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french lessonsfrenchstudio - home links to free french language learning tools looking for a word, a definition ? go to our page on-line dictionaries and thesauri french frenchlesson.org - a top on the top site france is is geared toward those interested in developing a profound knowledge of french. pages and pages full of extensive grammatical details of french verb tenses and endings, interactive java exercices, audio files, tests, etc.the interactive grammar guides and tutorials (with audio) are probably best suited for people who have already had some exposure to french or already have some experience learning languages. however, their "beginner's guide" follows a comprehensive and logical progression, well adapted to beginners. frencha wide range of french teaching material (interactive exercises and download section). useful for teachers and students! the enormous amount of material makes the site a bit "crammed", though. frenchzut!, the website for teachers and learners of french run by teacher catherine murphy. zut! provides a comprehensive set of interactive activities for french, featuring more than 400 exercises, over 100 of which have audio samples of native french speakers. it is an easily navigated resource, well adapted for younger learners, organized for each year of study and includes reading, writing and listening exercises. zut! will start charging people for login as from the 9th of march 2003. however (- and that's nice !), it will remain free between 4.00pm and 9.00am (local time) so that users can access without having to log in. frenchbbc languages-french a definitive site for learning about french language and culture * bbci-french steps an on-line beginners course, covering essential topics from booking train ticket to ordering a meal in a restaurant. it's made up of 24 short units (each of which you can do in about 20 minutes) with self-explanatory titles: taking a taxi; talking about the weather etc. either follow the units in sequence from beginning to end or just dip into them to refresh your memory on a particular topic or situation. * french experience online is a series of multimedia activities for beginners. it builds on the absolute basics of talk french, but can be used on its own to learn and practice the language. it's based on clips from the 20-part tv series. * quick fix essential holiday phrases * le français cool want to show some street cred? here is our essential guide to young french people's slang.
the following web site is about much more than just french grammar. it is also about the epic love story of tex and tammy, two star-struck armadillos, and bette, the sex kitten bent over .... over ....french tex's french grammar, a pedagogical reference grammar that combines explanations with surreal dialogues and cartoon images. originally built for students at the university of texas at austin as a user-friendly guide to french grammar, this web site may be profitably used by any learner of french, provided he or she possess a sense of humor. tex's french grammar is arranged like many other traditional reference grammars with the parts of speech (nouns, verbs, etc.) used to categorize specific grammar items (gender of nouns, irregular verbs). individual grammar items are carefully explained in english, then exemplified in a dialogue, and finally tested in self-correcting, fill-in-the-blank exercises which are drawn from a database. to facilitate reference and learning, all grammar items are thoroughly cross-linked. important grammatical terminology is defined in an introductory page for every part of speech. for example, the definition of infinitive, conjugation, and paradigm can all be found in the introduction to verbs page. also included are several other pedagogical tools: verb conjugator, a verb tutor, and an online french dictionary. frenchfrancais interactive most suitable for an intensive revision from scratch-vocabulary, sound files, grammar, interviews, video clips and transcripts. a more than impressive site from the university of texas at austin. almost "high-tech"! and it's worthwhile being patient while the videos are loading! tex's french grammar is integrated. frenchfrench cyberbook the french cyberbooks are free online french courses from 'novice' to 'intermediate high'. students can work their way through the activities, vocabulary and grammar books to obtain a basic understanding of the workings of the language.designed by fabienne gérard and claudia griesing, both high school teachers at cary academy, north carolina. frenchfrench revision this site contains tons of interactive french exercises. whether you're revising for key stage 3, gcse or a level french, this site has exercises, past papers and advice on all-important grammar for you. the exercises mark themselves and a score is given! frenchalmost a "classic" on the web french for beginners in 9 lessons, with a few audio files (.wav). a good starting point for newcomers to french grammar. grammar points are simply explained in short units. this is the course maintained by jacques léon. frenchfrench pronunciation * the alphabet and the way it is pronounced. * which part of a french word is stressed? * Écoutez l'alphabet etc. ... etc. french and do not miss this site, we simply love : french pronunciation - why bother frenchfrench tongue twisters with rough translations start slowly ! ;-) frenchphrase books which found our interest
* smartphrase.com * phrase finder frenchtests and quizzes * are you a complete beginner, quite fluent or somewhere in between? a bbc test which gives you an approximate indication of your knowledge - it is not an exact assessment tool. answer one question at a time. choose the correct answer and you'll get a more challenging question. choose a wrong one and you'll get your final score plus a guide to those parts of their site that will be most useful for you.
* test your proficiency level in french proficiency tests are not dependent on particular class content, course materials, or language software programs. instead, a proficiency test is intended to measure your command of a language regardless of your background in that language.
* test your current knowledge of french elementary french, niveau 1 et 2 du conseil de l'europe survival and threshold levels if you take the time to answer a sufficient number of tests, you will be given your total score, your level based on the specifications of the council of europe ( that is the "survival and threshold" levels or the first two volumes of the most common textbooks of french as a foreign language published in france ).
* french online grammar quiz french a series of lessons, exercises and tests with concise explanations of some french grammar and syntax points which might be sometimes "rocky" for english speakers. a collection of computer aided language learning (call) material developed by students from the language engineering program (stp) at uppsala university in sweden. * text with vocabulary list * nouns: the singular and the plural * nouns: the gender and definiteness * the genitive * verbs: an example of a conjugation * le verbe "être" (to be) * adjectives and adverbs * tout/toute/tous/toutes/tout le monde ??? frenchour preferred ones! do not miss them ! :-))) french french riviera french essential phrases for the aspiring poseur ! the film scouts language course . a must see ! not only useful in cannes! and ...
... go to "the film scouts language laboratory". especially the shrink language workshop , the special therapeutic program for cannes festival participants. it's worthwhile! really!! it could give you a deeper understanding of your neighbor's ... english. frenchmiscallaneous * vocabulary training exercises
* le truc de genres identify the gender (an interesting approach)
* those current little french words ... !
* french vocabulary crosswords
* an interesting site. lots of games, quizzes, etc.
