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Hardware Implementation Of Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer
, Dr. A. Jaya Laxmi1, Dr. K. Uma Rao2 , Dr. M. Sushama1, N.Tejasri Devi1
Department Of Electrical And Electronics, JNTUH College Of Engineering, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, RNS Institute of Science & Technology, Bangalore. 1 email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Voltage sag disturbances are the most frequently occurring Power Quality problems in the distribution system. Dynamic Voltage Restorer is normally employed as a solution for mitigation of voltage sag. The proposed system has less number of switching devices and has good compensating capability in comparison with commonly used compensators. Voltage dips are the major source of power quality related problems. The Static Series Compensator (SSC), commercially known as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), is best suited to protect sensitive loads against such incoming supply disturbances. The DVR is connected in series with the distribution feeder at medium voltages. DVR is a cost effective solution for the protection of highly sensitive loads at medium voltage level. However, for lower voltage applications, the DVR may be cost-ineffective compared to the uninterruptible power supply. Voltage sags can be compensated by voltage and power injection into the distribution system. The DVR is capable of generating and absorbing active and reactive power to provide protection against voltage dips. The THD of the load voltages are within the limits when compensator is functioning during disturbance condition. Hardware model of a single phase DVR is designed and test results are presented. Keywords: Static Series Compensator (SSC), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR).
Sags are impossible to avoid because of the finite clearing time of the faults causing the voltage sag. The wide propagation of sags from the equipment can be made more tolerant of sags either via more intelligent control of the equipment or by storing more energy in equipment. Instead of modifying each component, for instance, a factory to be very tolerant to voltage sags, a better solution might be to install one Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) to mitigate voltage sags. A DVR can eliminate severe sag and minimize the risk of load tripping at very deep sags. Power quality has a significant influence on high – technology equipments related to communication, advanced control, automation, precise manufacturing technique and online service. For example, voltage sag can have a bad influence on the products of semiconductor fabrication with considerable financial losses. Power quality problems include transients, sags, interruptions and other distortions to the sinusoidal waveform. One of the most important power quality issues is voltage sag that is a sudden short duration reduction in voltage magnitude between 10 and 90 % compared to nominal voltage. Deep voltage sags, even of relatively short duration, can have significant costs because of the proliferation of voltage sensitive computer-based and variable speed drive loads. The fraction of load that is sensitive to low voltage is expected to grow rapidly in coming decades. Studies have shown that transmission faults, while relatively rare, can cause widespread sags that may constitute major process interruptions for very long distances from the faulted point. The DVR can correct sags resulting from faults in either transmission or distribution system.
II. DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR):
Significant deviations from the nominal voltage are a problem for sensitive consumers in the grid system. Interruptions are generally considered to be the worst case with the load disconnected from the supply. Voltage sags are characterized by a reduction in voltage, but the load is still connected to the supply. Sags are in most cases considered less critical compared to interruptions, but they typically occur more frequently.
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a series connected device for mitigating voltage sag and swell. DVR is an inverter based voltage sag compensator, it protects the precision manufacturing processes and sophisticated sensitive electronic equipments from the voltage fluctuations and power
Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.
