WHEN I HEARD THE LEARNED ASTRONOMER

WALT WHITMAN

American poet, journalist and essayist, best known for LEAVES OF GRASS (1855), which was occasionally banned, and the poems 'I Sing the Body Electric' and 'Song of Myself.' Whitman incorporated natural speech rhythms into poetry. He disregarded metre, but the overall effect has a melodic character. Harold Bloom has stated in The Western Canon (1994) that "no Western poet, in the past century and half, not even Browning, or Leopardi or Baudelaire, overshadows Walt Whitman or Emily Dickinson."
"Swiftly arose and spread around me the peace and joy and ----knowledge that pass all the art and argument of the earth; And I know that the hand of God is the elderhand of my own, And I know that the spirit of God is the eldest brother of my own, And that all men ever born are also my brothers... and the ----women my sisters and lovers." (from 'Song of Myself')

Walt Whitman was born in Long Island, New York, the son of a Quaker carpenter. Whitman's mother was descended from Dutch farmers. In Whitman's childhood there were slaves employed on the farm. Whitman was early on filled with a love of nature. He read classics i n his youth and was inspired by writers such as Goethe, Hegel, Carlyle and Emerson. He left school early to become a printer's apprentice. He also in 1835 worked as a teacher and journeyman printer. After that he held a great variety of jobs while writing and editing for several periodicals, The Brooklyn Eagle from 1846 to 1848 and The Brooklyn Times from 1857 to 1858. In between he spent three months on a New Orleans paper, working for his father, and earning his living from undistinguished hack-work. In New York Whitman witnessed the rapid growth of the city and wanted to write a new kind of poetry in tune with mankind's new faith, hopeful expectations and energy of his days. Another theme in 'Song of Myself' is suffering and death – he identified with Jesus and his fate: "In vain were nails driven through my hands. / I remember my crucifixion and bloody coronation / I remember the mockers and the buffeting insults / The sepulchre and the white linen have yielded me up / I am alive in New York and San Francisco, / Again I tread the streets after two thouand years." (from an early draft) The first edition of Leaves of Grass appeared in July 1855 at Whitman's own

"Exult O shores." he wrote. According to some sources. quite romantic. were collected in MEMORANDA DURING THE WAR (1875) and SPECIMEN DAYS AND COLLECT (1882). but later critics have recognized Indian ideas expressed in the poems – words from the Sanskrit are used correctly in some of the poems written after 1858. and ring O bells! But I with mournful tread. he knew little or nothing about Indian philosophy. and once remarked on seeing Whitman on the streets: "Well. although according to Whitman they celebrated the 'beautiful and sane affection of man for man'. My Captain') . the New York Times and other New York papers.expense – he also personally had set the type for it – and the poem was about the writer himself. written for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 'When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd'. in 1865. which is shown in the poems published under the title of DRUM-TAPS (1865). "Our affection is quite an affair. as great power makes us happy. The war had its effect on the writer." (from 'O Captain. Whitman's unpublished prose pieces and war journalism. who invited him to their home. where his close friends included William Douglas O'Connor. presumably homosexual. Fallen cold and dead. and his wife Ellen. In the same year there also appearedLongfellow's The Song of Hiawatha. he looks like a man. Whitman had only one abortive attempt at a sexual relationship. Ralph Waldo Emerson was among his early admirers and wrote in 1855: "I am very happy in reading it. In its companion volume. who became his closest companion in Washington. "I love the president personally. which has been taken as reflection of the poet's homosexuality. that Lincoln was familiar with Leaves of Grass. Whitman met a streetcar conductor named Peter Doyle. although at first his work was not hugely popular. a writer and daguerrotypist. Whitman's letters to Doyle were published in 1897 under the title CALAMUS by his first biographer. It is possible. Walk the deck my Captain lies. whose leg was amputated. It was greeted with warm appreciation. Toward the end of war. During the Civil War Whitman worked as a clerk in Washington. Leaves of Grass also includes a group of poems entitled 'Calamus'. When his brother was wounded at Fredericksburg. the Canadian progressive psychiatrist and mystic Richard Maurice Bucke. Another famous poem about the death of Lincoln is 'O Captain! My Captain!'. SEQUEL (1865-66). in the winter of 1859-60 with a young Confederate soldier." Whitman wrote in his diary. appeared the great elegy on President Abraham Lincoln. Whitman went there to care for him and also for other Union and Confederate soldiers. another great American epic." When Whitman wrote the first edition. The third edition of Leaves was published during Whitman's wandering years in 1860.

