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A Paper Presented to Dr. Glen Kreider Dallas Theological Seminary
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course ST101OL Introduction to Theology
by Jenny Scott April 13th, 2009 firstname.lastname@example.org
2 peter 3:16. Kreider. and considered that Scripture as well. it is important to note that the definitions are in fact different. Paul states as Scripture both an Old Testament reference (Deut.2 1 Glen A. Inspiration is the act of the Holy Spirit miraculously breathing out (by means of all forms of divine revelation) the Word of God that was written by the writers of the Old and New Testament. they can not be considered all encompassing. that produced the Holy Scriptures in a divine-human concurrence that revealed and continues to reveal the Triune God. lecture 10 Ibid. There are many who attest to the inspiration of Scripture. There is much more that can be said regarding both inspiration and inerrancy than can be covered here.” (NIV) “God-breathed” in this verse is often times translated “inspired. therefore although the definitions are (I believe) correct. rebuking. correcting and training in righteousness. In 1 Timothy 5:18. “A Biblical View of Inspiration. but do not hold to the inerrancy of it as defined in this work.” in Class Notes for ST101OL.” This verse is specifically talking about the Old Testament (the Bible that Paul had access to) although he no doubt had some of the New Testament in his possession.. Definition of Inspiration The Bible (the Old and New Testaments) were inspired by God. Further Explanation The term inspiration comes from 2 Timothy 3:16 that states that “all Scripture is Godbreathed and is useful for teaching. 25:4) as well as a reference to Luke’s Gospel (Luke 10:7)1 and Peter refers to Paul’s writings as Scripture as well.DEFINITION OF INSPIRATION AND INERRANCY Although inspiration and inerrancy are really inseparable for the majority of evangelical Christians. as inerrancy is actually a corollary of inspiration. 2 1 .
“A Biblical View of Inspiration.” in Class Notes for ST101OL.2 Dr. and not a ‘breathing into’ the Scriptures by Him.5 but for the sake of space.4 Benjamin Warfield in his article “Inspiration” in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia correctly states that the “Biblical writers speak of the action of the Spirit of God in this relation as a breathing. Kreider. in that He did all the work. lecture 10. they will not be explored in this work.” (NIV) This passage also teaches the dual authorship of the scriptures. as the prophets (and apostles) were moved along by the Holy Spirit. but it is still important to show support for the human authorship as well. that they actually claim authorship (as Paul did in his letters). The divine authorship of the Scriptures has been shown. that the human authors did research.” in Class Notes for ST101OL. lecture 10 Deut 1:26.8-9. Kreider. and the humans were robots doing the bidding of their master controller.27.8 Glen A. but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.”3 We have in 2 Peter 1:21 where Peter stipulates that “for prophecy (Scripture) never had its origin in the will of man.6 Finally. 9:23-24. John 17.Eph 3:5.” in Class Notes for ST101OL. lecture 10 4 5 6 .” There are many other passages that could be quoted to reference the unity between the scriptures and the actual authoritative Word of God. and the completely different writing styles of the Biblical writers. much as wind moves a ship at sea by filling the sails. 2 Sam 12:9-10. Luke 8:21. Warfield states that “behind the evangelical insistence on verbal inspiration stands the 3 Glen A. Psalm 146:5-6.. “A Biblical View of Inspiration. Kreider. Kreider states that “Paul clearly thought of himself and other apostles as receivers and givers of revelation from God. We do not believe that the writers were “taken over” by the Holy Spirit. it is obvious that there is a human element in the process. Num 15:31. they represent it as a ‘breathing out’ of the scriptures by the Spirit. 1 Cor 14:37 Glen A. “A Biblical View of Inspiration. This is the miracle of the inspiration of the scriptures: the fact that the writers of the scriptures used the first person pronoun in their writings.
Rom 3:3-4 Glen A. Definition of Inerrancy To say that the Bible is inerrant means that the Bible is. 23. lecture 11 8 9 10 . and completely true. then Scripture must be true. 14:6 Num 34:19. 1 Timothy 3:16. It is logical that if one believes that the Bible is inspired (the very Words of God).e. then the Word of God must be true." F. Gaebelein. The Bible that we have in our possession today is inerrant to the degree in which it reflects God’s original work.” in Class Notes for ST101OL. Kreider.3 Christian confidence in God’s lucid intelligible disclosure. “Inerrancy: Corollary of Inspiration. 1 Sam 15:29..) It can also be asserted based on the use of the Old Testament by the writings of the apostles and by Jesus Himself. "The Authority and Inspiration of The Bible. completely trustworthy.E. Vol. The argument for the inerrancy of the Bible is found by using the doctrine of the inspiration of the scriptures. They used the specifics of Old Testament passage 7 Carl F. ed. Since we established above that scripture is the actual Word of God (Godbreathed).10 This logical support of inerrancy can be drawn from several passages where the inspiration of the Word is stated (i. Further Explanation The definition of inerrancy needs some qualifiers. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. in its original manuscripts. completely free from error or falsehood. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Titus 1:2. 1. It is easy to say that the Bible is inerrant in its original manuscripts when we don’t actually have any of those manuscripts. John 1:14. and 1 Corinthians 2:13. Henry. and believes what the Bible teaches about God: God is true8 and God cannot lie9. gen. as well as what Scripture claims for itself.” We ultimately accept the 7 inspiration of the Bible because the Bible tells us that it is inspired. and we believe the Bible because we have faith. 1979). 1 Peter 1:21.
