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Project Report On

Networking and NMS(Network Management Protocol) In Sai Infosystem (India) Ltd.

Submitted by: Adit Pareek Er no:A20405108008 B.Tech (E&C), IV Semester

Under the Guidance of


Mr. Tejas Shah
L3 Engineer, NOC, S.I.S. (India) Ltd.

Amity School of Engineering

AMITY UNIVERSITY RAJASTHAN

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Tejas Shah (L3 Engineer, NOC- S.I.S. (India) Ltd.) and Ashutosh Tripathi (Professor, Amity Jaipur) under whose guidance I was able to work, gain knowledge and understand Networking Systems and its implementation. I also want to thank entire N.O.C team of Sai Infosystems India Ltd. who all acted as a sounding board all the time. Adit Pareek

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

4
2. INTRODUCTION 3. WHAT
TO

ORGANIZATION . 5

IS NETWORK?.......................................................13

4. TYPES OF

NETWORK.14
5. BASIC NETWORK

TOPOLOGIES...15
6. O.S.I.

MODEL.20
7. HOW COMMUNICATION
OCCURS

O.S.I VIEW..

.40
8.
THE TCP/IP MODEL

..44

9. NMS..46 10. REFERENCES..58


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1. INTRODUCTION
THE PROJECT GIVES A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK AND THE OSI LAYER IT ALSO EXPLAINS THE SNMP(SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL ) IT S APPLICATION , NEED & UTILITY . . ,

MODEL IN BRIEF

THE PROJECT ALSO GIVES AN INTRODUCTION TO NOC(NETWORK OPERATIONS CENTER ).THE PRACTICAL WORKING OF A NMS OPMANAGER IS ALSO BEEN EXPLAINED . THE
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR PROJECT WORK IS KNOWLEDGE BY EXPERIENCING

LEARNING AND DISCUSSING .

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INTRODUCTION

TO

ORGANIZATION

SAI INFOSYTEM (INDIA) LTD., IS A LARGEST INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) COMPANY OF GUJARAT HAVING A NATIONWIDE PRESENCE. POPULARLY KNOWN AS A SIS, IS AN ISO 9001,ISO 14001 AND ISO 27001 CERTIFIED COMPANY HAVING A GROUP TURNOVER OF AROUND R S. 416 CRORES. SIS HAS PAN INDIA PRESENCE WITH 10 BRANCH OFFICES AND OVER 90 SUPPORT SERVICE CENTERS , ONE MANUFACTURING UNIT AND HAVING ON BOARD OVER 600+ IT PROFESSIONALS . SIS IS MOVING GLOBAL STARTING O VERSEAS OPERATIONS IN MIDDLE EAST. SIS OFFERS TOTAL IT SOLUTION TO VARIOUS GOVERNMENT AGENCIES , DEPARTMENT , PSUS, STATE GOVERNMENTS AND CORPORATE AS WELL AS SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS HAVING MORE THAN 600+ PROFESSIONALS ACROSS THE I NDIA TO ENSURE RELIABLE , EFFICIENT AND TIMELY SERVICES TO ITS CUSTOMERS . PROMOTED VIJAY MANDORA, TECHNOLOGY , SIS SHRI SUNIL KAKKAD AND SHRI WHO ARE WELL EXPERIENCED IN THE FIELD OF I NFORMATION WAS ORIGINALLY SET - UP IN 1992 AS A PROPRIETARY CONCERN AND SUBSEQUENTLY IT WAS INCORPORATED AS A PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY ON J ANUARY 1, 2003 AND LATER ON CONVERTED INTO A PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY IN JANUARY 2008. SIS
BASED IS IN THE BUSINESS OF ASSEMBLING AND TRADING OF CENTRE . COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE , PROVIDING SYSTEM GAMING STATIONS AND CALL BY TECHNOCRAT - ENTREPRENEURS ,

INTEGRATION SOLUTIONS AND RUNNING OF

PC-

IT

ALSO

PROVIDES

AMC (ANNUAL

MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS ) SERVICES FOR ITS CLIENTS . HOWEVER, THE BASIC THRUST OF SIS IT TO PROVIDE TOTAL IT SOLUTION RATHER THAN SUPPLY HARDWARE PRODUCTS. SIS HAS ITS ASSEMBLING UNIT LOCATED AT PARWANOO IN HIMACHAL PRADESH WHICH ENJOYS FISCAL BENEFITS ( TAX EXEMPTIONS ) WHICH ENABLES THE COMPANY TO ENHANCE THE COST COMPETITIVENESS OF ITS PRODUCTS . SIS PLANS TO ENTER THE FIELD OF TELECOM THROUGH THE LAUNCH OF VIDEO TELEPHONY SERVICE (VVOBB) ACROSS THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF I NDIA UNDER FRANCHISEE AGREEMENT WITH

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BSNL. IT ALSO HAS PLANS TO PROVIDE DATA CENTRE SERVICES UNDER TIE-UP WITH ITI LTD. IT ALSO HAS A 100% SUBSIDIARY COMPANY, E-MALL INFOTECH PVT. LTD. (EMALL), WHICH IS RUNNING A CHAIN OF RETAIL ELECTRONIC STORES WITH OPERATIONS MAINLY FOCUSED IN GUJARAT . SIS
WAS RANKED WITH IS RANKED

PROVIDING COMPLETE

15TH DGS & D SIS

INDIA UNDER IT COMPANY SOLUTION CATEGORY FOR YEAR 2006-07 BY D ATA Q UEST AND IN YEAR 2005-06. R ECENTLY SIS DESKTOPS GET REGISTERED
LARGEST COMPANY OF

7TH

ALSO AND HAVE MANY INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND AS WELL AS

ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER OUR BELT .

ESAA (ENABLED SERVER ACCELERATION ALLIANCE) PARTNERS OF I NTEL IN I NDIA , ONE OF THE 20 S TAR P ARTNERS OF M ICROSOFT , LARGEST CALL CENTER SOLUTION PROVIDER TO BSNL AS WELL AS LARGEST DOT SOFT IMPLEMENTER FOR BSNL IN INDIA.SIS HAS ALSO BAGGED THE SINGLE LARGEST ORDER FOR X EON B ASED S ERVERS IN A SIA P ACIFIC FOR I NTEL .
IS ONE OF THE FOUR

SIS IS FOCUSED ON PROVIDING TOTAL SOLUTIONS TO FOUR BUSINESS VERTICALS NAMELY T ELECOM , POWER, D EFENSE AND E -GOVERNANCE FOR STATE GOVERNMENTS AND PSUS. DURING SIS'S JOURNEY OF GROWTH IT HAD DEVELOPED MANY CUSTOMIZED SOLUTIONS SUITABLE TO EACH OF THESE VERTICALS LIKE S YSTEM I NTEGRATION , CALL CENTER SOLUTIONS, WAN, THIN CLIENT AND E-PROCUREMENT SOLUTIONS. TOTAL IT SOLUTIONS , TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION , MANUFACTURING VARIOUS HARDWARE PRODUCTS LIKE SERVERS , DESKTOPS , LAPTOPS , NETWORKING PRODUCTS AND MARKETING THEM UNDER BRAND SIS, RETAILING OF IT PRODUCTS WITH CHAIN OF FOCUSED IT MALLS E - MALL , PROVIDING WORLD CLASS CALL CENTRE SOLUTIONS WITH EBRAIN , AND G AMING THRILLS WITH H IGH END TECHNOLOGY BASED WORKSTATIONS FROM E- FUN .
BUSINESS INCLUDES

SIS

SIS GROUP
STATION

IT NEEDS , FROM LARGE IT PROJECTS TO GAMMING KIDS, FROM HARDWARE TO SOFTWARE , FROM GOVERNMENT TO INDIDIVIDUAL . O RGANISATION OF SIS G ROUP:
IS SERVING ENTIRE FOR

SIS

IS THE FASTEST GROWING TOTAL

GUJARAT, PROUD TO BE SOLUTIONS , CRM & E -PROCUREMENT ACROSS INDIA .


COMPANY OF

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION PROVIDING SYSTEM INTEGRATION, CALL CENTER IMPLEMENTATION AND ERP DEVELOPMENT PRESENT
LEADING IN

ACROSS INDIA, SIS HAVE DIRECT OPERATIONS IN 17 STATES AND EMPLOY MORE THAN 600 ASSOCIATES . I N ADDITION , SIS REACHES CUSTOMERS WITH OWN IT PRODUCTS RANGING FROM P ERSONAL COMPUTERS, LAPTOPS , S ERVERS , P OWER PRODUCTS , NETWORKING EQUIPMENTS ETC .

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TO MEET THE DEMAND FOR THE PRODUCTS , SIS OPERATE STATE - OF - THE - ART
MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES IN

PRADESH), GOA

AND

PARWANOO (HIMACHAL JAIPUR.

ACROSS INDIA, SIS IS COMMITTED TO ASSISTS ITS CUSTOMERS WITH A NNUAL M AINTENANCE CONTRACT OF THE S OFTWARE AND H ARDWARE SUPPORTED ROUND THE CLOCK BY PROMISING RESIDENCE E NGINEERS . I T IS
THEIR DEDICATION AND PASSION OF PROTECTING BRAND THAT HAS MADE

SIS

THE COMPANY THAT IT IS TODAY .

SIS IS A KNOWN NAME IN INDIA FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES AND SOLUTIONS COMPANY
India. We deliver the precision thinking and relentless execution that drives our clients' business transformation.
HAVING PRESENCE ACROSS

* SIS Announces First Video Phone

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2.1

PRODUCTS

SIS OFFERS A WIDE RANGE OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN THE AREA OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. THEIR PRODUCTS CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES.

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2.2

SERVICES
SIS
OFFERING COMPLETE RANGE OF

IT

AND

COMMUNICATION SERVICES

ADDRESSES THE NEEDS OF BOTH TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS TO HELP ORGANIZATIONS LEVERAGE LEADING - EDGE TECHNOLOGIES FOR BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT .

SIS
SERVICES

HELP ORGANISATIONS IN THEIR FROM SIMPLE OFFICE

IT

NEEDS OF THE ENTIRE ENTERPRISE . TO

EXTENDS LIKE

AUTOMATION

SERVICES PRIVATE

CRM,

E -PROCUREMENT ,ERP, AND

CALL

THE ENTERPRISE APPLICATION CENTER SOLUTIONS. SISS GOVERNMENT, PSUS


AND

ENTERPRISE SOLUTIONS HAVE SERVED AND CONTINUE TO SERVE CLIENTS FROM A RANGE OF INDUSTRIES INCLUDING SECTOR .

TELECOM , ENERGY

UTILITIES

IN

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2.3

ASSOCIATES
OF

APC - FOR ENTIRE RANGE

UPS

CANON - ENTIRE RANGE

OF

PRINERS

AND

SCANNERS

HP - FOR INTEL BASED AND RISC BASED HIGH END SERVERS , DESKTOPS AND LAPTOPS, PERIPHERALS AND STORAGE DEVICES SOLUTIONS.