Do I contradict myself? Very well then I contradict myself. He transferred then to the attorney general's office. you will be helping immortality to stumble on. A paralytic attack in 1873 destroyed Whitman's health and he was forced to give up his work. 1999) In 1881 there appeared a newly augmented edition of Leaves of Grass. who said that "there is no one in this wide great world of America whom I love and honor so much". Whitman had entered with his ruffled beard and sombrero the lobby of the Hotel Albert in New York and every man in it raised his newspaper to hide his face from Whitman. 1892. NOVEMBER BOUGHS. His reputation.On the basis of his services Whitman was given a clerkship in the Department of the Interior. and Edward Carpenter. where he spent almost the rest of his life. It concludes with the prose piece 'A Backward Glance O'er Travel'd Roads'. During his recuperation Whitman was nursed by Doyle and Ellen O'Connor. New Jersey. a character he yearned to be: "Thus. The publisher. which was shadowed by his outspokenness on sexual matters. I suffered. followed him and asked who he was. Visitors from abroad also included in 1882 the Irish playwright Oscar Wilde. Whitman settled in a little house on Mickle Street in Camden. Pioneers! o Pioneers!" In England Whitman's work was better received – among his admirers were Alfred Tennyson and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. in which he attempts to explain his life and work. in Camden. was published. When I give I give myself. "I wear my hat as I please indoors or out. I was there. The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose. on one page of the work. His final volume was the 'Deathbed' edition of Leaves of Grass. and in 1888 a collection of his newspaper pieces. If you'll lend me a dollar."(from The March of Literature by Ford Madox Ford. The neverending audacity of elected persons. The man said: "I am Walt Whitman. I find no sweeter fat than sticks to my own bones. a place he never went." he relates a heroic episode of the Mexican War and says he heard the story told in Texas. Passage to India. in the South. on others. The following year Whitman published SPECIMEN DAYS AND COLLECT. Anne Gilchrist. I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world. He was taken care of by a widow he had befriended. began to rise after recognition in England by Algerton Charles Swinburne. . for some reason. Whitman died on March 26. when his chief labelled Leaves of Grass an indecent book. A woman waits for me. In 1871 Whitman politely declined Gilchrist's offer of marriage. in one of the mostly authentic sections of "Song of Myself. Thus. which he prepared in 1891-92. reveals that the author never lost his self-esteem during his last years. 1938) Jorge Luis Borges has seen Whitman as the hero of his epic." (from The Total Library. He turned and went out. I am the man. At the age of sixty-four. A story of Whitman's later years. told by a publisher. Whitman is born on Long Island.

