?=O‬اﻥت أ ‬
‫ ‪+=% D‬ء‪.‬‬

‫اء‬
‫ ‬
‫ر‬
‫ر  ‬

‫یت‬
‫ر ة‬

‫أى‬
‫ا"‪$‬ی‪#‬‬

‫ د‬

‫ﻡدة‬
‫ا"! ري‬

‫" ة" &‪ #$  !%‬ا "!اﻥت‪،‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻥ&ف ‪ 01‬ا‪/‬ن آ‪ -‬ی‪!+‬م ا
غ )( '‬

‫آ ;ُ‪ 9+‬ا ‪QR‬م‪.‬‬
‫ی‪ DG \%:1‬ا &‪ 0‬ا ‪ ?G& ?% ]"E‬ا ‪\1‬‬
‫ا ‪%R% ]"E‬ت ‪.DG‬‬

‫&‪ %‬ا >=ﻥي ا;‪:‬د ا ‪ 9‬ا‪&16) 7)8‬ل ‪!$‬د‪،‬‬
‫ی‪ %&1‬ا‪)8‬ء ذ ' ‪ #‬ا !ا
ی‪ ) #‬ا@=?‬

‫  ا
غ  ُ
رك ا ت  ُن‬

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‫ذاآة ا‪%/,‬اث‬

‫ﻡ‪ LN‬رﺱ)‪ X‬ﻡ‪ $‬ا "اآ ة (‪ -‬ﻥ& ﺱ‪', %‬ا ‪C,‬‬
‫ذ ‪ - .G‬ی‪5‬ن أﻡرًا ﺡ‪ BM 4-‬ا ) ض‪ [ ،‬ة ﺕ<ل‬
‫أو ﺕ  ﺕ'& ﻡ‪ $‬ﻡ ی‪ ، ] H‬وه"ا ﻡ ی‪1%-‬‬
‫ا ‪5‬وة ا اﺝ( ‪ .‬ﺕ[ ‪ -‬ﺡة ﻡ;‪ B‬ه"_ ا ) ی‪-( H‬ه‬
‫ا `ﻡﻥ‪ C‬وا )‪E‬ﻥ‪ .C‬وﺹ[‪ N‬أﺡ‪ -‬ا ) ‪ "1D‬وآ‪K‬ﻥ‪ G‬دا)ً‬
‫ﺕ‪ c 5‬ﻡ‪ $‬ﺡ'‪ ."L‬ی‪ c,‬ا ) ی‪ d 1'% H‬ﺱ') ‬
‫وذاآ ة ‪%‬ﻡ' ﺕ‪[E‬ن =ﺝ اء ﺡار‪ ،‬و ‪ ) $E‬د‬
‫ا ﺝع (‪  -‬ه 'ور ﻡ(‪ X‬ﻥ ً ﺕ‪ NO‬ﺡ ‬
‫ا‪A‬ﻥ(`ال ا ‪ C‬ی(ﻥ‪ C‬ﻡ‪.N‬‬
‫ﻡ ی‪%-‬ا '(\ أن ‪e‬ﻡ‪E‬ﻥ‪ LN‬ﺕ('‪ L‬أﺵء ‪ A‬ی)‪LNE‬‬
‫‪ :‬إذا ﻡ دُرا ‪ 1'%‬ا اءة ا (‪K, 5E‬ء‬
‫ﺕ"آ ه‪ً ;), ،‬‬
‫ا ‪-‬ری\ ه‪ L‬ﻡ‪-‬رآن ‪K  X‬آ‪ -‬و ‪A -( ), $E‬‬
‫ی"آ ون أﻥ‪ LN‬دُرا‪ .‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ا ‪-‬ﻡغ ا ‪ f‬وری "اآ ة‬
‫ﺱ') ﺕ‪ $)f‬ا ‪ L5‬ا ')‪ ،C‬ا )‪N‬د‪ ،‬و ‪ C,‬أﻥ‪15‬‬
‫ا [ ا ‪ CS-‬ﺕ‪ 1%-‬ا ‪ .$‬ی‪ g‬أذاه ‪BE‬‬
‫ص ‪ 1'%‬ذاآ ة اﺡ‪-‬اث وذاآ ة ا )(ﻥ‪.C‬‬

‫ه ا ع ا ‪ ،‬ی  رب ا  ‪.‬‬
‫ی'& ‪ $%‬ﺕ"آ ا   ع ا د ا )( ﻡ ة‬
‫‪ :‬إذا ﻥ‪ 45‬ﻡ ﺕو ‪ 4‬ﻡ‪(3 $‬م ‪1'%‬‬
‫واﺡ‪-‬ة ‪ .0 ,‬ﻡ; ً‬
‫ا=‪<,‬ر وه '‪ B‬ا‪A‬ﺡ)ل‪ ،‬أو ﻡ ﺡ‪-‬ث ا (‪-‬‬
‫ا )‪ CD‬وه ﻡ)‪ ،B‬أو ﻡ ﺡ‪-‬ث ‪ C,‬أول یم ﻡ‪$‬‬
‫ا )‪-‬رﺱ وه ﻡ)‪ :, ،$E‬ی)‪ $E‬ﺕ(ی‪ H‬ذ ‪ ) .G‬إذا‬
‫ ت ‪ C,‬دروﺱ‪ G‬أﻡ‪ $E‬ا (ی‪ "K H‬دروس‬
‫إ‪ (M3 . ,D‬ه"ا ا ع ﻡ‪ $‬ا "اآ ة ﺕ‪ L‬ا ‪C, % 5‬‬
‫‪ .N')%‬أﺕ‪ 1‬ﻡ(‪ LO‬ﻡ('ﻡﺕ ‪ $%‬ﺕ ﺕ‪ NM‬ا  ی‪ C‬ﻡ‪$‬‬
‫دراﺱ ا‪ <D‬ا‪ C, N‬أﻡ اض ﻡ;‪ B‬ا ‪ ، M‬أي ا دث‬
‫ا ‪ C%‬ا ‪-‬ﻡ‪ ،CS‬أورام ا ‪-‬ﻡغ‪ ،‬أو ا ‪N‬ب ا ‪-‬ﻡغ‬
‫ ) ا '‪. T‬‬
‫ا ) ‪ 1D‬ا )ن  ‪5‬وة ‪ A‬ی"آ ون ﻡ ' ‬
‫ﺵ ‪ BM‬ﻥ& ﺱ‪ ، %‬أو ‪ ),‬إذا ﻡﺕو ا‬
‫‪(3‬ﻡ‪ ،-( LN‬أو ا )‪E‬ن ا "ي ﺕ آا ‪ X,‬ﺵ‪C‬ء ﻡ‪ .‬أذا‬
‫ﻡ ‪ ُ%‬ض ‪ LN'%‬ﺵ‪ BE‬ﻡ‪ ،‬آ ‪ BE‬ا )‪ C, $M‬ا ) ‪Z‬‬
‫‪ C,‬اﺱ[‪ ،B‬ﺕ)‪E‬ا ﻡ‪ $‬ﻥ‪ - X5‬و ‪ $E‬إذا ﻡ ‪\'ُ3‬‬

‫"‪ C‬ی ' ا ض أو ا‪,‬ذى ا "ه& ﺏ‪%‬ر  ی‪ G  %‬ا ‪ 1!F3‬ا ‪ 4 "- D 4 ! !"E‬أ‪3I‬ال ‪ H!"#‬ا‪*',‬ب ه&ي ه!‪%‬‬

‫ط‬
‫ب‬

‫أ‬
‫ن‬

‫ﺏ&!ن ‪-‬ن اآة ا‪%/,‬اث‪ :‬ا  ‪3/‬ل ا‪)1 ,‬أ‪(/‬‬
‫ا  ‪9‬ول '‪ 4‬ا‪ 8 1 ,‬ا ‪ ،7‬وا ‪) 4!*5‬أزرق(‬
‫ا  ‪9‬ول '‪ 4‬ا ‪35‬ادث وا‪,‬آ‪4‬‬

‫ر  ا  )أ( وآ ا  )ب(‬
‫'&‪ %‬إ ن ‪)  !"#‬ط( و‪* +‬ب ﺏ & وة )ن(‬

‫‪32‬‬

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‫‪ ,6‬أ‪8‬ى 
‪ % 4‬ﺏ?اآة‬
‫دي  ااض ا  إ ا
اب ‬
‫‪ %‬ا ‪#$‬ر آ ً‪& .‬ل ذ ‪-‬‬
‫)‪ +‬ا * )( ا (ی & ً‬
‫"ه ا (ﻥ‪ "+‬وه‪ +‬ﻥ‪6‬ع ‪ 4‬ه ا ‪3‬هی(‪89 .‬‬
‫ی‪8‬ل ه‪C‬ا  ‪6 ً =>?@ AB‬ﻥ< ;‪ +‬أو‬
‫ﺝ(د‪.‬‬

‫"ﺥ‪%‬ی ا (ن" ه‪ 6‬اآ‪f‬ف ‪S‬ﺥ <‪ L
6 .G‬ه‪+) gC‬‬
‫ا @‪ 4B‬و‪ 8 F$‬ور ا @‪6‬ان (ن ‪6 #‬ف‪.‬‬
‫‪6( 3‬ت ‪ 4 $ J‬ا ‪%J‬ی ﺝ‪3‬اء ‪4 $ J‬‬
‫ا (@‪" ]@ i‬یﺱ‪ "G‬ا ((‪6‬ع ﺥی  (ن‪3ّ .‬‬
‫ﺥ‪%‬ی أﺥى )‪ =P +‬ورة ‪ gQ‬ا @آ‪ Q .‬ی‪+$J‬‬
‫أه( إید ا @‪6‬ان (ء وا م و‪ 4‬ﺙ‪ G‬ا ‪6‬دة إ ‬
‫‪ 6k 8 .V>? V‬ا  ‪ G‬ا (‪ ;%‬ه‪  gC‬‬
‫‪C‬آ ا;‪8‬اث )‪ +‬إ‪P‬ر ا (ن‪ ،‬آ‪C‬آ ‪S‬ﺥ ن ‪6ُa‬ه‪8‬‬
‫)‪ V‬ا @‪6‬ان ا (‪$‬س‪ .‬یُ?‪ 8‬أن ا ‪8‬وﻥ ا (‪ f‬ا ((‪8‬ة‬
‫ ?‪%‬ت "ﻥ(‪8‬ا" ه‪ +‬ا (و  ‪ 4‬ا ‪C‬اآة‬
‫ا (ﻥ‪ .‬ی‪8‬ل  ذ ‪ 
-‬اب اﺥة إذا  ‪=P‬‬
‫دواء ;ﺹ (?‪%‬ت "ﻥ(‪8‬ا"  ا @‪ ،4B‬أو‬
‫‪J‬ی ‪6‬رﺙ‪ +‬یدي إ زوال ا (?‪%‬ت‪.‬‬

‫ا?اآة
و‪ A& B %3‬اﺡ ء ا ‬
‫‪ 8‬دراﺱ ا (‪ 4B‬اض ا ‪+) B‬‬
‫‪ L
6‬ا ‪ A>K6‬ا (‪8 $ J‬غ‪ G<) 4 ،‬آ‪F( $‬‬
‫ا ‪8‬غ  ا (‪6‬ى ا ‪6 J‬ي وا (وي ی ‬
‫أ@ﺙ ً ي  ;‪6‬اﻥت ا (‪.J‬‬
‫یُ?‪ 8‬أن ‪8‬ی‪ً8‬ا ‪ S 4‬ت إ?ن ا‪Q‬ر‪P‬ت ا ‪B‬‬
‫)‪ +‬ا ‪ +) F( 4‬ا;‪ F‬ا  ‪ G‬او ‪ .‬دُرس‬
‫ = ا  
‪ +) V# L‬ا ‪BB‬ن وأ‪8@ 4‬ی‪L
6 8‬‬
‫(  "ا ‪6‬ﺱ‪ "G‬ا ‪@ +‬ر ﻥ‪6‬ا‪ F9‬آ(وی ?‪6‬م ‪V‬‬
‫?‪%‬ت و  ‪3J 4‬ی‪" 4‬ﺹ‪6‬رة" ‪Z‬م )‪+‬‬
‫ا ‪8‬غ @] ‪ Q‬ی‪ L‬ا ‪6B‬ص [ه‪& .‬ل ‪S‬ﺥ  ‬
‫‪ S‬ت ا  ‪ G‬ا (@‪6   6‬ر ه‪C 6‬وق ا @‪6‬اﻥت‬
‫ا ‪ $‬م (ت ﺹ*ة (‪ 3‬ا `ر ‪ 4‬ا )‪.L‬‬
‫)‪ +‬ا <ی ی‪%a B‬ل ا‪ab‬رات )‪ +‬ﻥ‪6‬اة ﺥ  ا ‪8‬غ‬
‫ ‪ F$‬ا (‪6‬رﺙت ا ‪ G@ +‬إﻥج و‪ 4‬ﺥص‬
‫ول ‪ d& 4‬ا ‪C‬اآة‪.‬‬

‫
ا
ًا و‬
‫ ا ت ﺏد‪،‬‬
‫ی ! ‬

‫‪F‬‬

‫‪
, -‬أرﺏ‪ %‬أ*ك
(رو&‪ $ %‬ا ؛ ‪،2 ،1‬‬
‫وأﺡ ً ‪ & ,56 4‬ت ‪
$ 34‬ن 

‫)ا‪ %9‬ا‪ %48-‬ا‪6‬اء ‪ $‬اا;ة(‬

‫‪33‬‬

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‫‪ !"#$‬ا ث‬

‫ اذ  ا ا  أن 
 اض‬

‫ه> ‪   9‬ا اآ
ة؟‬
‫
غ   اآ  آ

 ‪،‬‬
‫ ' & & ا‪#
$%‬ﻥ! ا  ا ‪.‬‬
‫
ا‪ 
%‬ﻥن ' ا‪01‬ف ﺡ‪ ,-‬أ‪*#‬اء‬
‫ا  ا‪ ً' 34‬ى 
&‪.  ,5‬‬

‫‪, -.‬ر* ا)ان واذان  إد ‪%$‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺡض ﻡء إ ر ‪3‬ة ﻡ ‪ 0,‬اء‪.‬‬
‫‪ ,‬اا‪3‬ت ه?> ا=< ;‪ 9:‬أو ‪8‬ب‬
‫ت "‪3‬ا" ‪ 5‬ا=‪.-‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ً #;C‬‬
‫‪ 5 ّF‬ا=‪ 9‬ا‪ KC‬أن وزن ا‪; HI‬ل‬
‫وث ‪L,‬ات ‪ 5‬ﻡ‪#;C‬ت "‪M‬ﻡ"؛ ‪*=F,‬‬
‫أث ﻡ‪  <Q.‬إد ‪ 5‬إذا آن ‪ O3‬ا‪I‬ء‬
‫ث ‪ 5‬ا‪ HI‬ا‪? <F‬اآة‪.‬‬
‫< د  ر &‪
9‬ة ا اآ
ة ا‬
‫ا‪?  3B‬ة ‪A‬ت ‪= >?3‬‬
‫‪5C‬‬
‫‪ ps‬ا‪*4‬ن ا‬
‫‪ vc‬آ
ا ا 
‪,‬‬
‫‪ ce‬ا‪ 3‬ا
آ*ي‬
‫و‪ 
F‬ه  ا
اآ* & اغ‬

‫‪34‬‬

‫ا?اآة اة ه ا; ‪,  R5,‬ازن ‪-‬‬
‫ا;?آ وا‪CF‬ن‪  ;5 ،‬ا ﻡر ا‪%‬ﻡ< و‪CF,‬‬
‫ا ﻡر ‪ 8‬ا‪%‬ﻡ<‪ - T;F .‬ذ‪ H‬أن ‪ -C,‬ا;?آ‬
‫ ‪X‬دي إ م ‪C3‬ن ا ﻡر ا;‪ <%5‬ا; ‪!F U‬‬
‫‪?,‬آه‪? .‬اآة ﻡ‪ 5 <Q‬ا داء ‪ 9,‬ﻡ‪:, -‬‬
‫دواء ;‪ -C‬ا?اآة ‪ F‬ا ء أﻡًا ‪ 8‬ﻡ ِ‪.‬‬
‫‪# -. 9‬ج ا‪CF‬ن ا[ ‪Z‬د أدو<‬
‫‪ 9 -C,‬ﻡ‪#;C‬ت "‪3‬ا" أو "‪M‬ﻡ"‪،‬أو ا‪F‬ا]‪9‬‬
‫ا;< ا‪ 9F <F‬ا`ﺵرة ‪ 5‬ﻡ‪^F‬ﻡ< ا?اآة‪.‬‬
‫ه?ا ﻡ ‪ C,‬إ‪ b‬ا ث ا‪a <;%‬ﻡاض ا;ه<‬
‫ﻡ‪ 9Q‬داء ا‪c‬ه‪ .‬ه ﻡض ‪c‬داد اﺡ;ل ا`<‬
‫‪ b‬ﻡ! ‪,‬م ا‪ %I, .-C‬اول ا;ﻡ< ازددًا‬
‫ﻡ‪:d‬دًا ‪ 5‬د ا=‪ً^3 b -‬ا ;‪-C‬‬
‫ا‪;C‬ى ا= ا?ي أدى إ ازدد ‪ <C3‬ا‪I‬خ‬
‫‪ 5‬ا;آ< ا‪ .<3.C‬إد ‪#‬ج ‪3‬ﺝ!  ﻡ‪-‬‬
‫ا ;د ا[  ا‪j‬ﺥ‪ 5 -‬أﻡر ﺡ‪h%,‬‬
‫اﻡ< و; ﻡ‪ -‬و‪a$‬ة اض  ا;!‪.‬‬
‫‪ k‬اء ; ‪d‬ورة " ا‪ < F%‬ا`دراآ< "‬
‫آ‪#‬ج إ[‪ 5‬ﺝ‪ ًF‬إ ﺝ‪ *F‬ﻡ! اواء‪ ،‬و‪-d;,‬‬
‫زدة ‪ 5‬ا‪ ،>;3U‬ا ة ا‪c‬ﻡ‪ - <F‬ﺝ‪C‬ت‬
‫ا;‪ ،h‬و‪.,‬ار ا;?آ؛ آ‪ 9‬ذ‪"0Q," -C; H‬‬
‫اﻡت‪ k .‬ا[ ا‪I‬خ ‪;C‬ون ﻡ‪-‬‬
‫ﻡ‪^F‬ﻡ< ‪F‬اء ‪?,‬آه‪ h‬ﺥ‪:‬ة ‪:‬ة ‪3‬ﻡ‪h%‬‬
‫اﻡ ;‪  *L‬ﻡ‪I‬آ‪ 9‬ا?اآة‪ .‬ﻡ‪ -‬ا‪ h%‬أدراك‬
‫اق ‪ -‬ذاآة ا ﺡاث ا; ‪ .‬ا‪C‬ع ‪،%‬‬
‫‪ h, F‬ا‪%‬رات ‪ b5 !F U‬إ‪ U‬ا;ر* ا;‪.‬ر‪.‬‬