IBM - FOR INTEL BASED AND RISC SERVERS, DESKTOPS AND LAPTOPS

BASED

HIGH END

INGRAM MICRO - TO SELL SUPPLY AND INSTAALL ENTIRE RANGE OF MICROSOFT , CALDERA , ORACLE, AUTODESK, SYMENTAC , IBM, LENOVEO, HP, ACER, HCL, EPSON, TVSE, SUN ACCROSS THE COUNTRY INTEL - GENUINE INTEL DEALER, SERVERS & DESKTOPS OF SIS PRODUCTS.
TOTAL RANGE OF

INTEX - For Complete Range of Peripherals

LENOVO - FOR LENOVO BUSINESS PARTNER

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MICROSOFT - FOR NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM, DESKTOP OPERATING SYSTEMS, SQL RDBMS AND OTHER DEVELOPMENT TOOLS.

ORACLE - DATABASE SUN - FOR RISC

AND

TOOLS HIGH END SERVER

BASED

MILESTONES

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NETWORK

AND

CONTACT

DETAILS

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3.WHAT
A

IS NETWORK

COMPUTER NETWORK , OFTEN SIMPLY REFERRED TO AS A NETWORK , IS A

COLLECTION OF COMPUTERS AND DEVICES CONNECTED BY COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS THAT FACILITATES COMMUNICATIONS AMONG USERS AND ALLOWS USERS TO SHARE RESOURCES WITH OTHER USERS.

PURPOSE COMPUTER

NETWORKS CAN BE USED FOR SEVERAL PURPOSES : COMMUNICATIONS .

FACILITATING SHARING
PRINTER .

USING

A NETWORK , PEOPLE CAN COMMUNICATE

EFFICIENTLY AND EASILY VIA E- MAIL , INSTANT MESSAGING , CHAT ROOMS , TELEPHONE , VIDEO TELEPHONE CALLS , AND VIDEO CONFERENCING . HARDWARE .

IN

A NETWORKED ENVIRONMENT , EACH COMPUTER ON A

NETWORK CAN ACCESS AND USE HARDWARE ON THE NETWORK .

SUPPOSE

SEVERAL

PERSONAL COMPUTERS ON A NETWORK EACH REQUIRE THE USE OF A LASER

IF

THE PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND A LASER PRINTER ARE CONNECTED TO

A NETWORK , EACH USER CAN THEN ACCESS THE LASER PRINTER ON THE NETWORK , AS THEY NEED IT .

SHARING

FILES , DATA , AND INFORMATION .

IN

A NETWORK ENVIRONMENT , ANY

AUTHORIZED USER CAN ACCESS DATA AND INFORMATION STORED ON OTHER COMPUTERS ON THE NETWORK . MANY NETWORKS .

THE

CAPABILITY OF PROVIDING ACCESS TO DATA

AND INFORMATION ON SHARED STORAGE DEVICES IS AN IMPORTANT FEATURE OF

SHARING

SOFTWARE .

USERS

CONNECTED TO A NETWORK CAN ACCESS APPLICATION

PROGRAMS ON THE NETWORK

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4.

TYPES OF NETWORK

LAN LOCAL AREA NETWORK IS A SMALL GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS OUR SCHOOL BOARD.

MAN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK IS A NETWORK OVER A LARGER GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.

WAN WIDE AREA NETWORK IS A NETWORK USED OVER AN EXTREMELY LARGE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

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5.BASIC NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

BUS NETWORK STAR NETWORK RING NETWORK MESH NETWORK

5.1 BUS TOPOLOGY


A
BUS NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS A NETWORK ARCHITECTURE IN WHICH A SET OF CLIENTS ARE CONNECTED VIA A SHARED COMMUNICATIONS LINE , CALLED A BUS

ADVANTAGES

EASY TO IMPLEMENT AND EXTEND. EASY TO INSTALL. WELL-SUITED FOR TEMPORARY OR SMALL NETWORKS (QUICK SETUP). CHEAPER THAN OTHER TOPOLOGIES . COST EFFECTIVE ; ONLY A SINGLE CABLE IS USED. EASY IDENTIFICATION OF CABLE FAULTS. REDUCED WEIGHT DUE TO FEWER WIRES.

NOT REQUIRING HIGH SPEEDS

DISADVANTAGES

LIMITED CABLE LENGTH AND NUMBER OF STATIONS . IF THERE IS A PROBLEM WITH THE CABLE, THE ENTIRE NETWORK BREAKS DOWN. MAINTENANCE COSTS MAY BE HIGHER IN THE LONG RUN. PERFORMANCE DEGRADES AS ADDITIONAL COMPUTERS ARE ADDED OR ON HEAVY TRAFFIC ( SHARED BANDWIDTH ). PROPER TERMINATION IS REQUIRED (LOOP MUST BE IN CLOSED PATH). SIGNIFICANT CAPACITIVE LOAD (EACH BUS TRANSACTION MUST BE ABLE TO STRETCH TO MOST DISTANT LINK ).
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IT WORKS BEST WITH LIMITED NUMBER OF NODES. SLOWER DATA TRANSFER RATE THAN OTHER TOPOLOGIES. ONLY ONE PACKET CAN REMAIN ON THE BUS DURING ONE

CLOCK PULSE .

FIG: 2.2.1( BUS

TOPOLOGY)

5.2

STAR TOPOLOGY
A STAR NETWORK CONSISTS OF ONE CENTRAL SWITCH , HUB OR COMPUTER , WHICH ACTS AS A CONDUIT TO TRANSMIT MESSAGES .

THUS,

THE HUB AND LEAF NODES,

AND THE TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN THEM , FORM A GRAPH WITH THE TOPOLOGY OF A STAR

ADVANTAGES

BETTER

PERFORMANCE :

THE

STAR TOPOLOGY PREVENTS THE PASSING OF DATA

PACKETS THROUGH AN EXCESSIVE NUMBER OF NODES .

AT

MOST ,

DEVICES AND

2 LINKS ARE INVOLVED IN ANY COMMUNICATION BETWEEN ANY TWO DEVICES. ALTHOUGH THIS TOPOLOGY PLACES A HUGE OVERHEAD ON THE CENTRAL HUB, WITH ADEQUATE CAPACITY , THE HUB CAN HANDLE VERY HIGH UTILIZATION BY ONE DEVICE WITHOUT AFFECTING OTHERS . ISOLATION OF DEVICES: EACH DEVICE IS INHERENTLY ISOLATED BY THE LINK THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE HUB . T HIS MAKES THE ISOLATION OF INDIVIDUAL DEVICES
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STRAIGHTFORWARD AND AMOUNTS TO DISCONNECTING EACH DEVICE FROM THE OTHERS .

THIS

ISOLATION ALSO PREVENTS ANY NON - CENTRALIZED FAILURE FROM

AFFECTING THE NETWORK .

BENEFITS

FROM CENTRALIZATION :

AS

THE CENTRAL HUB IS THE BOTTLENECK ,

INCREASING ITS CAPACITY , OR CONNECTING ADDITIONAL DEVICES TO IT , INCREASES THE SIZE OF THE NETWORK VERY EASILY .

CENTRALIZATION ALSO ALLOWS THE INSPECTION OF TRAFFIC THROUGH THE NETWORK . T HIS FACILITATES ANALYSIS OF THE TRAFFIC AND DETECTION OF SUSPICIOUS BEHAVIOR . SIMPLICITY : THIS TOPOLOGY IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND, ESTABLISH , AND NAVIGATE. ITS SIMPLICITY OBVIATES THE NEED FOR COMPLEX ROUTING OR MESSAGE PASSING PROTOCOLS . A LSO , AS NOTED EARLIER, THE ISOLATION AND CENTRALIZATION IT ALLOWS SIMPLIFY FAULT DETECTION , AS EACH LINK OR DEVICE CAN BE PROBED INDIVIDUALLY . EASY TO INSTALL AND WIRE. EASY TO DETECT FAULTS AND TO REMOVE PARTS. NO DISRUPTIONS TO THE NETWORK WHEN CONNECTING OR REMOVING DEVICES.

DISADVANTAGES
THE THE
PRIMARY DISADVANTAGE OF A STAR TOPOLOGY IS THE HIGH DEPENDENCE OF FAILURE OF THE CENTRAL HUB RENDERS THE NETWORK INOPERABLE , SIZE IS LIMITED BY THE NUMBER OF CONNECTIONS THAT CAN BE MADE THE SYSTEM ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE CENTRAL HUB . IMMEDIATELY ISOLATING ALL NODES.

NETWORK

TO THE HUB , AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE ENTIRE NETWORK IS CAPPED BY ITS THROUGHPUT .

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5.3

RING TOPOLOGY

RING NETWORK IS A NETWORK TOPOLOGY IN WHICH EACH NODE CONNECTS TO

EXACTLY TWO OTHER NODES, FORMING A SINGLE CONTINUOUS PATHWAY FOR SIGNALS THROUGH EACH NODE

A RING .

DATA

TRAVELS FROM NODE TO NODE ,

WITH EACH NODE ALONG THE WAY HANDLING EVERY PACKET

ADVANTAGES

VERY

ORDERLY NETWORK WHERE EVERY DEVICE HAS ACCESS TO THE TOKEN AND

THE OPPORTUNITY TO TRANSMIT

PERFORMS BETTER THAN A STAR TOPOLOGY UNDER HEAVY NETWORK LOAD CAN CREATE MUCH LARGER NETWORK USING TOKEN RING DOES NOT REQUIRE NETWORK SERVER TO MANAGE THE CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN
THE COMPUTERS

DISADVANTAGES

ONE

MALFUNCTIONING WORKSTATION OR BAD PORT IN THE

MAU

CAN CREATE

PROBLEMS FOR THE ENTIRE NETWORK

MOVES, ADDS AND CHANGES OF DEVICES CAN AFFECT THE NETWORK NETWORK ADAPTER CARDS AND MAU'S ARE MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE ETHERNET CARDS AND HUBS MUCH SLOWER THAN AN ETHERNET NETWORK UNDER NORMAL LOAD

THAN

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5.4

MESH TOPOLOGY
MESH
NETWORKING IS A TYPE OF NETWORKING WHEREIN EACH NODE IN NETWORK MAY ACT AS AN INDEPENDENT ROUTER, REGARDLESS OF

THE

WHETHER IT IS CONNECTED TO ANOTHER NETWORK OR NOT.

IT

ALLOWS FOR CONTINUOUS CONNECTIONS AND RECONFIGURATION AROUND

BROKEN OR BLOCKED PATHS BY DESTINATION IS REACHED .

HOPPING

FROM NODE TO NODE UNTIL THE

MESH NETWORK WHOSE NODES ARE ALL CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER IS A

FULLY CONNECTED NETWORK .

FULLY CONNECTED MESH

mesh

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OSI MODEL (O.S.I. - OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION)


THE O.S.I. MODEL (O.S.I. - OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION ) WAY OF SUB - DIVIDING A S YSTEM INTO SMALLER PARTS ( CALLED LAYERS ) FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF COMMUNICATIONS . A N OSI LAYER IS A
IS A

COLLECTION OF CONCEPTUALLY SIMILAR FUNCTIONS THAT PROVIDE SERVICES TO THE LAYER ABOVE IT AND RECEIVES SERVICES FROM THE LAYER BELOW IT . AND ITS USE IS TO PROVIDE A COMMON PLATFORM FOR COMMUNICATION SO THAT DIFFERENT DEVICES BY

MANUFACTURERS CAN SELVES.