observational descriptions of nature. “The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy” in Inerrancy. variant selections of material in parallel accounts. irregularities of grammar or spelling. Because of centuries of biblical. we can have complete confidence in the reliability and authority of the Bible that we have in our hands.12 In regards to the Bible that we currently posses. the use of hyperbole and round numbers. historical. There is no claim that the copies and translations that we currently have are free from scribal error. It also must be said that in every way that the copies and translations of the Scripture that we do have represent faithfully and reflect correctly the autographs. even if we did have the inerrant autographs. even down to the tense of a verb. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan. the reporting of falsehoods. and because of the remarkable accuracy which has been proven regarding the current copies compared to the earliest manuscripts. The affirmations of what inerrancy are is of less value here than what inerrancy is not. who are we to doubt? There are also qualifications that must be stated regarding what is meant by the term inerrancy. or the plurality of a noun! If Jesus trusted 11 the specifics of the Scriptures. or the use of free citations. 1980) 12 . the topical arrangement of material. There is also no claim that a fallible finite human could understand the perfect eternal Word of God completely or fully. apparent contradictions. 22:43. Appendix Article XIII. it is clear that there are scribal errors. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy states: We deny that it is proper to evaluate Scripture according to standards of truth and error that are alien to its usage or purpose. Gal 3:6 Norman Geisler. It should be noted. and we are therefore content to wait for God’s final revelation in the return of Christ. They are inerrant.13 11 Matt 22:32. and literary criticism. We further deny that inerrancy is negated by Biblical phenomena such as a lack of modern technical precision. that this does not create a problem for the doctrine of inerrancy. just that we recognize our limitations.4 to argue their points. and perceived inconsistencies that Christians have been unable to deny or explain away with absolute certainty. That contentment does not mean that believers and theologians have not and will not continue to pursue answers to the apparent problems.
“The Human Authorship of Inspired Scripture” Normal Geisler. 1980). preparing them. pp 249-51 14 15 . 13 Greg L.”14 God worked in the lives of the prophets and apostles from the moment of their birth. On a final note. Lewis Ibid. ed. I am not sure how you could rely on and trust in the biblical narrative of even the resurrection if it was relatively arbitrary which parts were myth and which were factual.Lewis. Bahnsen.. leading them to the place where He could breathe His words for them to write. Without the doctrine of inerrancy. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan. or scroll. and guided their pursuits. How can a fallible human produce an infallible work. formed their writing styles. or whatever. There are many criticisms of inerrancy that are based on the human aspect of the writing down of the Scriptures.) “The writing of Scripture was no last-minute emergency operation in which God had to use whatever He could find to work with.. guiding them. He created their personalities.15 It was a 16 century process in which the hand (and breath) of God worked to produce an inspired and inerrant Scripture. knowing truth becomes a much more difficult task. 1980). ed. Inerrancy. and what should be discarded. fostered their interests. 249. inerrancy 249 Gordon R. “The Inerrancy of the Autographa” Normal Geisler. it would be impossible to discern what in the Bible was true. or stone.. especially in regards to God’s revelation of Himself? Gordon Lewis insightfully explains the miraculous work of putting the Word of God on paper (or parchment. inerrant Word of God. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan. the doctrine of the inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible is very important to our understanding of the Holy Scriptures. Inerrancy. If all of the Bible were not the infallible. Gordon R. fully truthful.5 God truly performed a miracle in order that we could have His self-revelation in written form. 168-9.
Carl F. “The Authority and Inspiration of The Bible. 1980. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Lecture 10 6 .E. 1979.” In Class Notes for ST101OL. Kreider. Glen A. Henry. Lecture 11 Kreider.” In The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Volume 1. “A Biblical View of Inspiration. Glen A. ed. Gaebelein. Inerrancy.BIBLIOGRAPHY Geisler.” In Class Notes for ST101OL. “Inerrancy: Corollary of Inspiriation. Edited by F. Norman L. Gran Rapids: Zondervan .
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