16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE. Ride through capability is the time that DVR can restore or sustain the output voltage to 100% of DVR rating. Choosing the suitable energy storage for DVR applications depends on the expected total cost and the designed rated power.5p. So. the DVR-injection voltage uc(t) and the load voltage uL(t) are in series. Charging of the capacitor bank can be realized by exploiting a separate energy supply such as an electric generator operated by a diesel engine. The reactive power requirement is generated by the inverter. To inject the active power. the capacitor bank should be charged to the rated DC voltage. 3. the secondary winding of which is connected in series with the distribution line. College of Engg. When a voltage dip is detected in the grid. Vs is the source voltage. 15th-17th DECEMBER. The purpose is to maintain the amplitude of the load voltage fixed and prevent phase jumps. The capacitor size is characterized as a time constant T.1 Voltage sag.u 0. V2 is the load voltage after compensation. Features Of Dvr And Specifications i. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DVR: A schematic diagram of the DVR incorporated into a distribution network is shown in Fig. capacitors are the most commonly used energy storage elements for the DVR because they provide a fast discharging response and have no moving parts. Features Of DVR: Fig. Hyderabad. Univ.u 0-0. DVR voltage.u ---1 p. To startup the DVR with a capacitor bank as energy storage.P. restores the quality of electric power delivered to the sensitive load. defined as the ratio between the stored energy at rated DC voltage and the rated apparent power of the converter as: Where UDCN is the nominal DC-converter voltage and SN is its rated apparent power. INDIA. the DVR is considered to be an external voltage source where the amplitude.u 1 p. From Figure. A phasor diagram for a voltage dip with a phasejump case is shown in Figure 2. Its basic idea is to dynamically inject a voltage uc (t) as shown in Fig. where the supply voltage u s (t). VDVR is the series injected voltage of the DVR. 2 DVR operational principal up) simplified equivalent circuit. the load voltage is deduced as uL(t) =us(t)+uc(t) If the supply voltage us(t) has dropped due to a voltage dip or increased due to a voltage swell. the instantaneous amplitude of uc(t) is controlled such as to eliminate any detrimental effects of a system fault to the load voltage as long as the disturbance does not cause the circuit breaker to open. energy storage is needed to increase the ride through capability of DVR. Startup: At the moment. disturbance requires a certain amount of real and reactive power supply from the DVR. the DVR compensating voltage uc(t) should be controlled so that the load voltage remains the same as during no-disturbance conditions. the bypass switch is turned off and the DVR transfers to the compensating state. the frequency and the phase shift of uc(t) can be controlled. SPECIFICATIONS OF DVR: Parameter Rated Value Maximum Load DVR Rating Load Voltage DVR Voltage DC – Link Voltage Supply Frequency 50KVA 10KVA 230V 0-115V 560V 50Hz Per Unit Value 1 p. Thus. Fig.. DVR offers sub cycle protection.u Department of Electrical Engineering. Osmania University. A. 2010 205 outages. The injection of an appropriate VDVR in the face of an up-stream voltage Extremely fast response less than 1/4th cycle Expandable modular design Low maintenance High reliability Protection is available up to 120MVA ii. final load voltage OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF DVR: Fig 3 Typical schematic of a power distribution system compensated by a DVR The DVR is designed to inject the missing voltage into the distribution line.5 p. The DVR regulates voltage within acceptable tolerances and meet the critical sensitive power quality needs.1 The upper part of Figure shows a simplified single-phase equivalent circuit of a distribution feeder with a DVR. down) phasor diagram. The DVR typically consists of an injection transformer. and I is the line current. . V1 is the incoming supply voltage before compensation. The capacitor cost is approximately proportional to the square of its terminal voltage.