* french scrabble
* more linguistic games
* les jeux linguistiques d'orthonet ils vous permetent de vérifier vos connaissances de la langue écrite et vous apprennent à éviter ses pièges, développe votre vigilance orthographique et lexicale. des jeux, dont chacun est un exercice d’orthographe, de syntaxe ou de vocabulaire ; faciles (a), plus difficiles (b et c), énigmatiques (x). la série b 01 à 05 (accord des participes) est un recyclage par une méthode simple. vérification des connaissances, comblement des lacunes, exercice de vigilance. the place for people who are crazy about frenchies! so what? it is french too! isn't it? and it's a funny site ... ! french frenchstudio - home click here to learn more
tips on studying a foreign language though many students may feel they have a mental block or even lack the aptitude for learning foreign languages, most can learn a second language if they are willing to put in the necessary time. here are some practical suggestions for studying effectively, overcoming anxiety, and learning the grammar and skills necessary for success in college foreign language classes. 1. study every day. a foreign language course is different from any other course you take. language learning is cumulative: you cannot put it off until the weekend. study 1 or 2 hours for every class hour if you want an a or b. 2. distribute your study time in 15- to 30-minute periods throughout the day. focus on a different task each time: vocabulary now, grammar next, etc. get an overview during the first half hour: spend 10 minutes reviewing dialog, 10 minutes learning new vocabulary, 10 minutes learning new grammar ... so you'll at least have looked at it all. approximately 80% of your study time should be spent in recitation or practice, including practice in the language lab. 3. attend and participate in class without fail — even if you are not well prepared. class time is your primary opportunity for practice. learn the grammar and vocabulary outside of class in order to make the most of class time. spend a few minutes "warming up" before each class by speaking or reading the language. 4. make yourself comfortable in the class. get to know your classmates so you will feel you are among friends. visit your instructor during office hours to get acquainted: explain your goals and apprehensions about the course. 5. learn english grammar if you don't already know it. grammar is the skeleton of a language, its basic structure: you must learn it. review a simplified english grammar text. compare new grammatical structures in your foreign language to their english equivalents. 6. practice for tests by doing what you will have to do on the test. if the test will require you to write, then study by writing — including spelling and accents. if you will be asked to listen, then practice listening. ask for practice questions; make up your own test questions. invent variations on patterns and forms. over-learn: study beyond the point of recognition to mastery. 7. develop a good attitude. have a clear personal reason for taking the class. set personal goals for what you want to learn. leave perfectionism at the door; give yourself permission to make mistakes and learn from them. 8. get help if you need it. talk with your teacher. form study groups among class members. use tutoring services. don't wait! reading and writing a foreign language are analytical skills. you may be good at these if you are a logical person who attends to detail. train yourself through practice to notice and remember details such as accents and gender agreement. reading skills tips: * first, read the vocabulary list for the assignment. next, read the questions over the reading. then read all the way through a new passage two or three times, guessing at meaning from context. avoid word-by-word translation. * isolate new vocabulary and study it separately. don't write between the lines! make flash cards. carry them with you and recite them several times during the day at odd moments. overlearn them until they are automatic. * isolate new grammatical forms and study them separately. write the pattern on a flash card and memorize it. write out and label a model sentence. when you encounter the form while reading, pause and recite the pattern to recognize the form. writing skills tips: * pay attention to detail: notice accents, order of letters, etc. compare letter-by-letter different forms (singular, plural, gender, etc.). write out conjugations of verbs, declensions of pronouns, etc., and check your endings. memorize irregular verbs.
* to master spelling, have a friend dictate 10 words to you. write them out and immediately have your friend spell them correctly aloud while you look carefully and point at each letter. repeat until you get all the words right. * write (in your own simple foreign vocabulary words) a story you have just read. listening and speaking are performance skills. you may do well at these if you are naturally gregarious. students in foreign language classes often have difficulty hearing and speaking because they are anxious about making mistakes. give yourself permission to be spontaneous and to take risks. listening skills tips: * frequent the language lab. read the exercises in your book first; then listen and read together; then listen without looking at the print. say aloud/write what you hear. * participate silently in class when others are called on to speak. focus on the task; don't worry about how you'll do. * if you feel nervous, relax yourself physically by taking a couple of slow, deep breaths. when called on, pause, relax, and give yourself time to respond. * listen while a friend dictates to you and write what you hear. check for accuracy. * practice: join language clubs, watch foreign tv, listen to foreign radio. speaking skills tips: * study out loud! mimic the sounds of the language. don't mumble. although most people feel embarrassed making strange sounds, the language will soon feel more familiar to you. * when called on in class, say something, even it it's wrong: you'll learn from it. if you need a moment to think, repeat the question. if you don't know the answer, say in your foreign language, "i don't know" or "help!" * practice with a foreign student who wants your help to learn english or with another class member. jo ann cope powell, ph. d. ut learning center staff member, 1972-2002
tips|||| mnemonic site http://www.foreignlanguagehome.com/topics/lear ning/index.htm ip 1 categorizing
let's do an experiment. please try to learn the following word list: bear, cucumber, fox, armchair, beet, dog, chair, radish, bed, sofa, pumpkin, rabbit, tomato, monkey, carrot, lamp, cow, broccoli, table, mouse, salad, dresser, desk, horse. when reproducing the word list most people will group these words, for example they first will recall the animals, then the vegetables and then the furniture. studies provided by bower, clark, lesgold and winzenz (1969) showed these mnemonics to effectively improve the memorizing of words. how to categorize: 1. create new lessons so that they contain groups. 2. mix two lessons and when learning consider in which category a word should belong. example: you can mix a lesson containing words for the topic fruit with a lesson containing vegetables. when learning consider whether a
foreign word belongs to the fruits or to the vegetables. ___________dd
ip 2 delimiting
if you are looking for something, it is usually helpful to know how it differs from other things. you'll find a book more easily fed into a book shelve years ago if you remember not just the author and title, but also it's size, the color of the cover and other attributes. many psychologists (for instance eyesenck, 1979 or jacoby & craik, 1979) consider the same to be true for the memorizing of words. you can improve your results by learning as many attributes as possible in which a word differs from words of the same cetagory. how to delimit: consider the aspects in sound and meaning which distinguish a word from the word you learned before. ___________ tip 3 story building
bind the vocabulary of a lesson by inventing a story. as a beginner you can formulate the story in your mothers tongue and feed in the foreign words at the right place. later you'll create the whole story in the foreign language. example: you are learning a lesson about shopping. use the foreign words for pants, changing-cubicle, mirror, vendor and cash to write a story, where you enter a store, choose a pant, check the fitting in the mirror of a changing-cubicle,
