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3G Release 6
3G Release 6
© Copyright Hughes Software Systems, 2004 All information included in this document is under a licence agreement. This publication and its contents are proprietary to Hughes Software Systems. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of Hughes Software Systems Plot 31, Electronic City, Sector 18, Gurgaon 122 015, INDIA Tel: +91-124-2346666, 2455555 Fax: +91-124-2455100/2455101 Website: www.hssworld.com E-mail: email@example.com
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3GPP BGCF CDMA ETSI GERAN GPRS GSM IMS I-CSCF MRF MGCF P-CSCF PoC PSS QoS S-CSCF WLAN
Third Generation Partnership Project Breakout Gateway Control Function Code Division Multiple Access European Telecommunications Standards Institute GSM / Edge Radio Access Network General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile communication IP Multimedia System Interrogating Call Session Control Function Media Resource Function Media Gateway Control Function Proxy Call Session Control Function Push to talk Over Cellular Packet Switched Streaming Service Quality of Service Serving Call Session Control Function Wireless LAN
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. INTRODUCTION IMS "Phase 2" Push to talk over Cellular Wireless LAN/UMTS Inter-working Packet switched streaming services End-to-end bit rate adaptation Quality metrics Reliable streaming Digital Rights Management New codecs Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) Broadcast mode 5 6 8 9 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12
12.1. Multicast mode 12.2. Network sharing 12.3. Presence
12 13 14
modems in private homes), technology-specific error
Success in 3G will be about speed: speed of
recovery mechanisms and set of standardized media codecs used to create wireless specific content. It will be about control of services and content residing in our own hands. Because quality of service and response time are critical components in how users experience media, operators are expected to be well positioned to offer multimedia services. The 3GPP Release 6 is aimed at providing a comprehensive set of multimedia services. This paper gives an overview of certain salient features which are planned in Release 6.
application and terminal development for refined consumer segments, speed of new service creation, and speed of cost-optimized network development and roll-out. Success in 3G is also about high and flexible bandwidth. The content provider or cellular operator seeking wireless content optimization will have to deal with a growing bandwidth gap compared to fixed IP access evolution (aggressive spreading of ADSL, cable
Fig1: R6 Architecture
multimedia sessions. It relies on a managed GPRS
IMS "Phase 2"
3GPP Release 6 takes a radical approach to the
and core IP network that is enabled to provide the quality of service needed for voice and multimedia services. The main reasons for the introduction of the IMS CN are to enable new real time interactive services, to provide flexibility to the user and to reduce cost. Examples of the services that will be supported by the IMS CN are: voice telephony (VoIP); real time interactive games; multimedia conferencing; video telephony. The following section describes the main entities of the IMS architecture.
introduction of conversational and real time interactive multimedia services over an end to end IP transport provided by an enhanced general packet radio service in the packet switched domain. It specifies a voice and multimedia services network called the Internet protocol Multimedia Subsystem Core Network (IMS CN). The IMS CN comprises all the CN elements for provision of IP multimedia applications over IP
IP Multimedia Networks PSTN
Mb Mb PSTN
Legacy mobile signalling Networks
PSTN Mk Mk
C, D, Gc, Gr
Mn Mg Mr
Mp Mb Mb Mb
Fig2: IMS Network Overview
The entity within the IMS CN that is responsible The Proxy Call Server Control Function (P-CSCF) is the first contact point within the IMS CN. Its address is discovered by User Equipments (UEs) following Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context activation. The Serving Call Server Control Function (S-CSCF) performs the session control services for the UE. It maintains a session state as needed by the network operator for support of the services. The Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) selects the IMS CN in which the PSTN breakout is to occur. If the BGCF selects that the breakout is to occur in the same IMS CN, then the BGCF shall select a Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF), which