etc. 120 Ohms.u Table. 50 HZ supply is isolated by means of a 1:1 (230/230). the DVR injected voltage is written as: Uc = UL –Us = (1-MF) UL The range of the modulus of MF is defined by the maximum variation of Us. the concept of “boost rating” is introduced to define the maximum voltage that the DVR is capable to inject into the power line with respect to the nominal distribution system voltage.1 gives the specifications of DVR which are used for the Hardware Implementation DESIGN CRITERIA AND RATED POWER CALCULATIONS: 1) Design criteria: The design of the DVR is affected by the load. a factor is defined to indicate the reduction of the positive sequence voltage with respect to the nominal voltage of the load. through which the load can Department of Electrical Engineering.P. Maximum allowed voltage drop of the DVR during the standby mode: This affects the control mode during normal operation and indirectly the reaction speed at the beginning of a voltage dip.9. microcontroller circuit. DVR coupling network. 2)for trigger circuit. The maximum depth and duration of voltage dips to be corrected is determined by the statistics of the voltage dips at the DVR location and by the acceptable number of equipment trips. some assumption could be made to simplify the analysis. for which the DVR is designed.1:1 isolated transformer.MF) Consequently. The simulated line impedance is simply a wire wound resistor. is the nominal line-to-line voltage of the supply. To calculate the active and the reactive power.. This boost ratio is defined as B UC Usl 3 and required load voltage UL. the load voltage is assumed to be constant and equal to 1 pu. 3) for control circuit. Osmania University. Lamp load. So. . Hyderabad. When designing for a DVR for certain application. the 230V. In the block diagram. So. together with the load size. 15th-17th DECEMBER. This isolated voltage is treated as the line voltage. INDIA. in case of voltage dips. The real power injected by the DVR is an important feature to precede its design process.. To have maximum effect of voltage drop across the line impedance. the required active power of a DVR depends on the magnitude and the phase-angle jump of the supply voltage as well as the load power factor. SL and MF by the following formula. Parameters of the step-down transformers: Coupling of the step-down transformer (CIA or YIY. After this simulated line impedance. even for unbalanced input voltage. 2010 206 Switching Frequency 20 KHz Table1 400 p. the supply characteristics and by the expected voltage-dip characteristics.16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE. Univ. the following items should be considered: Maximum load power and power factor: The load size strongly affects the current rating of the voltage-source converter and the injection transformer as well as the amount of energy storage needed. Opto coupler circuit. dictates the necessary storage capacity of the energy storage device. Fig. is to exchange real power between the power system and the energy storage device. Maximum depth and duration of voltage dips to be corrected: These characteristics. . 150VA isolation transformer. in normal operation MF will be unity and Uc is zero. and the 3 transformers are: 1) for DVR DC Supply. Here. . the resistance value considered is of very high value. a switch is connected. Usl. Series transformer and output filter components are ideal. PC PL 1 U S c os( c os( L L ) ) In the above equation. HARDWARE DESIGN: This is the hardware implementation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) designed for mitigation of voltage sags. In this the arrangement is of 10 sub circuits as shown in the model 4 IGBT‟s.) at input and output sides of the DVR. Harmonic requirements of the load and of the system: These affect the harmonic filtering needed for the DVR and also influence the choice of charging method for the capacitors. the active and reactive powers are calculated by separating Sc into its real and imaginary parts as PC S L cos( L ) M F cos( S ) QC S L sin( L ) M F sin( S ) Where cos(ΦS) is the source power factor and cos(ΦL) is the load power factor. Sc = SL (1. At the first instance when designing a DVR. which supplies power to the load. For a certain supply voltage U. the apparent power required by the DVR is then calculated in terms of the apparent load power. A. Hardware module of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Top view. College of Engg. Line Impedance. 2) Rated power calculations: The DVR function. Isolated power supply circuit. In order to design a DVR. MF = Us/ UL Considering the fact that the DVR current should be designed to be the same as the rated load current. such as: Ideal switches DC-side capacitors are large enough to maintain a ripplefree DC bus voltage. through simulated line impedance.