‫*   ‪-‬رب ا اآ
ة‬
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‫‪ÑÊæÊáÇ‬‬
‫ﻟﻚ–‬
‫ﺎﺫ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﺟ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔ ‪.‬ﻛ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻭﻱﺍ‬
‫ﺘﻰﺫ‬
‫ﻴﺐﺣ‬
‫ﺮﻳﺼ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺇﻥﺍ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧ‬
‫ﻮﻉﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺎﺿﻲﻭﺣ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺲ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻥﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻭﻣ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻊﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺍﻳ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ء‪.‬ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺪﺳ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺣ‬
‫ءﻋ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ءﻭﺍﻷﻋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻊﺍﻷﺻ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺎﻻﺕ؟ﻣ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻜﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺪﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻮﺏ؟ﻫﻞﻫ‬
‫ﺮﻏ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻩﻏ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺒﺐﺷ‬
‫ﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻢﻛ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺍ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺅ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺎﺏﺑ‬
‫ءﺍﻷﻋﺼ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺄ؟ﻋ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻄ‬
‫ﺮﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺪﺙﺣ‬
‫ﻳﺤ‬
‫ﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺩﻋ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺎﺳ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻛ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﻪ؟‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻧﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﻫ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻜﻦﺑ‬
‫ﺍﻭﻟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﺲﺩ‬
‫ﻮﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻫ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻐﻂ–ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻀ‬
‫ﻧﻚﺗﺤﺖﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻘﻂﻛ‬
‫ﻴﺲﻓ‬
‫ﺮﻟ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫‪‬ﻛ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺠﺴ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻪﻭﻳ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻴﻦﻣ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻑﺑ‬
‫ءﻣﻦﺍﺧ‬
‫ﻟﺸﻲ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﺼ‬
‫ﻜﺲﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻔﺴﻲﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺃﺻﻞﻧ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﻟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘﻲﻧ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻦﻷﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺴ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤﻲ ‪.‬ﻣ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺎﺡﺍﻷ‬
‫ﻨﺠ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻟ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻧ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳﻦﺣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻞﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻤﻞ‪.‬ﻳ‬
‫ﻨﺼﺐﻋ‬
‫ﻴﻞﻣ‬
‫ﺓﻷﺟﻞﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻭﻻﺣ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺴ‬
‫ﺩﺃ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺮﺽﺣ‬
‫ﺜﻞ ‪:‬ﻣ‬
‫ﺋﻲﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻮﻉﻓ‬
‫ﺮﻯﻣﻦﻧ‬
‫ﺍﺕﺃﺧ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺩﺙﺳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲﺣ‬
‫ﻢﻭ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺜﻼﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻣﺠ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺓ ﻫﻲﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻏ‬
‫ﻠﻖﻭ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﺒﻄ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺽﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺮﻯﺃ‬
‫ﺔﺍﻷﺧ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻻﺕﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺧ‬
‫ﻮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﺐﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺼ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺳ‬
‫ﺃﺳ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﺮﻫ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺎﺕ ﺣ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺇ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﺔﻭﻭ‬
‫ﻴﻄ‬
‫ﺒﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺎ‪٬‬ﺟ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺟﺴ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺔﻭﻓﻲﺧﻼ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻭﺣ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺜﻼﻫ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻔﻆﻋ‬
‫ﻡﺑﺤ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺭﺉﺗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟﻄ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻊﺣ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺔ–ﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺼ‬
‫ﺎﺕ–ﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺪﻋﻰﺑ‬
‫ﺔﺗ‬
‫ﺘﺨﺼﺼ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻞﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻭﻥﺗﺸ‬
‫ﺎﻣﻦﺩ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻭﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺃ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺓﺗ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﻹﻋ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻝﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺎﻭﺍﺧ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻭﻥﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻤﺢﺑﺤ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺓ‪٬‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺧﻄ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻋ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺒﺖﺁ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺮﺍﺳ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻥ‪٬‬ﻋ‬
‫ﻧﺴ‬
‫ﺎﻹ‬
‫ﺓﻛ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺭﺟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻋ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻏ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎ ‪.‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺟﺴ‬
‫ﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻝﻋ‬
‫ﺍﺧ‬

‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺴﻖﺑ‬
‫ﻪﻳ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺩﻋ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺎﻳ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺣ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﻛ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﺕﺩ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺆﺷ‬
‫ﻊﻣ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻍﺗ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻊﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻭﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍﻻ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺔﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫‪‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺔﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
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‫ﺪﺧﻞﻫ‬
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‫ﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
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‫ﺄ‬
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‫ﺍﻻﺳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺠﺴ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻹ‬

‫ﻭﺏ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺒﻲ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺯﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺮﻑﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻳ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟﻲﻟ‬
‫ﻪﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻫﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻬﻞﺍﺳ‬
‫ﺃﺳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺮﻭﺗﺤ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
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‫ﻣﻞﻣﻦ ﻋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺮﺽﻟ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺩﻱ‪.‬ﺑ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
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‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺍ‬
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‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻟﻰﺇ‬
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‫ﺆ‬
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‫ﺒﻲﻫ‬
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‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫‪‬ﺇ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻕﺍ‬
‫ﻊﻓ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺔ‬
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‫ﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻧ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺨﻄ‬
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‫ﺩﻋ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﻞﻋ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺍﻻﺳ‬
‫ﺭﻉ‬
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‫ﻘﺾ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺎﻉﻓﻲ ﺿ‬
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‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺒﻼﺕﻋ‬
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‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﻣﺴ‬
‫ﻳﻀ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺃ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭ (ﻭﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻗﺸ‬
‫ﺍﺕ )ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
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‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫ﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
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‫ﻭ‬
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‫ﻬ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗ‬
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‫ﺍﻹﺣﺴ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﺿﻄ‬
‫ﺑ‬

‫ﺎﻍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻌﻀﻼﺕﻭ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
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‫ﺍ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀ‬
‫ﻡﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻛ‬
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‫ﺗ‬

‫‪PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software‬‬

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‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻄ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻮﻥﺑ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮﻥﺁ‬
‫ﻗﻒﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺄﺗ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﺍﻳ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺑﺖﻭﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻌﻼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺒﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻜﻲﻳ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻜﻼﺳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻨﻰﺍ‬
‫ﻨﺤ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻜﻞ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺮﺳﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻨﻰﺟ‬
‫ﻨﺤ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻤﻰﺑ‬
‫ﻮﻣﺴ‬
‫ﺎﻫ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺮﻭﻋ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺮﺿ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻨﻰ‬
‫ﻨﺤ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺳ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺣﺴ‬

‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻮﻯﻫ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻮﺃﺣﺴﻦﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻚﻫ‬
‫ﺮﻣﻦﺫ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺔﻟﻚ‪٬‬ﺃ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻮﺣﺴﻦﺑ‬
‫ﻴﻒﻫ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺿ‬
‫ء!‬
‫ﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺮﻃ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺒﻲﻭﻋ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻹ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺠﺴ‬
‫ﺑﻂﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻪﻣﺼ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻮﺗ‬
‫ﺮﻫ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻋ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺛ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻢﺇﺳ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻱ–‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭﺗﺤﺖﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻻﻭﻫ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻄ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺑ‬

‫ﺰﺉ‬
‫ﺮﺟ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺩﺗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﺗﺤﺖ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻨﻄ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬ﻣ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﺎﺻ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺧ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻫ‬
‫ﺣ‬
‫ﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﺧﻞﻣﻦﻣﺨ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺈﻥﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻂﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﺳﻲﻓﻲﺗﻀ‬
‫ﺃﺳ‬
‫ﺬﻉ‬
‫ﺎﻃﻖﺟ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺯﻱﻭﻣﻦﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺎﻻﺕﺗﺸ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺔﻟﻺ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻟﻺﺳ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﺦ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺮﺝﻋ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺳﻖ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺝﻣ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺢﺑ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗﺴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎﻝﻫ‬
‫ﺩﺧ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻻﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺼ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻨﻄ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻦ )‪(ACTH‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺯﻫ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺑﻞﻫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺯﻫ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺔﻹ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻨﻄ‬
‫ﻨﺸﻂﻣ‬
‫ـ ) ‪(ACTH‬ﻳ‬
‫ـ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺣ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺭﻓ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻮﻣﺤ‬
‫ﺪﻱﻭﻫ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻮﻥﺳ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻮﻫ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻫ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺔﺃﺧ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺎﺕ ﻃ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻡﻭﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻊﻧﺴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺮﻓ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻋﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻐ ﺾﺍ‬
‫ﺪﺙﺑ‬
‫ﺍﻳﺤ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺪﺳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺽﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻷﺣ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻠﻰﻣﺴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻳﻀ‬
‫ﻡﺃ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻌﻀﻼﺕﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﻲﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺩﺣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺪﻋ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻳﺐﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﻯﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻱ‪٬‬ﻭﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻐﻂﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻀ‬
‫ﻊﺍ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴﻦﻟ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻲﺁﺧ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘﻰﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻮﺳ‬
‫ﻔﻞﻣ‬
‫ﺩﻱﻓﻲﺣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ءﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺜﻞﻏ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺣ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﺡﻓﻲﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎﻻ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻞﺣ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺑ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻃ‬
‫ﻜﻞﺑﺴ‬
‫ﺪﺑ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﺗ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺭﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻓﻲﺃ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻪﻳ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺪﻓ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ءﺗ‬
‫ﺷﻲ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺂ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺇ‬
‫ﻳﻀ‬
‫ﺎﺏﻭﺃ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢ‪٬‬ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻬﻀ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺒﺢﺍ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﺨﺠﻞ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻚﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻛ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻋﻦﻫ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺑ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻮﻱﺟ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺃﻥﺗﺴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺘﻲﻳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭﺡﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﺁ‬
‫ﺭﻫ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﺮﻣ‬
‫ﻨﺴﻲ‪٬‬ﺁﺧ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺬﻱﻳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺁ‬
‫ﺮﻥ‬
‫ﺓﻓﻲﻗ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻣ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺒﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﺮﻛ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺯﻱﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻋ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺃﻥﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺓ‪٬‬ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢ‪٬‬ﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺰﻟ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺯﻱﻛﻲﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻤﻦﻓﻲﺗﺸ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻌﻞﻳ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻖ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻑﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺪﺙ ‪:‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺤ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴﻞﻣﻦﺣ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺁ‬
‫ﺮﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻗ‬
‫ﺒﺢﻋ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻮﻑﻭﻳ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺠ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺔﻓ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺪﺙﻭﻋ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻡﺗﺴﺠﻞﻓﻲﻣﺠ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﺯ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺯﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺳﻲ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮﺹﻓﻲﺍﻹ‬
‫ﻟﺨﺼ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻏ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻠﺺﻓﻲﻫ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺁ‬
‫ﺮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻥﻗ‬
‫ﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺒﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺮﻃ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻮﺇﻻﺣ‬
‫ﺎﻫ‬
‫ﺒﻲﻣ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎﺝﺃﻥﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻔﺲﺍﺳ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺩﺕﺃﻃ‬
‫ﺋﺞﺃ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺒﺐﻟ‬
‫ﻭﻝﺳ‬
‫ﻮﺃ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻫ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻉﺍ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪﺃﻥﺍ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺆ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﺲﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻱ‪٬‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﺕﻗ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻄ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻪ‪٬‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻓﻖﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻔﺴﻲﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺏﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔ ﻻﺿﻄ‬
‫ﻴﺠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻪﻧ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺮﺽﻣﻦﺃ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺎﺻ‬
‫ﻭﻝ ﺧ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺝﺍ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎﻑﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﻢﺑ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺪﻣﻦﻣ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻢﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻮﻥﻳ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻟﻺ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻜﻼﺳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻀ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻳﻦﻻ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺋﻚ‬
‫ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺭﺗﺤﺖ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤﺤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺩﻟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻳﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺗ‬
‫ﻤﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺒﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺍﺕﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻀ‬
‫ﺒﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴﻂﻣﺴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘﻀ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺑ‬
‫ﺔﻭﺫ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ–ﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺩﻱ–ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻍﻳ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻮﻥ ‪.‬ﻋ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮﻥﺁ‬
‫ﺎﻓﻲﻗ‬
‫ﻮﺻ‬
‫ﻭﻝ ) ‪(GR) (MR‬ﺧﺼ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳﻞﻋ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‪٬‬ﻭﺫ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘﻲﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌﻼﺝﻟﻺﺿﻄ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺗﻄ‬
‫ﻋ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺮﻃ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳ‬
‫ﻴﻞﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺴﻦ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺮﻭﻛ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻕﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﻙﻓ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻪﺍ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺎﺽﻓﻲﻗ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻧﺨ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺴﻦﻳﺼﺤﺐﺑ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻍﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺎﺟﺢ (ﻭﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺳﻦﻧ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺔ )ﻛ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺔﺣﺴ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻣ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻔﻆﻗ‬
‫ﻌﺾﻳﺤ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫؟‬
‫ﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺌﻲ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺮﺟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔﺴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻋﻄ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﻚ‪.‬ﻫﻞ‬
‫ﻜﺲﺫ‬
‫ﺮﻋ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧ‬
‫ﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔﺳ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘﻰﻗ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻢﺗ‬
‫ﻳﻦﻟ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻣ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻮﻉﻓﻲﺣﺠ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻭﺭﺟ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺽﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻧﺨ‬
‫ﺒﻖﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺮﺗ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺎﻉﻟ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺍﻻ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺑﺠ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺨﺺ‬
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‫ﻳﺤ‬

‫ﻪﻓﻲ‬
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‫ﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍ‬

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‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌﻀ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺪﺍﻷﺟﺴ‬
‫ﺎﻉ ﺿ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻭﻝ ﺧﻂﻟ‬
‫ﻮﺃ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻲ ﻫ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺯﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪٬‬ﻳ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻔﻄ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪٬‬ﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺜﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻡﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻩﺍﻷﺟﺴ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌﻀ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺪﻣ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﺓﻭﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻲﻣ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺓﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺮﺿ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻣﻦﻫﻲﻏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ ‪HIV‬ﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﻭﺱﺍ‬
‫ﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺜﻞ ‪:‬ﻓ‬
‫ﺓﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠﺤ‬
‫ﺓﻟ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺓﻭﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻣﻦﻫﻲﺧﻄ‬
‫ﺯ (‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺴﻞ )‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺎﻭﻣ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻻﺟ‬
‫ﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‪,‬‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫‪CRP‬‬

‫‪ACTH‬‬

‫ﻤﺞ‬
‫ﺧ‬
‫ﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻤﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﺞﺍ‬
‫ﻨﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺃﻱﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻮﺿ‬
‫ﻟﻰﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮﻕ‪٬‬ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺓﻃ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺑ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺔﺗ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻡﻭﺗﺤ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺮﻓﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻢﻭﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻡﻭ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺪﺙﺗ‬
‫ﻠﻒﻳﺤ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻤﺞ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺃﻻ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺃﻋ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺑ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺆ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻂ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﺎﻥﺗ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣ‬
‫ﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻀ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺓﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ءﻭﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻀ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻝﺍ‬
‫ﻊﺩﺧ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺯﻓﻲﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻢﻗ‬
‫ﺎﻑﺛ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺮﻑﻭﺇﺿ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻡﺑ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﻟ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺔﻓ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻥﺍ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟﻰﻣ‬
‫ﺮﺇ‬
‫ﺎﺟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺔﺗ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺪﺙﺃﻋ‬
‫ﺔﺗﺤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﺓﻟﻺﺳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻛ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺴ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻔﺸ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻢ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺓ‪٬‬‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺟ‬
‫ﺎﻉﺩ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺃﻻﻭﻫﻲ )‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﺑ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻭﺷ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻠﺐﻋ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﺍﺽﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻩﺍﻷﻋ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻝ (‪٬‬ﻛﻞﻫ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺍﻥﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺏ‪٬‬ﻏ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻻ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ءﻫ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻠﻒﻣﻦﺟ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻄ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﻓﻈ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﺞﻭ‬
‫ﻟﺨ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﺟﺐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴﺴ‬
‫ﺔﻓ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺧ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺿ‬
‫ﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻣﻞﻳ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻁ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻂ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺠﺴ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻢﻣﻦﻃ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻴﻂﻣﺤ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺗﻀ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻚﻣ‬
‫ﺫ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻹﺳ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻍﻭ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻌﻼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻒ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻙﻣﺨ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻰﺇ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻔﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻲﻣ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻮﻣ‬
‫ﻮﻋﻀ‬
‫ﺎﻍﻫ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺄﻥﺍ‬
‫ﺮﺑ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺆﺷ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﺃﻥﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘﻄ‬
‫ﺎﻍﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻲ‪٬‬ﻣ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺠ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻲﻭ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺍﻵ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺮﺽﻣﺠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻍﻳ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺭﺏﺃﻥﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺪﺃﻇ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻐﻲ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺑﻖﺃ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺩﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻓﻼﻋ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﻢ ‪.‬ﺍ‬
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‫ﺒ‬
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‫ﻡ ( ‪.‬ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺭ ‪ .(5‬ﻭﻋ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﻮﺻﻞﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻉ )‪) (C‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻑﻣﻦﻧ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺘﻲ‬
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‫ﺭﺉ‪ .‬ﻃ‬
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‫ﻳﻦ (ﻭﺍ‬
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‫ﺮ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻋﺼ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺁ‬

‫ﺎﺕﻭ‬
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‫ﻤ‬
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‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
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‫ﻮ‬
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‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻒ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺧ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻊﻫ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺗ‬
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‫ﻠ‬
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‫ﺔﺗ‬
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‫ﻌ‬
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‫ﺒ‬
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‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﻤﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺸ‬
‫ﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺠﻲ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻧﺴ‬
‫ﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻰﻣ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
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‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﻟﻰﺍﻷﻋﻀ‬
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‫ﺎﻍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﻨ‬
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‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
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‫‪‬‬
‫ﻤﺞ‬
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‫ﺮ ) ‪( CRF‬ﻣﺴ‬
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‫ﺍﺍﻷﺧ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻴﻦ )‪(ACTH‬ﻫ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
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‫ﺎﻥ (‪٬‬ﺗ‬
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‫ﻭﻝﻋ‬
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‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﻻﺳ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻭ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
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‫ﺎﻋ‬
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‫ﺪ‬
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‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭﺿﺤﺖﺍ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺜﻞﻣ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺽﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻌﺾﺍﻷ‬
‫ﺎﻓﻲﺑ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﻢﺇ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗﺴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺜﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎﺏ ) ‪ ( multiple sclerosis‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻸﻋﺼ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﺐﺍ‬
‫ﺘﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻩ‬
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‫ﻊﻟ‬
‫ﻔ‬
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‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺯﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻳ‬
‫ﺮ << ‪.‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺒﻲ >>ﺃ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻼﻝﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
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‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ّﺫ‬
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‫ﻜﻦﻓﻲ ﺣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴﻦﻳ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺋ‬
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‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻬ‬
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‫ﻌﺾﻣ‬
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‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻭ‬
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‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻏ‬
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‫ﺩﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺇﺟ‬
‫ﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺎﻫ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺔﺷﻖ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺋ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﻴﻂﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﺪﻑﺗ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻭﻋﻼﺝﻷ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺘﺸ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺗﻲﺑ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﻪﺃﻥﻳ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺏﻳ‬
‫ﻢﺍﻷﻋﺼ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻘﻞﻋ‬
‫ﺪﻓﻲﺣ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺟ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬

