LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC

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CONTENTION 1: INHERENCY
A): NANOTECHNOLOGY IS INEVITABLE! IT IS COMING WITH CHANGE MORE
SIGNIFICANT THAN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, NUCLEAR WEAPONS, OR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. WE MUST MAKE THE HARD CHOICES ABOUT HOW TO DEVELOP IT TODAY.
Crichton, Michael, 2002 “Could Tiny Machines Rule The World?” Parade; New York; Nov 24, 2002 http://www.crichton-official.com/ From our earliest days as cave-dwelling apes, human beings have advanced their lives with technology. Beginning with tools made of stone and bone, we have moved to metals and then to synthetic materials not found in nature. Some of our technologies are enormous—huge dams, bridges and jet aircraft—and some are microscopically small, like the computer chips so important to nearly every aspect of our lives and the genetically modified bacteria that create new drugs for us. All together, our history with technology goes back 2 million years or more. We have reluctantly learned that every technology brings mixed blessings. The jet aircraft draws people closer together; it also erodes national cultures. The automobile offers personal mobility; it also pollutes and locks us in traffic jams. Yet our fascination with new technologies remains undiminished, and we continue to innovate at a rapid rate. Today, in the 21st century, we are plunging forward into a new era of technological power, one that offers enormous promise for the future and enormous dangers as well. Imagine a mass of tiny computers, smaller than specks of dust, programmed to travel in a cloud over a country like Iraq and send back pictures. Unlike robot aircraft, this camera can't be shot down; bullets will pass right through it. Because such tiny computers will deteriorate in time, imagine that they are made to be self-reproducing, to replenish themselves. Imagine that the computers begin to evolve, and the aggregate cloud becomes a death-dealing swarm that threatens mankind—in effect, a mechanical plague. Far-fetched? Not really. Scientists have worried about a new class of artificial organisms for more than 10 years. As one research paper put it, "These organisms will...originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce and will 'evolve' into something other than their original form; they will be 'alive' under any reasonable definition of the word ...The pace of evolutionary change will be extremely rapid...The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous—larger than the Industrial Revolution, nuclear weapons or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms." These organisms will be created by nanotechnology, perhaps the most radical technology in human history: the quest to build manmade machines of extremely small size, on the order of 100 nanometers, or 100/billionths of a meter. Such machines would be 1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Experts predict that these tiny machines will provide everything from miniaturized computer components to new medical treatments to new military weapons. In the 21st century, they will change our world totally. The potential benefits are spectacular: Tiny robots may crawl through your arteries, cutting away atherosclerotic plaque; powerful drugs will be delivered to individual cancer cells, leaving other cells undamaged; teeth will be self-repairing. Cosmetically, you will change your hair color with an injection of nanomachines that circulate through the body, moving melanocytes in hair follicles. Other nanomachines will lighten or darken skin color at will, removing blemishes, birthmarks and liver spots in the process; still others could cleanse the mouth and eliminate bad breath. Nonsurgical nanoprocesses could even perform liposuction and body reshaping. They also will repair knees and spines. Living spaces will be transformed, with self-cleaning dishes and carpets and permanently clean bathrooms. Windows will lighten or darken at will; programmable paint will change color. You can walk through the walls of your house, since they are composed of

