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Downlink Shared Channel in W-CDMA – a solution for bursty Packet Data Traffic
© Copyright Hughes Software Systems, 2004 All information included in this document is under a license agreement. This publication and its contents are proprietary to Hughes Software Systems. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of Hughes Software Systems Plot 31, Electronic City, Sector 18, Gurgaon 122 015, INDIA Tel: +91-124-2346666, 2455555 Fax: +91-124-2455100, 2455101 Website: www.hssworld.com E-mail: email@example.com
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1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Challenges in downlink packet data with bursts DSCH as a solution Realization of DSCH
4.1. TFCI, CTFC and PDSCH Code Mapping
6 6 6 6
5. HSS Offering 6. Summary
Figure 1 Data Transfer on DSCH (on RNC) ................................... 7 Figure 2 Timing relation between DPCH frame and associated PDSCH frame ................................................................................. 7 Figure 3 OSVF channelisation code tree ...................................... 8
Table 1 Mapping of TFCI, CTFC and PDSCH Code ........................... 9 Table 2 TFCI Range Method ....................................................... 9 Table 3 PDSCH code mapping using TFCI Range Method ................ 9 Table 4 Associated TFCI (field 2) and PDSCH code for the first PDSCH TFCI group .............................................................. 10 Table 5 Associated TFCI (field 2) and PDSCH code for the second PDSCH TFCI group .............................................................. 10
WCDMA is a 3G standard, aiming at providing
session results in wasteful utilization of the resource degrades system performance and increases blocking. For the bursty traffic, where the inactivity periods are long, it is not optimal to keep the downlink code reserved for the longer periods of time.
high speed wireless data services with different quality of service (QoS) guarantees. The standard defines a variety of transport channels to fulfil varying requirements of delay and data rate. For example, the common transport channels like FACH/RACH are used for access and low data rate. The dedicated transport channel like DCH are used for applications which have stringent delay and guarantied data rate (high or low) requirements. Another type of transport channel, which is the topic of discussion of this white paper, is Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH). DSCH is well suited for applications, which generate bursty data like web browsing, e-mail, video, etc in the downlink transfer. In the subsequent sections, it is analyzed why the dedicated transport channel like DCH is not suitable for bursty data traffic. How usage of DSCH can help to efficiently use the scare radio resources in the UTRAN. Finally, DSCH feature implementation in the HSS RNC Uu Interface Products is detailed.
DSCH as a solution
The DSCH is defined to support flexible
multiplexing of bursty data traffic. The allocation of DSCH is possible only in CELL_DCH state. The DSCH transport channel is shared by a group of UE(s) on 10ms WCDMA frame basis. The channelisation codes used for the DSCH are signaled to group of UE(s) through RRC messages. The RNC is responsible for indicating the exact time of arrival of data on the DSCH through dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH). In the case of DCH, TFCI informs the UE of the instantaneous transport format parameters (i.e. number of transport blocks and size of each transport block size). But in the case of DSCH, there is a need to identify the channelisation code also, with the TFCI. For this purpose, the TFCI is divided in TFCI 1 and TFCI 2 field. Since several UE(s) shares DSCH, the
Challenges in downlink packet data with bursts
In UMTS WCDMA downlink, base stations have Proper
identification of the data on the DSCH is performed by the MAC layer. For this purpose, each UE in the group of UE(s) using a particular DSCH is allocated a unique identifier called the DSCH-RNTI.
the limited transmission power and limited number of orthogonal channelisation code available. management of the two resources is extremely important. Typically, the user data is transmitted on the allocated dedicated channels (DCHs) with a specific rate. Each DCH has its own specific Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) code corresponding to an appropriate spreading factor (SF) normally assigned for the whole duration of the connection. The lower spreading factor means high data rates. However, if the number of users requiring DCHs becomes large, particularly at low spreading factors, the code shortage results in blocking some of the users. For packet data users with bursty traffic, the assignment of a DCH for the whole duration of the
Realization of DSCH
RRC Layer is responsible for configuring DSCH at
the MAC Layer. Following RRC procedures are used to configuration/reconfiguration/deletion of DSCH to a UE. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Radio Bearer Setup Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Radio Bearer Release Transport Channel Reconfiguration
Physical Channel Reconfiguration Cell Update Confirm Radio Bearers can be mapped on DSCH transport
transferred on dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH) of the associated DPCH for the UE. The TFCI informs the UE of the instantaneous transport format parameters related to the PDSCH as well as the channelisation code of the PDSCH. MAC-d gets the data from the RLC and sends it to the MAC-c/sh. MAC-c/sh sends the data transferred on the DSCH to the CCH FP. CCH FP passes this data to the Node-B. Node-B sends the DSCH data on the PDSCH. Using different TFCI's, MAC-c/sh provides the different data rates for the UE(s). This is further explained in section 4.1. A Timing relation is maintained between the DPCH and PDSCH to inform the UE apriori about data on PDSCH. The associated PDSCH frame starts between three slots after the end of the DPCH frame and 18 slots after the end of the DPCH frame as shown in Figure 2.
channel with the following multiplexing options. UL 1. 2. DCH DCH DL DSCH DCH + DSCH
In the first case, uplink DTCH is mapped on DCH and downlink DTCH is mapped on DSCH for a UE whereas in second case downlink DTCH is mapped both on DCH as well as DSCH. The DCH in this case is typically a low data rate DCH, to reduce the data buffering at UTRAN.