talk with a vendor and pay the goods at the check-out. tip 4 clue processing
while learning you usually pay less attention to other things, e.g. the time of day, hungry feelings and the composition of the room. nevertheless, many of these informations are processed casually and can serve as clues for remembering what you have learned. how to create clues intentionally: provide your lessons with personal background images, e.g. scanned photos taken during your holidays. if you cannot remember a word, it may help to remember the photo first. ___________ tip 5 loci method
using the loci method you imagine walking through the rooms of a well known house (e.g. your apartment) connecting a part of the information to learn with every room. later you'll repeat the walk for retrieving the information. if you ever had a visit to the foreign country, which language you are learning, imagine being there again. look around and describe your surroundings with the words you learn. stage a dialog with the seller in the food shop. ___________ tip 6 code-word system
the code-word system proposed by atkinson (1975) is an exhausting but most effective technique which especially was developed for learning vocabulary items. using this technique a foreign word is connected acoustically and visually with a code-word. how to process a vocabulary item: 1. as a code-word choose a word of your mothers tongue, which rhymes with the foreign word or sounds similarly. 2. connect the code-word by a pictorial idea with the meaning of the vocabulary item. example: 1. pato, the spanish word for duck, sounds similarly like the english word pot. pot therefore is the code-word for pato. 2. you can imagine a duck which swims in a pot or runs around with a little pot on the head. although the code-word system is superior to other mnemonics, occasionally there were doubts that it promotes a basic understanding. perhaps you should reserve this technique for the words which refuse most obstinately being learned by you. tip 7 learning strategy
most people experience multiple choice tests to be more easy than open questions. psychologically this can be explained by memory processes of generating and recognizing. open questions initiate a searching process for generating different possible answers first. in a second step the correct answer is recognized and selected. for multiple choice only the second step is necessary, the recognizing. when beginning a new lesson, you shouldn't overtax yourself with generating translations. after you perfectly learned the lesson you'll gain nothing by boring yourself with recognizing. how to pursue an effective learning strategy:
1. get familiar with the lesson. take your time to examine the vocabulary items, try categorizing and delimiting them. 2. consolidate your vocabulary by forming stories and trying to recognize the translations. 3. exercise your ability to generate translations. test yourself and use the codeword system to remember hard words. generating and recognizing is only one of many possible mnemonics. it seems to be particularly used by beginners, while increasing practice will reduce searching processes. ___________ tip 8 more tips
university of minnesota: center for advanced research on language acquisition (carla) university of texas at austin: tips on studying a foreign language mindtools: the linkword technique the town language mnemonic the hundred most common words your continued donations keep wikipedia running! french language from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia jump to: navigation, search this article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. please help improve this article by adding reliable references. material not supported by sources may be challenged and removed. this article has been tagged since may 2007. french français pronunciation: /f ʁɑ̃s ɛ/ spoken in: france, burundi, canada, united states, switzerland, belgium, luxembourg, monaco, morocco, algeria, tunisia, ivory coast, equatorial guinea, guinea, democratic republic of the congo, niger, senegal, haiti, lebanon, martinique, vietnam, central african republic, chad, madagascar, cameroon, gabon, and other countries. (see article for full list)
region: africa, europe, americas, pacific, isolated regions of asia total speakers: native: 65-109 million total: estimates from 115 million to 500 million     ranking: 11 (native), total: 3 to 7 language family: indo-european italic romance italo-western western gallo-iberian gallo-romance gallo-rhaetian oïl french official status official language of: 30 countries, numerous international organisations regulated by: académie française (france) office québécois de la langue française (quebec, canada) conseil pour le développement du français en louisiane (louisiana) language codes iso 639-1: fr iso 639-2: fre (b) fra (t) iso 639-3: fra map of the francophone world dark blue: french-speaking; blue: official language; light blue: language of culture; green: minority note: this page may contain ipa phonetic symbols in unicode. this article is part of the series on: french language * dialects and history * orthography o reforms o use of the circumflex * phonology o liaison o elision * grammar o verbs + conjugation + verb morphology
o articles and determiners o adverbs o pronouns + personal pronouns * francophonie this box: view • talk • edit french (français, pronounced [f ʁɑ̃s ɛ]) is a romance language originally spoken in france, belgium, luxembourg, and switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either a native or a second language, with significant populations in 54 countries. descended from the latin of the roman empire, along with languages such as spanish, italian, catalan, romanian, and portuguese, its development was influenced by the native celtic languages of roman gaul and by the germanic language of the post-roman frankish invaders. it is an official language in 41 countries, most of which form what is called in french la francophonie, the community of french-speaking nations. it is an official or administrative language of the african union, the european broadcasting union, esa, the european union, the council of europe, fia, fifa, icup, fina, iho, the international bureau of weights and measures, the international court of justice, the international olympic committee, the international political science association, the international secretariat for water, interpol, nato, the uci, the united nations and all its agencies (including the universal postal union), the world anti-doping agency, and the world trade organization. along with english it is the most used language in the european commission. contents [hide] * 1 geographic distribution o 1.1 europe + 1.1.1 legal status in france + 1.1.2 switzerland + 1.1.3 belgium + 1.1.4 luxembourg + 1.1.5 monaco + 1.1.6 italy + 1.1.7 the channel islands + 1.1.8 french as a non-official language in europe o 1.2 the americas + 1.2.1 legal status in canada + 1.2.2 haiti + 1.2.3 french overseas territories + 1.2.4 the united states
o 1.3 africa o 1.4 asia o 1.5 oceania * 2 dialects and creoles o 2.1 regional varieties o 2.2 derived languages * 3 history * 4 sounds * 5 orthography * 6 grammar * 7 vocabulary o 7.1 numerals * 8 writing system * 9 samples * 10 references * 11 see also * 12 external links o 12.1 dictionaries / vocabulary + 12.1.1 audio geographic distribution europe knowledge of french in the european union and candidate countries knowledge of french in the european union and candidate countries legal status in france see also: toubon law and languages of france per the constitution of france, french has been the official language since 1992  (although previous legal text have made it official since 1539, see ordinance of villers-cotterêts). france mandates the use of french in official government publications, public education outside of specific cases (though these dispositions are often ignored) and legal contracts; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words. in france, all matters concerning the orthography, grammar, vocabulary and use of the french language have been governed by the académie française since the mid 17th century. contrary to a common misunderstanding both in the american and british media, france does not prohibit the use of foreign words in websites nor in any other private publication, as that would violate the constitutional right of freedom of speech. the misunderstanding may have arisen from a similar prohibition in the canadian province of quebec which made strict application of the charter of the french language between 1977 and 1998, although these regulations addressed language used in advertising and the