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The growth of computer networking made rapid worldwide transmission possible. Errant biotechnologists will soon join them. while others will kick in only later as devices and systems are developed. K. but its potential goes far beyond that. It is not too early to plan how we will treat them.org/publications/FNupdate56. Christine L. but it was not long before hackers began to experiment as well. Summer 2006 “Maximizing Benefits. Your personal computer and your watch will be painted on your arm. we will have settled upon international controls to deal with self-reproducing technologies. My favorite categories for this are: materials. solar nanomachines will coat your house. We have learned to put hackers in jail. We are talking about changing so many things that the risk of society handling it poorly through lack of preparation is very large. each releasing a program into the others' mainframe computer. We generally pass laws after the accidents occur. and what was originally a specialist's interest became an international threat to information and global business. At the moment. http://www. Historically.foresight. We know we will have to control them when they do. government is spending more than $600 million on nanotechnology a year. a NASA paper discussed several methods by which such machines could be made." Forty years later. were computer viruses."We know these machines are coming. These will overlap in time. The recent report that modified maize genes now appear in native maize in Mexico—despite laws against it and efforts to prevent it—is only the start of what we may expect to be a long journey to control this new technology. Our history with them is instructive. and both materials and devices playing central roles in advanced nanosystems. Meanwhile.” and — in the U. And we have learned. what we will allow in the way of research and what we will forbid. At the moment. More recently. devices. the so-called “Valley of Death. Temperature-sensitive clothing will loosen when it gets hot. who are quite queasy about the consequences of this technology for the future. We have lived for some years with the first of these self-replicating entities. stain-resistant fabrics and composite materials in cars. Peterson. human beings have a poor record of addressing the hazards of new technologies as they arrive. to protect our networks more carefully and to treat virus-makers with ever-greater harshness. The end result cannot be doubted. In this vision of the future. we are beginning to see some of the problems of self-replicating biotechnology agents.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] particle clouds. Soon they will be used to make computers and storage devices of extremely small size. Fujitsu and Intel are pouring money into research. with materials continuing to be important as devices arrive. There is serious concern that patents being issued in this area (as well as others) are overly broad and 2 . Minimizing downsides from Nanotechnology. — export controls. It even may be possible to move your house on the backs of millions of nanomachines. nanotechnology is primarily a materials technology. computer viruses. and funding has increased dramatically. of course. And we may hope that by the time we have the first nanomachines. Our goal of advancing beneficial nanotechnologies faces at least three hindrances currently: a complex and confusing patent situation favoring large firms. The failure to look ahead is worrisome to experts in the field. In the words of the chief proponent of nanotechnology. The first of these. The first viruses were created as a game—"core wars. It’s worth remembering that we already have some experience with manmade. As a concept. The game was limited to specialists. For decades there has been speculation about self-reproducing machines. Page 13. creeping across the lawn. at the start of the 21st century. we are closer still. nanotechniques already are being used to make sunscreens. self-reproducing entities released in the environment. we simply can't wait.pdf The field of nanotech is usually defined so broadly today that it seems to include most expected physical technologies of serious interest. Most experts predict that self-reproducing machines are only a decade away. there are essentially no laws dealing with this subject. Yet practical advances are now being made. nanotechnology is still very much in its infancy. roving nanomachines will convert trash dumps to energy. generating electricity. and systems —a roughly chronological order. it helps to divide the field up into stages. B): FUNDING IS NOT ENOUGH! THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STOPS THE EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL ENERGY IN THREE WAYS. These are the people who say we must prepare now for their arrival. with time.S. including myself. Now. Summer Issue. Number 56. Eric Drexler of the Foresight Institute:"There are many people. in the early days of nanomaterials. another is making a nanocrystal wound dressing with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. In 1980.S. these wonders date back to a 1959 speech by Caltech physicist Richard Feynman titled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. One company is now making self-cleaning window glass.” Nanotech Foresight Update. Major corporations such as IBM. But in the case of self-reproducing machines. Some of our challenges have already started now. To make progress in guiding it. despite relentless media hype. The U." a 1960s battle between mainframe programmers. flexible nanomachines will provide earthquake protection. Some of the long-anticipated "miracle" products have started to appear as well. insulate when it gets cold.

S. the National Nanotechnology Initiative(NNI) will probably require more funding and a reevaluation of its structure. or more likely buyout-of-court settlement.” This is a fine answer from their viewpoint.foresight.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] even in direct conflict with similar patents. To maintain international leadership in the field of nanotechnology and promote the discovery of beneficial nanotechnology. in one recent case — leading companies to look outside the U. once there are enough profits to be worth suing over. some fear that the United States is beginning to lose its lead in nanotechnology research funding. U.S. Another patent issue in the U. Instead of expanding government spending on nanotech to meet the challenge. Countries heavily dependent on small-firm innovation. and finding funds for this highly speculative work is often very difficult. This creates a bias against entrepreneurship. The proposed budget for FY 2006 was actually lower than FY 2005 funding when adjusted for 6 inflation. for universities to work with. Angel investors are still feeling burned from the dot-com bust.S. Federal Nanotech R&D Funding: A Foresight Nanotech Institute Policy Issues Brief” The Foresight Nanotech Institute < http://www. Once a new technological discovery is made.’s DARPA is refocusing on near-term projects for which there is perceived to be an immediate defense need. universities have become so focused on these prospective sources of income that negotiating licenses is getting very time-consuming — two years. Ask a patent attorney about this problem and you’ll be told that “it will all get worked out in court. and that the current structure of federal R&D is not optimally designed to promote the most innovative output.S. However. should take note.S. Evidently it is quite hard to know at the time of investment whether a proposed nanomaterial will be approved for export or not. Investors may feel that it is safer to make their nanotech investments in a country that is not so restrictive. To see the magnitude of the problem. it needs to somehow make the leap from discovery to product prototype. the “Valley of Death. A third issue already impacting nanomaterials work in the U. Jacob Heller and Christine Peterson 2008 “U. funding increases for the NNI have not even kept pace with inflation. plus fundable business plan. check out how many carbon nanotube-related patents have been issued.html> Most recently. FY 2007 will likely have a similar decrease in funding. The second challenge.S.org/policy/brief1. C): INCREASED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDING IS ESSENTIAL TO KEEP NANOTECH IN CHECK AND PROMOTE THE DISCOVERY OF BENEFICIAL NANOTECHNOLOGY.S. which assigns patent rights arising from federally-funded research to the universities at which the work is done. and this must be having a chilling effect on investment in U. the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) found that the funding is 1 "very well spent". nanoproducts. but won’t do from the perspective of an entrepreneur with a small legal budget. neither can prospective funders of small firms. This makes the size of the market much more uncertain.” is a worldwide issue. and who has the financial resources to enforce their legitimate claims. 3 . or at least clearer in its export rules. and that "the program is well managed". and the U. If you can’t do it in a reasonable period of time. is caused by the Bayh-Dole Act. Sustained expansion in federal R&D funding may be critical to the development of US nanotech-based industries. especially the U. This is a huge jump.S. and then try to figure out whose should in theory hold up.. the source of a great deal of technical innovation. is export controls.