DIFFERENT

COMMUNICATE AMONG THEM

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6.1 APPLICATION LAYER

APPLICATION

PROTOCOLS ARE DEFINED AT THIS LAYER , WHICH IMPLEMENT SPECIFIC

USER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER HIGH - LEVEL FUNCTIONS .

SINCE

THEY ARE AT THE

TOP OF THE STACK , APPLICATION PROTOCOLS ARE THE ONLY ONES THAT DO NOT PROVIDE SERVICES TO A HIGHER LAYER; THEY MAKE USE OF SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE LAYERS BELOW . ONE OF THE

APPLICATION

LAYER FUNCTION IS FILE TRANSFER

THE APPLICATION LAYER IS THE ONE THAT IS USED BY NETWORK APPLICATIONS .

THESE

PROGRAMS ARE WHAT ACTUALLY IMPLEMENT THE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY

USERS TO ACCOMPLISH VARIOUS TASKS OVER THE NETWORK ARE WHAT ACTUALLY IMPLEMENT THE FUNCTIONS

.THESE

PROGRAMS

IT'S IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT WHAT THE OSI MODEL CALLS AN APPLICATION IS NOT EXACTLY THE SAME AS WHAT WE NORMALLY THINK OF AS AN APPLICATION . I N THE OSI MODEL, THE APPLICATION LAYER PROVIDES SERVICES FOR USER APPLICATIONS TO EMPLOY. FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU USE YOUR W EB BROWSER , THAT ACTUAL SOFTWARE IS AN APPLICATION RUNNING ON YOUR PC. I T DOESN 'T REALLY RESIDE AT THE APPLICATION LAYER . R ATHER , IT
MAKES USE OF THE SERVICES OFFERED BY A PROTOCOL THAT OPERATES AT THE APPLICATION LAYER, WHICH IS CALLED THE

HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL

(HTTP).
SOME OF THE MOST POPULAR APPLICATION LAYER PROTOCOLS ARE:

HTTP: HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL HTTP PROTOCOL STANDARD FOR CLIENT - SERVER COMPUTING FTP:
FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL

IS A REQUEST- RESPONSE

IS A STANDARD NETWORK PROTOCOL USED TO COPY

A FILE FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER OVER A

TCP/IP- BASED

NETWORK , SUCH AS THE

INTERNET. SMTP: SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL IS AN INTERNET STANDARD FOR ELECTRONIC MAIL ( E- MAIL ) TRANSMISSION ACROSS I NTERNET P ROTOCOL (IP) NETWORKS . SNMP: SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL IS A UDP- BASED NETWORK PROTOCOL . I T IS USED MOSTLY IN NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO MONITOR NETWORK - ATTACHED DEVICES FOR CONDITIONS THAT WARRANT ADMINISTRATIVE ATTENTION . DHCP: DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL (DHCP) IS A COMPUTER NETWORKING PROTOCOL USED BY HOSTS (DHCP CLIENTS ) TO RETRIEVE IP ADDRESS ASSIGNMENTS AND OTHER CONFIGURATION INFORMATION .

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NFS: NETWORK FILE SYSTEMALLOWING

A USER ON A CLIENT COMPUTER TO ACCESS

FILES OVER A NETWORK IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO HOW LOCAL STORAGE IS ACCESSED

TELNET: TELNET (TELE-NETWORK) IS A NETWORK PROTOCOL USED ON THE INTERNET OR LOCAL AREA NETWORKS TO PROVIDE A BIDIRECTIONAL INTERACTIVE TEXTORIENTED COMMUNICATIONS FACILITY VIA A VIRTUAL TERMINAL CONNECTION

APPLICATION PROTOCOL USED FOR TRANSPORTING APPLICATIONS

NNTP : NETWORK NEWS TRANSFER PROTOCOL (NNTP) IS AN INTERNET USENET NEWS ARTICLES (NETNEWS)

BETWEEN NEWS SERVERS AND FOR READING AND POSTING ARTICLES BY END USER CLIENT

6.2 PRESENTATION LAYER


IT DEALS WITH THE PRESENTATION OF DATA .

MORE

SPECIFICALLY , THE PRESENTATION

LAYER IS CHARGED WITH TAKING CARE OF ANY ISSUES THAT MIGHT ARISE WHERE DATA SENT FROM ONE SYSTEM NEEDS TO BE VIEWED IN A DIFFERENT WAY BY THE OTHER SYSTEM .

IT

ALSO TAKES CARE OF ANY SPECIAL PROCESSING THAT MUST BE DONE TO DATA

FROM THE TIME AN APPLICATION TRIES TO SEND IT UNTIL THE TIME IT IS SENT OVER THE NETWORK

PRESENTATION LAYER FUNCTIONS HERE

ARE SOME OF THE SPECIFIC TYPES OF DATA HANDLING ISSUES THAT THE

PRESENTATION LAYER HANDLES :

TRANSLATION : NETWORKS CAN CONNECT TOGETHER : PCS , M ACINTOSHES , UNIX

VERY DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTERS SYSTEMS ,

MAINFRAMES CAN ALL EXIST ON THE SAME NETWORK . DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS AND REPRESENT DATA USE DIFFERENT CHARACTER SETS FOR EXAMPLE .

AS/400 SERVERS AND THESE SYSTEMS HAVE MANY IN DIFFERENT WAYS ; THEY MAY
PRESENTATION LAYER

THE

HANDLES THE JOB OF HIDING THESE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MACHINES .

COMPRESSION: COMPRESSION (AND


LAYER.)

DECOMPRESSION ) MAY BE DONE AT THE

PRESENTATION LAYER TO IMPROVE THE THROUGHPUT OF DATA .

(THERE

ARE SOME

WHO BELIEVE THIS IS NOT , STRICTLY SPEAKING , A FUNCTION OF THE PRESENTATION

ENCRYPTION : SOME

TYPES OF ENCRYPTION

(AND

DECRYPTION ) ARE PERFORMED AT

THE PRESENTATION LAYER.

THIS

ENSURES THE SECURITY OF THE DATA AS IT

TRAVELS DOWN THE PROTOCOL STACK . LAYER IS THE

FOR

EXAMPLE, ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR

ENCRYPTION SCHEMES THAT IS USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENTATION

SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) PROTOCOL . NOT ALL ENCRYPTION IS DONE AT LAYER 6, HOWEVER ; SOME ENCRYPTION IS OFTEN DONE AT LOWER LAYERS IN THE PROTOCOL STACK , IN TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS IPS EC .
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PROTOCOLS

MIME = MULTIPURPOSE INTERNET MAIL EXTENSIONS XDR = TLS= SSL=


EXTERNAL DATA REPRESENTATION

TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY SECURE SOCKET LAYER

6.3 SESSION LAYER


THE
PRIMARY JOB OF SESSION LAYER PROTOCOLS IS TO PROVIDE THE MEANS NECESSARY TO SET UP , MANAGE , AND END SESSIONS .

SESSION

LAYER TECHNOLOGIES ARE OFTEN

IMPLEMENTED AS SETS OF SOFTWARE TOOLS CALLED APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACES

(APIS),

WHICH PROVIDE A CONSISTENT SET OF SERVICES THAT ALLOW PROGRAMMERS TO

DEVELOP NETWORKING APPLICATIONS WITHOUT NEEDING TO WORRY ABOUT LOWER - LEVEL DETAILS OF TRANSPORT , ADDRESSING AND DELIVERY . PROTOCOLS :

NAMED PIPES NETBIOS SAP= SESSION

ANNOUNCEMENT PROTOCOL

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6.4 TRANSPORT LAYER


THE TRANSPORT LAYER IS SAID TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR END - TO - END OR HOST - TO - HOST TRANSPORT

ANOTHER
SERVICES .

KEY FUNCTION OF THE TRANSPORT LAYER IS TO PROVIDE CONNECTION SERVICES

FOR THE PROTOCOLS AND APPLICATIONS THAT RUN AT THE LEVELS ABOVE IT .

THESE

CAN

BE CATEGORIZED AS EITHER CONNECTION -ORIENTED SERVICES OR CONNECTIONLESS

THE

TRANSPORT LAYER IS ALSO THE PLACE IN THE LAYER STACK WHERE FUNCTIONS ARE

NORMALLY INCLUDED TO ADD FEATURES TO END - TO - END DATA TRANSPORT

PROCESS-LEVEL ADDRESSING : ADDRESSING AT LAYER TWO DEALS WITH HARDWARE DEVICES ON A LOCAL NETWORK , AND LAYER THREE ADDRESSING IDENTIFIES DEVICES ON A LOGICAL INTERNETWORK . ADDRESSING IS ALSO PERFORMED AT THE TRANSPORT LAYER, WHERE IT IS USED TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SOFTWARE PROGRAMS . THIS IS PART OF WHAT ENABLES MANY DIFFERENT SOFTWARE PROGRAMS TO USE A NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOL SIMULTANEOUSLY , AS MENTIONED ABOVE . T HE BEST EXAMPLE OF TRANSPORT - LAYER PROCESS - LEVEL ADDRESSING IS THE TCP AND UDP PORT MECHANISM USED IN TCP/IP, WHICH ALLOWS APPLICATIONS TO BE INDIVIDUALLY REFERENCED ON ANY TCP/IP DEVICE . MULTIPLEXING
AND

DEMULTIPLEXING: USING

THE ADDRESSES

JUST MENTIONED ,

TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOLS ON A SENDING DEVICE MULTIPLEX THE DATA RECEIVED FROM MANY APPLICATION PROGRAMS FOR TRANSPORT , COMBINING THEM INTO A SINGLE STREAM OF DATA TO BE SENT .

THE

SAME PROTOCOLS RECEIVE

DATA AND THEN DEMULTIPLEX IT FROM THE INCOMING STREAM OF DATAGRAMS , AND DIRECT EACH PACKAGE OF DATA TO THE APPROPRIATE RECIPIENT APPLICATION PROCESSES .

SEGMENTATION , PACKAGING
MACHINE .

AND

REASSEMBLY: THE

TRANSPORT LAYER SEGMENTS

THE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA IT SENDS OVER THE NETWORK INTO SMALLER PIECES ON THE SOURCE MACHINE , AND THEN REASSEMBLE THEM ON THE DESTINATION

THIS

FUNCTION IS SIMILAR CONCEPTUALLY TO THE FRAGMENTATION

FUNCTION OF THE NETWORK LAYER; JUST AS THE NETWORK LAYER FRAGMENTS MESSAGES TO FIT THE LIMITS OF THE DATA LINK LAYER , THE TRANSPORT LAYER SEGMENTS MESSAGES TO SUIT THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE UNDERLYING NETWORK LAYER.

CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT , MANAGEMENT AND TERMINATION : TRANSPORT LAYER CONNECTION - ORIENTED PROTOCOLS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SERIES OF COMMUNICATIONS REQUIRED TO ESTABLISH A CONNECTION , MAINTAIN IT AS DATA SENT OVER IT , AND THEN TERMINATE THE CONNECTION WHEN IT IS NO LONGER REQUIRED .