provision of commercial services offered within the province, not the language of private communication. in addition to french, there are also a variety of regional languages. france has signed the european charter for regional languages but has not ratified it since that would go against the 1958 constitution. switzerland further information: demographics of switzerland french is one of the four official languages of switzerland (along with german, italian, and romansh), and is spoken in the part of switzerland called romandie. french is the native language of about 20% of all swiss. belgium further information: languages of belgium and belgian french in belgium, french is the official language of the walloon region (excluding the east cantons, which are german-speaking) and one of the two official languages of the capital, brussels, along with dutch, where it is spoken by the majority of the population. conversely the dutch language dominates among the city's largely non-resident workforce. it should be noted that french is not an official language nor a recognised minority language in flanders, although there are some districts in belgium along linguistic borders that have special compromise linguistic regimes (so called linguistic facilities). in total, native french-speakers make up about 40% of the country's population, the remaining 60% speak dutch, the latter of which 59% claim to speak french as a second language. french is thus known by an estimated 75% of all belgians, either as a mother tongue or second language. luxembourg mailbox with french and german languages, luxembourg mailbox with french and german languages, luxembourg further information: languages of luxembourg french is one of the three official languages in luxembourg, along with german and luxembourgish. monaco further information: languages of monaco although monégasque is the national language of the principality of monaco,
french is the only official language, and french nationals make up some 47% of the population italy further information: languages of italy french is also an official language, along with italian, in the province of aosta valley, italy. in addition, a number of franco-provençal dialects are spoken in the province, although they do not have official recognition. the channel islands further information: languages of jersey and languages of guernsey although jersey and guernsey, the two baliwicks collectively referred to as the channel islands, are separate entities, both use french to some degree, mostly in an administrative capacity. jersey legal french is the standardized variety used in jersey. french as a non-official language in europe further information: languages of andorra although catalan is the only official language of andorra, french nationals make up 7% of the population, giving the french language some presence there. the americas legal status in canada see canadian french, languages of canada, bilingualism in canada bilingual (english/french) stop sign on parliament hill in ottawa. an example of bilingualism at the federal government level in canada. bilingual (english/french) stop sign on parliament hill in ottawa. an example of bilingualism at the federal government level in canada. about 7 million canadians are native french-speakers, of whom 6 million live in quebec , and french is one of canada's two official languages (the other being english). various provisions of the canadian charter of rights and freedoms deal with canadians' right to access services in both languages, including the right to a publicly funded education in the minority language of each province, where numbers warrant in a given locality. by law, the federal government must operate and provide services in both english and french, proceedings of the parliament of canada must be translated into both these languages, and most products sold in canada must have bilingual labels.
overall, about 13% of canadians have knowledge of french only, while 18% have knowledge of both english and french. in contrast, over 80% of the population of quebec speaks french natively, and 95% can speak it. it has been the sole official language of quebec since 1974. the legal status of french was further strengthened with the 1977 adoption of the charter of the french language (popularly known as bill 101), which guarantees that every person has a right to have the civil administration, the health and social services, corporations, and enterprises in quebec communicate with him in french. while the charter mandates that certain provincial government services, such as those relating to health and education, be offered to the english minority in its language, where numbers warrant, its primary purpose is to cement the role of french as the primary language used in the public sphere. the provision of the charter that has arguably had the most significant impact mandates french-language education unless a child's parents or siblings have received the majority of their own primary education in english within canada, with minor exceptions. this measure has reversed a historical trend whereby a large number of immigrant children would attend english schools. in so doing, the charter has greatly contributed to the "visage français" (french face) of montreal in spite of its growing immigrant population. other provisions of the charter have been ruled unconstitutional over the years, including those mandating french-only commercial signs, court proceedings, and debates in the legislature. though none of these provisions are still in effect today, some continued to be on the books for a time even after courts had ruled them unconstitutional as a result of the government's decision to invoke the so-called notwithstanding clause of the canadian constitution to override constitutional requirements. in 1993, the charter was rewritten to allow signage in other languages so long as french was markedly "predominant." another section of the charter guarantees every person the right to work in french, meaning the right to have all communications with one's superiors and coworkers in french, as well as the right not to be required to know another language as a condition of hiring, unless this is warranted by the nature of one's duties, such as by reason of extensive interaction with people located outside the province or similar reasons. this section has not been as effective as had originally been hoped, and has faded somewhat from public consciousness. as of 2006, approximately 65% of the workforce on the island of montreal predominantly used french in the workplace. the only other province that recognizes french as an official language is new brunswick, which is officially bilingual, like the nation as a whole. outside of quebec, the highest number of francophones in canada, 485,000, excluding those who claim multiple mother tongues, reside in ontario, whereas new brunswick, home to the vast majority of acadians, has the highest percentage of francophones after quebec, 33%, or 237,000. in ontario, nova scotia, prince edward island, and manitoba, french does not have full official status, although the provincial governments do provide some french-language services in all