FUND PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] PLAN): THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WILL LOOSEN PATENT RESTRICTIONS. AND INCREASE REASERCH AND DEVELPMENT FOR SOLAR NANOTECHNOLOGY. 4 . REDUCE EXPORT CONTROLS.

MEN.foresight. AND RESOURCE DEPLETION. AND CHILDREN DEMAND OUR ACTION. with its burgeoning middle class. If we don’t widely embrace more stable clean-energy supplies soon we will continue to see brutal wars fought. There are bright spots. http://www.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] CONTENTION 2: HARMS. But not all is doom and gloom. SAFETY. AND SO DO THE UNTOLD MASSES THAT WILL DIE WITHOUT RESPONSIBLE GLOBAL STEWARDSHIP. In boardrooms. If we are not smarter planners and more conscientious stewards we will likely deplete our remaining natural resources and see increasingly significant disruptions in global climate in our quest to keep modern industrial society running. scientist to understand that the world currently faces a host of serious energy challenges. Ron “Clean Energy Could Power Nascent Nanotech Industry. is on target to be the largest consumer of energy goods and services the globe has ever seen. Portland State. or nanotech.html accessed November. Nearly 2 billion people live without access to electricity. FURTHER ECONOMIC DISRUPTION. And China.com) Adjunct Faculty. Inc. publishing. 5 . in the lab. AND SHELTER IT AFFORDS…THESE HARMS ARE HAPPENING NOW…THOSE WOMEN. (www. Pernick. and economies disrupted for decades to come.CONSIDER THE LIVES OF 2 BILLION PEOPLE ON THE PLANET WHO LIVE WITHOUT ELECTRICITY AND THE MEDICAL CARE.” Foresight Nanotech Institute. Clean Edge. and business development entrepreneur with two decades of high-tech experience.cleanedge. market research. and in governmental circles -. 2008 It doesn’t take a rocket.org/challenges/energy001.people and organization are addressing pressing energy and environmental needs by deploying renewable energy sources. A): WE ARE IN A RACE TO STOP BRUTAL WATER WARS. Natural gas and oil prices have more than doubled over the last year and are unlikely to subside any time soon. air and water polluted. POLLUTION.

ENS (environment news service) 2006 “Safety of Nanotechnology Needs More Attention” http://www." wrote Boehlert and Gordon. and swabbing our babies’ bottoms with nanoparticle baby wipes. INACTION IS SIMPLY NOT AN OPTION. WITH A 70 PERCENT INCREASE IN THE PAST EIGHT MONTHS. NRDC.ensnewswire. WE ARE GIVEN THE OBLIGATION AND RESPONSIBILITY TO PRODUCE A SOUND POLICY MEANT TO CONTROL AND PREVENT SUCH OCCURRENCES." 6 . an environmental group today warned that the U. especially individuals who will be working with nanotechnology." she said. "We need to know about the short and long-term risks.S. The Natural Resources Defense Council. Environmental Protection Agency is not doing enough to ensure safety. "especially since we’re already wearing stain-resistant nanoparticle clothing." Nanotechnology is an area of research that could add billions of dollars to our economy. REVOLUTIONIZING NUCLEAR WAR. applying nanoparticle cosmetics and sunscreens.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] B): THE NUMBER OF PRODUCTS MADE WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY IS EXPLODING. WITH THE HAZARDOUS AND GHASTLY POTENTIAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY LIKE “GREY GOO”. "Nanoparticles behave unpredictably and could harm human beings. wildlife and the environment. but that won’t happen if it is shrouded in uncertainty about its consequences. an NRDC staff scientist.asp Considering the enormous growth of nanotechnology. "And our citizens. Jennifer Sass." warned Dr. need to be protected from any potential harm that could come from materials far smaller than what they have generally been exposed to in the past. says not enough is known about potential health and environmental risks associated with nano-products and their manufacture. AND ANY OTHER ATROCITIES IMAGINABLE. PENETRATING THE BODY. CAUSING EXTINCTION. WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY’S APPLICATION TEETERING BETWEEN POTENTIAL GOOD AND POTENTIAL EVIL. KILLING THE ENVIRONMENT.com/ens/nov2006/2006-11-28-04.