‫ﺒﻂ‪http://science.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm :‬‬
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‫ﺍﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ءﻫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻀ‬
‫ﻡﻭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﺖﺇ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺣ‬
‫ﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘﻄ‬
‫ﻧﻚﻻﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺪﻙﺃ‬
‫ﺎﻏﻚﻭﺟﺴ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮﻙﺩ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺨ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﺴ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔﻟﻺ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻃ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻜﻦﻻ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻗﺖﻗﺼ‬
‫ﻟﻚﻓﻲﻭ‬
‫ﻮﻥﺫ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺪﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺓﻣﻦﺑ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﺎﻅ ( ﻫﻲﻭ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻡ ‪/‬ﺇﺳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺓ )ﻧ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻫﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺓ‪٬‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻫ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻍ ‪.‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻠﺠﺴ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺋﻒﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻮﻇ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻞ؟‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺎﻭ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺔﻋ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺆ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻏ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻭﺟ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺎﺑ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺔﺗ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘﺼ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺍﺧ‬
‫ﺓﺩ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺎﻅﻫﻲﺩ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺇﺳ‬
‫ﻡ‪/‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺓﻧ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻤﻰﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺍﻣ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺓﻫ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮﻻ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﻰﺑ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺔﺍﻷ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺍﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺔﺇ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻝ <‬
‫ﻨﻲ >ﺣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎ <ﺗ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔ >ﺳ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺔﻻ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻫﻲﻛ‬
‫ﺎﻥ (ﻭ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﻣﻲ )ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟﺼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺄﺧ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻢﻋ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺮﻣ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻡ <‪.‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻨﻲ >‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎﻥ <‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻭ>‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻥﻗﺼﻄ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺄﺧ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻝﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺔﻟﻸﻃ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺑ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻡﻛ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡﺧﻼﻝﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻗﺼ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺎﻝﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺃﺧ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﺪﻓ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻡﺟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻘﻂ–‬
‫ﻴﻞﻓ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻥﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺭﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ءﺑ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺔ ‪.II‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳﺨ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﺸﺨﺼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺋﻖ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻤﺲﺩ‬
‫ـﺧ‬
‫ﺭﺑ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻡﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺬﻓ‬
‫ﺄﺧ‬
‫ﺎﻥﻳ‬
‫ﻪﻛ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻞﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻮﻥﺗﺸ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻧﺴ‬
‫ﺍﺕ !‪.‬‬
‫ء‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻥﺧﻼ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣ‬
‫ﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺭﻱﻫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻂﺑ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻅﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻡﻭﺍﻹ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺩﻱﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺫﺝﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻼ‬
‫ﺓﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺔ ﺻ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺮﻕﻣﺠ‬
‫ﻗﺐﻣﻦ ﻃ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻮﺻ‬
‫ﺧﺼ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺓﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺮﻱﺗﺸ‬
‫ﺒﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﺐﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻕﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺗﺤﺖﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻨﻄ‬
‫ﺓﻓﻲﻣ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻨﻄ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﻲﻫ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺮﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺔﻏ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻄ‬
‫ﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﺐﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮﻕﺍ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎ‪.‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺑ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻞﻓ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻟ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻐﺼ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺓﺑ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺑﻚﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺸ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﺍ‬
‫ﻌﻈ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ءﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺮﺟ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻤﺠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺔﺇﻋ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜﻦﺑﻄ‬
‫ﻡ ‪.‬ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻧﺸ‬
‫ﻴﻼﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺄﻗ‬
‫ﺑﻄ‬
‫ﺎﻥﻫﻲﺃ‬
‫ﻧﺴ‬
‫ﺪﺍﻹ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻋ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺘﻰﻳ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻴﺚﺗﺨ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻳﻖﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺠﻞﻋﻦﻃ‬
‫ﺎﺗ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭﻭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻦﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺱﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻮﻋ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻳﻖﻣﺠ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻋﻦﻃ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺮﻑﻫ‬
‫ﻋ‬
‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺓﻃ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻛﻦﻣﻈ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻓﻲﺃ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻭﺿ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟﻚﻋ‬
‫ﻡﻭﺫ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻳﺖﻋﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺟ‬
‫ﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺫﺝﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺭ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻘﻲﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻗﺖﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺕﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺆﺷ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪ ﻋﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻛﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﺎ ‪25‬ﺳ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﻅﻫ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳ‬
‫ﻡﻭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺾ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺄﺧ‬
‫ﻳ‬

‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍﺱﺷﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻋ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻊﺇ‬
‫ﺎﻭﺿ‬
‫ﺍﻣ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺃﺇ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻳ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴﺲﻋ‬
‫ﻡﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻏﻲﻳﺴﺠﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻁﺍ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺱﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺋﻲﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺯﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺈﻥﺍ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻡ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻓﻲﻣﺨ‬
‫ﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻔﻈ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻍﺳ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﻅﻳﻈ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳ‬
‫ﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﺣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻪﺧ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻢﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻮﻥﻣﺴ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺋﻲﻳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻜﺚﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻧ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻏﻲ‪٬‬ﺟ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻠﺴ‬
‫ﻟﻰﺳ‬
‫ﻘﻞﺇ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺎﻧ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺭﺣ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻔﻆﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﺔﻭﻳ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺪﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺼ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺓﻟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻮﺟ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﻰ )ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞﺗﺴ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻡ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻪﺧ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟﺸ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻪﺗﺼ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺪﺃ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺪ ‪.‬ﻳ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺍﺑ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻢﺟ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻢﺗ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻟ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺔﻫ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫)‪ (SWS‬ﺣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺑ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺔﻓ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﺎﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻳﺠ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺒﺢﺗ‬
‫ﺘﺼ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺮﻣﺴ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻏ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻌﻀﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺎﻝﻟ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻴﻂﻓ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻢﺗ‬
‫ﻪﺗ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺔﻷ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻔﺴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻌﻀﻼﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻘﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻆﺗ‬
‫ﻜﻦﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻱ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻜﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺷ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻀﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻡ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻴﻦﻫ‬
‫ﺮﺑ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﺕﻣﺴ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﻘﻰﻓﻲﺩ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﻧ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﻴﻞﻓ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝﺍ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻪﻣ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺒﺢﻳﺸ‬
‫ﺋﻲﻳﺼ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺱﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻢﻣ‬
‫ﺈﻥﺭﺳ‬
‫ﺎﻓ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺪﻣ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻣ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻮﻥﻫ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺍﻥﺗﺤﺖﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﻮﻥﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺟﺊﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺪﻣ‬
‫ﺪﺙﺗﺸ‬
‫ﺘﺤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻅﻓ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺮﺏﻣ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻮﻥﺃ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻡﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﺔ )‪(REM‬ﻣ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤﻰﺣ‬
‫ﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻪﻻﻳ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﺔﻓ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﻴﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔﺣ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻟﺸﺨﺺﻓﻲﻣ‬
‫ﻘﻆﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺍﺳ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﻢﺇ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻠﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪.‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻢﻋ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻢﻳﺤ‬
‫ﻪﻟ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺮﺡﺃ‬
‫ﺎﻙﻣﻦﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻢ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻮﻉﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺔﺣ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﺓﻣﻦﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺍﻁﻗﺼ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟﻰ ‪6‬ﺃﺷ‬
‫ﻪ ‪4‬ﺇ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺎﻟ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟﺐﻣ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻝ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺔﻛ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻩﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻴﻼﻣﻦﻫ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺎﻗ‬
‫ﻠﻚﻗﺼﻄ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺮﻳ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﻟﺼ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠﺤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬

‫ﻘﻆ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻣﺴ‬
‫‪REM‬‬
‫ﺔ‪1‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‪2‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‪3‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺔ‪4‬‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻣ‬

‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺳ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻡﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺜﻞﻣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻳ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻧﻲﺳ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻠﻲﻋ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫‪264‬ﺳ‬

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‫ﺎﺱﻭﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺴ‬
‫ﺔﻭ‬
‫ﻘﻀ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺔﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺒﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻡﻗ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻪﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻗ‬
‫ﻴﻖﻣ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻢﻓ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻹ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻢﻋ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴﻒﻳ‬
‫ﻛ‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍﻻ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺨﺺﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺐﻓ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺇ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺭﻭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺎﻍ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻃﻖﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠﻒﻣ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﻲﻣﺨ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺍ‬
‫ﻴﻞﻋ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺠ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺑ‬
‫ﻡﻭﺫ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﻬﻲﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺯﺗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻟﻚﺟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺃﻥﻫ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺪﺃﻇ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻡ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺓﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝﺍ‬
‫ﺪﻋﻰ‬
‫ﺎﻳ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺪﻣ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‬
‫ﺎﻭ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺔ‪٬‬ﻳﺸ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻗﻼﺕﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﻣﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺧﻼ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺦﺑ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺬﻉﺍ‬
‫ﺟ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺄﺧ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺌ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻼﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻦﻓﻲﺃﺣ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷ‬
‫ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺔﺇ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺮﺣ‬
‫ﻡﻣﻦﻣ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻘﻞﻋ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺔﺑ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻠﺸ‬
‫ﻤﺢﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗﺴ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻢﺍﻵ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻢﺗﺤ‬
‫ﺪﺗ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺛﻲ‪٬‬ﻓ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺏﺍ‬
‫ﻢﺍﻷﻋﺼ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺗﺞﻋﻦﻋ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻢﻧ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺎﻑﻣ‬
‫ﺘﺸ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺮﻯ ‪.‬ﺇ‬
‫ﺃﺧ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺔﻭﺗ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻟﺴ‬
‫ﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺬﻱﻳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻨﻦﺍ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭﻻﺏﺍ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻪﻓﻲﻋ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺗﺸ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﻲﻫ‬
‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺪﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﻉ‪٬‬‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﻟﻼ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺌ‬
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‫ﺰ‬
‫ﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻧﻄﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻹ‬
‫ﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺔﻣﺤ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺪﺃﻥﻫ‬
‫ﻴﺚﻭﺟ‬
‫ﻪ (ﺣ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ )ﺫ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻭﺳ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺍ‬
‫ﺮﺕﻋ‬
‫ﺩﺃﺟ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺼ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻨﻈ‬
‫ﻜﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻤﻞﺑ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﻥﺑ‬
‫ﺘﺠ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺎﻥ ‪PER‬ﻭ ‪TIM‬ﺗ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻡ–‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻓﻲﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺃﻣ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺘﻲﺗ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻨﻲﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻞﺍ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺔﺍ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻮﻝﻭﻋ‬
‫ﺮﺳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫‪ARN‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﺑﻂﻓ‬
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‫ﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﻨﺸ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
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‫ﺒ‬
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‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻢﻫ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺎﺍ‬
‫ﻫ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻔﻆﻣﺴ‬
‫ﻨﺨ‬
‫ﺬﻱﻳ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺎﺕﺍ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻴﻚﺍ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠﻰﺗ‬
‫ﺪﻋ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﺭﻳﺴ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ءﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺿ‬
‫ﺍﻭ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻜ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺭﻳ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫ﺒﻂ‪٬‬ﻫ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﺕ ‪PER‬ﻭ ‪TIM‬ﺗ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻘﻄ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﺮﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﺎﻁﻣﺸ‬
‫ﻧﺸ‬
‫ﺎﺕﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻌﺼ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻣ‬
‫ﺫ‬
‫ﺇ‬
‫ﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺎﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺒ‬
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‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﺬ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺔﻟ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺛ‬
‫ﺎ‬
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‫ﺔﻣ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
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‫ﻤﻞﺑﻄ‬
‫ﻌ‬
‫ﺎﻧﺤﻦﻳ‬
‫ﻬ‬
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‫ﺎﺕﺑ‬
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‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﺔﻫﻲ ﺟ‬
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‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﺨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺎﺷ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺔ "ﻣ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻠﺴ‬
‫ﺮﻟ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ"‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺮﻳﻈ‬
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺭﻃ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻓ‬

‫ﻗﻒ"‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺰﻭ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﺍﻟ‬
‫ﺮ"‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﻌﻲﻳﻈ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺭﻃ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻓ‬

‫ﻗﻒ"‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺰﻭ‬
‫ﻔ‬
‫ﻘ‬
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‫ﺮ"‬
‫ﻬ‬
‫ﺬﻱﻻﻳﻈ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
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‫ﺔ‪,‬‬
‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﻴ‬
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‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻤﻰ‬
‫ﻮﻉﻳﺴ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
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‫ﺬ‬
‫“ﻫ‬
‫‪knockedout‬‬
‫ﺓ”‬
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‫ﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺎﻁ‪.‬ﻧﺸ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻲﻧﺸ‬
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‫ﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻌ‬
‫‪VIPR2‬ﻳ‬
‫ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻝ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﺕ) ‪25‬ﺣ‬
‫ﺎﻋ‬
‫ﻮﻕﺏ ‪8‬ﺳ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﺓﻣﺴ‬
‫ﺄ‬
‫ﺮﻓﺠ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻐ‬
‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ءﻓ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻟﻀ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﻘﻄ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﺎﻳ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺣ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻨ‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﺔ(‪.‬ﺑ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺎﺣ‬
‫ﻤﺴ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻞ)‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
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‫ﻊﻧﺸ‬
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‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻲﻳ‬
‫ﻘ‬
‫ﻳ‬
‫ﺍ‬

‫ﺔ ‪http://www.hhmi.org/lectures/2000/‬‬
‫ﺒﻄ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﻗ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﻤ‬
‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻟ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫‪http://www.cbt.virginia.edu, http://science.howstuffworks.com/sleep.htm‬‬

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‫ــ اــ غ‬
‫ا ا ن ا ا غ أن  ا‬
‫وﺕ) ر‪ ! "#$% &'%‬ا  وا ت ا‪ .‬ه‪,-‬‬
‫ا ‪ 5‬أ س ‪ ، & 3‬و! ‪1‬ة درا ا غ‬
‫ ‪ ;$‬إ‪ ! 9‬ﺥ رج ا راودت ا‪# !%6‬‬
‫ار‪ .‬ه‪ ,-‬ا?‪ %‬م ‪ 1 $$%‬ذ< ‪ #‬ا‪ $‬ت‬
‫ا‪ % 6%C‬ا غ‪ ،‬ا‪ 3‬ﺕ‪ $B‬ﺹرًا را ‪$#‬‬
‫ا'‪ #‬ا‪ ،#‬ﺝ‪ %‬ن ام وا‪G‬ب ا‪ ،E B‬وا‪D‬‬
‫‪ 31‬ا‪ $‬ط ا‪ 3#‬اا‪ $ ? I1‬ا‪.‬‬

‫آ ؟‬
‫ﺕ ارا ت ا‪%Q‬ﺝ ا& ‪ N‬درا‬
‫ا‪#‬ل ‪ 31‬آن ا‪ D‬ء‪ % $ ،‬ا‪%‬‬
‫ا‪ N 3L‬ا‪#‬ل ‪ 31‬ا‪G‬ب ا‪MB% .E B‬‬
‫ ا‪#‬ﻥ ت ^ ‪ ،E‬ره أآ'ة ا‪D‬آز‪.‬‬
‫‪ C%‬ام ا?آ'! وا‪D‬آز إ‪ N‬ﻥ'‪ e‬ا غ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q%‬داد ﺝ‪ %‬ن ام ﺽً ‪ 31‬أ آ! ا غ‬
‫ا‪Vُ1 ،B $‬ﺥ‪ -‬آ‪ N  V‬ا  ا‪.#‬‬
‫أول ا‪ $‬ت آ ن ا‪ %‬ا‪_  3B‬ﺹار‬
‫ا‪#‬ز‪%‬وﻥ‪  !Cُ% .3‬دة   ﺕ‪  B#‬دة ‪ &$%‬‬
‫ا‪5‬رﺕ‪ #‬ط '‪G#‬ت ‪ $‬ﺽ! ا غ و! ﺙ‪X‬‬
‫ﺕ' اا‪ TE‬ﺡل رأس ا‪ Z%‬إ  ع ﺝ  ‬
‫ا در ! ا‪ ;$‬ا ‪ 31 % $ Y‬ا غ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ,-& !%‬ا‪ %B‬ر‪ X‬ﺥ‪# B%‬ل اﺽ‪3‬‬
‫‪ 31‬ﺝ‪ %‬ن ام‪   .‬ذ< ‪ 31‬ﺕ‪ %C‬اآ‪Q‬‬
‫ا‪ K L‬ا‪ ،'C‬ا‪C‬آ‪ ،‬وا_دراآ‪ .‬ب ه‪,-‬‬
‫ا‪ %B‬ا &  دة  ‪ !% G1 ،‬ا & ‬
‫‪ ^i‬ل وا‪ '$‬ء ‪ ! 31‬ا‪C‬؛ آ أن د‬
‫ا  ت ا"ﺥذ ﺥ‪G‬ل ا‪% %‬ن ‪C‬ودًا‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ $‬أﺥى ه‪ 3‬ا‪  %‬ﻥ! ا‪ ،3'^ $D‬ﺕ‪$‬‬
‫‪ k‬ﺝ رﺡ ‪ 5‬ﺕ‪ C‬ج اد  ‪.‬‬

‫ا إ ا ت ا‬
‫! أ ‪ M‬درا و‪ K L‬ا غ  ‪N %‬‬
‫‪G‬ﺡ; ا‪D‬ات ‪ 31‬ا غ  ا‪ 1‬ة ور‪ &B‬‬
‫  هات اﺽ ‪ #E‬ا‪ 1‬ة‪ .‬ا‪ B‬ه‪-‬ا ا?ب‬
‫ﺡد وآ اآ‪ Q‬ا‪G‬م‪-& .‬ا ا?ب ﺡ'‪ $‬ت‬
‫و‪ S‬ت‪ .‬أن ا‪1 ! T‬ان ا‪ L‬ووﺝد ‪M‬‬
‫‪)  3$% 5 3‬ورة اﺽ‪GB‬ع ا ن ا‪V‬وف‬
‫ ‪% 1 ،L‬ن  ن ر‪ ! T‬اآ‪ Q‬وا‪TC‬‬
‫‪ Z 31 .G‬ا‪5 C‬ت ‪  YB)%‬ن ‪K L X‬‬
‫‪ً 6‬‬
‫ا ن ا‪V‬وف‪ ،‬وه‪-‬ا  ﺕ‪ $‬و‪ 1 9‬اوﻥ‪! .‬‬
‫ا‪ $‬در أن ‪ M%‬اض ‪ B$‬و‪ L‬واﺡة ‪،T1‬‬
‫و‪1 % E‬ة ^‪ ! %‬ﺡوث ا_ﺹ  ‪ 31‬ا‪ C‬ة‬
‫ودرا ا غ  ا‪ 1‬ة‪.‬‬
‫أ ا‪ 31 %B‬ﺕ‪ %‬ا غ ‪ 31‬ا'‪ $#‬ت ! ان‬
‫ا ﺽ‪ $$% .3‬ا`ن ا‪ B‬ا‪ %‬ا‪ " 3L‬إﻥ م‬
‫ا‪ 31 ";$‬ا غ وه ‪ ،X% ،%‬أو ‪.XC%‬‬