communities where significant numbers of francophones live. canada's three northern territories (yukon, northwest territories, and nunavut) all recognize french as an official language as well. all provinces make some effort to accommodate the needs of their francophone citizens, although the level and quality of french-language service varies significantly from province to province. the ontario french language services act, adopted in 1986, guarantees french language services in that province in regions where the francophone population exceeds 10% of the total population, as well as communities with francophone populations exceeding 5,000, and certain other designated areas; this has the most effect in the north and east of the province, as well as in other larger centres such as ottawa, toronto, hamilton, mississauga, london, kitchener, st. catharines, greater sudbury and windsor. however, the french language services act does not confer the status of "official bilingualism" on these cities, as that designation carries with it implications which go beyond the provision of services in both languages. the city of ottawa's language policy (by-law 2001-170) has two criteria which would allow employees to work in their official language of choice and be supervised in the language of choice; this policy is being challenged by an organization called canadians for language fairness. canada has the status of member state in the francophonie, while the provinces of québec and new brunswick are recognized as participating governments. ontario is currently seeking to become a full member on its own. haiti french is an official language of haiti, although it is mostly spoken by the upper class and well-educated, while haitian creole (a french-based creole language) is more widely spoken as a mother tongue. french overseas territories french is also the official language in france's overseas territories of french guiana, guadeloupe, martinique, saint barthelemy, st. martin, saint-pierre and miquelon. the united states french language spread in the united states. counties marked in yellow are those where 6-12% of the population speak french at home; brown, 12-18%; red, over 18%. french-based creole languages are not included. french language spread in the united states. counties marked in yellow are those where 6-12% of the population speak french at home; brown, 12-18%; red, over 18%. french-based creole languages are not included. see french in the united states
although it has no official recognition on a federal level, french is the third  or fourth  most-spoken language in the united states, after english, spanish, and possibly chinese (if chinese languages such as mandarin and cantonese are grouped together), and the second most-spoken in the states of louisiana, maine, vermont and new hampshire. louisiana is home to a unique dialect, cajun french. africa see:african french a majority of the world's population of francophones lives in africa. most africans, however, do not speak french as their mother tongue (although the number of native french speakers on the continent is said to be increasing) but tens of millions can speak it as a second language. it is impossible to speak of a single form of african french, but rather of diverse forms of african french which have developed due to the contact with many indigenous african languages. in the territories of the indian ocean, the french language is often spoken alongside french-derived creole languages, the major exception being madagascar. there, a malayo-polynesian language (malagasy) is spoken alongside french. sub-saharan africa is the region where the french language is most likely to expand due to the expansion of education and it is also there the language has evolved most in recent years some vernacular forms of french in africa can be difficult to understand for french speakers from other countries but written forms of the language are very closely related to those of the rest of the french-speaking world. french is an official language of many african countries, most of them former french or belgian colonies: countries usually considered as francophone africa countries sometimes considered as francophone africa countries usually considered as francophone africa countries sometimes considered as francophone africa * benin * burkina faso * burundi * cameroon * central african republic * chad * comoros * congo (brazzaville) * côte d'ivoire * democratic republic of the congo * djibouti * equatorial guinea (former colony of spain)
* gabon * guinea * madagascar * mali * mauritius * niger * rwanda * senegal * seychelles * togo in addition, french is an administrative language of mauritania and is commonly used, though not on an official basis, in algeria, morocco, and tunisia. various reforms have been implemented in recent decades in algeria to improve the status of arabic relative to french, especially in education. while the predominant european language in egypt is english, french is considered to be a more sophisticated language by some elements of the egyptian upper and upper-middle classes; for this reason, a typical educated egyptian will learn french in addition to english at some point in his or her education. the perception of sophistication may be related to the use of french as the royal court language of egypt during the 19th century. egypt participates in la francophonie. french is also the official language of mayotte and réunion, two overseas territories of france located in the indian ocean, as well as an administrative and educational language in mauritius, along with english. asia in asia, french is an administrative language in laos and lebanon, and is used unofficially in parts of cambodia, india (mahé, karikal and yanam), vietnam and syria. french has official status in union territory of pondicherry, along with the regional language tamil. oceania french is also an official language of the pacific island nation of vanuatu, along with france's territories of french polynesia, wallis & futuna and new caledonia. dialects and creoles regional varieties main article: dialects of the french language
* acadian french * african french * aostan french * belgian french * cajun french * canadian french * cambodian french * guyana french (see french guiana) * indian french * jersey legal french * lao french * levantine french * maghreb french (see also north african french) * meridional french * metropolitan french * new caledonian french * newfoundland french * north american french * oceanic french * quebec french * south east asian french * swiss french * vietnamese french * west indian french derived languages main article: french-based creole languages * antillean creole * haitian creole * lanc-patuá * mauritian creole * michif * louisiana creole french * réunionese creole * seychellois creole * tay boi history main article: history of french sounds
main article: french phonology note: this page or section contains ipa phonetic symbols in unicode. see ipa chart for english for a pronunciation key. although there are many french regional accents, only one version of the language is normally chosen as a model for foreign learners. this is the educated standard variety of tours, which has no commonly used special name, but has been termed "français neutre" (neutral french). * voiced stops (i.e. /b d g/) are typically produced fully voiced throughout. * voiceless stops (i.e. /p t k/) are described as unaspirated; when preceding high vowels, they are often followed by a short period of aspiration and/or frication. they are never glottalised. they can be unreleased utterance-finally. * nasals: the velar nasal /ŋ/ occurs only in final position in borrowed (usually english) words: parking, camping, swing. the palatal nasal /ɲ/can occur in word initial position (e.g. gnon), but it is most frequently found in intervocalic, onset position or word-finally (e.g. montagne). * fricatives: french has three pairs of homorganic fricatives distinguished by voicing, i.e. labiodental /f/–/v/, dental /s/–/z/, and palato-alveolar /ʃ/–/ʒ/. notice that /s/–/z/ are dental, like the plosives /t/–/d/, and the nasal /n/. * french has one rhotic whose pronunciation varies considerably among speakers and phonetic contexts. in general it is described as a voiced uvular fricative as in [ʁu] roue "wheel" . vowels are often lengthened before this segment. it can be reduced to an approximant, particularly in final position (e.g. "fort") or reduced to zero in some word-final positions. for other speakers, a uvular trill is also fairly common, and an apical trill [r] occurs in some dialects. * lateral and central approximants: the lateral approximant /l/ is unvelarised in both onset ("lire") and coda position ("il"). in the onset, the central approximants [w], [ɥ], and [j] each correspond to a high vowel, /u/, /y/, and /i/ respectively. there are a few minimal pairs where the approximant and corresponding vowel contrast, but there are also many cases where they are in free variation. contrasts between /j/ and /i/ occur in final position as in /pɛj/ paye "pay" vs. /pɛi/ pays "country". french pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but french spelling is often based more on history than phonology. the rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are: * final consonants: final single consonants, in particular s, x, z, t, d, n and m, are normally silent. (the final letters 'c', 'r', 'f', and 'l' however are normally