e) Inverter driving circuitry: Fig. The input for opto couplers can be either AC or DC. In order to accommodate the excess voltages.1Inverter Driving circuit In order to trigger the IGBTs. Thus. by injecting appropriate voltage into the circuit by means of the coupling network. This reference voltage waveform is generated keeping the zero crossing as the reference to maintain the phase relationship of the load and correcting voltage. and there is an appreciable voltage drop across the line impedance.2V.5 V is added then the output remains in the range of 0 to 5V. As the 230√2 V of positive and negative peak voltage cannot be directly fed to the micro controller circuit.10. which it has obtained from the reference voltage sensing circuit.. The Department of Electrical Engineering. and is responsible for generating the reference voltage waveform from the voltage waveform that is sampled from the sensing network. This inverter uses dc capacitors as the supply and can switch at a high frequency to generate a signal which will mitigate the voltage sags and swells across the load. A. One of these resistor values is arbitrarily chosen and the other value is calculated.5 V is generated as the output. the resulted voltage across the load will be a pure sinusoid of required voltage. in this case the voltage drop caused by it. Univ. the R1 value is calculated and is 2. The functioning and designing of different blocks of dynamic voltage restorer is discussed herewith. with resistors R1 and R2 as shown in the figure. in order to provide triggering pulses to each and every MOSFET.2 V Opto couplers are capable of transferring an electrical signal between two circuits while electrically isolating the circuits from each other. then if 2. The DVR circuit has to check the load voltage and need to be connected to the micro controller circuit and correct the voltage if there is any shortage or excess when compared to a Reference voltage. b) Micro controller circuit: The microcontroller circuit is the heart of the system. the input supply voltage can have a value more than 230V rms. and this drop in voltage need to be injected by the DVR circuit. instead of 2. This output from the DVR is connected in series with the load. If the lamp load is not connected. the R2 value is assumed and is 1. (R2÷ (R1+R2))×230√2 = 2.2V is generated. Hyderabad. coupling transformer and an interfacing filter.5 V for peak voltages 2. The micro controller has to sense both positive and negative voltages. Osmania University. 15th-17th DECEMBER.8KΩ. But. Thus. and the range it can accept is only 0 to 5V. 2010 207 be connected or disconnected. The coupling transformer needs to transfer energy from the voltage source inverter to the load and at the same time need to provide low impedance on the load side. Dynamic Voltage Restorer: The voltage waveform for mitigating the voltage variations in the load circuit is achieved with the voltage source inverter. and there is no need of any correction by the DVR circuit. Initially. and the full voltage appears across the sensing circuit. INDIA. this voltage is attenuated to 2. a) Single phase voltage source bridge inverter: The voltage source inverter used in the DVR circuit makes the induction of required voltage with required phase possible.P. which can be used to drive the opto-coupler secondary side. As the voltage induced through the coupling transformer. The potential divider is basically a resistor divider network.5V at peak points by means of a potential divider. output voltage. In the return path. as explained below. generated by the bridge inverter. it is required to have four isolated power supplies of ± 12V which can be used to apply trigger pulses to the respective MOSFETs. When the load is connected. another 0. the DVR output is connected. the lamp glows and current flows through the simulated line impedance. . They generally consist of an infrared LED.16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE. and mitigates the line impedance effects. which can drive the LED.3 V is there to meet the higher voltages. for positive and negative peaks if 2. College of Engg. light emitting section at the input and a silicon photo detector at the output. instead of 5V that can be accepted by the micro controller circuit.6k The output voltage is considered to be 2.e. so that the transformer winding itself doesn‟t provide a voltage drop across the load. d) Coupling network: Here. The supply peak voltage. The basic block diagram of the proposed DVR system The micro controller can‟t read voltages more than 5V. This inverter provides the required outputs. to provide power to various blocks of the over-all DVR circuit. i. c) Opto coupler and driver circuits: Fig. Thus. f) Isolated power supplies for filter elements: Three different power supplies are required. by means of the output winding of the coupling transformer developed. the output of the isolation transformer does not have any drop. which is meant for driving the IGBT gate. R1 and R2 values are related by the following equation. it is required to apply a +12V pulse to make it turn „ON‟ and -12V pulse to turn it „OFF‟ to the gate with respect to its emitter.