will be responsible for the Interworking with the PSTN. If the breakout is in another network, the BGCF will forward this session signaling to a BGCF or an MGCF depending on configuration in the other network. The MGCF shall provide the protocol mapping functionality within the IMS CN and the CS Networks whilst the Media Gateway (MGW) shall provide the bearer channel mapping. A Media Gateway Control protocol (H.248) is used to handle the signaling and session management needed between the MGCF and MGW. The H.248 standard defines a means of communication between a MGW, which converts data from the format required for a circuit switched network to that required for a packet switched network and the MGCF (Gateway Control functions protocol, such H.248). as The Media call Resource media ! Function (MRF) can be used to provide IM specific multiparty and conferencing function, including relations with the bearer and service validation. ! ! For the ability to support the delivery of the basic voice calls between the IMS CN and CS networks, basic protocol mapping between the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, signaling for the 3GPP Release 6) and the ISDN User Part (ISUP, signalling for the CS networks) has to occur at a control plane level, in order that call set up, maintenance and call release procedures shall be supported. ! ! There have been many enhancements in the IMS architecture for 3GPP Release 6. The salient IMS Phase 2 (3GPP Release 6) are as follows. ! ! ! ! ! ! IMS Group Management IMS Conferencing IMS Messaging IMS Local services Inter-working between IMS and IP networks Mm interface (CSCF to external IP multimedia network) Inter-working between IMS and CS networks Mn interface (IM-MGW to MGCF) enhancements Mp (MRFC - MRFP) interface protocol definitions Lawful Interception IMS Subscription and access scenarios for this protocol mapping is the MGCF. In addition to the Interworking requirements across the control plane, user plane interworking between IP and CS network shall be supported. External legacy CS networks use circuit switched bearer channels (i.e. 64 Kbits PCM) to carry encoded voice frames to and from the IMS CN. The IMS CN however, uses VoIP technique to carry the voice frames. The MGW is responsible for providing the data frame interworking.
This 3GPP Release-6 also aims at enabling the establishment of an emergency session via the packet-switched domain. The emergency sessions will be routed to an emergency centre in accordance with national regulations. Due to the variability of emergency numbers in different networks, which is particularly problematical when roaming, the PS emergency session will be
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established without the need to dial a dedicated number: for example, selection of emergency session from the menu, linkage to a vehicle air-bag trigger, etc. The feature addresses the normal case where the mobile equipment contains a valid USIM, and also the case where no USIM is fitted. The main focus is on SIP emergency sessions and related packet bearers.
The call connection is almost instantaneous and the receiver doesn't have to answer the call. Push-totalk is what it sounds like: instead of dialing a number to start a conversation with a friend, users just select someone from their buddy list, push a button on the handset, speak, and their voice is instantly heard by the recipient. Like a walkie-talkie, push-to-talk is unidirectional, so callers can't talk over each other and must wait their turn to speak (Half Duplex).
Push to talk over Cellular
Push to talk over Cellular (PoC) introduces a new
real-time direct one-to-one and one-to-many voice communication service in the cellular network. It lets
SG SN S IP R e g is t r a r S IP P ro x y
G G SN
IM S C o r e (C S C F /H S S )
P re s e n c e S e rv e r
PoC S e rv e r G LM S
In te r n e t
PoC W eb C lie n t
C u rre n t S c o p e
Fig3: PoC Network Context
The main elements of PoC solution are ! PoC enabled terminals (PoC Client with SIP and RTP implementation on handset) ! Core UMTS network including IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) ! PoC Suit consisting of PoC Application Server, GLMS (Group and List Management Server) ! Presence Server: This is not a mandatory part of PoC network, but kept for future enhancements. The presence server is explained in XXX (Need add cross reference later) ! PoC enabled Clients (Will run on users PC and connect to PoC & Presence server over the Internet)
billion by 2008. Push to talk cellular subscribers expected to be 2.3 million in 2003 are expected to reach 340 million by 2008.