pronounced.) o when the following word begins with a vowel, though, a silent consonant may once again be pronounced, to provide a liaison or "link" between the two words. some liaisons are mandatory, for example the s in les amants or vous avez; some are optional, depending on dialect and register, for example the first s in deux cents euros or euros irlandais; and some are forbidden, for example the s in beaucoup d'hommes aiment. the t of et is never pronounced and the silent final consonant of a noun is only pronounced in the plural and in set phrases like pied-à-terre. note that in the case of a word ending d as in pied-à-terre, the conson t is pronounced instead. o doubling a final 'n' and adding a silent e at the end of a word (e.g. chien → chienne) makes it clearly pronounced. doubling a final 'l' and adding a silent 'e' (e.g. "gentil" → "gentille") adds an [j] sound. * elision or vowel dropping: some monosyllabic function words ending in a or e, such as je and que, drop their final vowel when placed before a word that begins with a vowel sound (thus avoiding a hiatus). the missing vowel is replaced by an apostrophe. (e.g. je ai is instead pronounced and spelt → j'ai). this gives for example the same pronunciation for "l'homme qu'il a vu" ("the man whom he saw") and "l'homme qui l'a vu" ("the man who saw him"). orthography main article: french orthography * nasal: "n" and "m". when "n" or "m" follows a vowel or diphthong, the "n" or "m" becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasalized (i.e. pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part of the air to leave through the nostrils). exceptions are when the "n" or "m" is doubled, or immediately followed by a vowel. the prefixes en- and em- are always nasalized. the rules get more complex than this but may vary between dialects. * digraphs: french does not introduce extra letters or diacritics to specify its large range of vowel sounds and diphthongs, rather it uses specific combinations of vowels, sometimes with following consonants, to show which sound is intended. * gemination: within words, double consonants are generally not pronounced as geminates in modern french (but you can hear geminates in the cinema or tv news from as recently as the 1970s, and in very refined elocution they still may occur). for example, "illusion" is pronounced [ilyzj ɔ̃] and not [illyzj ɔ̃]. but gemination does occur between words. for example, "une info" ("a news") is pronounced [yn ɛ̃ whereas "une nympho" ("a nympho") is pronounced fo], [ynn ɛ̃ fo]. * accents are used sometimes for pronunciation, sometimes to distinguish similar words, and sometimes for etymology alone. o accents that affect pronunciation + the acute accent (l'accent aigü), "é" (e.g., école— school), means
that the vowel is pronounced /e/ instead of the default /ə/. + the grave accent (l'accent grave), "è" (e.g., élève— pupil) means that the vowel is pronounced /ɛ/ instead of the default /ə/. + the circumflex (l'accent circonflexe) "ê" (e.g., forêt— forest) shows that an e is pronounced /ɛ/ and that an o is pronounced /o/. in standard french it also signifies a pronunciation of /ɑ/ for the letter a, but this differentiation is disappearing. in the late 19th century, the circumflex was used in place of 's' where that letter was not to be pronounced. thus, forest became forêt and hospital became hôpital. + the diaeresis (le tréma) (e.g. naïf— foolish, noël— christmas) as in english, specifies that this vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one, not combined and is not a schwa. + the cedilla (la cédille) "ç" (e.g., garçon— boy) means that the letter c is pronounced /s/ in front of the hard vowels a, o, and u. ("c" is otherwise /k/ before a hard vowel.) c is always pronounced /s/ in front of the soft vowels e, i, and y, thus ç is never found in front of soft vowels. o accents with no pronunciation effect + the circumflex does not affect the pronunciation of the letters i or u, and in most dialects, a as well (the circumflex on i and u is no longer compulsory: boite, chaine, ile-de-france). it usually indicates that an s came after it long ago, as in hôtel. + all other accents are used only to distinguish similar words, as in the case of distinguishing the adverbs là and où ("there", "where") from the article la and the conjunction ou ("the" fem. sing., "or") respectively. grammar main article: french grammar french grammar shares several notable features with most other romance languages, including: * the loss of latin's declensions * only two grammatical genders * the development of grammatical articles from latin demonstratives * new tenses formed from auxiliaries french word order is subject verb object, except when the object is a pronoun, in which case the word order is subject object verb. some rare archaisms allow for different word orders. vocabulary the majority of french words derive from vulgar latin or were constructed from latin or greek roots. there are often pairs of words, one form being popular (noun) and the other one savant (adjective), both originating from latin. example:
* brother: frère / fraternel < from latin frater * finger: doigt / digital < from latin digitvs * faith: foi / fidèle < from latin fides * cold: froid / frigide < from latin frigidvs * eye: œil / oculaire < from latin ocvlvs * inhabitants of the city saint-Étienne are called stéphanois the last example, saint-Étienne/stéphanois, illustrates common practice for gentilics throughout france. in some examples there is a common word from "vulgar" latin and a more savant word from classical latin or even greek. * cheval — concours équestre — hippodrome the french words which have developed from latin are usually less recognisable than italian words of latin origin because as french developed into a separate language from vulgar latin, the unstressed final syllable of many words was dropped or elided into the following word. it is estimated that 12 percent (4,200) of common french words found in a typical dictionary such as the petit larousse or micro-robert plus (35,000 words) are of foreign origin. about 25 percent (1,054) of these foreign words come from english and are fairly recent borrowings. the others are some 707 words from italian, 550 from ancient germanic languages, 481 from ancient gallo-romance languages, 215 from arabic, 164 from german, 160 from celtic languages, 159 from spanish, 153 from dutch, 112 from persian and sanskrit, 101 from native american languages, 89 from other asian languages, 56 from afro-asiatic languages, 55 from slavic languages and baltic languages, 10 for basque and 144—about three percent—from other languages (walter & walter 1998). numerals the french counting system is partially vigesimal: twenty (vingt) is used as a base number in the names of numbers from 80-99. the french word for 80, for example, is quatre-vingts, which literally means "four twenties", and soixantequinze (literally "sixty-fifteen") indicating 75. this reform arose after the french revolution to unify the different counting system (mostly vigesimal near the coast, due to celtic (via basque) and viking influence). this system is comparable to the archaic english use of "score", as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" (70). belgian french and swiss french are different in this respect. in belgium and switzerland 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. in switzerland, depending on the local dialect, 80 can be: quatre-vingts (geneva, neuchâtel, jura) or huitante