‫‪ 23 :‬ز & ‪  0‬ﻥ ا! ‪ ،/"+‬ا ‪ + &, -&" .‬و ) ( ﺡ& ا! ﻥ‪ !" ،$‬ق ا ‬
‫‪ 60 - 30‬د‪.8‬‬
‫" ر‪ :‬ﺱ ه? ا>ر‪ 0‬ح  < ت "‪CD‬ت ‪" 8 B‬ا‪  H /B "FB G‬ت  ا غ‪.‬‬

‫‪41‬‬

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‫  
آ ار‪  .‬ة ت؛‬
‫) ﻡ (' ﺹ رًا ﻡ‪" #" $‬ﻡغ‪ ،‬وﻡ ﻡ‬

‪ ./‬او‪ #‬اﻡ‪ ،#-‬وﻡ‪ً
+,‬ا أﻡ ر‪./‬‬
‫ا‪ 4‬ا‪ 
'0‬ﺏ‪ 2‬أﻡآ اﻡغ ا‪.#$"01‬‬
‫ﻡ ت ا
ﻥ درا‪ #/‬ا ‪ 0( ،#$7‬ذ‪5‬‬
‫"> ا‪ ')  0‬ا ‪$‬ت ا=<‪;1" #4‬ب‬
‫ا‪,‬آ‪ C4‬وا‪;1‬ب ﻡ‪B‬وع اآ‪ ') @4‬ام‪.‬‬
‫ ‪,‬دي ازد د ﻥ‪H‬ط ا(  ﻥت إ> ا‪E0/‬ك‬
‫اآ‪B) @4‬داد ا‪;1‬ب ﻡ‪B‬وع اآ‪@4‬‬
‫و‪ N$1‬ا‪M‬ﺵرة ا=<‪ ،#4‬و ‪E+‬ل‬
‫‪ Q‬ان ‪B‬داد ﺝ 
ن ام ا ﺽ(' ﺏ‪ $ H‬ق‬
‫ا‪E0/T‬ك )‪B‬داد ا‪;1‬ب ا‪,‬آ‪ C4‬و(" ‬
‫ا‪M‬ﺵرة‪.‬‬

‫رة و ا  ا     ا ‬

‫إ ‪ 3‬ا !‪2‬‬
‫ا
ح ا‪4U‬ﺏ'  ر اﻡغ )' ا( ‬
‫واﺏ(د ا‪ #" #QEX‬أ‪(0" #//‬ﻡ ﻡ‪W‬‬
‫ا(" ﻡت ا@‪ #‬ﻡ ت ا‪') .
0‬‬
‫‪ '(ُ E‬ا‪ Y1H‬ت‬
‫ا‪
0‬ا ‪ '$7‬ﻡ‪ً X‬‬
‫ﺏ
‪ 
#‬ﺵﺵ‪ ،#‬أو ‪/ 
#(/‬ت‪،‬‬
‫و "[ ﻡ ا‪@0/T‬ﺏ‪  #‬ﺏ‪ H‬ﻡ‪U‬د‪.‬‬

‫ﺱ ل ا (ﺱ& ‪ #$ %‬ا "!  ا زو  أو ا   ‬
‫ا  ﺕ( ‪%‬ن ا  ‪. /‬ن ا م ‪ +‬ا غ‪.‬‬

‫‪42‬‬

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‫ه‬

‫ب‬

‫ج‬

‫د‬

‫ 
  ف‪) 5‬ب( إدراك اآ‪  !"
.‬ل ‬
‫ف‪) 2‬ج( (' ا&‪ ،%‬وا‪!+‬دة )د( (' ا‪.-.‬‬

‪ 345‬ا&‪ %‬ا‪ 2‬اري ا‪) '/0‬هـ(  (‪ -‬ا‪!/.‬ت‪ .
.‬‬
‫‪ /‬ا‪!/.‬ت ;
‪!:‬ه‪ .‬آ ‪.!"9‬‬


ُ‪ U‬ا‪ K‬ﺏ‪ W9
T‬ا‪.‬ص ‪4V!; /.D‬‬
‫ﺏ! !د
‪!/;0‬ن‪ ،‬ﺏ‪ .5;
T‬ا‪K‬ول ا ‪V X‬‬
‫ا را‪ ،+‬ﺏ‪ !"9.5;
Y !.9‬ا‪!Z‬ﻥ'‪J
.‬ح ا!‪U+‬‬
‫ا\ر ا‪\/ ;4+!9.‬ل ‪? A/D‬رة ذات‬
‫ﺏ 
‪ Z.‬ا;‪ 4‬ل ا!? (' ﺵ 
 ا !غ‬
‫ ﺝاء ا ‪ X‬ا‪ .‬رو‪ -4J .+‬ا\ر ذات‬
‫ا‪( 
4‬ق ﺏ‪ '5
!"5‬إ‪? A‬رة ‪XaX‬‬
‫ا‪K‬ﺏ!د‪ .‬ﺏ"‪ cW‬ا‪  .
& 
J‬درا‪d +‬اه ‬
‫آ!‪e‬دراك‪ ،‬ا;‪ ،f/‬ا;‪W‬آ‪ ،‬ا; ‪ ،‬أو ا;‪.3J0‬‬

‪  .‬درا‪d +‬اه ‪  Y‬وم أآ‪!X  Z‬ﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪J D!+‬ر ا!‪ / '( U+‬ا‪!/.‬ت ا‪&.‬‬
‫ا‪5‬وري ‪e‬ﻥ‪!2‬ز ?رة
‪  .‬ا‪X‬ق ﺏ"!‪.‬‬


 اث‬

‫" س  !  ﺡ ب رس ا 
  ط‬
‫ا‪ $%‬ت وا&رات ( ﺹ ر ا(غ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 36‬ا‪1‬رب ا‪ 345 ,‬ا‪ 012‬ا‪ ( ,-./‬ا‪-‬‬
‫ا ‪ ,9:‬أن ا&رة ا‪44‬ة ‪ @AB‬اآ‪ 12‬ام =‪ ,‬ا<‪-‬‬
‫‪ .‬و  أآ‪ -$‬آ‪ 6 - 4‬ط ا‪"( C 4‬ر ‪ 4/‬ن‬
‫ا‪ .04‬ه‪ HI‬ا‪ .  "4‬ﺕ‪"$G‬ت ه( =‪ ,‬ﺕ ‪ D‬ا ‪.9:‬‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫‪ D .;:‬ة ﻥ‪!.‬ذج ر
!ﺽ "‪W‬ا ا‪j‬ض‪ ،‬أﺵ"ه!‬
‫!
‪" AD‬ا;\ 
ا‪ './ْ.‬ا‪e‬ﺡ\!‪ "'O‬ﺡ‪T‬‬

‪ .;:‬ا;‪ o‬ا‪/‬ﻥ' ﺏ; رج  ا‪ ?K‬ا‪!9‬ري‬
‫‪ 0+K‬ا‪!K‬آ ا‪ J%9‬وﺡ;‪ A‬ا‪K‬زرق وا‪+K‬د‬
‫‪K‬ﺏده!‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ را‪ +‬ا‪ -<!9.‬ا;' ";ه‪ 9D "F‬ا‪ C9‬إ‪ A‬أﻥ‪!.‬ط‬
‫ﺏ\ 
‪ /;0‬أ  
آ ‪ U‬ا‪pO!d‬‬
‫ا‪ /;0.‬ﺽ‪ .‬ا‪ /.2‬ا‪ ، 
\4‬آ;‪ o.‬ا‪/‬ن‬
‫واآ‪..‬ا‪ .q‬درا‪!+‬ت ‪!%‬ﺏ" ‪!9‬و‪ r‬ااس‬
‫ا‪K‬ى‪ .‬أ  أ
‪ !ً5‬درا‪  +‬ﻥ!ت ‪ /.D‬ا&اءة‬
‫ﺏ ءًا  ا;‪ o‬ا\' ‪/‬وف ا‪ ،O.‬ورًا‬
‫ﺏ;‪ u.2‬ا\!ت (' آ‪!./‬ت‪ ،‬وا‪a0;+‬ص‬
‫ا‪!.‬ﻥ'‪..‬ا‪.q‬‬

‫‪ C9
! 9D‬ا‪.‬ص إ‪ A‬أي ?رة (>ن ‪ -<!9‬ف‪ 1‬و‬
‫ف‪; 2‬ه‪ .F‬ا‪!.;+‬ل &‪ 9‬ا‪J‬ح ﺏّ أن رؤ 
ا‪K‬ان‪'( ،‬‬
‫ا‪
،:
K‬ن (' ف‪4‬؛ ﺏ‪ !.9‬اآ‪ ،‬ﻥ&!ط ;ك ‪%D‬ا‪!ًO‬‬
‫(' ا‪ '( ،.
K‬ف‪.5‬‬

‫ُدر‪ r+‬أ
‪ !ً5‬ا‪ -<!9.‬ا‪ 9.‬ﺏ!‪.fK‬‬
‫آ!ن  ا‪!.‬ﺝ‪!w‬ت ‪ D‬م ه‪ F‬أﻥ‪ ':‬ا‪v‬‬
‫ا\ ‪ 9D 'x‬درا‪ +‬ا‪W‬اآة ا‪ 4‬ة‪ ،‬و  <ق‬
‫ا;‪!4‬ر أﺡ ث ﺏ‪ r9‬ﻥ‪ y<!%‬و‪ -<!9‬أى آ!&‪%‬‬
‫أ!م ا‪ '"42‬وا‪ '( /J‬ا;‪!4‬رات ا‪W‬اآة‪ .‬أدى ه‪W‬ا‬
‫إ‪ A‬اﺝ ("‪ .2/ !9.‬ا‪ 9.‬ﺏ!‪W‬اآة‪ ،‬ودرا‪+‬‬
‫آ ا;!‪ D‬ﺏ ا‪ -<!9.‬ا‪e /;0.‬ﻥ‪!2‬ز "!م‬
‫& ة‪ ،‬وا‪ C9‬إ‪ A‬اآ‪ o‬ا !غ آ(اد (
‪-‬‬
‫واﺡ 
‪/.‬ن ﺏ;‪K fx!9‬داء ا‪ .".‬ا‪.‬آ‪ /‬إ"‪.f‬‬
‫ﻥ  ‪a‬ل ا;‪J‬ر ا‪!9& '( .;:.‬ت‬
‫ا;\ 
( ا‪ 
!.D
o.‬ث (' <!ت‬
‫ا !غ‪.‬‬

‫‪Related Internet Sites: http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/bic/‬‬
‫‪http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/‬‬

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‫ا‪/‬ـت ا‪'1‬ــ‬
‫وا‪5‬د‪3‬ـ ا'‪17‬ــ‬

‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫اغ  
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‫أو‪ ، +‬و) ا (ءة ‪  #$%‬أ! ‬
‫دﺱ ‪, ،‬وت‪ ،‬وآ‪  ,-‬ا ء‪2+3 4 .‬‬
‫راﺱ‪ 2( : ; +‬ا‪9‬ء وا)‪ # ،8‬وأ‪( ً7‬م‬
‫أ‪,A‬ى ‪ #-‬ا‪,‬ﺽت‪ ،‬ا>=ء‪ ،‬ا‪3‬ﺱ‬
‫وا‪%C‬ب‪ .‬ه‪+  2‬ن ا ‪E‬د‪4‬ت‪ ،‬و‪E‬ن‬
‫ ذج (‪C‬ﺱ‪ ،8‬وأ‪=3G‬ة  ( ا‪E‬ت‪.‬‬
‫‪ = +‬اغ  رة  ( ا‪M +‬؛ ‪J(EK‬‬
‫‪>+‬ه‪  2‬أ‪ ،OG‬و‪ %+‬رك ;‪9 O‬ل ‪9‬وث‬
‫أ‪)A‬ء‪ # E .‬أ ا‪C‬ة  ‪ G #‬ر!‪ 2‬أن ‪RE‬‬
‫ا‪  ST‬ت‪ O; +9 .‬ا ‪ #U ،AT‬اغ‬
‫‪W‬درًا ( ‪ 2(E‬أﺵء ‪G‬ة‪ .‬ا‪,‬وت ‪O; G‬‬
‫أداء ا‪ # E‬ا ‪C‬ود ا‪Y‬ي ُ دا‪9  ،$‬وث‬
‫أي ‪[ \)A‬دي إ اﺽ)‪,‬ا‪.‬‬
‫ ا‪ 9‬ا‪3‬ﺱ ُ‪ E‬اغ ‪E U‬‬
‫ا و‪ O; G .3 #- 4 ، +‬اغ‬
‫‪9‬ا‪( $ O‬ر ‪( 3.2 ، (A‬ن‬
‫آ(‪  ,+‬اﺱ‪S‬ك‪ ،‬و(ن (ر و(؛ آ(‪3‬‬
‫‪ ,+ 1.5  K9 =9 O; ,‬و=ن ; ‪1.5 :‬‬
‫آ‪ 2a‬و‪ 10 : ; J(3+%‬واط‪ .‬دغ  
‪  #‬‬
‫ر‪ d$W‬ا‪ (%‬ن ﺱ‪( 10 J(3+%‬ن واط‪ ،‬أي ‬
‫ >‪( O‬ة‪ ،‬وﺱ‪Y‬وب ‪ 8%‬ا‪,C‬ارة ا‪  K‬‬
‫ (‪C .‬ول ا‪ (E‬ء آ ‪ M‬أﺱ‪,‬ار اغ‬
‫ا‪3‬ﺱ  أ‪=3G‬ة ‪G‬ة اداء آغ‪.‬‬

‫‪ #a+%‬اغ ا‪ =C‬ا ‪+‬ح أ;‪ #7‬اﺱ‪Sa+‬ل‪O- ،‬‬
‫ا>‪ n$‬ا‪ (T‬و)ي‪+( ،‬ي اف و‪J +‬‬
‫و‪=C‬م  ‪ #- .37E‬ه‪Y‬ا ا‪O;  ,! 8,+‬‬
‫ا ‪ 8%‬ﺵ ‪ #‬ر‪ d$W‬ا‪ (%‬ن وأاح‬
‫اارات‪C .‬ول ا ‪3‬ﺱن ا‪  RE+‬ذ‪#  J‬‬
‫ة إﺵرات ;‪ o> O‬ا‪ (a+% J(%‬ا‪,%‬‬
‫ا‪Y3 ،# ( E‬ا ‪,+  W‬ن  ا ا)‪d,‬‬
‫ ‪C‬آة ا  ت ا‪.G‬‬
‫ ا ‪3‬ﺱن ا‪ 2 +‬ا‪C‬ي ﺱ‪ E+‬ل ا‪=,+‬‬
‫‪  4‬ا‪ =,+‬ا‪a ،O W,‬‬
‫ س "اج"‪ً  ،‬‬
‫;‪ ,‬ا)‪ W‬وزدة ا‪ .,%‬غ آر;‪  ,‬أ‪9‬‬
‫   "وادي ا‪ (%‬ن" ;‪ O‬و‪ 4‬آ>ر‬
‫)(‪" n‬ا‪3‬ﺱ  ا ‪ G,  ,E "#‬‬
‫‪  4‬‬
‫ا‪ G‬ا‪ E‬إ ) ت  ‪ً  .‬‬
‫ا‪ =,+‬ـ‪ 0‬و ‪ ++ 1‬دارات "ا‪4‬ج" ‪,a‬ات‬
‫ا‪ 3K‬ا ‪, +%‬ة‪ O7> ،‬ه‪Y‬ا إ إ‪,G‬اء ا‪%C‬ت‬
‫ا‪S‬ز ‪)T‬ات أ‪,K .#W‬ى أﺱﺱت ا‪%C‬ب  ‬
‫إﺽ;‪,s ،‬ح‪ ،‬ا‪ ;,‬س‪ ،‬وا‪ #  # +‬أﺱ‪#3‬‬
‫ ‪  ,-‬ر ‪C‬اﺱ‪ 8‬ا‪ ,;  +E . W,‬ا)‪W‬‬
‫(  (‪ #‬ا‪  C‬واﺱ‪ E+‬ل أ‪ #W‬د   ‬
‫ا‪9‬ات  ا ‪,‬ار و ‪ t,,‬إ ا‪3‬ف‪.‬‬

‫ﺹ‪ <7‬دارات اغ !‪ :‬ا‪$/9‬ن‬

‫اغ‪:‬‬

‫ا ‪ 2%‬اآ‪  ,‬اﺱ‪S3+‬ك ا)‪ O; W‬اغ  ن‬
‫;‪ O‬آ ن ا‪ # E‬وا ‪ #‬ا  ‪،% 80 - 50 ،O‬‬
‫وا‪,ُ OW‬ف ( ا وا‪%+ .‬وي‬
‫;‪ O‬ذ‪ J‬د! ودغ ا‪ .(C‬ﺱ‪ ,‬اُ;‪E‬ت‬
‫ا‪ E7 ،E‬أ‪+‬ر ‪ًG i) ،-‬ا  ر‬
‫‪C‬اﺱ‪ 8‬ا‪E ، W,‬ض  ذ‪ J‬ء اغ‬
‫آ  ت ‪+‬از ‪ :,‬ا‪E‬ن اا‪3; 9‬‬
‫ﺵ‪,‬ة ‪4l‬ف ة أ‪,A‬ى‪.‬‬

‫‪1.5 ،  1.5‬آ‬
‫‪ 3200000‬آ أك‬
‫‪ 100000000000‬‬
‫‪ 1000000000000000‬‬
‫ا ‪.‬آ‪'( )*( +, -‬ح ا‪$%‬ء ا"!‬

‫‪44‬‬

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‫ 
 ان‬

‫‪ f#‬ات ا‪ 6‬ا غ ‪ ,‬أن "ا‪",-‬‬
‫‪9#‬ن ‪ ,‬ا ‪ ،?T‬ﺏ و‪ +‬ة ا‪
6T A‬‬
‫‪ 0‬و‪ +‬ة ا‪J‬اآ‪-‬ة ‪ ,‬ا‪I‬ﺱب ا‪ ) .O-‬‬
‫‪  9#‬ا 
ت وا‪O" ? *$‬ة ا‪P‬ت" ‪،‬‬
‫‪P,‬ت ‪ ?#T -.$#‬آ ‪ -.$#‬اﺏ‪ e‬ا‪6‬‬
‫أﺙء ‪  
0‬ا‪ .\ 
$‬ا ا‪ *I# U 6‬ﺏ‪-‬ا`‬
‫   
ت ‪ ،‬وإ ‪O /;#‬ا 
‪\ 
$‬؛‬
‫‪ /; P‬ا‪$‬ج  ﺥل ‪  \$# ،‬ر‪ f$‬ﺏ ‬
‫‪ً L,‬‬
‫‪Q-‬ب و ُ‪ SI6‬ا‪ N;9‬آ* ‪-‬ة ﺏ‪O * $‬ة‬
‫ا‪P‬ت ‪ /
0 *6I /$+‬ا; 
ب ﺏ‪ *ON‬ﺥ;‪N‬‬
‫‪ SA .‬ا? ﺱن ‪ ,‬إ ‪A‬د ﺵ ‪ \ 
$#‬و‬
‫آن "ا‪ ?, "\ 
$‬ﺏ;‪.ًs‬‬
‫  و أن ‪6+‬ل ا‪Z‬ﺥ;ء ?\‪ \ 
# P, ،‬ﺏ ون أﺥ;ء‪.‬‬
‫ات ا‪ $‬أ‪-,‬ط ‪ #‬ر ? ‪ *6I U /$+‬ﺥ;‪N‬‬
‫ا‪O -Q B?$‬درة ‪ /
0‬ا‪U‬ﺱ‪A$‬ﺏ إ‪  U‬ﺥل وا‪، +‬‬
‫أي أن آ* ‪  
0‬ﺱ‪ ? 
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‫وه‪J‬ا أ‪ b -‬ا‪ , F;$‬ا‪I‬ة ا 
‪ .‬‬
‫ات ات ‪ O‬ر‪ /
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A‬‬
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‫ ‪ u‬أو ‪ , v #‬ا ﺥل‪.‬‬