Sargent 08. they argue. This failure. according to these advocates.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] CONTENTION 3: SOLVENCY A): U.state.gov/documents/organization/106153. 52 Those who advocate this position generally assert that many promising research breakthroughs and early technology developments fail to make it to market. applied research and development closer to commercial products. longer-term technology development projects needed to sustain their viability in the future. Advocates for increased federal support put forth a variety of arguments.” http://fpc. With federal investments.e.S. FEDERAL INCENTIVES ARE KEY TO NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH ADVANCES AND THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS THAT FOLLOW John F.pdf+ Much of the public dialogue on how the government can advance U. 7 . and Industry Division *“Nanotechnology and U..S. say supporters. For example. including production prototypes. they assert that investor demand for short-term returns can result in companies being unable to invest in higher-risk. strength in nanotechnology has focused on federal technology funding.S. Specialist in Science and Technology Policy in the Resources. Competitiveness. Science. technical risk could be reduced to a level that enables promising research and early-stage technologies to overcome “the valley of death” 53 and reach the marketplace where the nation would be able to capture their economic and societal benefits. venture capitalists and other investors often have exit strategies and/or seek returns in a timeframe (generally three to five years) inconsistent with the longer-term development horizons of emerging and enabling technologies. Similarly. Some believe that the federal government should provide increased funding for “downstream research. results from inadequate funding mechanisms to bring the technology to a state of maturity in which private corporations and other sources of capital are willing to invest in the technology — or in the company that holds the technology — to bring it to market.” i.

nanotechnology offers a range of opportunities. Clean Edge.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] 1 B): NATIONAL INCENTIVES FOR SOLAR NANOTECHNOLOGY WILL FOSTER MASSIVE INVESTMENT NCMS.” Foresight Nanotech Institute. and creating meaningful grand challenge incentives for early industrial adopters of nanotechnology. tax credits for capital investments. 2008 Clean energy is becoming mainstream business.) C): THESE INCENTIVES WILL SPARK THE INDUSTRY AND MAKE SOLAR NANOTECHNOLOGY CHEAP AND AVALIABLE Pernick. Inc. some solar PV systems are being installed for as low 20 cents per kilowatt hour for retail electricity (produced and delivered to the consumer). Nanosolar. Nanotechnology Survey Results For The Use of Nanotechnology Within The 2005 US Manufacturing Industry.ncms. 2005 http://www. This will accelerate the broad-based translation of nanotechnology advances across multiple industry sectors. tax-free bonds for financing. investment-specific loan guarantees. Industry is within striking distance of truly low-cost solar power — making it competitive for most applications. and Nanosys are all developing new nano-materials that could dramatically reduce costs and enable solar to be flexible like plastic. 1 Incentives combined with R&D funding solves 8 .org/challenges/energy001. Ron “Clean Energy Could Power Nascent Nanotech Industry. This translates into solar electricity rates of around 30 cents per kilowatt hour. reduced capital gains tax rates. Today.html accessed November.com) Adjunct Faculty. A whole new range of powered devices and applications could be born out of these developments.pdf Government can lead by defining and funding National priorities. Areas where greater government involvement in nanotechnology can have high National impact while leveraging substantially larger private investments include: Incentives favouring longer-term investments (e. And quite a few emerging renewable energy developments are coming out of the intersection of energy and nanotech.cleanedge. Not bad for high-cost electricity markets like Japan and Southern California and for peak-generation needs (when conventional grid electricity costs the most).00 per peak watt.g. etc. Below are examples of some of the more notable developments: Many clean-energy technologies have remained out of reach of most consumers for a simple reason: cost. Nanotechnology-driven companies such as Konarka.org/publications/PDF/05NCMSNanotechnologySurveyAbstract. From solar cell and fuel cell fabrication to energy management. Portland State http://www. But in the two last three decades we’ve seen the price for solar power drop by more than an order of magnitude from $80 per peak watt to around $6.foresight. (www.