IS

25 | P a g e

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

AND

RETRANSMISSIONS : AS THIS

MENTIONED ABOVE , THE

TRANSPORT LAYER IS WHERE MANY PROTOCOLS ARE IMPLEMENTED THAT GUARANTEE RELIABLE DELIVERY OF DATA . RETRANSMISSION TIMERS . IS DONE USING A VARIETY OF TECHNIQUES , MOST COMMONLY THE COMBINATION OF ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND

EACH

TIME DATA IS SENT A TIMER IS STARTED ; IF IT IS

RECEIVED , THE RECIPIENT SENDS BACK AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO THE TRANSMITTER TO INDICATE SUCCESSFUL TRANSMISSION .

IF

NO ACKNOWLEDGMENT

COMES BACK BEFORE THE TIMER EXPIRES , THE DATA IS RETRANSMITTED . PROCESS .

OTHER

ALGORITHMS AND TECHNIQUES ARE USUALLY REQUIRED TO SUPPORT THIS BASIC

FLOW CONTROL: TRANSPORT

LAYER PROTOCOLS THAT OFFER RELIABLE DELIVERY

ALSO OFTEN IMPLEMENT FLOW CONTROL FEATURES .

THESE

FEATURES ALLOW ONE

DEVICE IN A COMMUNICATION TO SPECIFY TO ANOTHER THAT IT MUST RECEIVER WITH DATA .

"THROTTLE

BACK " THE RATE AT WHICH IT IS SENDING DATA , TO AVOID BOGGING DOWN THE

THESE

ALLOW MISMATCHES IN SPEED BETWEEN SENDER AND

RECEIVER TO BE DETECTED AND DEALT WITH . THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT PROTOCOLS OF TRANSPORT ARE

: TCP & UDP

TCP (TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL) : TCP (TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL) IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED PROTOCOL ON THE I NTERNET . THE REASON FOR THIS IS BECAUSE TCP OFFERS ERROR CORRECTION . W HEN THE TCP PROTOCOL IS USED THERE IS A " GUARANTEED DELIVERY ." THIS IS DUE LARGELY IN PART TO A METHOD CALLED "FLOW CONTROL ." FLOW CONTROL DETERMINES WHEN DATA NEEDS TO BE RE- SENT , AND STOPS THE FLOW OF DATA UNTIL PREVIOUS PACKETS ARE SUCCESSFULLY TRANSFERRED . T HIS WORKS BECAUSE IF A PACKET OF DATA IS SENT , A COLLISION MAY OCCUR . W HEN THIS HAPPENS , THE CLIENT REREQUESTS THE PACKET FROM THE SERVER UNTIL THE WHOLE PACKET IS COMPLETE AND IS
IDENTICAL TO ITS ORIGINAL .

UDP (USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL )

26 | P a g e

UDP (USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL) IS ANTHER COMMONLY USED PROTOCOL ON THE I NTERNET . HOWEVER, UDP IS NEVER USED TO SEND IMPORTANT DATA SUCH AS WEBPAGES , DATABASE INFORMATION , ETC ; UDP IS COMMONLY USED FOR STREAMING AUDIO AND VIDEO . STREAMING MEDIA SUCH AS W INDOWS M EDIA AUDIO FILES (.WMA) , REAL PLAYER (.RM), AND OTHERS USE UDP BECAUSE IT OFFERS SPEED! THE REASON UDP IS FASTER THAN TCP IS BECAUSE THERE IS NO FORM OF FLOW CONTROL OR ERROR CORRECTION . THE DATA SENT OVER THE I NTERNET IS AFFECTED BY COLLISIONS , AND ERRORS WILL BE PRESENT . R EMEMBER THAT UDP IS ONLY CONCERNED WITH SPEED. THIS IS THE MAIN REASON WHY STREAMING MEDIA IS NOT HIGH QUALITY .

FRAME STRUCTURE

AS

DATA MOVES ALONG A NETWORK , VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES ARE ADDED TO THE

FILE TO CREATE A FRAME .

THE FRAME STRUCTURE OF THESE PACKETS DIFFER

THE

IMAGES BELOW SHOW BOTH THE

TCP

AND

UDP

FRAME STRUCTURES .

TCP FRAME STRUCTURE

27 | P a g e

UDP FRAME STRUCTURE

THE

PAYLOAD FIELD CONTAINS THE ACTUALLY DATA . HAS A MORE COMPLEX FRAME STRUCTURE .

TCP

THIS

IS LARGELY DUE TO THE

FACT THE

TCP

IS A CONNECTION - ORIENTED PROTOCOL .

THE EXTRA BY TCP.

FIELDS ARE NEED TO ENSURE THE

"GUARANTEED

DELIVERY " OFFERED

6.5 NETWORK LAYER


28 | P a g e

THE NETWORK LAYER IS CONCERNED WITH CONTROLLING THE OPERATION OF A ROUTER IS USED TO DETERMINING HOW PACKETS ARE ROUTED FROM SOURCE TO DESTINATION . IF ONE PATH IS BUSY, THEN THE ROUTER WILL SELECT ANOTHER PATH FOR THE PACKETS TO TRAVEL . SO REALLY, THE PACKETS CAN ALL HAVE DIFFERENT PATHS AND FIND THEIR WAY TO THE FINAL DESTINATION .
THE SUBNET .

NETWORK LAYER FUNCTIONS SOME

OF THE SPECIFIC JOBS NORMALLY PERFORMED BY THE NETWORK LAYER INCLUDE :

LOGICAL ADDRESSING : EVERY


ADDRESS .

DEVICE THAT COMMUNICATES OVER A NETWORK HAS

ASSOCIATED WITH IT A LOGICAL ADDRESS , SOMETIMES CALLED A LAYER THREE

INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) IS THE IP ADDRESS. NOTE THAT ADDRESSING IS DONE AT THE DATA LINK LAYER AS WELL , BUT THOSE ADDRESSES REFER TO LOCAL PHYSICAL DEVICES . I N CONTRAST , LOGICAL ADDRESSES ARE
THE NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOL AND EVERY MACHINE HAS AN INDEPENDENT OF PARTICULAR HARDWARE AND MUST BE UNIQUE ACROSS AN ENTIRE INTERNETWORK .

FOR

EXAMPLE, ON THE

INTERNET,

ROUTING : MOVING

DATA ACROSS A SERIES OF INTERCONNECTED NETWORKS IS

PROBABLY THE DEFINING FUNCTION OF THE NETWORK LAYER .

IT

IS THE JOB OF THE

DEVICES AND SOFTWARE ROUTINES THAT FUNCTION AT THE NETWORK LAYER TO HANDLE INCOMING PACKETS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES , DETERMINE THEIR FINAL DESTINATION , AND THEN FIGURE OUT WHERE THEY NEED TO BE SENT TO GET THEM WHERE THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO GO . SHOW HOW IT WORKS BY WAY OF AN

DISCUSS ROUTING IN THE

OSI

MODEL MORE

COMPLETELY IN THIS TOPIC ON THE TOPIC ON INDIRECT DEVICE CONNECTION , AND

OSI

MODEL ANALOGY .

DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION: THE (ALSO

NETWORK LAYER NORMALLY ENCAPSULATES

MESSAGES RECEIVED FROM HIGHER LAYERS BY PLACING THEM INTO DATAGRAMS CALLED PACKETS ) WITH A NETWORK LAYER HEADER. AND

FRAGMENTATION

REASSEMBLY : THE

NETWORK LAYER MUST SEND MESSAGES

DOWN TO THE DATA LINK LAYER FOR TRANSMISSION . TECHNOLOGIES

SOME

DATA LINK LAYER

HAVE LIMITS ON THE LENGTH OF ANY MESSAGE THAT CAN BE SENT .

IF

THE PACKET

THAT THE NETWORK LAYER WANTS TO SEND IS TOO LARGE, THE NETWORK LAYER MUST SPLIT THE PACKET UP , SEND EACH PIECE TO THE DATA LINK LAYER , AND THEN HAVE PIECES REASSEMBLED ONCE THEY ARRIVE AT THE NETWORK LAYER ON THE DESTINATION MACHINE .

GOOD EXAMPLE IS HOW THIS IS DONE BY THE

INTERNET PROTOCOL .

29 | P a g e

ERROR HANDLING

AND

DIAGNOSTICS : SPECIAL

PROTOCOLS ARE USED AT THE

NETWORK LAYER TO ALLOW DEVICES THAT ARE LOGICALLY CONNECTED , OR THAT ARE TRYING TO ROUTE TRAFFIC , TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION ABOUT THE STATUS OF HOSTS ON THE NETWORK OR THE DEVICES THEMSELVES .

THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT PROTOCOLS OF NETWORK LAYER ARE :

I.P

AND

ICPM

6.5.1
ON THE INTERNET

IP
/OR

INTERNET PROTOCOL :

INTERNET PROTOCOL IS ASSOCIATED WITH I . P ADDRESS WHICH IS UNIQUE TO EVERY DEVICE WE CAN SAY IP ADDRESS IS UNIQUE

I .P VERSIONS :

TWO

VERSIONS OF

IP

TECHNOLOGY EXIST TODAY .

ESSENTIALLY

ALL HOME COMPUTER

NETWORKS USE

IP

VERSION

4 (IP V4),

BUT AN INCREASING NUMBER OF EDUCATIONAL

AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS HAVE ADOPTED THE NEXT GENERATION

IP

VERSION

(IPV6). IP V4 ADDRESSING NOTATION AN IPV4


ADDRESS CONSISTS OF FOUR BYTES

(32

BITS ).

THESE

BYTES ARE ALSO KNOWN

AS OCTETS .

FOR

READABILITY PURPOSES , HUMANS TYPICALLY WORK WITH

IP

ADDRESSES IN A

NOTATION CALLED DOTTED DECIMAL . THE FOUR NUMBERS

THIS

NOTATION PLACES PERIODS BETWEEN EACH OF

(OCTETS)

THAT COMPRISE AN

IP

ADDRESS .

FOR

EXAMPLE, AN

IP

ADDRESS THAT COMPUTERS SEE AS

00001010 00000000 00000000 00000001


IS WRITTEN IN DOTTED DECIMAL AS

10.0.0.1 BECAUSE
EACH BYTE CONTAINS

BITS , EACH OCTET IN AN

FROM A MINIMUM OF

TO A MAXIMUM OF

IP 255. THEREFORE,

ADDRESS RANGES IN VALUE THE FULL RANGE OF

IP

30 | P a g e

ADDRESSES IS FROM TOTAL OF

0.0.0.0 4,294,967,296

THROUGH POSSIBLE

255.255.255.255. THAT IP ADDRESES.

REPRESENTS A

IP ADDRESSES CHANGE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH IPV6. IP V6 ADDRESSES ARE 16 BYTES (128 BITS) LONG RATHER THAN FOUR BYTES (32 BITS ). THIS LARGER SIZE MEANS THAT IP V6 SUPPORTS MORE THAN 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
POSSIBLE ADDRESSES ! EXAMPLE:

IN

THE COMING YEARS

E3D7:0000:0000:0000:51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420

PARTS OF AN IP ADDRESS

THE EXAMPLE BELOW 192.168.1.100.