Associated PDSCH T DPCH T PDSCH
Figure 1 Data Transfer on DSCH (on RNC)
MAC-c/sh is responsible for handling related to DSCH transport channel. When the data is given to the RLC, RLC buffers the data. On every TTI boundary CCH FP asks for the data from the MAC-c/sh. MAC-d sends a query to RLC whether there is some data is present for transfer. In response of this query RLC sends the buffer occupancy to MAC. According to the buffer occupancy, MAC-c/sh does the TFCI selection for the DSCH transport channel. If data is to be transferred for a particular UE from the group of UE(s) using DSCH, MAC-c/sh sends the signaling to DCH FP through MAC-d. This signaling information is
Figure 2 Timing relation between DPCH frame and associated PDSCH frame
UE receives the data on the PDSCH channel and pass it to the UE side MAC-c/sh. MAC-c/sh validates the DSCH-RNTI field in the MAC header. MAC-c/sh decodes the logical channel using TCTF field in the MAC header. The TCTF field indicates the common logical channel type, or if a dedicated logical channel is used. Depending upon the logical channel, MAC-/sh sends this data to respective RLC entity.
4.1. TFCI, CTFC and PDSCH Code Mapping
The channelisation codes of UMTS are based on the OVSF technique, to distinguish various physical channels. An OVSF code allows the spreading factor to be varied among different spreading codes with different coding lengths. Figure 3 presents an OVSF code tree. In the code tree each code is represented as C
codes, MAC-c/sh selects appropriate code depending on the data rate requirement. In DCH, channelisation code is allocated one time and it remains the same until it is re-configured by RRC through Physical Channel Reconfiguration / Transport Channel Reconfiguration procedures. But for the DSCH channel, MAC-c/sh dynamically allocates the channelisation code for the UE. Now, how does UE able to know about the allocated channelisation code? The answer to this question is "PDSCH code mapping". During the configuration of DSCH, RRC associates the TFCI and PDSCH code mapping using "PDSCH code mapping" IE. For DSCH transport channel, TFCI is
where SF is the spreading factor
and the code_number is ranging from 0 to SF-1. A code with the relatively smaller SF provides the relatively higher data rate. The W-CDMA standard defines a 7-layer OVSF code tree. The spreading factors from layers 1 to 7 are 256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, and 4, respectively. The corresponding data rates are R, 2R, 4R, 8R, 16R, 32R and 64R, where R is the basic data rate.
associated with PDSCH code and CTFC value. Whenever the UE decodes TFCI value on DPCCH, it is able to know about the transport block size, number of transport blocks and the channelisation code.
SF = 32
Cch, 64, 0
Cch, 128, 0 Cch, 128, 1 Cch, 128, 2 Cch, 128, 3 Cch, 128, 4 Cch, 128, 5 Cch, 128, 6 Cch, 128, 7 Cch, 128, 8 Cch, 128, 9 Cch, 128, 10 Cch, 128, 11 Cch, 128, 12 Cch, 128, 13 Cch, 128, 14 Cch, 128, 15
Cch, 256, 0
The mapping between the TFCI, CTFC and PDSCH code is configured by the RRC for the DSCH transport channel. Suppose the DSCH transport channel has been configured with the information as given in Table 1
Cch, 32, 0
SF = 16
Cch, 64, 1 Cch, 64, 2 Cch, 32, 1
Cch, 16, 0
SF = 8
Cch, 64, 3 Cch, 64, 4 Cch, 32, 2 Cch, 16, 1 Cch, 32, 3 Cch, 64, 5 Cch, 64, 6
Cch, 8, 0
TFCI (field 2) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
CTFC A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B
PDSCH channelisation code C ch, 128, 0 C ch, 128, 1 C ch, 128, 2 C ch, 128, 3 C ch, 128, 4 C ch, 128, 5 C ch, 128, 6 C ch, 128, 7 C ch, 128, 8 C ch, 128, 9 C ch, 128, 10 C ch, 128, 11 C ch, 128, 12 C ch, 128, 13 C ch, 128, 14 C ch, 128, 15 C ch, 64, 0 C ch, 64, 1 C ch, 64, 2
SF = 4
Cch, 64, 7 Cch, 8, 1
Cch, 4, 0
Figure 3 OSVF channelisation code tree
Suppose the set of channelisation codes shown in Figure 3 has been configured for a particular DSCH at MAC-c/sh. From these configured channelisation
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
B B B B B C C C C D
C ch, 64, 3 C ch, 64, 4 C ch, 64, 5 C ch, 64, 6 C ch, 64, 7 C ch, 32, 0 C ch, 32, 1 C ch, 32, 2 C ch, 32, 3 C ch, 16, 0
PDSCH TFCI group 1 2 3 4 5
MAX TFCI Field 2 value 15 23 27 29 30
A B C D E
Table 1 Mapping of TFCI, CTFC and PDSCH Code