cleanedge.foresight." In many ways I couldn’t agree more. nanotech may just end up being powered by a new wave of clean-energy development. (www.org/challenges/energy001. ITS TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS AND PROMISE MAKE CLEAN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY MORE APPEALING AND DRIVES DEVELOPMENT. Let the clean-energy nanotech race begin! NOW THAT WE HAVE OBSERVED THE STATE OF THE WORLD WITHOUT THE AFFIRMATIVE PLAN. Pernick. 2008 A PR mastermind that I know recently said that: "nanotech makes clean-tech sexy. Inc. and real technologies and business models can be developed. If a confluence of forces continues to line up. Clean Edge. and clean-tech makes nanotech nice. WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES TO ACTION… 9 .html accessed November. Portland State http://www. As outlined above. And clean energy provides a motivational pull for nanotech companies and pioneers that want to solve some of the most pressing issues of our time.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] AND FINALLY D): NANOTECH IS BRINGIN’ SEXY BACK!!!. some of the hottest and most exciting developments in the clean-energy space revolve around breakthroughs in nanotechnology.com) Adjunct Faculty. Ron “Clean Energy Could Power Nascent Nanotech Industry.” Foresight Nanotech Institute.

Valdez was only the 14th largest spill in history. B): OIL SPILLS IN OCEANS DEVASTATE MARINE WILDLIFE Paul Goff. SATYA. 10 .blogspot.html The profligate use of oil. and perhaps half a million birds. because most others occurred off shore and did not directly reach a populated land mass.com/sept95/goff. September 1995 http://www. forests. Accidental spills only represent 17% of the total oil which enters the marine environment.satyamag. The oil itself can also be recovered.000 tons of oil have already been spilled at sea since the start of the decade. enters the oceans via the routine flushing of carrier tanks. and can be recycled many times for future use. according to the National Research Council in 1985. The rest. may contain the most ecological destructive component of all: the ubiquitous oil spill — ubiquitous in a sense that the Exxon Valdez disaster was not an anomaly. Car Culture’s War on the Environment Part IV: The loss of farmland. but. http://apatheticlemming. MIT researchers and colleagues report in the May 30 online issue of Nature Nanotechnology. and wildlife. and the daily byproducts of the petroleum industry. Architect in Manhattan who is concerned about issues of public space and ecology. Although the estimation of the total death of sea creatures and birds due to oil spillage is incalculable.com/2008/07/slick-idea-from-mit-nanotech-oil-spill. "The scientists say they have created a membrane that can absorb up to 20 times its weight in oil. according to Greenpeace. 2008 <MIT News.html> "A mat of nanowires with the touch and feel of paper could be an important new tool in the cleanup of oil and other organic pollutants. Another 50 million gallons of petroleum seep into the world’s fresh water supply through the daily run-off from roads and do-it-yourself mechanics. the toll from the Alaska Valdez incident. spills of that magnitude occur quite often and have disastrous implications on the ecology of the world’s oceans. 200 harbor seals. there was a dearth of media coverage.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] ADVANTAGE 1): NANOTECH MAKES HELLA LEGIT PAPER TOWELS— IT CAN EVEN SOAK UP TONS OF OIL A): SUPER SOAK NANO-SPONGE! MIT News May 30. Some 200. led to the deaths of 5000 otters. 7-15-08. in many ways. Greenpeace estimates that one billion gallons of oil are directly spilled into the oceans every year.

” lexis) KMH Nanotechnology will also play a major role in postoperative healing.org/~comms/98/yoo/docs/statement. “Seizing the Future. The Toronto Sun. a so-called "emerging virus. The ultimate goal here is not merely to cure disease. Then we will have the knowledge to diagram. M6 Nor did the media go beyond Surat and explain how this largely inconsequential epidemic." beyond the waning reach of antibiotics.D in sociology. http://archive.html) (PDOCSS1009) Marine and coastal biodiversity serves as the foundation of the natural ecosystems that produce and maintain fisheries and other marine life. October 16. Suppose that the headliner germ had been a new strain of Ebola that dissolves internal organs into a bloody tar or the mysterious "X" virus that killed thousands in the Sudan last year. This will transpire when we have achieved a complete understanding of the molecular structure of healthy tissue. perhaps even immortality. if Surat had aroused a different airborne microbe. 1994 (Michael. cells. Imagine. Pg. and tissues. but rather to establish lifetime health.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] C): MARINE BIODIVERSITY CRITICAL TO ALL HUMAN LIFE Greenpeace Statement. A): NANOTECH SOLVES FOR ILLNESSES Zey . Stroke victims will be helped to regenerate fresh brain tissue even where there has been significant damage. Quite simply. 1994. repair machines will help the heart grow fresh muscle by resetting cellular control mechanisms. As addressed elsewhere in this statement. was another sharp warning of our species' growing vulnerability to infectious disease. a kind of false alarm in a much larger microbial saga. B): EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES THREATEN PLANETARY EXISTENCE. the structure of a healthy heart cell or a healthy liver and transfer to tiny machines the accurate information about that organ’s molecules. Had such a 11 . Ph. 1996 (STATEMENT OF RECOGNITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE OCEAN. for a moment.greenpeace. ADVANTAGE 2): NANOTECH WILL BECOME THE PANACEA FOR ILLNESS AND PLANETARY EXTINCTION. as if were. executive director of the Expansionary Institute. marine biodiversity is increasingly under threat as a result of human activities causing harmful and sometimes irreversible damage.

