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A phrase is a group of words without both a subject and predicate. Phrases combine words into a larger unit that can function as a sentence element.

I NOUN PHRASE A noun phrase is either a single noun or pronoun or a group of words containing a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb. Small children often insist that they can do it by

themselves. To read quickly and accurately is Eugene's goal. A. Appositive Phrase An appositive phrase is a noun phrase or any other type of phrase functioning as a noun that renames a noun/pronoun preceding it. The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is

crawling across the kitchen table. B. Gerund Prase A gerund phrase is a noun phrase with a gerund as its head.

Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy.

C. Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase is a noun phrase with an infinitive as its head. To write clearly and concisely can be difficult sometimes for even the most accomplished writers.

II VERB PHRASE A verb phrase includes a main verb and its helping verbs. It can function only as the predicate of a sentence. The verb phrase can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence or just the verb or verb group. I was watching my favorite show yesterday. I have been asking for a raise for ten years. I've just been working on this, and the problem is in the cable. III ADVERBIAL PHRASE The adverbial phrase also functioning as an adverb, as in the following sentences. She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. The dogs were capering about the clown's feet.

IV ADJECTIVAL PHRASE An adjective phrase is any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun. I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising. My father-in-law locked his keys in the trunk of a borrowed car. V PARTICIPAL PHRASE A participial phrase consists of a present or past participle and








functions as an adjective. The actor, pausing for a moment, looked at the crowd. He showed us the cabinet, painted a brilliant green.

VI PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE Prepositional phrases start with a preposition (such as in, at, by, for, to, over, etc.), have a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and may also as have other modifiers. adverbs, or Prepositional nouns. VII The announcement for the play arrived after it was over. He walked into the meeting just as the president arrived. ABSOLUTE PHRASE An absolute phrase often includes a noun phrase.





pronoun, a

participle, and any modifiers, objects or complements of the The plumber disappeared into the hole, a pipe wrench in his hand.

Its lights off and its doors locked, the mansion looked spooky in the moonlight. The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces beaming happily.

By Mufidah Saadah 7310030045