This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
in the substation. Highspeed microprocessor based Remote Terminals Units (RTUs) or Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) are used for substation automation and protection. These IEDs are installed in strategic locations for collection of system data and automatic protection of substation equipments. IEC-61850 ensures the interoperability among various substation automation components supplied by different vendors. The functions performed by Substation Automation (SA) system are in, general, switch control, data monitoring,protection etc. In IEC-61850, these functions are broken into low-level functions called sub-functions. Each sub-function is performed by the IED installed in the substation. Each IED can perform one or many sub functions. A set of sub-functions is integrated together to realize a substation automation function. These communicate with each other through LocalArea Network in the substation. There are basically two types of equipment in a substation: – (i) primary equipments and (ii) secondary equipments. Primary equipments include transformer, switchgear etc. Secondary equipments include protection, control and communication equipments. Further, secondary equipments are categorized into three levels in IEC-61850 standards. T h e s e a r e station level, bay level, and process level equipments.
Process level function extracts the information from sensors/transducers in the substation and to send them to upper level device, called bay level device. The other major task of process level function is to receive the control command from bay level device and execute it at the appropriate switch level. Bay level functions acquire the data from the bay and then mainly act on the primary (power circuit) equipment of the bay.Merging unit is a device to collect the instantaneous values of current and voltage from CT and PT, sample the same and send them to the protection and controls. unit. Protection unit and Control unit are bay level devices.Bay level devices collect data from the same bay and/or from different bays and perform actions on the primary equipment in its own way. Station level functions are of two types.
(i) Process related functions act on the data from multiple bays or substation level database. These functions are used to submit the control commands for the primary equipment (Circuit breakers) and collect the substation data like voltage, current,power factor etc. from the bay level devices. As described above, each bay includes one primary equipment such as transformers, feeders etc. (ii) Interface related functions enable interactive interface of the substation automation system to the local station operator HMI (Human Machine Interface), to a remote control centre TCI (Tele Control Interface) or to the remote monitoring centre for monitoring and maintenance TMI (Tele Monitoring Interface). The main focus of IEC-61850 standard is to support the substation functions through the communication of (numbers in brackets refer to those in Fig. 5): Sampled values for CTs and PTs (1), I/O data for protection and control (2), Control and Trip signals (3), Engineering and configuration data (4), Monitoring and supervision signals(5), Data to Control-center (6), Time-synchronization signals, etc. Limitations and solutions 1. We present the ad–hoc based architecture for survivable SAS. Recent works demonstrate that ring based Ethernet topology is preferable for SAS due to resilient capability and fast recovery . In the event of link failure, the operation of SAS could be recovered using IEEE 802.1W Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) within millisecond.This topology, however, only considers the link failure in station level. If one of switches in station level, which also connecting the bay level, fails, IEDs connected to the switch lost their connections to the station level devices which leads to communication failure between the buses. To ensure the reliable communication between the buses, other protection architecture is required. By exploiting data relaying property of ad–hoc network, we could provide SAS a survivability for reliable communication
2. In addition to electromagnetic interference, the substation there is multipath interference can not be ignored. As a large number of substations in the column of metal equipment and objects easily reflected RF signal, the receiver receives the signal transmission path, including a number of different refraction or reflection of signals , resulting in multipath interference. Will lead to signal multipath fading, phase shift and decomposition, which is to be judged by the signal energy of wireless systems will have a huge impact. However, direct sequence spread spectrum technology for anti-multipath interference has a great advantage, which depends largely on the spread spectrum communication pseudorandom sequence used in the cycle-related characteristics, because the white noise random sequence with similar sharp from the general correlation despreading at the receiver can effectively suppress the interference of multipath signals, to improve the signal to noise ratio and communication quality. Standard DSSS receiver correlator through better automatically select the sharpest waveform signal synchronization than its locked, thereby reducing the multipath interference. Therefore, the application of wireless sensor network technology can be very direct sequence spread spectrum multipath interference suppression. Wireless sensor networks used in direct sequence spread spectrum technology can be a very good strength in the suppression of electromagnetic interference substation, substation that may arise while the multipath interference is a very good inhibition. Therefore, in wireless sensor applications in the substation automation is feasible, but also the development of power system monitoring system inevitable. 3.synchronization An important aspect while using sampled values of a power system is the phase relationship between the different measured signals, in particular between current and voltage. For some applications, the accuracy in the time domain needs to be in the range of one microsec-ond. That means, when samples are acquired in different devices, the relation to the time base must be with an inaccuracy of less than one microsecond.
IEEE 1588 for sychronisation To compensate for the drawbacks of the 1pps signal synchronisation, experts are currently investigating the possible use of IEEE1588 to implement synchronisation requirements. The synchronisation solution has to fulfil the following requirements: It shall be an open solution that can be hardware based or done in software only; It shall have no impact on the communication topology of the substation automation system; It shall support different synchronisation zones depending on the functions that require the synchronisation. Different zones maybe global synchronisation, substation wide synchronisation or substation partial synchronisation. It shall support a graceful degradation with dynamic search for or alternative configuration of master clock IEEE 1588 technology can support the requirements for accurate synchronisation within a substation automation system. However, the system integrator, when designing the communication network, needs to consider carefully the different synchronisation zones that are required for different functions