‫ه ء  ذج  
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#‬‬
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ن ‪6
9$‬ن‬
‫ا 
ت ‪ 0‬زوا  ا‪;9‬ط و‪ +‬ود ا‪,  $‬‬
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ت آ‪ ?A‬آ?‪-‬ﺏ إ‪/‬‬
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‪ً + B‬ا‬
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G‬آن ‪"*0‬؛ ‪J‬ا ‪/0 #‬‬
‫‪60‬ت "آ* وأ‪ *$# ."F
G‬ﺏ‪-L‬ة ‪,‬‬
‫ا? ﺱ ا‪ 6‬ا*‪60 MN$# .‬ت ا 
ن‬
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‫ا; ه ا ا  ‪Z‬ﺥ‪-‬ى أ‪- ;# \$ 0‬ه ‪،ً+‬‬
‫و? أ_?‪-‬ت إ اﺥ‪$‬ال ا‪4‬ﺵرات ا‪` $‬‬
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;ُ  *T#‬ا‪ [A#‬ﺥ ‪-V ,‬‬
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‫ا‪ ُ6‬أ? ‪ , *#‬ا‪ I‬وا اُﺵ‪،‬‬
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‫و‪ً 
O e
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‫ا ت ا 
ا

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‫ا‪ -‬ﺽت‪.‬‬
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‫و‪  G  MN$#‬وا‪ +‬ة‪ ،‬ا‪ +‬ات ‪-$ ?,‬اﺏ; ‪,‬‬
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‫‪ U‬‬
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‫‪ *O ً; 150‬أن ‪ S6‬ا‪  
0 , N;9‬ا‪U‬ﺱ‪-$‬ع‬
‫آ‪ً-‬ا‪.‬‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫

 أم 
ان‬

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‫ا‪ /" n6‬ﺕ! اﺱ‬
‫ وق أ  ر‬
‫ااآة از  اى‬
‫‪+‬ض وﺝد أر‪ #$‬أﺱ'ك د وأر‪ #$‬أ"! ﻡ‬
‫ﻡ‪+‬ﺕ‪ /" 0‬ﻥ!ط ا!‪) ,‬أ(‪.‬‬
‫ا‪ 8>9‬ﺱ‪ 7#‬آاآة‪ ،‬ﻥ! م < ﻡ‪;#‬ﻡت ‪ 789$‬أر‪6‬م‬
‫‪ @A‬ﻡ?‪ 00117‬و ‪، 1010‬وﻥﺕ ;‪+‬ﺕ‪7#$ 0‬‬
‫ ﻡ ‪GH" ، 17$! 1‬ن ا‪ 8>9‬ا‪E‬زواج )ب(‪.‬‬
‫‪M$‬ﻡ‪8‬ن ا‪ 8>9‬ﺕ‪ LGH‬أر‪6‬م أﺥى "ق ا‪E‬ر‪6‬م ا‪E‬و‪،J‬‬
‫' ‪1010‬و ‪  0>O" ،0110‬د ا‪+‬ﺕ‪ 0‬ا‪#‬ﻡ;‬
‫ﻡ? ً‬
‫ﺱ>‪) #‬ج(‪.‬‬
‫ا‪Q‬ن ﻥ‪#‬ض ا‪ 0011 P6‬ﻡة أﺥى ; )ج( وﻥﺕ‬
‫ر ‪$‬ور "‪ /‬ا‪E‬ﺱ'ك ا‪#‬د إذا آن ا‪+‬ح "‪/‬‬
‫و‪ #‬ا‪7#‬؛ "ر اﺕ‪ /" U‬ا‪E‬ﺱ‪ 7+‬ﺱ?‪2120 7‬‬
‫)د(‪ .‬ها ‪+$ Y‬دة ا‪G‬وج "‪ /‬ا?ل )ب( و‪ L8‬إذا‬
‫‪  J; P6‬د أر‪6‬م اا "‪ /‬ا‪ P6‬اي اﺱ‪7#‬‬
‫\‪A‬رة اآ )‪ 6 2= (0+0+1+1‬ﺕ‪8‬ﻡ;‪ ،‬أي‬
‫‪M$‬هل ا>‪ .1010 J; ;O ،/6‬وآ_ن ا‪8>9‬‬
‫ﺕآت ﺕ‪G‬اوج ‪ 0011‬ﻡ ‪ P`$ 1010‬ﻡ‪ L‬ﺥ‪G‬ن‬
‫رﺱ أﺥى ﻡ اﺱ ا‪E‬و‪.J‬‬

‫ب‬

‫أ‬

‫د‬

‫ج‬

‫‪ 6‬ﺕ‪8‬ﻡ; ;‪2 J‬‬

‫ها اع ﻡ‪ L‬ااآة ُ‪ /" 7#‬اﺱ ا‪./OH9‬‬
‫ا‪;#‬ﻡت ﻡز "‪ /‬ا‪ 8>9‬وﻡُ‪GH‬ﻥ آ‪ /" p‬وزن‬
‫ا‪ ،7‬و‪ L8‬اﺱﺝ< ‪c$‬د ;‪ J‬اى‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ 0>O‬ﺵ>‪ 8‬ذات أر‪ #$‬أﺱ'ك ﻡ‪ ،$ #>9‬و‪L8‬‬
‫إذا اﺱ‪ ;#‬أ‪ s‬ﺱ;‪ r‬ﺕ‪G‬داد ‪ 6,‬ا‪c‬ﺱ‪#‬ب ‪789$‬‬
‫آ>‪.‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫   ات ا 
ا 
ا ‬
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‫"راﺱ*
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‫‪ 4‬ﻡ ﺱ

‫ﺡل ‪ 7 89.‬ا‪.‬ﺡات‪ ،‬ﻡ ی‪ 6‬ﻡ‪ً 5‬‬
‫ دة ﺱ رة أو =<;ة‪ $( .‬ا‪ ?9.‬ا‪ $‬ی‬
‫"ا ر ا@‪ 16C "$‬ﺡ‪.‬اﺱ‪ D‬ر‪.A  BC 
9‬ﻡ

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‪    .‬ﻡ‪ 5‬ه!‪ H‬ا ‪.A‬ﻡ

‫ا ;ف (‪ $‬ﺡل ;ض ا<;ة رﺙ
‪ ،‬و‪16C‬‬
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‫‪. C‬ن ا ‪. 6‬ن‪V( ،‬ن ﻡآ ﻡ‪ E‬ه!ا ا ‪.‬ع ﺱ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺱ  زیدة ﻡ;(  ‪ EC‬اﻡغ ﻡ‪  E‬ء‬
‫ﺡً‬
‫ﺵت أ‪;9‬ب (‪./ 6C $‬‬

‫"ﻥﻡد" ‪ #;,‬ا‪cQ‬ت اُ‪8+‬ة‪ .‬اﺱ‪d‬اﻥ‪ /‬ا‪789‬‬
‫‪$‬رﺕ‪+‬ع ‪ 6‬ﻡ‪ g .L‬أ‪f ،L‬ذان‪ ،‬أ ي‪ ،‬وﻡت أﺥى‬
‫ﺕ ‪ /" h‬اآ‪ .‬ﻡ ‪  hG‬م وﺝد ﺕ‪;#‬ت‬
‫ﻡ>! "‪"/‬دﻡ`‪ "g‬اي ي ‪9‬ة ‪cf‬ف و ة‬
‫‪ <$ " j$‬أآ? ﻡ‪ L‬ﻡ;ن را‪# <" ،j$‬ﻡ‪ 7‬ﻡ‬
‫ا‪c‬ت ا  ة و‪ P;#‬ﻡ‪ L‬ا‪E‬ﺥ‪d‬ء ‪  $‬ور "‪/‬‬
‫ ‪m‬ﺕ‪ g‬ا;‪>#8$ l‬ت‪ n#$ .‬ا‪>#8‬ت ﻡ‪ jdH‬وﻥ‪76‬‬
‫;‪$<8‬ء " ا‪ "P#d‬و‪ <o#$‬ﻡ!‪ ` j‬ﻥ‪789$ 76‬‬
‫ﺝ "ﺱ‪/‬ء ا‪ ."P#d‬وق "ﻥﻡد" ا‪>#8‬ت‬
‫‪$‬اﺱ‪ d‬ﻡﺕ‪ g‬ا‪ ،@$<8‬و‪ P;#‬إهل ا‪>#8‬ت‬
‫ا!‪ d‬وا!ط ا‪ ddH‬ﻡ<‪.‬‬

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‫
ث ـ‬
‫ا غ  ‪  ،‬ذى  ادث أو ب‬
‫ &"ض ‪"#$‬ب و! ‪) .‬ه" "ض ا غ‬
‫‪ #‬وا‪ - ./‬ا‪",‬اض‪.&*$ +  * ،‬‬
‫& ا ‪ 45 678‬ا &*رات ا ‪0""1‬‬
‫?ﺥﺹ< ‪",‬اض ا ;‪ 0‬أو ا ‪0$9 01:‬‬
‫إ ‪ 4‬ا   ‪ A‬ا &‪ 0";7‬وﺕ " ا غ‪ .‬أ ا‪ ,‬ث‬
‫‪ C +5#$‬أو‪ - ./‬ا ‪";7‬ات‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬أ"اض ا غ  ه ﺵ ‪ .‬ـ ﺡ‪ <$ 4‬ا‪C,‬ل‬
‫وا ن ـ ‪ AL‬ا "ع وا?آ‪I‬ب‪ ،‬و‪ "H *:‬ا ‪. 8‬‬
‫آ م‪ ،‬و‪ - "& <P:  *:‬آاء ا ‪N‬ه&"‬
‫‪ :‬ا ‪ 8‬خ‪ 5 .‬راﺙ‪ 0‬دور ‪* <$‬؛ وه‪T‬ا ‪"#‬ح‬
‫? ﺹ;ً‪ :‬ه‪ A‬ﺕ" "‪ &$ 0$‬إذا آن ‪Z‬‬
‫‪X/‬ا ً‬
‫ا ‪"#‬ة ا &‪X‬ه;‪"&5 0‬ض؟‬

‫  ا
رات ـ اع‬
‫‪ P‬ا &"_ و أﺙ‪:‬ء ﻥ ‪ 0‬ا "ع‪ ،‬و ‪]P1‬‬
‫‪ 45‬ا‪,‬رض ‪8‬ود ا `‪ ،a1‬و "ﺕ`‪c  .‬ﺡ‪b‬‬
‫ا &"_  ا‪/‬دة ا < أﻥ _ ‪1‬ﻥ‪ ،‬و‪A5‬‬
‫ﺙ  ; ل‪   .‬ث ﻥس أو ﺕ‪ ]57‬ه ا <‬
‫ﻥ ‪ 0/‬أو ‪ .0/‬ا ;_ ﻥ< ‪ . -‬ﻥ ت‬
‫آ‪ A‬ﺡﺕ‪ ،‬وا ;_ ﺕ; ة "ات  ً‪.‬‬
‫ ﺝ دا &ً ﺕ ازن ‪ -‬ا ‪ ];L‬وا?‪L/‬رة ‪<$‬‬
‫; ﻥت ا غ؛ ‪ A7 :‬ه‪T‬ا ا  ازن و?‬
‫ ث ﻥ‪ <$ 6P‬ا?‪L/‬رة‪ ،‬آ& ه ا ل ‪ <$‬ا ;‪X‬رة‬
‫ا "‪  ،0‬ث ﺕ`‪ ;5 ];: "H :‬ﻥت‬
‫ا &`ورة وﺕ‪ g5#:‬ا ‪ 0 :‬ا "‪ .0‬إذا اﻥ "‬
‫ا?‪"#‬اب ‪ "8 - .  <$‬ا غ د‪ h‬ا ‪0 :‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ ،0 N‬أ إذا ‪ a‬د‪ 0 :  h‬ا &&&‪ .0‬ﺥ‪c‬ل‬
‫ا‪,‬ﺥ"ة )*" ﺕ‪ ]#7‬ا غ  ﺝت ‪N‬ا‪0I# 0:‬‬
‫و ‪ 0‬ا ‪ 01‬ﺕ ‪ A  A‬ﻥ)‪ a‬أ  ا ‪.<;#‬‬
‫‪ -‬ا ‪ . 8‬أن ﺕ ث ا ‪" 0 :‬ة واﺡة و? ﺕ‪"i‬ر‪،‬‬
‫و‪ <$‬ه‪ kT‬ا  ‪ ? 0‬ﺡﺝ‪ 0‬إ ‪c 4‬ج‪ .‬ﺕ‪"i‬ر ا ‪ :‬ت‬
‫ا "‪ ،0‬وه  ﻥ ‪ k‬داء ا "ع‪X ،‬دي إ ‪4‬‬
‫ا‪9‬زج وا ‪ ،g5P‬و ج ‪c‬ﺝً‪ .‬ا ‪ +;1‬ا &;ﺵ" اء‬
‫ا "ع ‪ "H‬وا‪ a) <$ m‬ا ?ت‪ ،‬و ‪::i‬‬
‫ﻥ"ف أن ا ‪ :‬ب  ﺕ‪L1‬ر ‪9‬رهق‪ ،‬اﻥ‪7‬ض ‪"i/‬‬
‫ا م‪ ،‬ﺵ"ب ا ‪ &7‬ر‪ ،‬أو ا ‪8‬ﺵت ا ا‪ 0‬آ ‪5‬ز‪.‬‬
‫‪/‬ه&‪ h‬ا‪ ,‬ث ‪ <$‬ا ‪ 4" - 7‬ا "ع‬
‫‪ .-P"C -‬ا‪,‬ول ﺕ&‪ a‬أدو‪ 0‬اﻥ‪ 0 P‬ﺕ‪*1‬ف‬
‫‪ c‬آ& آﻥ‪h‬‬
‫? ‪ -‬ﺕ‪ ];L‬ا غ آ ً‬
‫ا ‪ c7‬ا &‪X‬و‪ً  0$‬‬

‫ﺕ‪ A‬ا‪,‬دو‪ 0‬ا ‪ <$ / ،0&P‬ذ ‪ :&*$ Z‬ورا?‪L/‬رة‬
‫‪ <$‬ا &"ض‪ .‬ا ‪L‬ﻥ< ﺕ‪ #‬ر أ‪ + /‬ﺕ " ا غ ا <‬
‫‪/‬ت ‪ <$‬ﺕ ‪ .‬ا ;‪X‬رة ا "‪ Ai8 0‬أ‪،A$‬‬
‫و  < ا‪I/‬ل ا ‪ p1:‬ا &‪X‬وف ‪ - :‬ﺕ‪ +#1‬‬
‫ا `"اﺡ‪ <$ .0‬ا ?ت ا &‪P:‬ة ‪ 0:‬ﺕ‪ +5‬ا `"اﺡ‪ 0‬دورًا‬
‫هً ‪c <$‬ج "‪ 4‬ا "ع ا ‪1 a -T‬وا ‪-‬‬
‫ا ‪c‬ج ا وا <‪.‬‬

‫ااع وا‪:‬‬
‫ ‪ A‬أي ‪ :‬ﺵ‪ - i‬ﺹاع ذات "ة‪ a) <$ .‬ا ?ت‬
‫‪" 45 c‬ض ﺥ‪ <$ ."#‬أﺡن‬
‫? ‪ i‬ن ا اع د  ً‬
‫ﻥدرة‪ ،‬ﺥﺹ‪ 0‬إذا  أ ‪`$‬ة‪ ،‬أو ﺕ"ا‪ m# g$‬ﺝ‪5‬ي أو‬
‫ا‪"#‬اب ‪ <$‬ا <‪ <1  ،‬ا اع ا ‪  .g5P‬ث‬
‫ا‪ <$ a ,‬أ"اض ا غ ‪ +;1‬ﺕ‪ q"7‬أو ﺕ&‪ ]#‬ا ‪ 1‬‬
‫ا < ﺕ‪ <#r‬ا غ وﺕ;‪ -#‬ا `&`&‪ ،0‬أ ﻥ‪ p1‬ا غ‬
‫ﻥ‪$ 1‬ذا‪ ،a X "H k‬وإن آﻥ‪" h‬اآ‪ N‬ا‪ $ a ,‬ﺕرك‬
‫ا‪.a ,‬‬
‫‪ -‬أ‪;/‬ب ا اع ا ‪ 0 8‬ا ‪ i8 .0PP8‬ا &"_ ‪-‬‬
‫أ ‪ <$ a‬ﺵ‪ g‬ا "أس‪T ،‬ا د‪ ،0PP8  h‬و ‪   -i‬ث‬
‫ا‪ <$ a ,‬ا `*‪  .-‬ث ‪ .‬ا‪LH a ,‬ن‪ ،‬وم ﺕ &‪A‬‬
‫ ‪ 5‬ء وا  ت‪  .‬ﺕ;أ ا ‪-"0&1: " 0 :‬أي أ"اض‬
‫‪T:‬رة ‪ -‬ا < ‪  ً; H‬ﺕ‪ i‬ن "‪ ،0‬آ"ؤ‪ 0‬أ اء‬
‫?‪ 0‬أو ﺥ‪ #‬ط ‪"1i:‬ة‪; .‬و أن ا ‪ 0PP8‬ﺕ;أ ‪ <$‬ﺝ‪N‬ء‬
‫ا غ ا ‪T‬ي ‪ 4P5‬إﺡ‪/1‬ت ا‪ - a ,‬ا‪,‬و‪ 0‬ا  ‪0‬‬
‫ا ‪ - ،0H‬ﺕ " ا غ ازددا ‪ <$‬ا ‪8:‬ط ‪ <$‬ذ ‪Z‬‬
‫ا `‪N‬ء ‪ <$‬ء ا ‪.0 :‬‬
‫آ‪N 0`:‬داد دوران ا م‬
‫ا & < ;"ه‪ً;;1 ،0‬‬
‫أ"اً آ  ء ا ‪،.c‬‬
‫ﺙ‪; 6P: a‬ﺵ"ة‪ً;;1 ،‬‬
‫أ"اً آ‪r‬ب ا ;"‬
‫ا &‪.hX‬‬