Wireless LAN/UMTS Interworking
Third generation mobile wireless systems offer
significantly higher data rates than do the 2nd generation of mobile systems. 3G systems can offer near ubiquitous coverage with high mobility. The cost of spectrum and the system configuration to offer ubiquitous coverage results in high costs for deploying 3G networks. Wireless LANs (WLANs), on the other hand, offer significantly high data rates and operate in free unlicensed spectrum.
Low cost and convenience drive push to talk market growth. Push to talk cellular revenue expected to be $84 million in 2003 is expected to reach $10.1
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WLAN provides a higher bandwidth (11 Mbps) at a much cheaper cost. With data rates between 11-54 Mbit/s, a wireless LAN can replace wired LAN networks; most major notebook vendors are embedding wireless LAN functionality in their laptops. In addition to notebooks and traditional PDAs, several vendors have announced mobile phones supporting both wireless LAN and cellular access. Data security is based on 802.1x EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) as well as TKIP (Temporary Key Integrity Protocol) and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) for encryption at the air interface. The flip side of WLAN is that the range of coverage provided is just 100 meters. WLAN/UMTS interworking solution aims to merge the best of WLAN and UMTS in the consumer interest, by providing higher data rate through WLAN and large coverage area through UMTS. Target users shall have dual-mode devices. The basic concept of WLAN-UMTS interworking is to authenticate, account and bill users while enabling them to roam freely across WLANs and cellular networks. This is achieved by reusing the same billing, authentication and roaming mechanisms that are available in cellular networks. Such solutions can also be interworked with packet data based
S treaming Client
networks such as GPRS and WCDMA in order to provide seamless handover, e.g. a user’s device will continue to work without loosing data while moving between a 3G network and a WLAN network. Thus users can get high Internet access rates from a WLAN wherever available, while retaining connectivity (albeit at a slower rate) as they move to a GRPS or WCDMA network.
Packet switched streaming services
Streaming is a method of transferring data with
real-time characteristics so that the recipient can start viewing the presentation before the entire contents have been received. Transparent end-to-end packet switched streaming service (PSS) is a specification that defines a framework for an interoperable streaming service in 3GPP mobile networks. The framework reuses work done by organizations like IETF, W3C, ISO and ITU. Some notable new features are as follows:
Content Cache GERAN
SGSN GG SN UMTS Cor e Network
S treaming Client
User and terminal profiles
Fig4: PSS Architecture
5.3. Reliable streaming 5.1. End-to-end bit rate adaptation
End to End bit-rate adaptation enables the streaming session to adapt to varying network conditions. This is important as PSS could be potentially used in networks with very difference capabilities (WCDMA, EDGE, GPRS, QOS with ! ! Delivers all the media without losses (download) Client can start viewing the presentation before the entire contents have been transmitted (streaming) guaranteed bit-rate or best effort). In addition, the smooth operation of intra and especially inter-system handovers can potentially benefit from bit-rate adaptation. In the current suggested mechanism, the streaming server is mainly responsible for adapting the sampling (stream bit-rate) and transmission rate. The client is responsible for providing the necessary feedback to the server. The goal is to keep the client pre-decoder buffer sufficiently full so that no gaps occur in the audio or video playback. Ideally, bit-rate adaptation can ensure smooth and uninterrupted stream reception in most network conditions. However, it also means that the audio and/or video quality of the stream can change during reception. It also requires that the same content is available at several bit-rates, or that the server is able to “thin” the stream (for example, by only transmitting the key frames). The suggested implementation also makes the streaming server more complex. Currently, such techniques are implemented in fixed line Internet. Services and capabilities specified by 3GPP allow “content” (data, text, audio, video, etc.) to be Several mechanisms for live streams have been proposed: Progressive download (over HTTP), RTSP tunneling (RTP interleaved with RTSP over TCP) and resend mechanism. Currently, the relatively simple progressive download has been selected. However, this is achieved by compromising realtime, uninterrupted playback and favoring lossless reception even if it causes more interruptions. Therefore, reliable streaming is not particularly suitable for live streams. Reliable streaming means the streaming with reliable transport so that all the media is delivered to the receiver. It can be seen as an intermediate form between streaming and download:
5.4. Digital Rights Management
5.2. Quality metrics
Quality metrics serve to enable the PSS servers to receive client generated quality metrics, which could be used to determine the quality of the client experience and monitor the service for improvements. The proposed metrics include information such as the number of corruptions, lost packets, gaps in the reception etc. Quality metrics are not intended to be used for billing purposes.