SHOWS THE COMPONENTS OF THE

CLASS B

NETWORK

192.168.1.100 ------- ----| |___ ( HOST | |____ (NETWORK PART) NETWORK PART THIS PART SPECIFIES 192.168. HOST PART THIS IS THE IP

PART )

THE UNIQUE NUMBER ASSIGNED TO YOUR PARTICULAR NETWORK.

IT

IT ALSO THE PART THAT IDENTIFIES THE CLASS OF NETWORK ASSIGNED. EXAMPLE , THE NETWORK PART TAKES UP TWO BYTES OF THE

IN IP ADDRESS,

THE ABOVE NAMELY

PART OF THE

ADDRESS THAT YOU ASSIGN TO EACH HOST , AND UNIQUELY

IDENTIFIES EACH HOST ON YOUR NETWORK . MUST BE DIFFERENT

NOTE

THAT FOR EACH HOST ON YOUR

NETWORK, THE NETWORK PART OF THE ADDRESS WILL BE THE SAME , BUT THE HOST PART

NETWORK CLASSES

CURRENTLY, THERE ARE THREE CLASSES OF TCP/IP NETWORKS. EACH CLASS USES 32-BIT IP ADDRESS SPACE DIFFERENTLY , PROVIDING MORE OR FEWER BITS FOR THE NETWORK PART OF THE ADDRESS . T HESE CLASSES ARE C LASS A, B AND C LASS C.

THE

CLASS A NETWORK NUMBERS A CLASS A NETWORK NUMBER USES THE FIRST 8 BITS OF ITS " NETWORK PART ". T HE REMAINING 24 BITS COMPRISE IP ADDRESS. (SEE BELOW)

THE

IP

ADDRESS AS

THE HOST PART OF THE

31 | P a g e

0 7-8 15-16 23-24 31 +------------+------------+------------+------------+ | NETWORK | HOST | | PART | PART | +------------+------------+------------+------------+ THE VALUES ARE ASSIGNED TO THE FIRST BYTE OF CLASS A NETWORK NUMBERS FALL WITHIN THE RANGE 0-127. C ONSIDER FOR EXAMPLE THE IP ADDRESS 68.8.1.100. THE VALUE 68 IN THE FIRST BYTE INDICATES THAT THE HOST IS ON A CLASS A NETWORK . T HE I NTER NIC ASSIGNS ONLY THE FIRST BYTE OF A CLASS A NUMBER. USE OF THE REMAINING THREE BYTES IS LEFT TO THE DISCRETION OF THE OWNER OF NETWORK NUMBER. O NLY 127 CLASS A NETWORKS CAN EXIST . EACH ONE OF THESE NUMBERS CAN ACCOMMODATE UP TO 16,777,214 HOSTS .
BITS

CLASS B NETWORK NUMBERS A CLASS B NETWORK NUMBER CONSISTS OF THE FIRST 16 BITS FOR THE NETWORK NUMBER AND 16 BITS FOR HOST NUMBERS . T HE FIRST BYTE OF A CLASS B NETWORK NUMBER IS IN THE RANGE 128-191. TAKE FOR EXAMPLE THE IP ADDRESS 132.168.1.100, THE FIRST TWO BYTES , 132.168, ARE ASSIGNED BY THE I NTER NIC, AND COMPRISE THE NETWORK ADDRESS . THE LAST TWO BYTES , 1.100, MAKE UP THE HOST PART OF THE ADDRESS , AND IS ASSIGNED AT THE DISCRETION OF THE OWNER OF THE NETWORK NUMBER . (SEE BELOW ) BITS 0 7-8 15-16 23-24 31 +------------+------------+------------+------------+ | NETWORK | HOST | | PART | PART | +------------+------------+------------+------------+ CLASS B IS TYPICALLY ASSIGNED TO ORGANIZATIONS WITH MANY HOSTS ON THEIR NETWORK . CLASS C NETWORK NUMBERS A CLASS C NETWORK USES 24 BITS FOR THE NETWORK PART AND 8 BITS FOR THE HOST PART . CLASS C NETWORK NUMBERS ARE APPROPRIATE FOR NETWORKS WITH FEW HOSTS - THE MAXIMUM BEING 254. A CLASS C NETWORK NUMBER OCCUPIES THE FIRST THREE BYTES OF AN IP ADDRESS . O NLY THE FOURTH BYTE IS ASSIGNED AT THE DISCRETION OF THE NETWORK NUMBER OWNER. (S EE BELOW ) BITS 0 7-8 15-16 23-24 31 +------------+------------+------------+------------+ | NETWORK | HOST | | PART | PART | +------------+------------+------------+------------+ THE FIRST BYTES OF A CLASS C NETWORK NUMBER COVERS THE RANGE 192223. THE SECOND AND THIRD EACH COVER THE RANGE 1-255. A TYPICAL CLASS C ADDRESS MIGHT BE 192.98.1.100. THE FIRST THREE BYTES, 192.98.1, FORM THE NETWORK NUMBER. THE FINAL BYTE IN THIS EXAMPLE, 100, IS THE HOST NUMBER

32 | P a g e

PUBLIC

AND

PRIVATE IP IP

ADDRESSES

PUBLIC

ADDRESS MAKES YOUR EQUIPMENT ACCESSIBLE TO EVERYONE ON THE

INTERNET AND IS NEEDED FOR

VOIP

OR IF YOU WANT TO GIVE OTHERS TO ACCESS

TO SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT ON YOUR NETWORK .

IP ADDRESS IS FOR PRIVATE USE WITHIN THE NETWORK AND ALLOWS MANY MORE PC S TO BE CONNECTED . I F A CUSTOMER IS USING A PRIVATE IP AND LATER WANTS VOIP THEY WOULD NEED TO CHANGE TO A PUBLIC IP ADDRESS .
PRIVATE

DHCP
DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL (DHCP)
THAT ENABLES A SERVER TO AUTOMATICALLY ASSIGN AN COMPUTER FROM A DEFINED RANGE OF NUMBERS A GIVEN NETWORK . IS A NETWORK PROTOCOL

IP

ADDRESS TO A

(I.E.,

A SCOPE ) CONFIGURED FOR

NAT
DEVELOPED BY CISCO, NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION IS USED BY A DEVICE (FIREWALL, ROUTER OR COMPUTER) THAT SITS BETWEEN AN INTERNAL NETWORK AND THE REST OF THE WORLD . B ASICALLY IT CONVERTS PRIVATE IP TO PUBLIC AND VICE VERSA NAT HAS MANY FORMS AND CAN WORK IN SEVERAL WAYS:

STATIC NAT - MAPPING AN UNREGISTERED IP ADDRESS TO A REGISTERED IP ADDRESS ON A ONE- TO - ONE BASIS . PARTICULARLY USEFUL WHEN A DEVICE NEEDS TO BE ACCESSIBLE FROM OUTSIDE THE NETWORK . DYNAMIC NAT - MAPS
AN UNREGISTERED

IP

ADDRESS TO A REGISTERED

IP

ADDRESS FROM A GROUP OF REGISTERED

IP

ADDRESSES .

33 | P a g e

6.6 DATA LINK LAYER


THE
SECOND - LOWEST LAYER

(LAYER 2)
EXAMPLE ,

IN THE

OSI REFERENCE MODEL

STACK IS THE

DATA LINK LAYER. MANY WIRED AND WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FUNCTION IN THIS LAYER .

FOR

(LAN) TECHNOLOGIES PRIMARILY ETHERNET , TOKEN RING, FDDI AND 802.11


AND

DATA LINK LAYER SUBLAYERS: LOGICAL LINK CONTROL (LLC) CONTROL (MAC)
LLC

MEDIA ACCESS

THIS

SUBLAYER MULTIPLEXES PROTOCOLS RUNNING ATOP THE

DATA LINK LAYER,

AND OPTIONALLY PROVIDES FLOW CONTROL , ACKNOWLEDGMENT , AND ERROR NOTIFICATION . PROVIDES ADDRESSING AND CONTROL OF THE DATA LINK

MAC

IT

PROVIDES ADDRESSING AND CHANNEL ACCESS CONTROL MECHANISMS ADDRESSING MECHANISM IS CALLED PHYSICAL ADDRESS OR

THE MAC LAYER MAC ADDRESS.

A MAC

ADDRESS IS A UNIQUE SERIAL NUMBER ASSIGNED TO A PARTICULAR PIECE

OF NETWORK HARDWARE

EACH DEVICE IN A NETWORK WILL HAVE A DIFFERENT

MAC

ADDRESS

THIS

MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR DATA PACKETS TO BE DELIVERED TO A DESTINATION

WITHIN A SUBNETWORK .

CHANNEL ACCESS CONTROL MECHANISMS PROVIDED BY THE KNOWN AS A MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOL .

MAC

LAYER ARE

DATA LINK LAYER FUNCTIONS THE

FOLLOWING ARE THE KEY TASKS PERFORMED AT THE DATA LINK LAYER:

LOGICAL LINK CONTROL (LLC): LOGICAL


BETWEEN LOCAL DEVICES ON A NETWORK . CONSIDERED A

LINK CONTROL REFERS TO THE MENTIONED ABOVE , THIS IS USUALLY

FUNCTIONS REQUIRED FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND CONTROL OF LOGICAL LINKS

AS

DLL

SUBLAYER ; IT PROVIDES SERVICES TO THE NETWORK LAYER

ABOVE IT AND HIDES THE REST OF THE DETAILS OF THE DATA LINK LAYER TO ALLOW DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES TO WORK SEAMLESSLY WITH THE HIGHER LAYERS .

MOST

LOCAL AREA NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES USE THE

IEEE 802.2 LLC

PROTOCOL .

34 | P a g e

MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL (MAC): THIS

REFERS TO THE PROCEDURES USED BY

DEVICES TO CONTROL ACCESS TO THE NETWORK MEDIUM .

SINCE MANY NETWORKS USE A SHARED MEDIUM (SUCH AS A SINGLE NETWORK CABLE , OR A SERIES OF CABLES THAT ARE ELECTRICALLY CONNECTED INTO A SINGLE VIRTUAL MEDIUM ) IT IS NECESSARY TO HAVE RULES FOR MANAGING THE MEDIUM TO AVOID CONFLICTS . FOR EXAMPLE. ETHERNET USES THE CSMA/CD METHOD OF MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL , WHILE T OKEN R ING USES TOKEN PASSING . DATA FRAMING : THE
DATA LINK LAYER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FINAL ENCAPSULATION OF HIGHER - LEVEL MESSAGES INTO FRAMES THAT ARE SENT OVER THE NETWORK AT THE PHYSICAL LAYER.

ADDRESSING: THE

DATA LINK LAYER IS THE LOWEST LAYER IN THE

OSI

MODEL

THAT IS CONCERNED WITH ADDRESSING : LABELING INFORMATION WITH A PARTICULAR DESTINATION LOCATION .

EACH

DEVICE ON A NETWORK HAS A UNIQUE

NUMBER , USUALLY CALLED A HARDWARE ADDRESS OR SPECIFIC MACHINE GETS TO IT PROPERLY .