‫‪ ./‬ا‪ 

ً))* +,- .‬غ أ‪ 
%‬ء ﻥ" ﺹع‬

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‫ﻥ ع ‪n‬ﺥ‪ %‬ﻡ‪ #‬ا‪2‬دوی ` زال  ﻡ‪ 4?%‬ا‪ Y‬ی‪ ،%‬ه ‬
‫?ﺹ‪%‬ات ا‪ 4J‬ﺕم أو =‪ R%‬ﻡ‪ #‬ا ا‪ VI‬ا ﺕ‪%‬اآ'‬
‫ﺏ<‪ V‬ﺱ  ا ‪ .‬ی_ ‪ %‬اواء ‪ 14‬ا ت‬
‫أو ‪ 14‬ﺱ‪ V‬ا‪o‬رة داﺥ‪ V‬ا‪. 4X‬‬
‫‪l‬ﺱ‪ ' :‬ی‪ m‬أي ﻡ ?‪ 1‬ا‪p‬ن  ﺕی' *ة‬
‫ﺱ‪%‬ی‪%‬ی ‪.‬‬

‫ ج ا رة  ا ا‪ ،‬آ ‬
‫(' دور ا ‪%‬وﺕ ﻥ‪ #‬وﻡ ﺕ‪ .‬ﺕ' ﺕ‪ (*+ ,-‬‬
‫ﺝیة ﻡ‪ #‬ا‪2‬دوی ‪ ،‬ﺕ‪ 1‬ا‪%‬یﻥت‪  ،‬‬
‫إﺝض ﻥ ﺏ ا ‪%+ #‬ی‪ 5‬ﺕ(‪ 4‬ﻥ ع ﻡ‪#‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ #‬ﻡ ت ا ‪%‬وﺕ ﻥ‪.#‬‬

‫ف ـ ا ‬
‫‪ 0! 1‬و‪!/‬د آ
ٍ‬

‫ا‪ %‬اض ا !را‪23‬‬

‫ﻡ ی< ﻡ‪%‬ی; ﻡ‪ : #‬ﻡ(ﺝ‪5  9‬‬
‫ا '  ‪ ً= C‬ﻥ ‪ ،‬أي ?دث و* دﻡ=‬
‫ﻥ‪ ًF‬آن أو أ?ءاً‪ 5  ،‬اﻡغ اآ‪I .G‬‬
‫یُ‪-‬ب أی‪ ًN‬ا‪ ،GM‬ا ازن‪ ،‬وا<م وا‪ . J4‬أ?ﻥً‬
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‫ا‪%‬ی; ‪ 14 ،ً+‬ا‪U VI2‬ه‪%‬یً‪ .‬ﺕ‪ 1‬ا ‬
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‫و< ً‬
‫ﺱ‪ C‬ا ا(‪F‬ی  ﺝ ?‪%‬ﻡن ا‪ . IY‬و‪ I‬د ﺥی‬
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‫وی‪ Y‬ﻥ*ً ﺱ‪%‬ی‪%‬ی ﺝة إذا اﺱ‪  V‬ا ‪QI‬‬
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‫وا  ا ُ َ دة "! 

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‫‪ G 2‬ا‪L2‬‬
‫ا">م‬

‫!ا  داء هُ‪  ،‬ا اي و
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‫هِ‪.‬‬
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‫!ول ا@‪10 I‬اﺝ‪.MM‬‬

‫ﺵ‪9‬ة ‪ 68: G*A‬ﺕ‪0‬ه; ‪ G 2> GI‬ا‪ L2‬وا">م‪،‬‬
‫‪O‬ﺡ‪ M‬أن اض @‪ /‬أ‪87 1P4‬‬

‫ا‪6O‬ب ـ ا>; ا‪/2‬د‬

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وت وا‪-‬ا‪6‬‬
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‫‪ 0‬أ‪0‬اض ا‪ ",5‬ااﺕ" ‪M! 0‬ﺝ ا‪ً.0 g45‬‬
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ع ش‪:‬‬
‫إذا اآ‪ !"#‬أﻥ  ا إ ض ورا‪،‬‬
‫ه ‪0 1234‬آ‪  /‬ذ؟ ه ﺕا‪ ً)* +‬أن ﻥى‬
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‫ ذا ‪ A‬ا‪ 83‬ا @‪ /‬ی‪ 6#82‬ا>ب‪ ،‬وه <‪،‬‬
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‫‪7‬آ‪ 8‬دوى‪،‬‬
‫ ‪ 6# G884‬رة‬
‫أ‪ ;> !)8‬ا‪/2‬د‪.‬‬

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‫اغ ه      ا؛ آ
‪ ،‬‬
‫ ! ‪  ،‬ف‪ ،‬و آ‪ &$ُ .‬ها ا‪# $%‬‬
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‫ا)غ *) ای‪#‬‬

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‫‪ H#‬ات و!و‪ B‬ا_ !ر‪ .! .‬ا!‪ u‬ا‪8‬‬
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‫'ن ن ‪-‬خ‪،‬‬
‫ا ﺱم ا"* وف‪،‬‬
‫آن ‪ ً2‬آب‪.‬‬

‫‪50‬‬

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‫ی(! ا'آ‪ %‬ب ا‪ "#‬وا‪-‬ی ‪ +,‬ه! ﻥ ت‬
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‫ا@‪E‬م‬
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‫<‪ M/X‬ا ث‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‪!,‬اض اﺱ ﺱ ه‪ :3‬ا‪ X,‬دات ﺵ ذة @  ً ‬
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ث أی‪ ًA‬ﺕ!اﺝ‪ 34 L‬ا^دراك‪ ،‬ا ‪T,‬‬
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‫درا ﺕ‪ B) 4 D‬ا@‪E‬م‬

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‫(‪  4‬ا?‪ '@J:‬أول ‪3‬ة ?ة ﺵ‪ .B3‬ا‪P‬ن ﺕ‪9=O‬‬
‫أدو  ‪Q‬م‪ B
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‫ ‪".3‬‬

‫ا ء ا  ن‬
‫اون راﺱ‬
‫اﺱ! ذات اه‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫‪Related Internet Sites: Brain and spine foundation: http://www.bbsf.org.uk‬‬
‫‪British epilepsy association: http://www.epilepsy.org.uk Stroke: http://www.strokecenter.org‬‬
‫‪National Institute of Neurological disorders and stroke: http://www.ninds.nih.gov‬‬

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‫أ‪
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ن‪،‬‬
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‫ی ول * &ویات 
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‫ا& ‪ ،‬وآن ا‪* +‬ن وا ن ی)ن ﺙ&ات‬
‫ا ‪ & /‬ا ﻡ ﺡ ‪  .‬أیﻡ  أ‪ 01‬اء‬
‫أآ& اهً ﻡ‪ 5‬ا‪ +  34‬وأ 
ﺙ‪.+‬‬
‫ا=*ت ام ا;  ا‪ 9:‬ه ﻡ ‪8‬‬
‫أ@?> ت ام ا; ‪ ،‬ه ﺕ‪ 9A‬م ا‪;D‬ب‪،‬‬
‫ا‪ ، EFE‬وا‪ >?@D‬ت‪ .‬ﻡ ذج ذ‪ :G‬إدراك ذواﺕ ‬
‫آ‪&P‬؛ ر* ا‪* F‬ت ا‪ ، 34‬ﻡل ذ‪ G‬ا ‬
‫‪EAS‬ل؛ ا)&ق ا  ا‪ 
D‬ث‪ ،‬ﻡل ذ‪G‬‬
‫ا‪:‬رب ‪ V‬ا 
ان وﺡ‪ T U:‬اﻡت ‬
‫ا‪X#D‬ص >  ا‪ ، &:‬وإ‪&#‬اك اﻡ   ی‪&:‬ي‬
‫وا‪ [*4‬س ‪  +‬ی‪ U:‬أن یُ‪&:‬ى‪.‬‬

‫ا‪,-‬ر ا‪+‬ﺝ *)‬
‫ا>‪ 9‬ا‪ 34‬أﺙ&‪ % 1  8‬ا ^&یت ا ‬
‫ ا‪;D‬ب‪ ،‬وإن آن ا‪ T‬ی =& ذ‪  .G‬ا&ن‬
‫ا‪ &P 9F‬ا*ر دی=رت ا ذج ا‪ +‬رو =‬
‫ ‪&P‬ح آ ‪ c‬أن أ@?ط ـ أي *اﺉ‪ 5‬ـ اﻡغ ﺕ
&ك‬
‫ا‪?e‬ت‪  .‬ا&ن ا‪&P‬ی‪ &; ،‬ا;  ‪fّ# ،‬‬
‫اﻡغ وداراﺕ‪ f‬اة  ل ا‪
F‬ر‪ ،‬أو ﺡ ‬
‫@)ط هﺕ‪  . >? c‬ه‪i‬ا ا&ن یُ‪ fّP‬اﻡغ‬
‫‪ =P‬ا ـ ا‪.&4‬‬

‫" ا
غ ا 
‪ ،‬و   ااع"‬
‫زاك هل ‪ $‬ﺝ"! آ 
رﻥ 

‫‪52‬‬

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‫اآت اة  اغ ﺕ دا
ً ﻥاﺝ‬
‫إدراآ 'واﺕ ‪!$ %‬ء ﺕ"!ر إدراآ‬
‫اﺝ 
‪ .%‬ﺕﺕ‪ 23‬ا‪/01‬ق وا‪!*+ ,
-‬اب‬
‫وا‪8‬ب‪ 56   ،‬ا‪ ,4‬وا!ر ‪!+‬ر‬
‫ا‪ .09‬إذا و= ‪3‬دئ اوﻥ; وا‪5 
:‬‬
‫اﻥ‪ D‬اﺝ 
‪ ،%‬أ‪ :A B‬ﺕ"!ر ا@دراك‬
‫اﺝ 
‪.%‬‬
‫‪ 
:G8‬ء ا‪F1‬ب ‪!F4+‬ص ‪538G‬‬
‫أ‪J+‬ﺙ‪ :A‬إ‪ .,8 H‬ا‪1‬ول اه ‪ H‬ا
‪!G‬ى‬
‫‪ /‬غ‪ .‬ا*ﻥ‪ %‬اه‬
‫ا‪ ً
A ,", %NO‬آ ً‬
‫‪ H‬ا
‪!G‬ت ا‪!G ،H1‬ت ا‪:,P‬‬
‫وا‪  56‬ا!م ا‪01‬ى ‪ A, 
+‬ا!م‬
‫اﺝ 
‪ .;,‬ا‪P‬ة ا‪1‬و‪ H‬ﺕ‪ H8‬رواﺝً أآ‪% 3‬‬
‫و= ‪ 2‬ا@‪/‬م و‪ ,+‬ا;‪  H83 .‬ﺡ‪ R‬ا;‬
‫إ"ء اأي ‪ %‬ا 
‪ HJ‬ا'ي ‪ H D‬ا‪J+1‬ث‬
‫أن ﺕ‪1 ،W!J‬ن أ!ا‪ :A‬ﺕ
!‪.A‬‬

‫أ ت م ا
ب ـ أ‬
‫‪6‬ض أن أﺡ ا 
"!‪  ZJ3 ,‬اُآ‪W X‬‬
‫ﺹ; ض ‪ ،‬ورم دغ *‪ ،ً/‬أو ﺕ\ه‪D‬‬
‫ 
ض‪ ،‬ذا ﻥ‪56‬؟ أﻥ‪W34‬؟ ا 
"‪%G R‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ 5,
J‬ا 
"!ع ﻥ‪bG _G6‬و‪ ;,‬ذ‪bG+ c‬ا_ ‪53a‬‬
‫‪+‬ء ا‪ % Dd  
ZJ3‬ه'‪ W‬ا‪6 .;J‬ض أن‬
‫‪ُ ً*J+‬ى ‪/ ;+‬ج ‪!B a .;3‬ن‬
‫ا 
‪ % g‬و‪ D3G+ ،$‬إﺹ‪'0\+ f
G  ،_+‬‬
‫إذﻥ_‪ ،‬ه‪ 5‬ﻥ\‪ '0‬إذن ا‪1‬ه‪5‬؟ ‪!B a‬ﻥ!ا‪ ،‬ﺕ‪ iJ‬و‪\h‬ة‬
‫ا‪a ,d ،;F‬در ‪ H‬إ"ء ‪a‬ار ‪ %‬ا!‪ia‬‬
‫ا 
=‪ ،D‬ه‪ 5‬ﻥوزه‪:‬؟ ‪  a‬اوز إ‪H‬‬
‫!ا‪ Da‬و‪.;
,0‬‬
‫ذا  ارب ‪ H‬ا‪!,J‬ان؟ ا‪ g3‬‬
‫‪ /‬وﺡ‪ .ً,‬ا‪ g3‬ا‪09‬‬
‫‪O,‬ه‪ ،‬ى ‪ً 
A,‬‬
‫ى ‪ %‬ﺕ‪ i!6‬ا‪6‬ﺹ; ا‪ %‬ﺕ 
‪ 5* AJ‬ه'‪W‬‬
‫ارب ‪ :A6‬ا‪A‬ز ا‪ % %3F‬ا‪;JF‬‬
‫وا 
ض أ  ‪/8‬ﻥ‪ .%‬ه'‪ W‬أ!ر ﻥ‪8‬ﺵ‪k, A‬‬
‫=‪ ،ً/A‬و‪ D B‬أن ﻥ‪  Aa‬اﺡام آ‪5‬‬
‫وﺝ‪A‬ت ا‪ :P % .P‬اول ا‪1‬ورو‪ ;,+‬ﺕ!ﺝ‬
‫‪!a‬اﻥ‪ ,‬ﺡز; ﺕ‪ 23-‬ارب ‪ H‬ا‪!,J‬ان؛ آ 

‫ُ‪ 3‬ا‪J3‬ﺙ; ‪ H‬إﺕ‪3‬ع دورات ‪0‬ﺹ; ‪ 
n‬م‬
‫‪ c+‬ا‪!8‬اﻥ‪ ،,‬واﺝ‪,‬ز ا‪J‬ﻥت ‪0‬ﺹ; ‪A+‬؛ آ‪5‬‬
‫ذ‪ D, c‬ا‪!,J‬اﻥت ﺕ'‪3  ً3‬ر _‪.‬‬

‫‪53‬‬

‫ ا‪3‬ا ‪ 5‬ا

‪ ;B‬إﺝاء ارب ‪ H‬ا‪1‬ﻥ‪;G‬‬
‫"ا
‪O‬رو;"‪ ،‬أي ا‪ : %‬ﺕ‪,*B‬ه ‪ %‬ا
‪،34‬‬
‫أو ا 
ذج ا 
‪ H ;,4‬ا‪D=J‬؛ و‪ B‬ه'ا ‬
‫‪ %p‬ﻥ‪ ً, A‬ا‪J‬ﺝ; إ‪ H‬ﺕرب ا‪!,J‬ان‪ .‬‬
‫ا‪ ;*1‬ا 
‪!A‬رة ‪! H‬ا  ﺕرب ا‪!,J‬ان‪،‬‬
‫ا= 
ل ل ـ دو‪ ; 
+‬داء ‪+‬رآ‪!G‬ن‪8 ،‬‬
‫أﺝ‪ i‬ارب ‪ H‬دغ اذ‪ ،‬وﻥل ا‪ZJ3‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪O‬ة ﻥ!‪.5+‬‬

‫ اﺹ‬
‫ ا‪ D,‬أن ا‪3‬ان ا‪! %‬اﺹ‪ A, 5‬ا 
ء‬
‫ ا; أآ*‪ ،‬ه‪ %‬ﻥ‪ AG6‬ا‪!PJ %‬ن ‪;8*+ A,‬‬
‫أ‪  5a‬ا;‪ .‬ه'‪ W‬ا‪-+ iG, ;a/‬ورة‬
‫=‪ ،;,33‬و ُ‪ 58‬أن ﺕ‪!B‬ن‪ .‬أ‪ Dd‬ا‪ P‬أن ا‪D3G‬‬
‫‪ %‬ﻥ‪ r8‬ا*‪ ;8‬ه! أن ا; أﺹ‪!J3‬ا أآ* ﺕ‪,8‬اً‪،‬‬
‫‪ ,BB‬أآ* ‪a %‬رة ا‪1‬دو; اة ‪ H‬ﺹ‬
‫" ا 
‪O‬ات"‪ ،‬و‪ H‬درا; أآ‪!"+ 3‬ر ا‪%"3‬ء‬
‫و‪ ,d‬ا
‪!
-‬ن !م‪ H .‬آ‪ 5‬ﺡل ﻥ‪ r8‬ا*‪;8‬‬
‫ ‪3‬ر ا!دة إ‪ H‬ﺡ; ا‪.5A‬‬
‫  اآ‪H O,‬‬
‫‪ H‬و= ‪ 2‬ا@‪/‬م‪ً + .‬‬
‫اآت ‪6‬دة‪ ،‬أن ﺕول ا‪ :‬آ‪J‬ﺙ‪;+! ;,‬‬
‫‪ c+‬واال‪.‬‬
‫ ا‪!1‬ر ا‪ ;3,‬أن ا‪ % O,6‬ررد ‪ 
,‬ن‬
‫ا'ي ‪+‬ر اﺵ‪ %G+ :+ _p‬وراء ";‬
‫ن  إ‪Ja‬م ﻥ‪ % _G6‬ﺕ‪J‬ي‬
‫اآف"‪! : ،‬ا َ‬
‫=‪ D3‬اﻥ‪6‬ر آ‪ ;3‬ا‪-6‬ء ا‪،;,B1‬‬
‫"ا 
‪J‬ي"‪   .‬ﺵ‪ c‬أن أﺙ ا‪ % :‬ا  


‫ ‪ %*G‬أي ‪.‬‬

‫‪Related Internet Sites: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/may22/neuroethics.html‬‬
‫‪http://www.dana.org/books/press/neuroethics/‬‬

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‫اریـ وا ــ‪H‬‬
‫ أن  ن ها ا
  أ‬
‫" ة  او ا  
م‬
‫ا ‪  *+‬وﺕ* )‪#‬ﺕ(‪# & '" #‬ﺕ‪ .#$‬و ‬
‫أ‪#2‬ر اه 
‪#‬ﻡ‪ 0‬ﺏ‪
  #‬رس ا م‬
‫ا ‪ '"  *+‬ا ‪#3‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻡ‪6#3‬ت ا ‪ 4‬ﺏ‬
‫ا را‪ 9‬ﻡ
‪ ،$‬و ا ‪  #7‬ﺹرة‬
‫ا > اﺏ = "' ا <
; أو‬
‫ا 
*‪.‬‬