Dr Raff replied. which was equipping its army with detection devices against germ warfare. When asked if this could mean a cure for AIDS within five years.. might be an entirely different and emptier place altogether. 2002." he said. he said. "Absolutely". "They (dendrimers) can also be used to intercede. it will be our first product for testing on humans.3 million to the company's research. Professor Donald Tomalia is the world authority on nanotechnology (the manipulation of materials at the molecular level) and US government adviser on the relatively new science. said Dr John Raff. Science technology author. he said. "It stops the virus multiplying in the body as well as stopping the virus from getting into the body in the first place. It has a lot of potential . 10 Dec. That is now a reality. The Australian army was embracing nanotechnology. Dendrimers would be adapted for a variety of treatment methods. dendrimers could prevent tumour cells spreading to other parts of the body as well as preventing the growth of existing tumours. We're looking at having a product on the market in the next four to five years." he said. including inhalation. oral or injected. Dendritic is made up of Melbourne-based pharmaceutical company Starpharma and Brisbanebased diagnostic firm Panbio. 5 Feb. AND OUR FINAL ADVANTAGE 3): UTOPIA. called dendrimers. One product already in development is a gel-like substance to be inserted into the vagina to prevent HIV and herpes infections." Dr Raff said the federal government had committed $7. 176-178 12 . CEO of Starpharma. the emerging science of nanotechnology: remaking the world.." The planet. Ed Regis.molecule by molecule. 2008 <http://tvnz. "We're now getting responses to cancer that we've never seen because we can get such high local concentrations (of drugs) down there without collateral damage to tissue. and the world might now be mourning a "new Black Death. "The opportunities of broadscale protections against a range of respiratory viruses is enormous.co. It blocks the uptake of HIV and stops it from infecting the cells. in fact. Australia is just now coming into this very exciting area." said Dr Raff. Prof Tomalia told reporters in Sydney. C): CURE TO AIDS AND CANCER LIE NOWHERE OTHER THAN IN NANODRUGS Technology news "Nanodrugs to cure AIDS and cancer.nz/view/page/425822/79985>. Dendrimers were being touted by the joint-venture Dendritic Nanotechnologies as having implications for anything from preventing tumour growth to detecting biological warfare. "It's the first product we've got going through the system to be put inside a human. A cure for HIV could be in sight within five years thanks to revolutionary disease-fighting nanotechnology.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] microbe been unleashed. NANOTECHNOLOGY RETURNS US TO THE GARDEN OF EDEN. in conjunction with an Australian joint venture Australia would pioneer the application to humans of the synthetic molecular structures to prevent and cure diseases such as STDs. The army intends to give every foot soldier out there devices to detect biological threats. malaria and Hepatitis B. In terms of cancer. the final death toll might have been millions.". He is in Australia to help develop the use of cutting-edge "nanodrugs"." said Prof Tomalia. "The US army has made a very serious commitment to the nano area. external pathogens like a virus." said Dr Raff. following in the footsteps of the US. Nano. 1995 p. to shut down.