delivered by streaming or downloading, and played or stored for future use on the mobile. Delivery methods may include forwarding onward from the device. It is essential to create a solution that will respect the intellectual property rights of the content owners. The objective is to specify a framework that will support an interoperable, uniform, high-volume market for the distribution of protected content. Expression and enforcement of rights and rules digital rights management - is an essential component of this distribution capability. In order for protected distribution of content to be acceptable to consumers,
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it must be transparent and non-intrusive, however security of downloadable and or streaming content must be preserved, i.e. it must not be possible to “play” unauthorized copies.
users attached to the network may wish to receive these messages then the user shall be able to enable/disable the reception of these broadcast service on his UE. The broadcast mode differs from the multicast mode in that there is no specific requirement to activate or subscribe to the MBMS in broadcast mode. It is expected that charging data for the end user will not be generated for this mode. The reception of the traffic in the broadcast mode is not guaranteed. The receiver may be able to recognize data loss.
5.5. New codecs
The H.263 (MPEG-4 AVC) video codec is being considered for PSS Rel-6. Lately, Microsoft also proposed the Windows Media 9 video codec for this purpose. A madatory audio codec is also being considered. The current audio codec contenders in the lower bit-rate (12-32 kbps) range are aacPlus (MPEG4 HE-AAC) and extended AMR-WB. The current audio codec contenders in the higher bit-rate range (> 32kbps) range are aacplus and MPEG-4 AAC.
6.2. Multicast mode
In the multicast mode there is the possibility for the network to selectively transmit to cells within the multicast service area which contain members of a multicast group. Unlike the broadcast mode, the multicast mode generally requires a subscription to the multicast subscription group and then the user joining the
Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS)
MBMS provides an unidirectional point to
corresponding multicast group. The subscription and group joining may be made by the PLMN operator, the user or a third party on their behalf (e.g. company). Unlike the broadcast mode, it is expected that charging data for the end user will be generated for this mode. The BM-SC is an MBMS data source. MBMS data may be scheduled in the BM-SC, e.g. for transmission to the user every hour. It offers interfaces over that content provider can request data delivery to users.
multipoint bearer service in which data is transmitted from a single source entity to multiple recipients. It is anticipated that other services will use these bearer capabilities. There are two modes of operation: The multicast/broadcast mode allows the of
multimedia data (e.g. text, audio, picture, video) from a single source point to a multicast group in a multicast/broadcast service area. The multicast/broadcast mode is intended to efficiently use radio/network resources e.g. data is transmitted over a common radio channel. Data is transmitted in the multicast/broadcast service area as defined by the network
6.1. Broadcast mode
The broadcast mode should not be confused with the existing Cell Broadcast service (CBS) which is currently used for low bit rate services (messaging) whilst the broadcast mode enables the broadcast of multimedia services (Audio, Video etc). As not all
Gi Gn/Gp Gi
Mutlicast / Broadcast Source
Fig5: MBMS Interfaces
cost. 3G operators can share networks at various 3GPP has not standardized specific end user services using MBMS. Some of the typical end user applications using MBBS include reliable text distribution for local news, text and text with low quality video for local area information, video and audio distribution in a local area, stereo audio distribution and software download for UE software upgrade.
At the most basic level, 3G operators can share antenna sites. Such a sharing would typically involve the sharing of antenna space, equipment housing, and power supply equipment, and could include the sharing of the site premises equipment, including antenna, transmission and transmission management resources. In this basic arrangement, cost savings are realized in construction, annual rents, site acquisition, operational costs, transmission and transmission management and radio network planning.