‫روز " <;)
ن‪،‬‬
‫ ‪(> ?3‬دة اآ
را  ا‪
1‬م‬
‫ا‪  ' /‬اد ‬
‫" ‪ D‬در! ا‪
1‬م وا‪ ;1‬ا<‪516‬ی‪ ،‬ﺙ‪
1, B‬م ا‪4‬ﺡء‬
‫ اد ‪  .‬ا)" ا‪ 4‬ة ‪  !//E‬ا‪
1‬م‬
‫ا‪ ،/‬و( وت "‪ D .")8‬ﺡ‪ "8‬ا‪F3‬‬
‫ ا ‪
1, B)9  H‬م ا‪/,4‬ب‬
‫‪ ُ,  ",‬ض ‪ّ 1,‬‬
‫ا‪N‬دراآ    اد آ )‪,‬ة ﺡ‪ ،M‬وه‪$‬ا‬
‫‪9‬د إ‪ P‬ﺵ(دة اآ
را ‪".‬‬

‫درا ا‪
1‬م ا‪  /‬ا' ‬
‫‪  A$‬ﻡ ا ‪#3‬ﻡ‪#‬ت ﺵ(‪#‬دة ‪#‬ﻡ ‬
‫"' ا م ا ‪ ، *+‬ا
' ‪ #ً* #C‬ﻡ‪ #‬ﺕرس‬
‫آ 
‪ F+‬ﺏ ﺕ‪  7‬ﻡاد ‪ E‬ا& ‪#‬ء‪،‬‬
‫ا  ‪ E ،#  I‬ادو‪ ،‬و‪ E‬ا ‪H$‬‬
‫"' ا <‪$‬ات او ‪ .‬درا‪ E 9‬ا را‪2‬‬
‫و‪ E‬ا& ‪#‬ء ا ‪ 'LI3‬أﻡ ﻡ‪$‬وب أ‪#ًJ‬‬
‫ﺏ= ا ‪#3‬ﻡ‪#‬ت  ﺕ
‪ A‬ﻡ‪#3‬ل ا م‬
‫ا ‪  *+‬ـ آورات ـ ( 
ﻡ‬
‫ر‪9‬ن "' ا ‪6#3‬ت ‪  C‬ا  ‪.‬‬


س ‪،‬‬
‫     اد ‬

‫ا‪%‬‬
‫ا  "' ﺏ‪ # #‬درا‪# 9‬ﻡ  ﻡ 
"ة‬
‫"'  ﻡ ا ‪#3‬ﻡ‪#‬ت‪ ،‬وا <‪$‬ات‬
‫اﺥ ة ﺵ(ت ا"

‪#‬ح آ ‪#‬ت ‪ O‬ة‪.‬‬
‫ا 
‪ '" F+‬ﻡ‪#3‬ل ا م ا ‪، *+‬‬
‫آ‪#‬ﻡاض ا ‪ ، *+‬ا ‪3‬ا& ا ‪، *+‬‬
‫اﻡاض ا ‪... <$‬ا ‪T ،U‬ث ‪#‬دة ﺏ‬
‫إ(‪#‬ء درا‪ 9‬ا ‪ ،‬وإن آ‪#‬ن ه‪#$‬ك‬
‫"ص ‪ '" 4‬ﻡ
*ات اﺏ‪#T‬ث‬
‫ﺥ‪Y‬ل  ا ‪ .> +‬ا
‪#T
Y H"#$‬ق‬
‫ﺏ  ‪#‬ت ا  ‪#‬ل‪ ،‬آ‪ #‬ه ا دود ﻡ‬
‫‪ '" 4‬ﻡ‪#3‬ل ا ‪.‬‬

‫" ا ت ا‪ $ %‬آ"!  ا ر‪ ،‬وا ت اد ‬
‫) ( ا'ة‪  .‬ا)" ا‪ ..‬أ‪ +  !%,‬ورة‬
‫‪
1,‬م  ت ا‪
1‬م ا‪ ./‬آ!  ‪ +‬ة‬
‫را ا‪34‬ث ا ی ‪ (1, 56‬ا‪ ،%‬آ! درا‬
‫  و‪ 9‬ا‪".( !8‬‬

‫"‪ R‬و" "ت ‪ B11 ()8‬واری‬
‫ ا '" ا‪ H/ 8D.‬ا‪S%‬ب  ا ارس آ  ‪H/‬‬
‫ا ‪3 .‬ﺽ ا " ‪ H/‬أ‪ +9‬ا‪S‬د‪ % .‬ار"‬
‫ا‪S%1 + 8‬ب ا"
ا‪
1 X‬ا ‪ W,‬ا غ وأ‪3‬ﺙ‪.U‬‬
‫ ‪ P%‬ا "‪31 Y‬ﺙ ا>ب ‪5‬یدة  ا (‪ N ،B‬اء‬
‫دورات رج ا‪S‬د  ‪ E‬ات >(
د ( ‪
8‬ق‪،‬‬
‫أو ‪> 1‬رآ  ا \ ات او‪ M3 .‬ا‪S%‬ب ‪P1,‬‬
‫ )‪   
1  E‬ﺵ(‪.B‬‬
‫‪5 1‬ی‪www.IBRO.org:‬‬

‫‪54‬‬

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‫ا‬
‫  إ أدو ة  ج أ اض اغ‪ .‬م‬
‫‪ ,‬آت ا‪+‬دو ا*) ا&( '&‪#$%‬ت ا!  و اآ‬
‫ا‪+‬ث‪ ،‬آ& ! ي أ‪ -0‬ا‪45& -5 * .- ./‬‬
‫ا< ب ; ‪8' .‬ر‪ 9‬واآ‪#8‬ب ا‪ 6/‬ات‪8 .‬ج‬
‫‪ ,‬آت ا‪+‬دو ﺥ !( ا> وع ا '& ‪ - ; & ،‬ا '@م‬
‫ا ‪ ، 6B‬و‪ A  ./‬ﺥ‪ 6‬ة ;( ا&‪. 68/‬‬

‫أث ا 
م ا 
‬
‫@ ; ص آ‪ D‬ة و‪C! (; *@58‬ت ا‪ @B8‬‬
‫ا‪ ،(* F‬ارا‪$‬ت ا‪@'#‬آ ‪ ،‬ا> @@  ا ‪)'* ، 6B‬‬
‫ا@را‪ 0‬ا!‪..(G‬ا‪ J!F .H‬ا '&ء ا< ب ا&‪ &8-‬‬
‫‪!L‬د ا< ‪ K‬ا&‪.)- 9$5‬‬

‫ﺹت ا‬
‫‪ Q6 </ C M‬درا‪ $‬ا '@م ا ‪  6B‬إذا آ‪ً&8- O5‬‬
‫‪  58‬ا& '@ت‪ T .‬آ& رأ‪ (; 5‬ا‪ 9 8T‬ه‪5‬ك اه‪&8‬م‬
‫‪8‬ا ‪ 6<8‬ت ‪ U‬ا<‪@' '  6‬م ا ‪  6B‬و‪5 -5‬ء‬
‫&ذج '@ا‪ ' 9$‬اغ‪.‬‬

‫اری  اارس‬
‫‪ C‬رس ا '@م ا ‪  6B‬آ&دة ;( ا&ارس‪TW T ،‬ن‬
‫اﺉ *' إزة   ;( ا '@م ا ‪  6B‬ا &‪Y‬‬
‫آ&رس *') أﺡ ء‪.‬‬

‫ا 
‪ %‬وو‪ "#‬ا! م‬
‫‪ )8-‬و‪$‬ﺉ] ا‪ *L‬م ‪ F5‬ا&‪!8#‬ات ا '&  ‪ *@8‬‬
‫ا  و'‪  6‬اه‪ ،)-&8‬وﺥ‪ .‬إذا آ‪8 O‬ﺉ!‪-‬‬
‫‪ '* ^T 58$‬ﺡ ‪ 5‬ا‪ . *&8C‬ا '@م ا ‪-  6B‬‬
‫‪ (; -6 B‬ه‪a‬ا ا&!ل‪ ،‬وا رف ‪@T $ -‬ن أ‪M‬ر *'‬
‫‪ -< #6‬و'‪ YB8  ' -‬ا>ﺉة‪a .‬ا ;‪W‬ن ; ص *ة‬
‫‪8‬ح '&‪ (;  B8/‬ا '@م ا ‪ (; Y& '  6B‬و‪$‬ﺉ]‬
‫ا‪ *L‬م ‪.‬‬

‫ا 
‪ %‬وا'&‬
‫‪ YB>5 C‬ا ') * ا>‪ *# .‬ا>‪@5‬ن ا '&ء ;( )‬
‫ا&دة ا '&  '!&‪@-‬ر  ﺥ ل ا‪@B‬رة وا ‪ )$‬أو‬
‫‪ U‬ه  ا‪ J!F .9 $+‬ا&‪8‬ﺡ‪ ،c‬ا& رض‪ ،‬وو‪$‬ﺉ]‬
‫ا‪ *L‬م‪ '* ،‬ا‪ 8‬ون ا‪ّ56‬ء   ا '&ء وا>‪. 5‬‬

‫‪55‬‬

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‫‪www.gsk.com www.sciart.org‬‬

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‫ــــ‬  

3‫ﻡرات اﻝ‬Q‫ ا‬،1R ‫ أ‬،
10‫ اﻝ‬H 
L K
?‫  اﻝ‬E‫ 
 ﻡ‬123‫ون ﻡ"اﺡ( ا ;?ري أول اﻡاض اﻝ‬EL I
10‫ 
اﻝ‬3‫ إﻝ< اﻝ‬I
;‫ا اﻝ‬O‫ ه‬%4‫ﻥ‬
()3‫ ﻡ ورد  اﻝ‬S ‫ و‬،‫ع‬0;*‫ر اﻝ‬E ، 
3‫ت اﻝ‬,02‫ل اﻝ‬3; ‫ وا‬، 
,‫ اﻝ;ﺝ اﻝ‬$  
3‫ة اﻝ‬H‫ﺕ 
ن ﻝ‬Q‫ ا‬%4‫ رو=  اﻝ‬.‫ة‬E,;‫اﻝ‬
.‫م‬3‫  واﻝ‬4V‫ 
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Cartoons throughout the booklet: Maddelena Miele and Robert Filipkowski. Front cover illustrations: Peter Brophy, Beverley
Clark, Michael Hausser, David Linden, Richard Ribchester. Inside front cover: Peter Somogyi, Elaine Snell, Lisa CokayneNaylor. Ch 1 (The nervous system): Marina Bentivoglio, Nobel Forum. Ch 2 (The action potential): Tobias Bonhoeffer, Peter
Brophy, Eric Kandel, Nobel Forum. Ch 3 (Chemical messengers): Marianne Fillenz, Ch 4 (Drugs and the brain): Leslie Iversen.
Ch 5 (Touch and pain): Susan Fleetwood-Walker, Han Jiesheng, Donald Price. Ch 6 (Vision): Colin Blakemore, Andy Doherty,
Bill Newsome, Andrew Parker. Ch 7 (Movement): Beverley Clark, Tom Gillingwater, Michael Hausser, Chris Miall, Richard
Ribchester, Wolfram Schultz. Ch 8 (The developing nervous system): Andrew Lumsden. Ch 9 (Dyslexia): John Stein. Ch 10
(Neuronal plasticity): Graham Collingridge, Andrew Doherty; Kathy Sykes. Ch 11 (Learning and Memory): Ted Berger, Livia de
Hoz, Graham Hitch, Eleanor Maguire, Andrew Doherty, Leslie Ungerleider, Fareneh Vargha-Khadem. Ch 12 (Stress):
Jonathan Seckl. Ch 13: (Brain and Immune System): Nancy Rothwell. Ch 14 (Sleep and Rhythms): Anthony Harmar. Ch 15
(Brain Imaging): Mark Bastin, Richard Frackowiak, Nikos Logothetis, Eleanor Maguire, Lindsay Murray, Elisabeth Rounis,
Semir Zeki. Ch 16 (Neural Networks and Artificial Brains): Rodney Douglas, Gerry Edelman, Jeff Krichmar, Kevan Martin. Ch
17 (When things go wrong): Malcolm Macleod, Eve Johnstone, Walter Muir, David Porteous, Ian Reid. Ch 18 (Neuroethics):
Colin Blakemore, Kenneth Boyd, Stephen Rose, William Saffire. Ch 19 (Careers) Yvonne Allen (BNA), Victoria Gill.
Inside back cover illustration: Eric Kandel (for Hippocrates Quotation), Richard Morris.
Back cover illustration and words: Jennifer Altman, David Concar; Spike Gerrell.

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V.S. Ramachandran, (Sandra Blakeslee) Phantoms in the Brain: Human Nature and the Architecture of the Mind
Fourth Dimension Publications
(Paperback - 6 May, 1999) ISBN: 1857028953
A fascinating account of phantom-limb pain and related disorders of the nervous system.

Oliver Sacks, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (Picador)
Picador
(Paperback - 7 November, 1986) ISBN: 0330294911
An amusing and well-written account of the effects of brain damage on the mind.

Jean-Dominique Bauby, The Diving-bell and the Butterfly
Fourth Estate
(Paperback - 7 May, 2002) ISBN: 0007139845
A very personal and moving account of the consequences of a stroke.

Richard P. Feynman, Surely You’re Joking, Mr Feynman: Adventures of a Curious Character
Paperback
19 November, 1992 ISBN: 009917331X
Physicist, bongo-drum man, and all round polymath. A hero for all young scientists.

Nancy Rothwell, Who Wants to Be a Scientist?: Choosing Science as a Career
Smudge (Illustrator) Cambridge University Press
(Paperback - 19 September, 2002) ISBN: 0521520924
Sound practical advice on choosing science as a career.  

‫ﻝ‬3‫ اﻝ‬1?‫ =< اﻝ‬K*‫ ﻥ‬I0‫ ﻝ‬: www.bna.org.uk/publications
E 1‫ ﻝ‬: The British Neuroscience Association, c/o: The Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool L68 3GE
Telephone: 44 (0) 151 794 4943/5449 Fax: 44 (0) 794 5516/5517

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An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM “Neuroscience: Science of the Brain”
IBRO: Who we are and what do we do?
IBRO, The International Brain Research Organization, is an
international network of neuroscience organizations that promotes and
supports neuroscience training and research around the world. Our
members have a common interest in the brain. Some are academic or
industrial research scientists who are attempting to learn how the
brain works. They also study the changes that occur when the
brain goes wrong in the hope of discovering new cures and
treatments. Other members are doctors and clinical practitioners
who treat patients who suffer from psychiatric illnesses and brain
disorders. Many of us are teachers and students.

IBRO is active all around the world. Our members are divided into
six regional groups. Our primary purpose is to support young
people who wish to enter careers in brain research or become
clinicians treating psychiatric disorders. The six world regions are:






Africa Regional Committee (ARC)
Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Latin America Regional Committee (LARC)
US/Canada Regional Committee (NARC)
Western Europe Regional Committee (WERC)

Throughout the world IBRO runs Workshops and Schools, teaching young scientists about the brain
(neuroscience) and giving them the opportunity to learn practical skills for research. We provide
Studentships and Postdoctoral Fellowships so that aspiring neuroscientists from developing
countries can travel and work in the world’s most prestigious laboratories. We help young people who
have been tutored by world-renowned neuroscientists to return to their home countries and set up
laboratories where they will study the brain disorders that are important to them and their own
communities. We help these Returning Scientists to develop their careers in their own countries by
giving them access to our equipment exchange program (IBRO-Equip) and knowledge database,
IBRO-Edu. We also help young people travel to international conferences where they can present
their own research findings for discussion and learn about the most recent advances in their field. The
members of IBRO hope that these activities will encourage brilliant young people from all over the
world to fulfil their potential as neuroscientists.
This is a very important aspiration. The human brain is a fundamental part of our body as the nervous
system controls everything that we perceive, think and do. Without a healthy brain, an individual
cannot access reliable information about the world, and make appropriate physical and emotional
responses. The brain remains one of the least understood parts of our body, yet illnesses relating to
the brain affect almost every family. At least one in every four people will suffer a short- or long-term
brain disorder at some point in their lives. Brain disorders affect the way we interact with each other
and the manner in which our communities and families work. Often there is a progressive
deterioration in mental faculties that eventually results in a need for long-term care and prevents the
sufferer from making a social or economic contribution to their families.
Our limited understanding of the brain means that many brain disorders are presently untreatable and
often sufferers are stigmatized. Public Education about the Brain can assist individuals, their
families and communities to cope with brain disorders and access help. By working with
schoolchildren, we hope to inspire a few young people to become the future brain scientists we so
badly need.
The CDROM “Neuroscience: Science of the Brain” is part of IBRO’s public education effort. It
contains a booklet consisting of short articles about aspects of the brain. The British Neuroscience

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Association (BNA) and European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) originally commissioned the
booklet and the articles are written by leading neuroscientists. IBRO has commissioned the
translation of this booklet into over 20 languages. We want to enable you to promote better public
understanding of the brain. You are welcome to download these files, print and distribute the material
in part or in its entirety to be used as part of any Brain Awareness event. You may also make copies
of this CDROM. You may not use this material for personal gain.
The project to translate material for the purpose of public
education was initiated in 2005. As a pilot exercise, the booklet
was translated into Mandarin and Spanish. Volunteer translators
for the remaining versions were recruited to the project in 2006.
The project has been managed and organized by K. Esther
Binns, Chair of IBRO’s Public Education Committee). Esther
would like to express her personal thanks to Duncan Banks of the
BNA and Open University, UK for his considerable help and
advice. Without Duncan these translations would not have been
produced.

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IBRO in your region: the work of the
regional committees

Africa Regional Committee (ARC)
The ARC is made up of neuroscientists and clinicians who work in Africa. Some of our members also
work in Europe and America but are of African origin and hold this world region in very high regard.
Africa is IBRO’s poorest region. Many citizens still do not receive any formal education, let alone have
the opportunity to attend a university and learn about the brain.
Yet there are many extremely talented young people in Africa. There are also several universities with
good reputations in medical science and biology. When young Africans are given the opportunity to
learn, they exploit this potential to the full. These students are best placed to advance neuroscience in
this region by studying the brain disorders that affect people on this continent.
In the 1970s, IBRO set out to develop neuroscience research and training in Africa. A series of
workshops helped to identify the problems and chart a course of development. This initiative now
continues under ARC. One of our major achievements has been the formation of the Society of
Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA), which has organized an international neuroscience meeting
biennially since 1993. The meetings have been held all over Africa: Nairobi, Kenya; Marrakech,
Morocco; Cape Town, South Africa, Dakar, Senegal, and Abuja, Nigeria. The meeting provides a
forum for African neuroscientists who rarely have the opportunity to attend international neuroscience
conferences to present their work as well as interact with neuroscientists from outside Africa.
Since 2001, ARC has organized IBRO African Neuroscience Schools providing teaching and research
training in neuroscience to junior faculty and graduate students. This programme has been highly
successful. So far 14 schools have been held and nearly 250 students have participated. Students
have gone on to obtain PhD in neuroscience in the USA, Canada and Sweden, as well as to visit
laboratories in Italy, Australia and the UK.
ARC also supports regional neuroscience meetings in Africa promoting the formation of regional
neuroscience societies. To date there are six African neuroscience societies represented on the IBRO
Governing Council (Moroccan Association of Neuroscience, Kenya Society for Neuroscience,
Association pour la Promotion des Neurosciences (DR Congo), Southern African Neuroscience
Society, Nigerian Society for Neuroscience, Society of Neuroscientists of Africa). In addition, a
number of African neuroscientists are represented on IBRO committees.
ARC also provides travel support for African neuroscientists to present their work at international
conferences. Through the initiative of Marina Bentivoglio, there is also the Levi-Montalcini Fellowship,
which provides support for African women to pursue higher degrees in Africa or outside. Through the
support of the US/Canada Regional Committee, African students have also attended summer courses
at the Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Raj Kalaria is Chair of the African Regional Committee. The booklet on this CDROM has been
translated into Arabic, Farsi, French and Swahili at the request of some of our African members.
Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
This Committee covers the most diverse region of IBRO, both geographically and culturally. Member
societies cover a vast area, from Japan to Australia and New Zealand and from Jordan to the
Philippines. It includes members from wealthy nations with substantial neuroscience research
communities such as Japan and Australia, emerging economies such as China and India, much
smaller communities such as Iran, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and United Arab Emirates, as well
as poorer countries where the only chance to study neuroscience is in another, wealthier country.