ed. Walt Whitman: A Gay Life by Gary Schmidgall (1997). Walt Whitman by James E. Eitner (1981).Whitman's wavelike verse and his fresh use of language helped to liberate American poetry. by Gay Wilson Allen. Allen (1970).). Viljo Laitinen. Reynolds (1999). by David S. by Jim Perlman (1999). M. From Noon to Starry Night: A Life of Walt Whitman by Philip Callow (1992). his prophetic note echoed.R.. The poems were written to be spoken.. 3rd ed. To carry on the heave of impulse and pierce intellectual depths and give all subjects their articulations are powers neither common nor very uncommon. ed. Aspiz (1980).Ruohonlehtiä (suom. he knew what the matter of Troy was. Jimmie Killingsworth (1993). 246 Old Whitman Road. The Cambridge Companion to Walt Whitman. Suffolk -Note: Edgar Lee Masters. 1965) .W. Helen Regenstein (1990). ed. Woodress (1983). He also boasted that he was 'non-literary and non-decorous' – which perhaps was not really true. by Ed Folsom (1994). Critical Essays on Walt Whitman.C. Thomas (1987) . Language and Style by C. Kerouac etc. When he urged the Muse to forget the matter of Troy and develop new themes. published a biography of Walt Whitmanin in 1937. H. W. Lemaster. Donald D. Leaves of Grass was first presented as a group of 12 poems. etc. D. and followed by five revised and three reissued editions during the author's lifetime. Huntington Station.H. Walt Whitman by Jerome Loving (1999) . Cavitch (1985). 1855 (first edition. 1954) / Ruohoa: runoja (suom. The Centennial Essays. Whitman maintained that a poet's style should be simple and natural. who wrote Spoon River Anthology. ed. Zweig (1984). but they have great variety in rhythm and tonal volume. the glory of expression and the sunshine of the light of letters is simplicity. Selected works:   FRANKLIN EVANS. Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia. ed.. ed. He was a great inspiring example for the beat-generation (Ginsberg. He wanted to be a national bard. Masculine Landscapes by Byrne R.. Walt Whitman: A Comprehensive Research and Study Guide. Whitman's use of free verse has influenced generations of poets. Walt Whitman & the World. Kummings (1998). nothing can make up for excess or for the lack of definiteness. P. Nothing is better than simplicity. The central theme arises from Whitman's pantheistic view of life. but his erotic candor separated him from conventionally romantic poets.S. ed. Kaplan (1980). Walt Whitman. 1860. Ed Folsom (1995). 1842 LEAVES OF GRASS. by J.W. The Growth of Leaves of Grass by M. the 'deathbed' edition 1891-92) . among other books." For further reading: Reader's Guide by G. the Bible. 1856. In the introduction of the work Whitman wrote: "The art of art. Walt Whitman. Walt Whitman by Catherine Reef (1995). 2nd ed. by J.other studies among others by J. A Historical Guide to Walt Whitman. Miller Jr. from symbolic identification of regeneration in nature. But to speak in literature with the perfect rectitude and insouciance of the movements of animals and the unimpeachableness of the sentiment of trees in the woods and grass by the roadside is the flawless triumph of art. Arvo Turtiainen. ed. without orthodox meter or rhyme. by Ezra Greenspan (1995).Museums: Walt Whitman's birthplace.Hollis (1983). by Harold Bloom (1999). Fone (1992).

1902 CORRESPONDENCE. something that often occurs in Whitman's poetry and gives extra weight to the first phrase.. 1982 (ed.              SEQUEL. 1897 (ed. ed. or rhyme within the same line. since it is difficult to pronounce and uses the same long vowel sound twice in a row. The slant rhyme even gives the first line an impression of awkwardness. style of expression from the learned scientist. ed. 1978 WALT WHITMAN: POETRY AND PROSE. Stoval) DAYBOOKS AND NOTEBOOKS. In this context. 1888 CALAMUS: A SERIES OF LETTERS WRITTEN DURING THE YEARS 1868-1880. 1989 THE JOURNALISM: 1834-1846. or an inexact rhyme. which would always be spelled out today.H. partly in an attempt to capture the way people actually spoke. by F. The other element of the first line to notice is use of the contracted version of "learned. 10 vol. perhaps a more common or lower class. the contraction places some distance between the speaker of the poem. 1963-64 (2 vols. to set up the idea that the speaker is listening to an educated scientist." This is also a slant rhyme. 1871 MEMORANDA DURING THE WAR. of "heard" with "learn'd. by Justin Kaplan) CORRESPONDENCE 1886-1889. 1961-69 (4 vols. by E. instead of a high prose style. The poet may be suggesting here that the speaker uses a different... 1998 LINE 1 "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer" begins by repeating the title. 1865 DEMOCRATIC VISTAS. Miller) PROSE WORKS. or the voice of the narrator." but it nevertheless emphasizes a sense of repetition. This phrase also stands out because of its internal rhyme." Whitman frequently contracts words such as this. since "learn'd" has an "n" sound unlike "heard. and the educated astronomer to whom he is listening. 1882-83 NOVEMBER BOUGHS. 1989 CORRESPONDENCE 1890-1892. 1875 SPECIMEN DAYS & COLLECT. Richard Maurice Bucke) COMPLETE WRITINGS. .