(vaud, valais, fribourg). octante had been used in switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic. in belgium, however, quatre-vingts is universally used. writing system main article: french alphabet french is written using the 26 letters of the latin alphabet, plus five diacritics (the circumflex accent, acute accent, grave accent, diaeresis, and cedilla) and the two ligatures (œ) and (æ). french spelling, like english spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. this is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the old french period, without a corresponding change in spelling. moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore latin orthography: * old french doit > french doigt "finger" (latin digitum) * old french pie > french pied "foot" (latin pedem) as a result, it is difficult to predict the spelling on the basis of the sound alone. final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel. for example, all of these words end in a vowel sound: pied, aller, les, finit, beaux. the same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre. on the other hand, a given spelling will almost always lead to a predictable sound, and the académie française works hard to enforce and update this correspondence. in particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic predictably leads to one phoneme. the diacritics have phonetic, semantic, and etymological significance. * acute accent (é): over an e, indicates the sound /e/, the ai sound in such words as english hay or neigh. it often indicates the historical deletion of a following consonant (usually an s): écouter < escouter. this type of accent mark is called accent aigu in french. * grave accent (à, è, ù): over a or u, used only to distinguish homophones: à ("to") vs. a ("has"), ou ("or") vs. où ("where"). over an e, indicates the sound /ɛ/. * circumflex (â, ê, î, ô, û): over an a, e or o, indicates the sound /ɑ/, /ɛ/ or /o/, respectively (the distinction a /a/ vs. â /ɑ/ tends to disappear in many dialects). most often indicates the historical deletion of an adjacent letter (usually an s or a vowel): château < castel, fête < feste, sûr < seur, dîner < disner. it has also come to be used to distinguish homophones: du ("of the") vs. dû (past participle of devoir "to have to do something (pertaining to an act)"; note that dû is in fact written thus because of a dropped e: deu). (see use of the circumflex in french)
* diaeresis or tréma (ë, ï, ü, ÿ): indicates that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding one: naïve, noël. a diaeresis on ÿ only occurs in some proper names and in modern editions of old french texts. some proper names in which "ÿ" appears include aÿ (commune in canton de la marne formerly aÿ-champagne), rue des cloÿs (alley in the 18th arrondisement of paris), croÿ (family name and hotel on the boulevard raspail, paris), château du feÿ (near joigny), ghÿs (name of flemish origin spelt "ghĳs" where "ĳ" in handwriting looked like "ÿ" to french clerks), l'haÿ-les-roses (commune between paris and orly airport), pierre louÿs (author), moÿ (place in commune de l'aisne and family name), and le blanc de nicolaÿ (an insurance company in eastern france). the diaresis on ü appears only in the biblical proper names archélaüs, capharnaüm, emmaüs, Ésaü and saül. nevertheless, since the 1990 orthographic rectifications (which are not applied at all by most french people), the diaeresis in words containing guë (such as aiguë or ciguë) may be moved onto the u: aigüe, cigüe. words coming from german retain the old umlaut ("ä", "ö" and "ü") if applicable but use french pronunciation, such as kärcher (trade mark of a pressure washer). * cedilla (ç): indicates that an etymological c is pronounced /s/ when it would otherwise be pronounced /k/. thus je lance "i throw" (with c = [s] before e), je lançais "i was throwing" (c would be pronounced [k] before a without the cedilla). there are two ligatures, which have various origins. * the ligature œ is a mandatory contraction of oe in certain words. some of these are native french words, with the pronunciation /œ/ or /ø/, e.g. sœur "sister" /sœʁ/, œuvre "work [of art]" /œvʁ/. note that it usually appears in the combination œu; œil is an exception. many of these words were originally written with the digraph eu; the o in the ligature represents a sometimes artificial attempt to imitate the latin spelling: latin bovem > old french buef/beuf > modern french bœuf. Œ is also used in words of greek origin, as the latin rendering of the greek diphthong οι, e.g. cœlacanthe "coelacanth". these words used to be pronounced with the vowel /e/, but in recent years a spelling pronunciation with /ø/ has taken hold, e.g. œsophage /ezɔfaʒ/ or /øzɔfaʒ/. the pronunciation with /e/ is often seen to be more correct. the ligature œ is not used in some occurrences of the letter combination oe, for example, when o is part of a prefix (coexister). * the ligature æ is rare and appears in some words of latin and greek origin like ægosome, ægyrine, æschne, cæcum, nævus or uræus. the vowel quality is identical to é /e/. french writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language. in old french, the plural for "animal" was "animals". common speakers pronounced a "u" before a word ending in "l" as the plural. this resulted in "animauls". as the french language evolved this vanished and the form "animaux" ("aux" pronounced /o/) was admitted. the same is true for "cheval" pluralized as "chevaux" and many others. also "castel" pl. "castels" became "château" pl. "châteaux".
some attempts have been made to reform french spelling, but few major changes have been made over the last two centuries. samples (audio) this section includes inline links to audio files. if you have trouble playing the files, see wikipedia media help. english french ipa pronunciation (canadian accent) ipa pronunciation (french accent) french français /f ʀɑ̃s ɛ/ (info) ʁɑ̃s ɛ/ (info) /f english anglais / ɑ̃gl ɛ/ (info) / ɑ̃gl ɛ/ (info) yes oui /wi/ (info) /wi/ (info) no non /n ɔ/̃ (info) /n ɔ/̃ (info) hello! bonjour ! (formal) salut ! (informal) /b ɔʒuːʀ/ (info) ̃ /b ɔʒuːʁ/ ̃ (info) good evening! bonsoir ! /b ɔ̃sw ɑ:ʁ/ (info) /b ɔ̃swa: ʁ/ (info) good night! bonne nuit ! /bɔnnɥi/ (info) /bɔnnɥi/ (info) goodbye! au revoir ! /ɔʁvwɑːʁ/ (info) /oʁøvwaːʁ/ (info) have a nice day! bonne journée ! /bɔnʒuʀne/ (info) /bɔnʒuʁne/ (info) please s'il vous plaît (formal) s'il te plaît (informal) /sɪlvuplɛ/ (info) /silvuplɛ/ (info) thank you merci /mɛʀsi/ (info) /mɛʁsi/ (info) you're welcome de rien ("it is nothing") / je vous en prie sorry pardon / désolé (if male) / désolée (if female) /paʀd ɔ̃/ (info) / /dez ɔle/ (info) /paʁd ɔ/̃ (info) / /dez ɔle/ (info) who? qui ? /ki/ (info) /ki/ (info) what? quoi ? /kwa/ (info) /kwa/ (info) when? quand ? /k ɑ̃/ (info) /k ɑ̃/ (info) where? où ? /u/ (info) /u/ (info) why? pourquoi ? /puʀkwa/ (info) /puʁkwa/ (info) what's your name? comment t'appelles-tu ? (informal), comment vous appelezvous ? (formal) because parce que /paʁs(ə)kə/ (info) /paʁs(ə)kə/ (info) how? comment ? /kɔm ɑ̃/ (info)/kɔm ɑ̃/ (info) how much? combien ? /k ɔbj ɛ̃ (info) ɔ̃bj ɛ̃ (info) ̃ / /k / i do not understand. je ne comprends pas. /ʒə nə k ɔ̃p ʀɑ̃ p ɑ/ (info) /ʒə nə k ɔp ʁɑ̃ p ɑ/ (info) ̃ yes, i understand. oui, je comprends. /wi ʒə k ɔ̃p ʀɑ̃/ (info) ʒə k ɔ̃p ʁɑ̃/ /wi (info) help! au secours !! (à l'aide !) /oskuːʀ/ (info) /oskuːʁ/ (info) can you help me please ? pouvez-vous m'aider s'il vous plaît ? where are the bathrooms? où sont les toilettes ? /u s ɔ̃ le twal ɛt/ (info) /u s ɔ̃ le twal ɛt/ (info) do you speak english? parlez-vous anglais ? /paʀlevu ɑ̃gl ɛ/ (info) /paʁlevu ɑ̃gl ɛ/ (info) i do not speak french. je ne parle pas français. /ʒə nə paʀlə pɑ f ʀɑ̃s ɛ/