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Many languages are used in teaching in this region. This CDROM has translations of the teaching
booklet in Arabic, Bengali, Farsi, Hindi, Japanese, Mandarin and Punjabi.
IBRO trains students from the region in the latest neuroscience knowledge and techniques through its
schools in Hong Kong, India and Thailand and associate schools in China, India, Thailand, Iran, and
Singapore. Two more were held in Karachi (mid-November 2006) and Dubai (mid-December 2006).
Local support provides matching funds for the schools programme, e.g the International Society for
Neurochemistry co-sponsored a school in Singapore. There are more than 400 alumni from the
educational programmes organized by APRC.
IBRO offers Exchange Fellowships to young neuroscientists to carry out research for six months in a
host laboratory within the APRC region. Offers are made only to applicants who can provide strong
justification that he/she would return to their home country after the exchange. IBRO supports travel
awards for young people to attend courses in other countries, to present papers in conferences, as
well as to participate in the congresses held by the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Neuroscience
Societies (FAONS) every four years. The 4th FAONS Congress was held in Hong Kong, China,
November 30–December 2, 2006 and included a mini-symposium for IBRO alumni.
New discoveries about the brain from laboratories in the Asia-Pacific region and the rest of the world
will take centre-stage at IBRO's 7th World Congress of Neuroscience in Melbourne, Australia in July
2007. World-class brain research in the Asia-Pacific Region is done in the larger universities (such as
in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul, Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney),
as well as in Research Centres dedicated to neuroscience such as the RIKEN Brain Research
Institute in Wako, Japan, the Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai, the Institute of Biophysics in
Beijing, the National Brain Research Centre near Delhi, the National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurological Sciences in Bangalore, the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute in Sydney, the
Howard Florey Institute in Melbourne, and the new National Neuroscience Institute in Singapore.
Ying Shing Chan from Hong Kong has been the Chair of the Asia-Pacific Regional Committee since
2002. Elspeth McLachlan (Sydney) was the Founding Chair when the Committee was established in
1999.
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Historically, the CEERC supports brain researchers from all former socialist Eastern European
countries and now independent countries that were part of the USSR. Thus, besides Central
European countries and Russia, which extends to the Pacific Ocean, the CEERC supports Armenia,
Georgia, Azerbaidjan, and Northern Asian countries, too (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia,
Tadjikistan, Kirgizia).
At the end of the twentieth century great political change occurred throughout our region. Many
Central European countries have now joined the European Union and there has been a revolution in
the politics of education, student mobility and science research. In many ways there is now little
difference between Western and Eastern European countries in respect of brain research
development and achievements. In recognition of the changes that have occurred, IBRO has recently
brought together the neuroscience schools programmes of Western and Eastern Europe to create
PENS (Programme of European Neuroscience Schools).
The CEERC meets each year to discuss strategic issues and applications... In 2006 we awarded 19
stipends to representatives of 12 countries of the region to attend the FENS Forum. Research awards
within the region were given to R. Averkin (Ukraine) for work in Russia (Moscow) in 2006, and to M.
Balcerzyk (Poland) for a short-term visit to Ukraine (Kiev). A new CEERC initiative, ‘IBRO Lecturers’
Visits to the Region’ resulted in one award (up to 1,500Euros) for the visit of Prof. H. Atwood
(Canada) to Kazan (Russia). Eight conferences are supported in 2006.
Thus IBRO is helping to train young Eastern Europeans to pioneer brain research in their home
countries. Academics who have received training and support from IBRO include Natalia Lozovava
(Ukraine), who is currently working on the effects of cannabis-like chemicals on the brain at the
Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Pavel Balaban is Chair of the Central and Eastern European Regional Committee. There has been
great interest in this translation project throughout Eastern Europe and we have been able to make
the following translations: Armenian, Croatian, Greek, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian. The
translations into Farsi and Arabic may also be useful.
Latin American Regional Committee (LARC)
The LARC is active throughout Central America, the Caribbean and South America. It is made up of
14 neuroscience societies within the region. The most northerly is Mexico and the most southerly is
Chilli. Many people in this region speak either Portuguese or Spanish and this booklet is available in
both languages. The French version may be useful in some Caribbean areas.
The IBRO schools have helped to train many of the region’s brightest young scientists. During 2006
alone there were five schools located in Argentina, Brazil, Chilli and Venezuela. A strong partnership
between LARC and the Spanish Society for Neuroscience has resulted in a regular European School
for Latin American students in Seville, Spain.
We are active in supporting the continued education and careers of the IBRO School Alumni through
a range of travel and research fellowships. For example, Lucia Francini, Institute for Genetic
Engineering and Molecular Biology (INGEBI), Buenos Aires, Argentina, is spending a year in Dr Bruce
Lahn’s laboratory, in the Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Her research relates to determining the genes associated with cognitive skills such as language and
learning and the genetic deficits that can lead to problems such as schizophrenia, dyslexia, autism
and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hope that after this period of training Lucia
and others will return to work in their home countries.
Help to return home after training is made possible by the Return Home Programme, which has
recently announced the award of fellowships to two young neuroscientists in the region. So after
respective training periods in Italy and Canada, Elaine Gavioli, Universidade do Extremo Sul
Catarinense, Criciuma, Brazil and Valeria Della-Maggiore, Dept. of Physiology of the School of
Medicine, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, will return to work in their home countries.
Marta Hallak is Chair of the Latin American Regional Committee.
US/Canada Regional Committee (IAC-USNC/IBRO) and the& Western European Regional
Committee (WERC)
The Largest and most active communities of brain research are based in either North America or
Western Europe where they are well supported by the American Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and
the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), IBRO works closely with these
organizations but reserves much of its resources for the four regions where neuroscience is less well
supported. The US/Canada RC and WERC organize schools that bring students from around the
world to the premier research departments and locations so that they can experience first-rate
research with the worlds leading brain researchers.
We support studentships and fellowships for foreign students in North American and Western
European laboratories and provide travel fellowships so that students can travel to the world’s most
prestigious Brain Science conferences.
Biology is widely taught in schools in these areas and neuroscience degrees are available in many
universities. The booklet on this CDROM is useful for public education and high-school students (1418 years) and is available in English and several other European languages (Portuguese, Spanish,
French and Greek). Both North America and Western Europe have diverse multicultural populations
in which some members of the community use the language of their country of origin rather than the
first language of their nation. These individuals can be educationally disadvantaged in schools and
communities where science is not taught in their first language. The non-European language
translations of this booklet may be of great use for such groups. The full list of languages available
can be found at the end of this document.

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IBRO is committed to
education and training

Workshops and schools
Each of the IBRO regions organises schools and workshops so that the regions most promising
students can be given training on particular areas of brain research and practical techniques.
Together the regional committees run around 20 schools each year. The IBRO schools board
supports and links these schools by offering advice on the organisation of individual schools and
teaching programmes: Arranging for teaching materials to be shared and disseminated amongst the
schools. Working in partnership with other national and international organisations providing similar
teaching and learning opportunities. Our aims are to strengthen and expand the programme by
attracting sponsors and new partnerships, help to publicize and explain the Programme to the
membership and public. All the attendees at IBRO schools are eligible to become IBRO School
Alumini and thereby benefit from the mutual support of other students and tutors throughout their
future careers in brain research.
IBRO is committed to promoting the best practice in all areas of brain research and thus in addition to
the above schools we run workshops devoted to the use and role of animals in research.
The Visiting Lecture team
IBRO is working to bring the best academic teaching on neuroscience to students all over the world.
Our Visiting Lecture Team is composed of five internationally recognised researchers who are able
to offer an experiment based lecture course in basic neuroscience at host institutions in developing
countries. The course normally covers; mechanisms of impulse conduction and synaptic
transmission; structure, function and pharmacology of membrane receptors and channels; information
processing in sensory systems; regulation of behavioural patterns; and neurodevelopment. Teaching
is given in 35 lecturers over nine days. Since 1994 the VLTP has given 31 courses in 20 countries.
These are amazing opportunities, as students form developing countries can rarely expect to be
taught by world leaders in their field.
Fellowships
Students that have attended the courses run by the visiting lecture team or attended IBRO schools
may decide to begin a career in brain research. IBRO wants to foster the careers of the most
promising young neuroscientists from diverse geographical and scientific areas. We focus our support
on the less well-developed countries where funding for research is very limited. Fellowships are
offered so that young scientists can broaden the scope of their training in neuroscience by working
abroad in good laboratories, or participating at international neuroscience meetings.
Return home programme
Students who have benefited from the best teaching opportunities through our VLT, Schools and
Fellowships have the potential can become excellent neuroscientists. So it will not surprise you to
know that they are sought after by academic and industrial institutions all over the world and often
tempted to leave their home countries and take jobs in Western Europe and America. IBRO believes
that this practice weakens the academic community in developing countries, so we try to encourage
our students to make their careers in their country of origin. The return home programme provides
grants, fellowships and travel assistance to support the careers of students who return to their
countries of origin.

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Alumni Success Stories
Oliver Mazodze an alumnus of IBRO’s African schools in Kenya
and South Africa travelled to the UK to spend 6 weeks as a
visiting scientist in the neurophysiology laboratory at
GlaxoSmithKline"s Harlow research facility.
Oliver is tenured member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences at
Bindura University of Science Education in Zimbabwe. Whist in
the UK he has learned in vitro electrophysiological techniques for
the study of neuronal activity. He intends to use these
techniques to begin researching the potential neurophysiologic
effects of extracts derived from a widely used African medicinal
plant. The training at GSK was under the guidance of Dr Jon
Spencer and Professor Andy Randall, two scientists he first
met in their capacity as tutors at the IBRO African School held in
November 2004 in Nairobi.
Oliver Mazodze (left) with Andy Randall (right)

Wael Mohamed Yousef attended IBRO schools in Mali and Kenya
and now works as an assistant lecturer of neuropharmacology at the
Faculty of Medicine, University of Menoufiya, Egypt.
Weal was awarded a scholarship from the Egyptian Government to
study fro a PhD in neuropharmacology with Professor Byron C.
Jones, Biobehavioral Health and Pharmacology, at Penn State
University, USA. During his 5 years in the USA Weal will learn
advanced techniques in the neuroscience and work on the
development of new drugs needed for many patients suffering from
neurological diseases. Afterwards he hopes to return and work in
Egypt.

Weal Yousef (left) with Byron Jones (right)

Bin Liu from a small island in the Shandong Province of China is one of
just three people who have obtained a doctoral degree from this region.
She obtained her PhD in Physiology from Qingdao University in China in
2004 and has since become an Assistant Professor at the Center for
New Drugs Evaluation, School of Pharmacy in Shandong University.
In 2005 she won an IBRO Research Fellowship to work in the
Department of Anatomy at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of
Medicine. Her studies in the USA focused on observing the effects of
gonadal steroid hormones against neurotoxins, which target the
nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rodents.

Bin Liu

This fellowship has meant that Bin has received training in an excellent
laboratory and is now well placed to contribute to neuroscience research
in China.

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Dimiter Prodanov from Bulgaria
attended an IBRO VLTP course in
1998, in Sofia, Bulgaria. He has
recently been awarded the John
G. Nicholls Fellowship for 2006.
He will spend a year Dr Jean
Delbeke of the Department of
Physiology & Pharmacology, the
Neural Rehabilitation Engineering
Laboratory at the Catholic
University of Louvain, Brussels,
Belgium.
The John G. Nicholls IBRO
Fellowship was created in honour
of John G. Nicholls who headed
IBRO’s Visiting Lecture Team
Programme (VLTP) from 1994 to
2002. The Fellowship aims to
assist annually one promising
Dimiter Prodanov
young researcher who wishes to
further his/her training in
neuroscience at a distinguished foreign laboratory for one year. The successful candidate is expected
to return to his/her home country after the training, bringing new knowledge and skills in the
neurosciences.

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IBRO and Public Education on the brain

Given the impact that brain disorders can have on individuals, families and their communities and the
high global prevalence of these illnesses, we believe that each person needs some understanding of
the brain and how this part of our bodies can be kept healthy. So, together with other international
organisations that support brain research we are working to improve the public’s general
understanding of the central nervous system.
The Brain Campaign is an initiative by many like organisation to encourage those involved in
research to engage with public and share their knowledge and findings worldwide. While many of the
organisations involved have focussed their effort on their own world region, IBRO is committed to
public education in neuroscience in the developing world. We actively and financially support activities
and events being organised by academics in developing countries and taking place in the most
remote locations. We want all people in all corners of the globe to have access to public education
about the brain. We want all governments and health programmes to take the brain and psychiatric
illness seriously.
Since 2003 IBRO has supported this aspiration by helping to finance around 25 public education
events in approximately 15 countries. A wide variety of events have received support. Some
activities have taken place in schools in remote villages while others attract a massive audience by
occurring at agricultural shows or in train stations. Sometimes the event covers many aspects of
brain function and disease but at other times the focus is on a single disease or problem (eg Drugs,
head injury and epilepsy) that is relevant to the local community.
Many of the events that we have supported in the past have
taken place during a single week in March. This week is
designated Brain Awareness Week. The organisations
supporting Brain Awareness Week, which include IBRO, want
this to be a global celebration of the brain where those involved
in research explain the latest advances in understanding brain
function and treating brain disorders to people all over the
world. During Brain Awareness Week 2006 there were several
hundred events in over 62 countries.
Brain education events including those that are part of Brain Awareness Week are attempting to
spread knowledge of the brain to a wide audience that speaks in many languages. It is often helpful
to back up an event with some literature. Unfortunately, suitable written material is often unavailable
in local languages. IBRO has recognised this problem and is seeking to address the issue by
providing Multilingual teaching materials. The booklet on this CDROM is available in the following
languages: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Croation, English, Farsi, French, Greek, Hindi, Japanese,
Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swahili, and
Ukrainian.
We hope that some of these translations will be useful in your work to promote better public
understanding of the brain. If you would like to access these materials in other languages or are
willing to make translations for us in another language we would be delighted to make contact with
you.

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Neuroscience: Science of the Brain.
The original “English Language” version of this booklet was prepared and edited on behalf of The
British Neuroscience Association and the European Dana Alliance for the Brain by Richard
Morris (University of Edinburgh) and Marianne Fillenz (University of Oxford). You are reading one
of the translations of the booklet that were commissioned by the public education committee of the
International Brain Research Organisation. These translations have been made by members
of IBRO as part of their global effort to improve public understanding of the Brain. IBRO is grateful
to all the volunteers who have made these translations possible. See list
The graphic design of the original booklet was by Jane Grainger (Grainger Dunsmore Design
Studio, Edinburgh). We are grateful for contributions from our colleagues in the Division of
Neuroscience, particularly Victoria Gill, and others in the neuroscience community in Edinburgh.
We also thank members of the University Department of Physiology in Oxford, particularly Colin
Blakemore, and helpful colleagues in other institutions. Their names are listed below.
The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) is the professional body in the United Kingdom
that represents neuroscientists and is dedicated towards a better understanding of the nervous
system in health and disease. Its members range from established scientists holding positions in
Universities and Research Institutes through to postgraduate students. The BNA’s annual
meetings, generally held in the spring, provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research.
Numerous local groups around the country hold frequent seminars and these groups often
organise activities with the general public such as school visits and exhibitions in local museums.
See http://www.bna.org.uk/ for further information.
The goal of The European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) is to inform the general public
and decision makers about the importance of brain research. EDAB aims to advance knowledge
about the personal and public benefits of neuroscience and to disseminate information on the
brain, in health and disease, in an accessible and relevant way. Neurological and psychiatric
disorders affect millions of people of all ages and make a severe impact on the national economy.
To help overcome these problems, in 1997, 70 leading European neuroscientists signed a
Declaration of Achievable Research Goals and made a commitment to increase awareness of
brain disorders and of the importance of neuroscience. Since then, many others have been
elected, representing 24 European countries. EDAB has more than 125 members. See
http://www.edab.net/ for further information.
The International Brain Research Organisation Is an independent, international
organization dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between
brain researchers in all countries of the World. A present we represent the interests of about
51,000 neuroscientists in 111 countries. Since our formation in 1960 we have set up a
number of active programmes to stimulate international contacts in brain research. We
sponsor Symposia and Workshops and Neuroscience schools, worldwide. We offer postdoctoral fellowships and travel grants to students from less favoured countries. We also
publish the Journal “Neuroscience”. See http://www.ibro.info/ for further information.
The project to translate this booklet was initiated in 2005 by myself as chair of the IBRO Committee
for Public Education. Special thanks are due to Duncan Banks of the British Neuroscience
Association and Open University, Milton Keynes, UK who has made it technically possible to make so
many translations and produced the CDROM.

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Authors of the original chapters
Chapter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Authors
Maria Bentivogelio, Nobel Forum
Tobias Bohoffer, Peter Brophy, Eric Kandel, Nobel Forum
Marianne Fillenz
Leslie Iversen
Susan Fleetwood-Walker, Han Jiesheng, Donald Price
Andrew Parker
Beveley Clark, Tom Gillingwater, Michael Hausser, Chris Miall, Richard Ribchester, Wolfram Schultz,
Andrew Lumsden
John Stein
Graham Collingridge, Andre Doherty, Kathy Sykes
Ted Berger, Livia dev Hoz, Graham Hitch, Eleanor Maguire, Andrew Doherty, Leslie Underleider,
Fareneh Vargha-Khadem
Jonathan Seckl
Nancy Rothwell
Anthony Harmar
Mark Bastin, Richard Frackowiak, Nikos Logothetis, Elanor Maguire, Lindsay Murray, Elisabeth
Rounis, Semir Zeki.
Rodney Douglas, Gerry Eldelman, Jeff Krichmar, Kevan Martin
Malcolm Macleod, Eva Johnstone, Walter Muir, David Porteous, Ian Reid.
Colin Blakemore, Kenneth Boyd, Stephen Rose, William Saffire
Yvonne Allen (BNA), LARC, ARC, APRC, CEERC

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