MAC

ADDRESS , THAT IS

USED BY THE DATA LINK LAYER PROTOCOL TO ENSURE THAT DATA INTENDED FOR A

ERROR DETECTION

AND

HANDLING: THE (CRC)

DATA LINK LAYER HANDLES ERRORS

THAT OCCUR AT THE LOWER LEVELS OF THE NETWORK STACK . CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK

FOR

EXAMPLE , A

FIELD IS OFTEN EMPLOYED TO ALLOW THE

STATION RECEIVING DATA TO DETECT IF IT WAS RECEIVED CORRECTLY .

6.7 PHYSICAL LAYER


THE
LOWEST LAYER OF THE

OSI REFERENCE MODE ,

IT IS WHERE DATA IS PHYSICALLY

MOVED ACROSS THE NETWORK .

THE FOLLOWING ARE REFERENCE MODEL:

THE MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PHYSICAL LAYER IN THE

OSI

DEFINITION OF HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS : THE DETAILS OF OPERATION OF CABLES , CONNECTORS , WIRELESS RADIO TRANSCEIVERS , NETWORK INTERFACE
CARDS AND OTHER HARDWARE DEVICES ARE GENERALLY A FUNCTION OF THE PHYSICAL LAYER

(ALTHOUGH

ALSO PARTIALLY THE DATA LINK LAYER; SEE BELOW ). PHYSICAL LAYER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR VARIOUS

ENCODING

AND

SIGNALING : THE

ENCODING AND SIGNALING FUNCTIONS THAT TRANSFORM THE DATA FROM BITS THAT RESIDE WITHIN A COMPUTER OR OTHER DEVICE INTO SIGNALS THAT CAN BE SENT OVER THE NETWORK .

DATA TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION: AFTER ENCODING THE DATA APPROPRIATELY , THE PHYSICAL LAYER ACTUALLY TRANSMITS THE DATA , AND OF COURSE , RECEIVES IT . NOTE THAT THIS APPLIES EQUALLY TO WIRED AND WIRELESS NETWORKS , EVEN IF THERE IS NO TANGIBLE CABLE IN A WIRELESS NETWORK .

35 | P a g e

TOPOLOGY
SUCH AS

AND

PHYSICAL NETWORK DESIGN : THE WAN


TOPOLOGY .

PHYSICAL LAYER IS ALSO

CONSIDERED THE DOMAIN OF MANY HARDWARE - RELATED NETWORK DESIGN ISSUES ,

LAN

AND

CABLES
CABLE THE

IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH INFORMATION USUALLY MOVES FROM ONE NETWORK DEVICE TO ANOTHER FOLLOWING SECTIONS DISCUSS THE TYPES OF CABLES USED IN NETWORKS AND OTHER

RELATED TOPICS .

UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (UTP) CABLE SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (STP) CABLE COAXIAL CABLE FIBER OPTIC CABLE CABLE INSTALLATION GUIDES WIRELESS LANS

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

THE

CABLE HAS FOUR PAIRS OF WIRES INSIDE THE JACKET .

EACH

PAIR IS

TWISTED WITH A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF TWISTS PER INCH TO HELP ELIMINATE INTERFERENCE FROM ADJACENT PAIRS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL DEVICES .

THE

TIGHTER THE TWISTING , THE HIGHER THE SUPPORTED

TRANSMISSION RATE AND THE GREATER THE COST PER FOOT .

THE EIA/TIA (ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION /TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION) HAS ESTABLISHED STANDARDS OF UTP AND RATED SIX CATEGORIES OF WIRE (ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES ARE EMERGING).

36 | P a g e

CATEGORIES OF UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR


Category Speed 1 Mbps Use Voice Only (Telephone Wire) LocalTalk & Telephone (Rarely used) 10BaseT Ethernet Token Ring (Rarely used)

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps

100 Mbps (2 pair) 1000 Mbps (4 pair)

100BaseT Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet


Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

5e. 6.

1,000 Mbps 10,000 Mbps

THE

STANDARD CONNECTOR FOR UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR CABLING IS AN

RJ-45

CONNECTOR

SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (STP) CABLE UTP


CABLE

ARE

SUSCEPTIBLE TO RADIO AND ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY

INTERFERENCE

37 | P a g e

SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR

IS THE SOLUTION

SHIELDED
CABLES

CABLES CAN ALSO HELP TO EXTEND THE MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF THE

SHIELDED

TWISTED PAIR CABLE IS AVAILABLE IN THREE DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS :

EACH PAIR OF WIRES IS INDIVIDUALLY SHIELDED WITH FOIL . THERE IS A FOIL OR BRAID SHIELD INSIDE THE JACKET COVERING ALL WIRES ( AS A GROUP ). 3. THERE IS A SHIELD AROUND EACH INDIVIDUAL PAIR, AS WELL AS AROUND THE ENTIRE GROUP OF WIRES ( REFERRED TO AS DOUBLE SHIELD TWISTED PAIR ).
1. 2.

COAXIAL CABLE COAXIAL

CABLING HAS A SINGLE COPPER CONDUCTOR AT ITS CENTER

PLASTIC LAYER PROVIDES INSULATION BETWEEN THE CENTER CONDUCTOR

AND A BRAIDED METAL SHIELD

THE

METAL SHIELD HELPS TO BLOCK ANY OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE FROM

CONNECTOR USED WITH COAXIAL CABLES IS THE

BAYONE-NEILL-CONCELMAN

(BNC)

CONNECTOR

Fig. 4. BNC connector

FIBER OPTIC CABLE IT HAS CENTER


MATERIALS

GLASS CORE SURROUNDED BY SEVERAL LAYERS OF PROTECTIVE

38 | P a g e

IT

TRANSMITS LIGHT RATHER THAN ELECTRONIC SIGNALS TRANSMIT SIGNALS OVER MUCH LONGER DISTANCES

IT CAN THE A

CENTER CORE OF FIBER CABLES IS MADE FROM GLASS OR PLASTIC FIBERS

PLASTIC COATING THEN CUSHIONS THE FIBER CENTER

KEVLAR FIBERS HELP TO STRENGTHEN THE CABLES AND PREVENT BREAKAGE

THE

OUTER INSULATING JACKET MADE OF TEFLON OR

PVC.

Fig. 5. Fiber optic cab

Ethernet Cable Summary


Specifica tion 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 100Base T 100Base FX 100BaseB X 100BaseS X 1000Base T 1000Base FX 1000Base Cable Type Unshielded Twisted Pair Thin Coaxial Thick Coaxial Unshielded Twisted Pair Fiber Optic Single mode Fiber Multimode Fiber Unshielded Twisted Pair Fiber Optic Single mode Fiber

39 | P a g e

BX 1000Base SX Multimode Fiber

WIRELESS LANS WIRELESS LANS USE

HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO SIGNALS , INFRARED LIGHT BEAMS , OR

LASERS TO COMMUNICATE BETWEEN THE WORKSTATIONS AND THE FILE SERVER OR HUBS

WIFI (WIRELESS FIDELITY ).

NETWORKS USE THE

ETHERNET

PROTOCOL .

Standard Max Speed 802.11a 54 Mbps 802.11b 11 Mbps 802.11g 54 bps

Typical Range 150 feet 300 feet 300 et

40 | P a g e

6.8
UP

O.S.I

SUMMARY
KEY RESPONSIBILITIES DATA TYPE H ANDLED BITS WORKING
DEVICES

GRO # LAYER NAME LOW 1


ER

&

SCOPE

PHYSICAL

LAY
ERS

ENCODING AND SIGNALING; PHYSICAL DATA TRANSMISSION; HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS; TOPOLOGY AND DESIGN LOGICAL LINK CONTROL; MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL; DATA FRAMING; ADDRESSING; ERROR DETECTION AND HANDLING; DEFINING REQUIREMENTS OF PHYSICAL LAYER LOGICAL ADDRESSING; ROUTING; DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION; FRAGMENTATION AND REASSEMBLY; ERROR HANDLING AND DIAGNOSTICS PROCESS-LEVEL ADDRESSING; MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLE XING; C ONNECTIONS ; SEGMENTATION AND REASSEMBLY; ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND RETRANSMISSIONS; FLOW CONTROL SESSION ESTABLISHMENT, MANAGEMENT AND TERMINATION DATA TRANSLATION; C OMPRESSION AND ENCRYPTION USER APPLICATION SERVICES

NETWOTK INTERFACE CARD(N.I.C) & HUB /ELECTRICAL


OR LIGHT SIGNALS SENT BETWEEN LOCAL DEVICES

2 DATA LINK

FRAMES

SWITCH (L2)/LOW-LEVEL DATA


MESSAGES BETWEEN LOCAL DEVICES

NETWORK

DATAGRAMS / PACKETS

ROUTER & L-3 SWITCH /MESSAGES


BETWEEN LOCAL OR REMOTE DEVICES

4 TRANSPORT

DATAGRAMS / SEGMENTS

COMMUNICATION
BETWEEN SOFTWARE PROCESSES

UPP
ER

SESSION

SESSIONS ENCODED USER DATA USER DATA

SESSIONS

BETWEEN

LOCAL OR REMOTE DEVICES

LAY
ERS

6 PRESENTATIO
N

APPLICATION APPLICATION

DATA

REPRESENTATIONS DATA

7 APPLICATION

41 | P a g e

6.HOW COMMUNICATION

OCCURS

O.S.I VIEW

6.1 BETWEEN TWO COMPUTERS:

HERE 'S WHAT HAPPENS:

HIGH - LEVEL APPLICATION ON

MACHINE

DECIDES TO SEND A DATAGRAM TO

COMPUTER

2 . THE

DATAGRAM IS PACKAGED, AND THEN PASSED DOWN VERTICALLY

THROUGH THE PROTOCOL STACK ON THE ORIGINATING MACHINE . ENCAPSULATES THE DATA AS DESCRIBED EARLIER. THE FINAL DESTINATION DEVICE

EACH

LAYER

THE

DATAGRAM IS ADDRESSED TO

(IE,

THE

I. P

WE ASSIGN ).

WHEN

THE MESSAGE GETS

TO THE NETWORK LAYER AND BELOW , HOWEVER , IT IS

PACKAGED FOR LOCAL

DELIVERY DIRECTLY TO ITS ULTIMATE DESTINATION ,T HE MESSAGE IS PASSED DOWN TO THE DATA LINK LAYER AND THEN THE PHYSICAL LAYER FOR TRANSMISSION THROUGH ETHERNET PORT .

NOW

THE MESSAGE TRAVELS THROUGH THE

LAN

CABLE AND IS RECEIVED AT AT THE

OTHER END

MACHINE 2 RECEIVES THE MESSAGE THROUGH ETHERNET PORT AT THE PHYSICAL LAYER. I T IS PASSED UP TO THE DATA LINK LAYER , WHERE IT IS PROCESSED , CHECKED FOR ERRORS AND SO ON , AND THE DATA LINK LAYER HEADERS ARE REMOVED. THE RESULTING PACKET IS PASSED UP TO THE NETWORK LAYER. THERE, THE COMPUTER 2 DETERMINES IF THE MESSAGE IS FOR HIM -> YES , THE MESSAGE IS FORWARDED UP / NO -> THE MESSAGE IS REJECTED

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6.2

BETWEEN TWO COMPUTERS ON A LAN

STEP 1 THE

IS SAME AS THAT IN COMMUNICATION B / W TWO

COMPUTERS

SWITCH DEVICE RECEIVES THE MESSAGE AT THE PHYSICAL LAYER.

