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chapter 1 introduction
features and benefits of hdpe pipe

chapter 2 inspections, tests and safety consideration

handling and storage
handling equipment
general considerations during installation
inspection and testing
post installation
considerations for post start-up and operation

chapter 3 engineering properties

polyethylene plastics
history of polyethylene
manufacture of polyethylene
polymer characteristics
molecular weight
effect of molecular weight distribution on properties
mechanical properties
=establishing long-term design properties
-tensile creep curves
-tensile creep or apparent modulus
-stress relaxation
-simplified representation of creep and
-stress-relaxation modulus
-creep recovery
-creep rupture
-long-term hydrostatic strength
-rate process method validation
-fracture mechanics
-cyclic fatigue endurance
short-term mechanical properties
=tensile properties
general physical properties
-impact strength
-abrasion resistance
-thermal properties
electrical properties
flammability and combustion toxicit
chemical resistance
toxicological properties
chapter 4 polyethylene pipe and fittings manufacturing
pipe extrusion
raw materials description
extrusion line
raw materials handling
extrusion principles
die design
pipe sizing operation
take-off equipment
saw equipment and bundling
fittings overview
injection molded fittings
fabricated fittings
quality control/quality assurance testing

chapter 5 specifications, test methods and codes for

polyethylene piping systems
properties and classification of polyethylene material
material selection and specification
-astm d-3350 �Standard specification for polyethy
-plastics pipe and fittings materials�
-thermal stability
-polyethylene grade - d 3350
-ppi designations
test methods and standards for stress rating, dimensioning,fittings and joining of
polyethylene pipe systems
-pressure rating of polyethylene pipe
-dimensioning systems
standard specifications for fittings and joinings
codes, standards and recommended practices for
polyethylene piping systems
-plastics pipe institute (ppi)
-nsf international
-plumbing codes
-other codes and standards
-factory mutual

chapter 6 design of polyethylene piping systems

section 1 design for flow capacity
pipe id for flow calculations
-pressure rating for pressure rated pipes
-fluid flow in polyethylene piping
--head loss in pipes
--pipe deflection effects
--head loss in fittings
--head loss due to elevation change
-pressure flow of water � Hazen-williams
-surge considerations
-pressure flow of liquid slurries
-compressible gas flow
-gravity flow of liquids
-flow velocity
-pipe surface condition, aging

section 2 buried pe pipe design

installation category #1: standard installation-trench
or embankment
installation category #2: shallow cover vehicular loading
installation category #3: deep fill installation -radial earth pressure example
-ring deflection of pipes using watkins-gaube graph
-watkins � Gaube calculation technique
-moore-selig equation for constrained buckling
in dry ground
-critical buckling example
installation category #4: shallow cover flotation effects
-design considerations for ground water flotation
-unconstrained pipe wall buckling (hydrostatic buckling)
-ground water flotation example

section 3 thermal design considerations

-unrestrained thermal effects
-end restrained thermal effects
-above ground piping systems
-buried piping systems

chapter 7 underground installation of polyethylene piping

flexible pipe installation theory
deflection control
pipe embedment materials
terminology of pipe embedment materials
classification and supporting strength of pipe embedment materials
installation procedure guidelines

chapter 8 above-ground applications for polyethylene

design criteria
chemical resistance
ultraviolet exposure
mechanical impact or loading
design methodology
pressure capability
expansion and contraction
installation characteristics
on-grade installations
restrained pipelines
supported or suspended pipelines
anchor and support design
chapter 9 polyethylene joining procedures
general provisions
thermal heat fusion methods
-butt fusion
-optional bead removal
-saddle/conventional fusion
-socket fusion
-documenting fusion
-heat fusion joining of unlike polyethylene pipe
and fittings
mechanical connections
-mechanical compression couplings for small
diameter pipes
-stab type mechanical fittings
mechanical bolt type couplings for large diameter pipes
-flanged connections
-polyethylene flange adapters and stub ends
-special cases
-mechanical flange adapters
-mechanical joint (mj) adapters
-transition fittings
-mechanical joint saddle fittings
repair clamps
other applications

chapter 10 marine installations

the float-and-sink method � Basic design and
installation steps
-selection of an appropriate pipe diameter
-determination of the required sdr
-determination of the required weighting, and of
the design and the spacing of ballast weights
-selection of an appropriate site for staging, joining and launching the pipe
-preparing the land-to-water transition zone and,
when required, the underwater bedding
-assembly of individual lengths of pipe into long
continuous lengths
-mounting the ballasts on the pipe
-launching the pipeline into the water
-submersion of the pipeline using the float-and-sink method
-completing the construction of the land-to-water transition
post-installation survey
other kinds of marine installations

chapter 11 pipeline rehabilitation by sliplining with polyethylene pipe

design considerations
-select a pipe liner diameter
-determine a liner wall thickness
-determine the flow capacity
-design the accesses
-develop the contract documents
-the sliplining procedure
-other rehabilitation methods
-fold and form
-pipe bursting
-pipe splitting

chapter 12 horizontal directional drilling

polyethylene pipe for horizontal directional drilli
horizontal directional drilling process
geotechnical investigation
product design: dr selection
design considerations for net external loads
earth and groundwater pressure
performance limits
performance limits of hdd installed pipe
ring deflection (ovalization)
installation design considerations
pullback force
tensile stress during pullback
external pressure during installation
bending stress
thermal stresses and strains
torsion stress

chapter 13 hvac applications

ground source heat pump systems
types of ground heat exchangers
pipe specifications and requirements
pipe joining methods
pipe installation
pressure testing ground heat exchanger
solar applications
collector technologies
vacuum systems

chapter 14 duct and conduit

conduit specifications
advantages of pe conduit
material selection
physical properties
design considerations
installation methods
joining methods
friction in conduit systems
special applications
bridge structures