/ʒə nə paʁl(ə) pa f ʁɑ̃s ɛ/ i don't know. je ne sais pas. i know. je sais. i am thirsty. j'ai soif. i am hungry. j'ai faim. how are you? how are things going? how's everything? Ça va? (informal) comment allez-vous? (formal) i am (very) well. everything is (very) well. etc. Ça va (très) bien. (informal) je vais bien. (formal) i am (very) bad. everything is (very) bad. etc. Ça va (très) mal. (informal) je vais (très) mal. (formal) i am ok/so-so. everything is ok/so-so. etc. Ça va comme ci, comme ça. i am fine. Ça va. green vert white blanc references * walter, henriette and gérard, dictionnaire des mots d'origine étrangère, 1998. 1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra 2. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm 3. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra 4. ^ http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/politique-langue/franco-chiffre2000.html 5. ^  6. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm 7. ^ "les francophones dans le monde" (francophones of the world") − provides details from a report, (rapport 1997-1998 du haut conseil de la francophonie, "etat de la francophonie dans le monde", la documentation française, 1999, pp.612) which provides the following numbers: 112,666,000 with french as a first, second, or "adopted" language; 60,612,000 "occasional francophones" for whom usage and mastery of french are limited only by circumstances or by expressive capability; 100-110 million "francizers", who have learned french for several years and have maintained limited mastery, or who have simply been required to learn enough to perform their job. 8. ^ (june 2006) "la dynamique des langues en belgique" (in french) (pdf). regards économiques, publication préparée par les économistes de l'université catholique de louvain (numéro 42) retrieved on 7 may 2007. “les enquêtes montrent que la flandre est bien plus multilingue, ce qui est sans doute un fait bien connu, mais la différence est considérable : alors que 59 % et 53 % des flamands connaissent le français ou l'anglais respectivement, seulement 19 % et 17 % des wallons connaissent le néerlandais ou l'anglais. ... 95 pour cent des bruxellois déclarent parler le français, alors que ce pourcentage tombe à 59 pour cent pour le néerlandais. quant à l’anglais, il est connu par une proportion importante de la population à bruxelles (41 pour cent)”
9. ^ 40%+60%*59%=75.4% 10. ^  11. ^  12. ^ "en afrique, il est impossible de parler d'une forme unique du français mais..." 13. ^ http://www.cecif.com/?page=la_francophonie " le français, langue en évolution dans beaucoup de pays francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une propor tion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de francophones augmente: on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui.". 14. ^ http://www.cecif.com/?page=la_francophonie#francaisafrique c) le sabir franco-africain "c'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. le sabir francoafricain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. en somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés." 15. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/centrafrique.htm il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandu et plus permissive: le français local. c'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes. one example of a variety of african french that is difficult to understand for european french speakers. 16. ^ septante, octante, huitante, nonante. langue-fr.net. 17. ^ la ligature æ (in french) see also * french wikipedia * académie française * office québécois de la langue française * la francophonie * history of the french language * alliance française * dialects of french * french creole languages * french in canada * french in the united states
* list of countries where french is an official language * french phrases used by english speakers * list of english words of french origin * french proverbs * list of french phrases * morphology of the french verb * reforms of french orthography * crfl (careful mnemonic) - french pronunciation * common phrases in different languages * verlan * louchébem dialects of english influenced by french * cajun english external links wikiversity at wikiversity, you can learn about: french language wiktionary french language edition of wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus wikipedia french language edition of wikipedia, the free encyclopedia wikibooks wikibooks has more about this subject: french wikimedia commons has media related to: french * (french) académie française * ethnologue report for french * french language course * free french tutorial including informal french & slang * learn french at about * learn the basic rules of french * target language * typing french characters using the keyboard * why study french * free french lessons dictionaries / vocabulary
* great terminologic dictionary (by the office of french language of quebec) * french dictionary * french vocabulary * cross-translating french to english, german, italian, and dutch * learn most popular french words * collection of french bilingual dictionaries * xmllittré french dictionary * french dictionaries audio * french audio files for words, telling time, poetry, photos... * free audio base of french words * french audio files of the shtooka.net project official languages of the united nations arabic • chinese • english french • russian • spanish source: official un website v•d•e official languages of the european union[hide] european union translation agency logo bulgarian · czech · danish · dutch · english · estonian · finnish · french · german · greek · hungarian · irish · italian · latvian · lithuanian · maltese · polish · portuguese · romanian · slovak · slovenian · spanish · swedish working languages of the african union arabic | english | french | portuguese | swahili source: acalan website official languages of south america aymara (bolivia, peru) · dutch (netherlands antilles, aruba, surinam) · english (falkland islands, guyana) french (french guiana) (france) · guarani (paraguay) · papiamento (aruba) · portuguese (brazil) · quechua (bolivia, ecuador, peru) spanish (venezuela, colombia, ecuador, peru, bolivia, chile, uruguay, paraguay, argentina) *all native languages are official in peru, in areas in which they are the majority language. v•d•e romance languages[hide] aragonese • aromanian • arpitan • asturian (astur-leonese, leonese, mirandese) • auvergnat • aupenc • burgundian • catalan (valencian, balear) • champenois • corsican (gallurese, sassarese) • dalmatian • emiliano-romagnolo • fala • franccomtois • french (haitian creole) • friulian • galician • gallo • gascon (aranese) •
istriot • istro-romanian • italian (central italian, romanesco, tuscan, florentine) • judeo-italian • ladin • ladino • languedocien • ligurian (genoese, monégasque) • limousin • lombard languages (western lombard [ milanese, ticinese, bustocco and legnanese, comasco-lecchese and vallassinese, brianzöö and canzés, varesino, southwestern lombard and nuaresat and cremunéez ] and eastern lombard) • lorrain • megleno-romanian • mozarabic • neapolitan • norman (anglonorman, auregnais, guernésiais, jèrriais, sercquiais) • occitan • picard • piedmontese • poitevin-saintongeais • portuguese • provençal • romance pannonian language • romanian (moldovan, vlach) • romansh • sardinian • sicilian (calabrian) • spanish (castilian) • shuadit • venetian (talian) • walloon • zarphatic retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/french_language" categories: articles lacking reliable references from may 2007 | articles with unsourced statements since february 2007 | all articles with unsourced statements | articles with unsourced statements since march 2007 | french language | romance languages | languages of africa | languages of algeria | languages of belgium | languages of benin | languages of burkina faso | languages of burundi | languages of cameroon | languages of canada | languages of the central african republic | languages of chad | languages of comoros | languages of côte d'ivoire | languages of djibouti | languages of equatorial guinea | languages of the democratic republic of the congo | languages of the republic of the congo | languages of france | languages of french guiana | languages of french polynesia | languages of gabon | languages of guinea | languages of lebanon | languages of luxembourg | languages of madagascar | languages of mali | languages of mauritania | languages of mauritius | languages of monaco | languages of morocco | languages of new caledonia | languages of niger | languages of rwanda | language of saint martin | languages of senegal | languages of the seychelles | languages of switzerland | languages of togo | languages of wallis and futuna | languages of tunisia | oïl languages | synthetic languages views * article * discussion * view source * history personal tools * sign in / create account navigation * main page * contents
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