The NSG had started a "Nanotechnology Notebook. except for very large objects like planets. the number of jobs and the number of workers never differed by more than ten percent. one complaint you couldn 't make was that they ducked the hard issues. even Dave Friedman was slightly at a loss. very productive world. economist at the University of Chicago (and the son of Milton Friedman. there being a cloud for every silver lining. the more you thought about it the more it appeared that nanotechnology was a two-edged sword not only in terms of its gray-goo physical risks. and it was one that they were dutybound to honor. No more time clocks. nanotechnology was the ultimate Luddite nightmare: people would be displaced by machines once and for all — machines. and then some. deeper analysis led to some darker suspicions. Under the worst-case interpretation. or least get it discussed. Basically there were two view-points: one was that automation did not mean job loss. and in more recent times the prospect of automation. after the revolution. said Friedman. James Albus. and the few notions he did have ranged from the dreadful ("volunteer or public-service activities") to the unrealistic ("artistic and creative pursuits") to the monotonous (the rise of "a `Polynesian-type' culture"). this as a result of the world's work being turned over to the assemblers. having to be friendly with people. "No one will bother to charge for food. to give a talk on the subject at the January 1987 nano conference they were sponsoring. if possible. it seems very peculiar that you would have two independent numbers. was that technology did not mean massive unemployment." he said. you may feel useless. when new cars went for $3. Nor do I mean to imply that people will regard their unemployment as in any way undesirable. anyway. nanotechnology as the molecular cornucopia." he said. The lesson from history. And of course over the last two hundred years people have done both on a large scale. No more getting up in the morning. when it came time to say exactly what would fill a per-son's time in the nano age. to those great and valued social institutions known as the market system. as rather amusing discussion items at more than one meeting of the MIT Nanotechnology Study Group. and artificial intelligence revived the old controversy. Nilsson predicted. They will be set up on street corners to commemorate dead spouses. No longer would humanity have to toil for its daily bread. "is that as technology improves. and all was well and good." People will in fact become unemployed. They wanted to solve it. the other was that it did. the Nobel Prize winner).75. I merely mean that people's time will not be spent predominantly working for an income." he said. "this work can also be performed by AI devices without necessarily implying more jobs for humans. How could you smash the machines (as the Luddites always wanted to do) when you couldn't even see the damn things? Such questions turned up. Or at least that was the first-glance view of the situation. the promised land had been sighted. "More work can always be created. will cost almost zero. "Building the automatic factories is a Herculean task that will provide employment to millions of workers for several generations. Nils Nilsson. an artificialintelligence researcher. Nilsson was not full of ideas. also meant no more paychecks. robotics. our population has gone up by almost two orders of magnitude. the gross national product. the NSG invited David Friedman. "Food machines would be provided as a free amenity. "There is not a fixed amount of work. he said. Obviously. produ tive things. just as water fountains are now. Just the reverse: if there was a potential problem with nanotechnology. Clearly. Whatever else could be said of the NSG membership." What technology we can make and market a new car for three seventy-five. but not much. But if the papers in the Nanotechnology Notebook were any indication. the major social boon brought to us by nanotechnology would be freedom from physical labor." This was pretty much the standard view. There is always more work to be done than people to do it. Drexler's invention was not the first one to threaten mass unemployment: the Luddites themselves went back to the early 1800s. for example. after all." Artificial intelligence would itself create jobs. But." A new car might cost something. Throughout that time. going in to the office. but also because of the dangers it posed to the social and economic order. each of which went up about a hundredfold during a period of two hundred years and that were virtually never more than ten technology really did. In a market economy people have the option of taking that improved output per hour in the form of more income — more real income — or in the form of more leisure. roughly speaking. the world economy? Indeed. and some of the pieces in it addressed the unemployment issue. a robotics researcher. What would these people actually do? "If it's important to human beings to feel that they're doing important. what then was going to be left for people to do? How would they fill their endless days.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] Superficially. output per hour goes up. with trivial exceptions. But even Friedman was of two minds on the issue. "In this country. aside from a couple of rather un usual years. well. that were much too small to wreck." he said. naturally enough. Raw materials. what then did you actually do? And particularly what did you do for money? No more time clocks. That was their oath from the weekend retreat. further-more. and if it turns out that in the world of a hundred tears from now the important. do the work of the world. when food machines were on street corners. of course. there was no agreement on the subject even among the experts. productive thing you're doing is giving your wife a back rub. took the precise opposite position. took the first view. was to increase productivity and create wealth. Work is easy to create. "Even if AI does create more work. It gave people more free time. What would hap-pen. especially across thousands of years? When it was nine o'clock on Monday morning and you didn't have to be at the office. Still. "What happens." Nanotechnology would merely push this to extremes . and you're both living off this phenomenal flow of income from your very small amount of property in a very. Supposing for the sake of argument that assemblers could in fact. since independence. And I would think that just sort of with no theory at all. when only the larger planets were even remotely pricey. "With Eric's percent apart.. but "by `unemployed' I do not mean unoccupied. and it lay not all that far ahead. "I can offer you no 13 . Was that the final payoff of nanotechnology — mangoes and ennui? To get a better grip on the matter." a collection of articles on various nano topics." And so on. the NSG wanted to know about it. That's three dollars and seventy-five cents.." As to how people's time would be spent.