IT

IS PASSED

UP TO THE DATA LINK LAYER , WHERE IT IS PROCESSED , CHECKED FOR ERRORS AND SO ON , AND

MAC

ADDRESS OF DESTINATION

&

SENDERS ARE CHECKED

. THERE,

THE INTERMEDIATE DEVICE DETERMINES IF THE DESTINATION MACHINE IS ON ITS LOCAL NETWORK IF NOT THE MESSAGE IS REJECTED

. IT

THEN REPACKAGES THE MESSAGE

AND PASSES IT BACK DOWN TO THE PHYSICAL LAYER TO BE SENT ON THE DESTINATION MACHINE

.
UP MESSAGE TO THE DATA LINK LAYER ,

THE DESTINATION MACHINES AGAIN PASSES LAYER HEADERS ARE REMOVED . NETWORK LAYER .

WHERE IT IS PROCESSED , CHECKED FOR ERRORS AND SO ON , AND THE DATA LINK

THE

RESULTING PACKET IS PASSED UP TO THE

THERE,

THE COMPUTER

->

YES , THE MESSAGE IS FORWARDED UP

2 /

DETERMINES IF THE MESSAGE IS FOR HIM NO -> THE MESSAGE IS REJECTED .

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6.3

BETWEEN WAN NETWORKS

EACH

HIGH - LEVEL APPLICATION ON

MACHINE

DECIDES TO SEND A

DATAGRAM TO COMPUTER

2 . THE

DATAGRAM IS PACKAGED, AND THEN PASSED

DOWN VERTICALLY THROUGH THE PROTOCOL STACK ON THE ORIGINATING MACHINE .

THE DATAGRAM IS I.P WE ASSIGN). WHEN THE MESSAGE GETS TO THE NETWORK LAYER AND BELOW , HOWEVER , IT IS PACKAGED FOR LOCAL DELIVERY DIRECTLY TO ITS ULTIMATE DESTINATION ,T HE
ADDRESSED TO THE FINAL DESTINATION DEVICE

LAYER ENCAPSULATES THE DATA AS DESCRIBED EARLIER.

(IE,

THE

MESSAGE IS PASSED DOWN TO THE DATA LINK LAYER AND THEN THE PHYSICAL LAYER FOR TRANSMISSION THROUGH ETHERNET PORT.

THE

INTERMEDIATE DEVICE

(OFTEN

CALLED A ROUTER) RECEIVES THE MESSAGE AT

THE PHYSICAL LAYER. ARE REMOVED.

IT

IS PASSED UP TO THE DATA LINK LAYER , WHERE IT IS

PROCESSED , CHECKED FOR ERRORS AND SO ON , AND THE DATA LINK LAYER HEADERS

THE

RESULTING PACKET IS PASSED UP TO THE NETWORK LAYER .

THERE,

THE INTERMEDIATE DEVICE DETERMINES IF THE DESTINATION MACHINE IS ON

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ITS LOCAL NETWORK , OR IF IT NEEDS TO BE FORWARDED TO ANOTHER INTERMEDIATE DEVICE .

IT

THEN REPACKAGES THE MESSAGE AND PASSES IT BACK DOWN TO THE

DATA LINK LAYER TO BE SENT ON THE NEXT LEG OF ITS JOURNEY .

AFTER

SEVERAL POTENTIAL INTERMEDIATE DEVICES

HANDLE

THE MESSAGE , IT

EVENTUALLY REACHES ITS DESTINATION .

HERE,

IT TRAVELS BACK UP THE PROTOCOL

STACK UNTIL IT REACHES THE SAME LAYER AS THE ONE OF THE APPLICATION THAT GENERATED THE MESSAGE ON THE ORIGINATING MACHINE .

7. THE
ALL

TCP/IP MODEL

TCP/IP

IS BASED ON A FOUR -LAYER REFERENCE MODEL .

PROTOCOLS THAT BELONG TO THE

TCP/IP

PROTOCOL

SUITE ARE LOCATED IN THE TOP THREE LAYERS OF THIS MODEL . AS SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATION , EACH LAYER OF THE

TCP/IP

MODEL CORRESPONDS TO ONE OR

MORE LAYERS OF THE SEVEN -LAYER

OPEN SYSTEMS

INTERCONNECTION (OSI) REFERENCE MODEL PROPOSED BY THE INTERNATIONAL S TANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO).

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THE

TYPES OF SERVICES PERFORMED AND PROTOCOLS USED AT EACH LAYER

WITHIN THE TABLE .

TCP/IP

MODEL ARE DESCRIBED IN MORE DETAIL IN THE FOLLOWING

LAYER APPLICATION

DESCRIPTION DEFINES TCP/IP


NETWORK . APPLICATION PROTOCOLS AND HOW HOST PROGRAMS INTERFACE WITH TRANSPORT LAYER SERVICES TO USE THE

PROTOCOLS HTTP, TELNET, FTP, TFTP, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, X WINDOWS, OTHER
APPLICATION PROTOCOLS

TRANSPORT

PROVIDES DEFINES

COMMUNICATION SESSION

TCP, UDP, RTP

MANAGEMENT BETWEEN HOST COMPUTERS . THE LEVEL OF SERVICE AND STATUS OF THE CONNECTION USED WHEN TRANSPORTING DATA.

INTERNET

PACKAGES

DATA INTO

IP

DATAGRAMS, WHICH

CONTAIN SOURCE AND DESTINATION ADDRESS INFORMATION THAT IS USED TO FORWARD THE DATAGRAMS BETWEEN HOSTS AND ACROSS NETWORKS.

IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP

PERFORMS

ROUTING OF

IP ETHERNET, TOKEN RING, FDDI, X.25, FRAME RELAY, RS-232, V .35

DATAGRAMS.

NETWORK
INTERFACE

SPECIFIES

DETAILS OF HOW DATA IS

PHYSICALLY SENT THROUGH THE NETWORK , INCLUDING HOW BITS ARE ELECTRICALLY SIGNALED BY HARDWARE DEVICES THAT INTERFACE DIRECTLY WITH A NETWORK MEDIUM , SUCH AS COAXIAL CABLE, OPTICAL FIBER, OR TWISTED- PAIR COPPER WIRE.

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8. NMS
A NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NMS) THE
IS A COMBINATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE USED TO MONITOR AND ADMINISTER A NETWORK . NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD DISCOVER THE NETWORK INVENTORY

MONITOR THE HEALTH AND STATUS OF DEVICES PROVIDE ALERTS TO CONDITIONS THAT IMPACT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

NMS

SOFTWARE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM . PROTOCOL ALLOWS IT TO SIMPLY GATHER THE INFORMATION FROM THE

SNMP

VARIOUS DEVICES DOWN THE NETWORK HIERARCHY

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8.1 SNMP (SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT

PROTOCOL)
SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (SNMP) IS AN APPLICATION LAYER PROTOCOL DEFINED BY THE INTERNET ARCHITECTURE B OARD (IAB) IN RFC1157 FOR EXCHANGING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BETWEEN NETWORK DEVICES . IT IS A PART OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCPIP) PROTOCOL SUITE. SNMP
IS ONE OF THE WIDELY ACCEPTED PROTOCOLS TO MANAGE AND MONITOR NETWORK ELEMENTS.

MOST

OF THE PROFESSIONAL GRADE NETWORK

ELEMENTS COME WITH BUNDLED

SNMP

AGENT.

THESE

AGENTS HAVE TO

BE ENABLED AND CONFIGURED TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

(NMS).

HOW

CAN

SNMP

HELP ME ?

SNMP CAN DO A VARIETY OF THINGS. HERE ARE SOME WAYS IT HAS HELPED ME:

IT IT IT

CAN GRAPH

CISCO

ROUTER/ SWITCH BANDWIDTH UTILIZATION OVER TIME , PER

INTERFACE , PER DIRECTION , ETC . CAN GRAPH ERRORS ON NETWORK DEVICES

(E.G., CRC

ERRORS).

CAN SEND ALERTS WHEN AN INTERFACE GOES UP OR DOWN.

WHAT YOU

IS THE ROLE OF

NMS?

NMS (NETWORK MONITORING SOFTWARE ) TO MAKE SNMP CONFIGURING SNMP ON ITS OWN REALLY WONT TELL YOU ANYTHING . YOU NEED AN NMS THAT YOU CAN CONFIGURE TO RECEIVE , REPORT , AND GRAPH THE SNMP INFORMATION .
NEED SOME KIND OF USEFUL .

SNMP BASIC COMPONENTS AN SNMP-MANAGED



NETWORK CONSISTS OF THREE KEY COMPONENTS :

SNMP MANAGER MANAGED DEVICE SNMP AGENT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION DATABASE


INFORMATION BASE

ALSO KNOWN AS

MANAGEMENT

SNMP MANAGER A
MANAGER OR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS A SEPARATE ENTITY THAT IS RESPONSIBLE TO

COMMUNICATE WITH THE

SNMP

AGENT IMPLEMENTED NETWORK DEVICES .

THIS

IS

48 | P a g e

TYPICALLY A COMPUTER THAT IS USED TO RUN ONE OR MORE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS .

SNMP MANAGERS

KEY FUNCTIONS

QUERIES AGENTS GETS RESPONSE FROM AGENTS SETS VARIABLES IN AGENTS ACKNOWLEDGES ASYNCHRONOUS

EVENTS FROM AGENTS

MANAGED DEVICE A MANAGED DEVICE

OR THE NETWORK ELEMENT IS A PART OF THE NETWORK THAT

REQUIRES SOME FORM OF MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT E .G . ROUTERS, SWITCHES , SERVERS, WORKSTATIONS , PRINTERS ,

UPSS,

ETC ...

SNMP AGENT

THE AGENT IS A PROGRAM THAT IS PACKAGED WITHIN THE NETWORK ELEMENT. ENABLING THE AGENT ALLOWS IT TO COLLECT THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION DATABASE FROM THE DEVICE LOCALLY AND MAKES IT AVAILABLE TO THE SNMP MANAGER , WHEN IT IS QUERIED FOR . THESE AGENTS COULD BE STANDARD ( E. G . NET-SNMP) OR SPECIFIC TO A VENDOR (E.G. HP INSIGHT AGENT)
AGENT S KEY FUNCTIONS

SNMP

COLLECTS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ABOUT ITS LOCAL ENVIRONMENT STORES AND RETRIEVES MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AS DEFINED IN THE MIB. SIGNALS AN EVENT TO THE MANAGER. ACTS AS A PROXY FOR SOME NONSNMP MANAGEABLE NETWORK NODE.

MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION BASE AGENT MAINTAINS AN INFORMATION DATABASE DESCRIBING THE

EVERY SNMP

MANAGED DEVICE PARAMETERS .