As seen from Table 1, MAC-c/sh can change the data rate and channelisation code by selecting different TFCI's. RRC provides information presented in table 1 to the UE(s) in two IE(s) viz. TFCI Field2 information and PDSCH Code mapping. The "TFCI Field2 information" IE provides the mapping between the TFCI and CTFC value to the UE. The " PDSCH Code mapping " IE provides the mapping between the PDSCH Code and TFCI to the UE. In "TFCI Field2 information" IE, there are two ways to provide the association between TFCI and CTFC to the UE. ¨ ¨ TFCI Range Method Explicit Method TFCI Range method can be used for complete configuration whereas explicit method can also be used for removing and replacing the CTFC value in addition with complete configuration. In TFCI Range method, the range of the TFCI is specified for the corresponding CTFC value. For example, for TFCI range from 0 to 15, "A" is the CTFC value. For configuration present in Table 1, the "TFCI Field 2 information" IE is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 TFCI Range Method
For the first PDSCH TFCI group, TFCI range from 0 to 15 has been associated with the "A" CTFC value. For the second PDSCH TFCI group, TFCI range from 16 to 23 has been associated with the "B" CTFC value and so on. "PDSCH Code Mapping" IE provide four way to provide the association between the TFCI and PDSCH code. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Code Mapping TFCI range Explicit Replace
Suppose, the TFCI range method is used to describe the configuration in Table 1. The "PDSCH Code mapping" IE for the TFCI Range method is shown in Table 3 PDSCH TFCI group 1 2 3 4 5 MAX TFCI FILED 2 15 23 27 29 30 128 64 32 16 8 0 0 0 0 0 S.F. CODE NUMBER MULTI CODE INFO 0 0 0 0 0
Table 3 PDSCH code mapping using TFCI Range Method
For the first PDSCH TFCI group, PDSCH code mapping is shown in the Table 4
¡ HSS RRC Functionality:
Supports Release 4 and Release 99 Establishes, reconfigures and releases radio bearers Configures RLC/MAC entities Performs the mobility functions of the RRC connection Performs paging and notification Supports UE measurement reporting and reporting control Controls ciphering configuration of RLC/MAC Performs integrity protection and integrity check of RRC messages Supports parallel execution of multiple transactions between UTRAN and UE Support for DSCH transport channel ASN.1 Encoding/Decoding of the RRC messages
TFCI (field 2) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PDSCH channelisation code C ch, 128, 0 C ch, 128, 1 C ch, 128, 2 C ch, 128, 3 C ch, 128, 4 C ch, 128, 5 C ch, 128, 6 C ch, 128, 7 C ch, 128, 8 C ch, 128, 9 C ch, 128, 10 C ch, 128, 11 C ch, 128, 12 C ch, 128, 13 C ch, 128, 14 C ch, 128, 15
Table 4 Associated TFCI (field 2) and PDSCH code for the first PDSCH TFCI group
Similarly, for the second PDSCH TFCI group, PDSCH code mapping is shown in Table 5.
¡ HSS RLC Functionality:
Supports Release 5, Release 4 and Release 99 Segmentation and Re-assembly Concatenation and Padding Transfer of User Data in AM/UM/TM mode Error Correction and In-Sequence Delivery Flow Control Ciphering Support for AM/UM Mode RBs
TFCI (Field 2) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PDSCH Channelisation code C ch, 64, 0 C ch, 64, 1 C ch, 64, 2 C ch, 64, 3 C ch, 64, 4 C ch, 64, 5 C ch, 64, 6 C ch, 64, 7
w w w w w w
Table 5 Associated TFCI (field 2) and PDSCH code for the second PDSCH TFCI group
¡ HSS MAC Functionality:
Supports Release 5, Release 4 and Release 99 Mapping logical to transport channels Selection of appropriate Transport Format for each Transport Channel (TFCI Selection) Identification of UEs on common transport channels Multiplexing / De-multiplexing of higher layer PDUs into / from transport block sets
HSS offers individual RNC protocol stacks on Uu
interface. These interface stacks are also available in an integrated form as Uu Interface Product.
w w w w
Traffic volume monitoring Dynamic transport channel type switching Ciphering Support for TM Mode RBs Support for DSCH transport channel
¡ HSS Iub FP Functionality:
Supports Release 5, Release 4 and Release 99 Node Synchronization Transport Channel Synchronization Error Detection (CRC Calculation) Transport of UL and DL DCH Data Supports set of Coordinated DCHs on the same Transport Bearer. Support for DSCH transport bearer
w w w w w
This white paper focuses on the need and the concept of the DSCH transport channel. It also shows how the DSCH feature allows the operators to efficiently use the radio resources for the applications that require bursty downlink traffic without affecting the signaling load in the UTRAN. HSS has developed the source code based on 3GPP specifications for the Uu interface at RNC. This implementation includes the DSCH feature at Uu interface.
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