like the sky's being blue. not an information society. you wouldn't have to work for a living — that was the whole point." which was to say. too. It gave you everything. all on a platter. and. Nevertheless. "We will have an entertainment society." Al-though you could certainly work if you wanted to. artworks. It presented no further hindrance. and "special items of artistic merit. everybody had tons of it. there wouldn't be an unemployment "problem. Nano. one. satisfaction. which even nanotechnology could make no more of. it would no longer be a badge of status. Science technology author. It meant instant and effortless satisfaction of every material want or need. Matter had been overpowered. malleable. Unemployment would simply be a neutral and natural condition. no resistance to human will.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] guarantees from economic theory against that. would no longer be worshiped the way it always had been. apparently. the emerging science of nanotechnology: remaking the world. to acquire things? Essentially. and challenge of the pursuit. Some will preserve and continue traditional and creative means of construction and production." Art." Ed Regis. the normal state of affairs. the only material entities that would retain value in the nano age were land. you didn't even need it. "Self-directed people will pursue knowledge and entertainment for its own sake. The assemblers would provide.molecule by molecule. Others will take up artistic activities. Since the work of the world would be done by machines — by the assemblers — there would be large amounts of unemployment. Nanotechnology. creation — these became the big themes of the future among the nano clan. 14 . As for the four-billion-dollar question — What would people be doing when they didn't have to work? — MacGillivray's answer was utterly simple: they'd be off enjoying themselves. was greater nirvana. performance. 183184 Money. Some will accumulate knowledge for the joy." he said. 1995 p. reality itself took on a new cast: it was controllable. or very much of it. two. How could it be in an age when. plastic.

two.. "I can offer you no guarantees from economic theory against that. It gave you everything. would no longer be worshiped the way it always had been. one. when new cars went for $3." Art. was greater nirvana. Throughout that time. and if it turns out that in the world of a hundred tears from now the important. and then some. creation — these became the big themes of the future among the nano clan. each of which went up about a hundredfold during a period of two hundred years and that were virtually never more than ten percent technology really did. to acquire things? Essentially. produ tive things." he said. well. the only material entities that would retain value in the nano age were land. Nano." Al-though you could certainly work if you wanted to. What would these people actually do? "If it's important to human beings to feel that they're doing important. The assemblers would provide. "With Eric's technology spouses. It presented no further hindrance. 1995 p. "Self-directed people will pursue knowledge and entertainment for its own sake. Science technology author. except for very large objects like planets. you didn't even need it. and all was well and good. Some will preserve and continue traditional and creative means of construction and production. They will be set up on street corners to commemorate dead Raw materials. That's three dollars and seventy-five cents. said Friedman. too. and. you may feel useless. and challenge of the pursuit." What machines would be provided as a free amenity.. and "special items of artistic merit. not an information society. How could it be in an age when. malleable. plastic. the normal state of affairs. "We will have an entertainment society. output per hour goes up." Nanotechnology would merely push this to extremes ." he said. and you're both living off this phenomenal flow of income from your very small amount of property in a very. "What happens. performance. artworks. It gave people more free time. "No one will bother to charge for food." he said. all on a platter. Nevertheless. but not much. very productive world. there wouldn't be an unemployment "problem. Unemployment would simply be a neutral and natural condition. productive thing you're doing is giving your wife a back rub. or very much of it.75. 183-184 Money. "Food apart. apparently. like the sky's being blue." which was to say. Some will accumulate knowledge for the joy. the number of jobs and the number of workers never differed by more than ten percent. when food machines were on street corners. even Dave Friedman was slightly at a loss. aside from a couple of rather un usual years. everybody had tons of it. when only the larger planets were even remotely pricey. It meant instant and effortless satisfaction of every material want or need. the emerging science of nanotechnology: remaking the worldmolecule by molecule. was to increase productivity and create wealth. "is that as technology improves. which even nanotechnology could make no more of. Nanotechnology." Ed Regis. As for the four-billion-dollar question — What would people be doing when they didn't have to work? — MacGillivray's answer was utterly simple: they'd be off enjoying themselves. satisfaction. just as water fountains are now." This was pretty much the standard view. no resistance to human will. will cost almost zero. when it came time to say exactly what would fill a person's time in the nano age.LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] gone up by almost two orders of magnitude. Since the work of the world would be done by machines — by the assemblers — there would be large amounts of unemployment. we can make and market a new car for three seventy-five." A new car might cost something. it seems very peculiar that you would have two independent numbers. Still. Matter had been overpowered. reality itself took on a new cast: it was controllable. you wouldn't have to work for a living — that was the whole point. 15 . nanotechnology as the molecular cornucopia. In a market economy people have the option of taking that improved output per hour in the form of more income — more real income — or in the form of more leisure. it would no longer be a badge of status. And of course over the last two hundred years people have done both on a large scale. Others will take up artistic activities. And I would think that just sort of with no theory at all.

LOUGHIN NANOTECHNOLOGY AFF BISHOP LOUGHLIN DEBATE [AC] 16 .

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