THE SNMP

MANAGER USES THIS DATABASE TO

REQUEST THE AGENT FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION AND FURTHER TRANSLATES THE

NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NMS). AGENT AND THE MANAGER IS CALLED M ANAGEMENT I NFORMATION B ASE (MIB). TYPICALLY THESE MIB CONTAINS STANDARD SET OF STATISTICAL AND CONTROL VALUES DEFINED FOR HARDWARE NODES ON A NETWORK . SNMP ALSO ALLOWS
INFORMATION AS NEEDED FOR THE

THIS

COMMONLY SHARED DATABASE BETWEEN THE

THE EXTENSION OF THESE STANDARD VALUES WITH VALUES SPECIFIC TO A PARTICULAR AGENT THROUGH THE USE OF PRIVATE

MIBS.

49 | P a g e

IN

SNMP MANAGER AGENT COLLECTS THESE DATA LOCALLY AND STORES IT, AS DEFINED IN THE MIB. S O, THE SNMP M ANAGER SHOULD BE AWARE OF THESE STANDARD AND PRIVATE QUESTIONS FOR EVERY TYPE OF AGENT .
FILES ARE THE SET OF QUESTIONS THAT A CAN ASK THE AGENT .

SHORT ,

MIB

BASIC SNMP COMMANDS


GET: THE GET OPERATION IS A REQUEST SENT BY THE MANAGER TO THE MANAGED DEVICE . I T IS PERFORMED TO RETRIEVE ONE OR MORE VALUES FROM THE MANAGED DEVICE . GET NEXT: THIS OPERATION IS SIMILAR TO THE GET. THE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IS THAT THE GET NEXT OPERATION RETRIEVES THE VALUE OF THE NEXT OID IN THE MIB TREE. GET BULK: THE GETBULK FROM LARGE MIB TABLE. SET: THIS OPERATION THE M ANAGED DEVICE .
OPERATION IS USED TO RETRIEVE VOLUMINOUS DATA

IS USED BY THE MANAGERS TO MODIFY OR ASSIGN THE VALUE OF

50 | P a g e

TRAPS: UNLIKE THE ABOVE COMMANDS WHICH ARE INITIATED FROM THE SNMP MANAGER, TRAPS ARE INITIATED BY THE AGENTS. IT IS A SIGNAL TO THE SNMP MANAGER BY THE AGENT ON THE OCCURRENCE OF AN EVENT. INFORM: THIS COMMAND IS SIMILAR TO THE TRAP INITIATED BY THE AGENT, ADDITIONALLY INFORM INCLUDES CONFIRMATION FROM THE SNMP MANAGER ON RECEIVING THE MESSAGE. RESPONSE: IT
IS THE COMMAND USED TO CARRY BACK THE VALUE( S) OR SIGNAL OF

ACTIONS DIRECTED BY THE

SNMP MANAGER.

SNMP VERSIONS
SINCE THE INCEPTION SNMP, HAS GONE THROUGH SIGNIFICANT UPGRADES. H OWEVER SNMP V1 AND V2C ARE THE MOST IMPLEMENTED VERSIONS OF SNMP. SUPPORT TO SNMP V3 HAS RECENTLY STARTED CATCHING UP AS IT IS MORE SECURED WHEN COMPARE TO ITS OLDER VERSIONS, BUT STILL IT HAS NOT REACHED CONSIDERABLE MARKET SHARE . SNMPV1: THIS IS 1157
THE FIRST VERSION OF THE PROTOCOL , WHICH IS DEFINED IN

RFCS 1155

AND

SNMPV2C: THIS
IS THE REVISED PROTOCOL , WHICH INCLUDES ENHANCEMENTS OF

SNMPV1

IN THE

AREAS OF PROTOCOL PACKET TYPES, TRANSPORT MAPPINGS , BUT USING THE EXISTING

MIB

STRUCTURE ELEMENTS

SNMPV1 ADMINISTRATION STRUCTURE (" COMMUNITY BASED" AND HENCE SNMP V2C). I T IS DEFINED IN RFC 1901, RFC 1905, RFC 1906, RFC 2578. SNMPV3: SNMPV3 SNMP. SNMPV3 ALSO FACILITATES SNMP ENTITIES. IT IS DEFINED BY RFC 1905, RFC 1906, RFC 3411, RFC 3412, RFC 3414, RFC 3415.
DEFINES THE SECURE VERSION OF THE REMOTE CONFIGURATION OF THE

THOUGH

EACH VERSION HAD MATURED TOWARDS RICH FUNCTIONALITIES, ADDITIONAL

EMPHASIS WAS GIVEN TO THE SECURITY ASPECT ON EACH UPGRADE. CLIP ON EACH EDITIONS SECURITY ASPECT .

H ERE

IS A SMALL

SNMP V1 COMMUNITYBASED

SECURITY SECURITY

SNMP V2C COMMUNITYBASED SNMP V2U USERBASED

SECURITY

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SNMP V2 PARTYBASED SNMP V3 USERBASED

SECURITY SECURITY

8.2

NMS
IS A COMBINATION OF HARDWARE

A NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NMS) THE

AND SOFTWARE USED TO MONITOR AND ADMINISTER A NETWORK . NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD DISCOVER THE NETWORK INVENTORY

MONITOR THE HEALTH AND STATUS OF DEVICES PROVIDE ALERTS TO CONDITIONS THAT IMPACT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

NMS

SOFTWARE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM . PROTOCOL ALLOWS IT TO SIMPLY GATHER THE INFORMATION FROM THE

SNMP

VARIOUS DEVICES DOWN THE NETWORK HIERARCHY

8.3 NOC(NETWORK
A NOC

OPERATIONS CENTER)

IS ONE OR MORE LOCATION FROM WHICH CONTROL IS EXERCISED

OVER A COMPUTER, TELEVISION BROADCAST , OR TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK .

NOCS

ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MONITORING THE NETWORK FOR ALARMS .

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NOCS

ANALYZE PROBLEMS , PERFORM TROUBLESHOOTING , COMMUNICATE WITH

SITE TECHNICIANS . AND TRACK PROBLEMS THROUGH RESOLUTION

8.4 OPMANAGER
NETWORKING MONITORING SOFTWARES WORK ON THE SNMP PROTOCOL & ONE SUCH NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE IS OP MANAGER. OPMANAGER OPMANAGER
FOR IS A COMPLETE END- TO - END NETWORK MONITORING SOFTWARE THAT

MONITORS THE NETWORK AND SUPPORTS BOTH

SERVERS

OF

DATA CENTER. LINUX


PLATFORMS .

WINDOWS

AND

NECESSITY

OP

MANAGER

(OR

OTHER SUCH TOOLS )

EACH IF

SERVER AND OTHER COMPONENT WITHIN A DATA CENTER REQUIRE CONSTANT

MONITORING FOR AVAILABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY .

EACH OF THESE COMPONENTS IS ASSIGNED AN EMPLOYEE TO MONITOR IT , THE

NO OF EMPLOYEES WOULD BE QUITE LARGE WHICH WOULD NOT BE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE .

THUS

AN

NMS

LIKE

OP

MANAGER ALLOWS US TO VIEW ALL THE COMPONENTS OF

A DATA CENTER TOGETHER AND MONITOR THEM SIMULTANEOUSLY .

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IF

ANY DEVICE OR LINK GOES DOWN, IT IS INDICATED BY AN ALARM AND THE

RESPECTIVE PERSON FURTHER SOLVES THE PROBLEM .

THE OP

MANAGER AT

SIS

HAS A CAPABILITY OF

100

DEVICES .\

8.5 OP
1. 2. 3. 4.

MANAGER FEATURES

NETWORK MONITORING FEATURE: AVAILABILITY . INTERFACE RX AND TX TRAFFIC . REAL TIME INTERFACE TRAFFIC MONITORING . INTERFACE TRAFFIC BY PACKET LOSS.

SERVERS MONITORING FEATURE:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

PERFORMANCE BY MEMORY UTILIZATION PERFORMANCE BY DISK UTILIZATION . PERFORMANCE BY CPU UTILIZATION . STATICS SERVER PERFORMANCE REPORT. SERVERS INTERFACE TRAFFIC REPORT. REAL TIME PERFORMANCE MONITORING . REAL TIME INTERFACE TRAFFIC MONITORING . SERVICES MONITORING . PROCESS MONITORING .

OTHER FEATURES:
1. UP/D OWN ALERT 2. NOTIFICATION PROFILE 3. ALARMS.

BY EMAIL

THE OP

MAIN AIM OF THE

OP

MANAGER IS TO MEASURE DEVICE AVAILABILITY AND

DEVICE PERFORMANCE

MANAGER USES

ICMP

AND

SNMP

[DISCUSSED

IN SECTION

3.3]

ICMP

IS

MAINLY USED FOR CHECKING AVAILABILITY

WHILE SNMP

IS USED TO FETCH THE RELEVANT INFORMATION AND ACCORDINGLY

GENERATE ALARMS / SIGNALS

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THE

DEVICE BEING MONITORED MUST HAVE

SNMP

ENABLED .

WHEN

ARE ALARMS GENERATED ?

EACH AS

DEVICE BEING MONITORED IS ASSIGNED A THRESHOLD VALUE .

THIS

VALUE IS

PREDEFINED BY THE ADMINISTRATOR OR THE

OP

MANAGER USER.

SOON AS THIS VALUE OF THE DEVICE INCREASES THAN THE THRESHOLD VALUE ,

AN ALARM IS GENERATED.

SIGNIFICANCE EACH
COLOUR ,

OF COLOUR OF DEVICES ON THE

DEVICE WHICH APPEARS

OP

MANAGER DASHBOARD IS OF A CERTAIN

THE

COLOUR GIVES AN INDICATION OF THE STATUS OF THAT DEVICE

YELLOW PINKREDGREEN

THRESHOLD VIOLATION SERVICE DOWN DEVICE


IS DOWN

(I.E.,

NO CONNECTIVITY )

WORKING

AND AVAILABLE

JOB L1

OF

NOC ENGINEERS

WHO ARE USING

OP

MANAGER

ENGINEERS :

L1 L1

ENGINEERS OR ENGINEERS AT FIRST TIER ARE GENERALLY GIVEN THE JOB OF

ACTIVE MONITORING .

THEY

HAVE TO CONTINUOUSLY MONITOR THEIR RESPECTIVE

DEVICES AND ESCALATE PROBLEMS TO

L2

ENGINEERS .

ENGINEERS FREQUENTLY USE COMMANDS LIKE PING AND TRACERT FOR

CHECKING PROBLEMS OF AVAILABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY .

L2 ENGINEERS:

L2 L2

ENGINEERS OR ENGINEERS AT SECOND TIER ARE THE PEOPLE WHO ACTUALLY

LOG INTO THE SERVERS AND FIX THE PROBLEMS FROM

ISSUES THAT WERE ESCALATED

L1. OP
MANAGER AS AN ADMINISTRATOR IN MOST CASES .

ENGINEERS USE

8.6 SCREEN

SHOTS

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Op Manager

DESKTOP

VIEW

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Op Manager Map view:

Op Manager List view:

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OpManager Alarm view:

OpManager Admin Panel:

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OpManager Statistics Device Information:

OpManager Device Availability:

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9. REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4.

http://www.skullbox.net/tcpudp.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model http://www.tcpipguide.com/free http://learn-networking.com/tcp-ip/how-theapplication-layer-works http://www.skullbox.net/tcpudp.php http://compnetworking.about.com http://www.cisco.com/ http://www.howstuffworks.com/ http://www.manageengine.com

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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