through the fourth line. such as "charts." as opposed to standing or actively engaging with the subject. And." away from nature. and stresses again that the lecture is occurring in the "lecture-room. That the speaker is asked to "add. unlike these columns. the reader is caught up by the internal repetition of "lectured" and "lectureroom. after an indentation." "divide. Thus Whitman is likely to be contrasting the visual poetic expansion in the lines with the columned mathematical expansion of the astronomer's proofs. This technique serves to contain the line inside its own words and achieve the stuffy lecture-room atmosphere that Whitman seems intent upon conveying. and measure" the "charts and diagrams" also emphasizes the negative side of the process. If a poetic line stretches beyond the margin. the standard method of printing that line is to continue it below. The applause that the lecturer is receiving therefore does little to make the lecture seem compelling or interesting. If a poetic line is continued in this way. The fourth line also emphasizes that the speaker is "sitting." Notice that the poem's first four lines become increasingly longer. LINES 5-6 . divide. which presumably go straight up and down within the same horizontal space." and "measure." "add. therefore. or word choice. as though the lecture has nothing to do with the sky but merely manipulates its own figures. is full of mathematical diction." "diagrams." These words make up almost the entire line.LINE 2 Line 2 of the poem then presents the interesting image of "proofs" and "figures" of mathematical equations "ranged." as is the case in the internal rhyme of line 1. the poem has said nothing about astronomy. once again. in "columns." or arranged. as they will increasingly overwhelm the speaker. This is reinforced by the fact that. it does not change the fact that the line should be considered to extend further and further to the right. and they are likely to overwhelm the reader. LINES 3-4 The third line. in which the speaker is shown materials related to astronomy and asked to manipulate mathematical equations.

the speaker has emerged outside into the "moist night-air. It is partly understandable from the description of the lecture why the speaker feels this way. or unit of four lines. The seventh line again uses the technique of internal repetition with "time to time. but the deeper reason is contained in the word "unaccountable. The second important aspect of this line is the fact that the speaker "wander'd" out of the lecture room." and the key word in the description of the night sky is "mystical. from ancient pagan worship to romantic individualism. The speaker then wanders off by himself in line 6. the speaker will be interpreting the stars on his own terms. LINES 7-8 In line 7. as a creative individual." which also contains the poem's first active verb." but this idiom. By looking up every so often. is mainly a method of reinforcing the speaker's more relaxed and unstructured process of observation." because this suggests that. whenever he desires. "rising and gliding. and this line is therefore the turning point in the poem. it is important that the speaker leaves the lecture "by myself. ." or difficult to determine.Line 5." This word could suggest a variety of spiritual ideas. with the literal meaning. and it establishes a radically different atmosphere from that of the lecture room. including the fact that the first two descriptive verbs. why the speaker became tired and sick." make it seem as though the speaker is flying out into the sky and directly interacting with space. There are a number of key elements to notice here. or metaphorical and representative. that the speaker has become tired and sick because he is an "unaccountable" person. this word primarily means that it is "unaccountable. shifts in style from the first quatrain. the speaker is approaching nature very differently from the scientific regularity of observation and analysis. meaning. But there is a strong secondary meaning of the word of great importance to the main themes of the poem. which is that the speaker walks outdoors. or phrase from common speech. In fact. the speaker will be approaching the phenomenon of astronomy alone. or someone who is impossible to explain or define. Finally. namely. This is an important poetic technique that combines the figurative. everything that has come previously in the poem sets up and modifies the statement "I became tired and sick. which comes at the halfway point in the poem. Like an artist." Slightly confusing at first because it seems out of place in the sentence. this is the first hint that perhaps the speaker is somewhat aimless or unstructured in comparison with the exactness of the learned astronomer. leaving the lecture room. but it is very distinct from anything scientific. unlike the group effort of scientific analysis.

in the very last word of the poem. "Look'd. Here." line 7 contains the first actual image of the sky itself. But even here the speaker has not quite reached the astronomical phenomena themselves. the speaker finally sees the vision of the "stars. and does not do so until he looks up "in perfect silence" in line 8." like "wander'd" in line 6 and "learn'd" in line 1. only after the speaker has reached "perfect silence" and just before the words and descriptions of the poem end altogether. to emphasize his common touch." . again using a contracted "ed" verb. in referring to the "mystical moist night-air.It is also important to recognize that.

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