This feature is ideally meant for 3G operators
who are having a difficult time upholding his network due to High cost of spectrum High cost of Network equipment (Node B, RNC, etc.) Pressure for early operating profit generation Model for revenue generation through data Under such situation, by sharing networks, 3G operators can reduce time to market and deployment
At the next level, 3G operators can share radio access network (RAN), while maintaining separate core networks. Each operator maintains its individual cells with separate frequency and a separate mobile network code (MNC). Operators share the base transceiver station (BTS) and radio network controller (RNC), while maintaining separate home location registers (HLRs), mobile switching centres (MSCs), and other parts of the core network.
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In another arrangement, 3G operators share the core network, while maintaining separate radio access networks.
allows operators, who don’t have the license, to provide 3G services.
Core N/W Operator A + B
"Presence" is the concept whereby users make
themselves "visible" or "invisible" to other parties of their choice, allowing services to be offered. It is envisioned that some of the advanced multimedia service will use the presence service. The presence service allows users to subscribe to
RAN Operator A
RAN Operator B
each other and be notified of changes in state. The subscriber provides PRESENCE INFORMATION to be stored and distributed. Other subscribers can receive PRESENCE INFORMATION from the service. The presence service is particularly useful for subscribers who wish to remain in touch at all times and are using an increasing range of device and networks. In essence, the presence service, provides access to an individual subscribers network-wide mobility independent of the network and terminal device through which the user is connected, in order to enable seamless delivery of services in a manner that
At the next level, 3G operators can divide the geographic areas of a country and build compatible networks in their respective territories. Each operator has his own WCDMA network, but allows the others' customers to roam into his networks.
Core N/W Operator A + B
Core N/W Operator A + B
is appropriate and customized to the subscriber.
HSS became the first protocol stack vendor to 3GPP for thus Release 2.5G giving 5 and the compliant 3G software This networks.
RAN Operator A
RAN Operator B
reaffirmed our commitment to comply with evolving Original Equipment Manufacturers Each 3G operator should visualize his needs (short term and long term) before choosing an infrastructure sharing solution. Site sharing & Geographical split can be viewed as long term solutions while UTRAN sharing or CN sharing are short-term solutions. Network sharing also (OEMs) significant 'time-to-market'
advantage while allowing them to focus on their core competency. HSS has been keeping up with the fast emerging changes and up-gradations in the 3GPP specifications with respect to Release 6. HSS has carried out study in the field of MBMS. We published a paper on UTRAN Architecture for Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS). This
paper describes the key requirements and overall working of a MBMS service. It also lists possible UTRAN architectures at various interfaces for this service. HSS has initiated the development of a W-GSN. This solution lets cellular operators build a complete WLAN network with roaming capabilities amongst sites and with its own / other cellular networks. The network built can either cooperate or compete with local cellular networks based on commercial considerations. Each WLAN site would have one WGSN controlling multiple access points. The number of subscribers registered at any one time in each site will not exceed a few thousand. This makes it possible to reuse HSS’ GSN-Lite (a Linux PC based combined SGSN and GGSN) as a W-GSN node. This solution uses standard cellular authentication. 4. 3. 2.
switched streaming service 3GPP TS 26.233 V5.0.0 Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Network architecture 3GPP TS 23.002 “Interface UMTS Release 6 and Circuit Switched (CS) Networks” Artemios Andreou, Nigel Linge & Nigel Holland “Packet Switched Streaming Service White Paper” TeliaSonera Finland MediaLab.
In view of the explosive growth of wireless communication over recent decades and the lead-time required for the introduction of new technologies, the time has come to develop a clear perspective of wireless services and systems. The new vision should exploit two complementary approaches: one based on evolution through a “network-centric view” and the other based on the recently introduced “user-centric view”. The “person to person” communication needs to be enhanced to include “person to machine” and “machine to machine” networking for ubiquitous connectivity to Internet and Multimedia Services.
1. Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Transparent End-to-End packet
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