On power Delivery. 2010 208 micro controller requires basically a 5-V supply. “The distribution system dynamic voltage restorer and it‟s applications at industrial facilities with .14 The total circuit diagram of the DVR RESULTS: Fig. S. D. pp. no. 18. On industry applications. the op-amp circuit associated with the potential divider circuit requires a ±12 volts supply. A.Middlekauff and E. pp. June 1995. R& D cell for giving the financial support under JNTUH JRSP scheme to carryout this hardware project References: . No. IEEE Spectrum. 16.1. no.Vol. February 2000. 15 Voltage waveform at the DVR Coupling network The voltage waveform when when the DVR is ON .pp.41-48. The voltage waveform when initially the supply is given without any load connections shown in fig.17 Voltage waveform after switching ON of Lamp load The voltage waveform when the lamp load (200) is connected the drop in voltage is 1. The DVR inverter requires a separate power supply. in-phase injection compensation is the best. and M. Acknowledgements We thank JNTU Hyderabad University. 17. phase advance compensation is best but requires more voltage injection. College of Engg. . The proposed technique is simple and uses only one switching per phase. Vol.J.1.19. “Control and Testing of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) at medium Voltage Level..R.March/ April 1993.”IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. the observed waveform is at the coupling network is clearly shown in fig. Performance of the proposed device is verified by theoretical results and is found to be satisfactory. Hence the system is simple.Hingorani.Samotyj. economical and does not require energy storage device as compared to commonly used DVR or STATCOM. Best control strategy for sensitive loads which can‟t withstand for phase angle jumps is pre-sag compensation.15. 278-282. Fig. Vol.3.P. For minimum voltage injection.” IEEE Trans. M. Conclusions: In this paper.Jan.Collins Jr. “System and customer impact consideration for series custom power devices.Sundaram.2V as shown in fig.McGrandghan. This circuit is shown in the Fig.16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE. .13 Fig.F.”Voltage sags in industrial systems”. But. Department of Electrical Engineering. .” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.G.13 Circuit diagram of Isolated power supply Fig. Osmania University.2.Mueller. Vol.W. MAY 2004.397-402. IEEE Trans. For minimum energy injection by the DVR. . 13. no. 15th-17th DECEMBER. “Introducing custom power”. This supply is generated from a step-down transformer connected to the mains. 1998 N.29. 16 Voltage waveform when the supply is given without any load connections . when the DVR is ON. The proposed technique could identify the voltage sag and is capable of mitigating the sag by maintaining the load voltage magnitude at desired voltage and THD within limits. Hyderabad. 15.R.18 The compensation Voltage waveform after switching ON of the DVR Fig. which is mainly to power the isolated power generator circuit. Univ.Abi-sharma and A. INDIA. Fig. and this is generated from another step-down transformer and another 12-V supply is generated using another step-down transformer. hardware protocol model of DVR is setup. “Dynamic Voltage Restoration with Minimum Energy Injection. The obtained sag is compensated the compensation of voltage waveform with clear graphical fluctuations are shown in the fig. N.
. 1998 pp.” control strategies for dynamic voltage restorer compensating voltage saga with phase jump. N.Tejasri devi was born in Eluru. Dr. Joined as Lecturer in the Department of EEE. JNTU College of Engineering. (EEE) from Osmania University College of Engineering. . Karnataka. Microprocessors and Micro controllers etc.E Golden Jubilee Celebration Commendation.9. 24International and 17 National papers published in variousconferences held at India and also abroad. sensitive loads. India . and A. A. India.Joos et.She was awarded best candidate among B.G. Ph. Jaya laxmi is a Member of IEEE. one Ph.C. Vol.D and currently sheis guiding 3 research students. Dr. in the year 1995. Uma Rao was born in Bangalore.518-525. in IEEE Half Day colloquium on Dynamic Voltage Restorer. Electrical Graduates(1985) in the U. 1998/189..Dr. and N. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Hyderabad and is presently working as Associate Professor. Vol. Vol.Bollen-IEEE PRESS. she published 5 international papers in various IEEE sponsored conferences. redesignated as Assistant Professor. 269-274. . “Power supply quality improvement with a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) “. A. Her specialization is Electrical Power Engineering.P. “Protection from voltage dips with the dynamic voltage restorer”.12671273. Voltage sags and interruptions Math H. Bangalore in 1987.Tech.3-5. She has 5 International Journals to her credit. Power Systems & Power Quality. 1963. Hyderabad.. F.. Hyderabad in 1991. She has 22 years of teaching experience. Digest No.Amhof. Bangalore in 1996 and completed MBA (Project Management) from Indira Gandhi Open University.Dahler. Andhra Pradesh.” in proc. JNTU College of Engineering. She completed her B.P. She worked as Lecturer. K. in 1984. .Morgan. 2. Hyderabad in 2007. “Experience with an inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer. M. Andhra Pradesh in 1996 and completed Ph. No. She has guided 20 M. Tech. BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS: She published 5 books.T. On Power Electronics. born on 8th Feb 1973.P.Gruning. Dr. 2001. London. Hyderabad. A.D from Indian Institute of Science. Technical Report.al. JNTUH.14. Assistant Professor.(Power Quality) from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University College of Engineering. N. in Nalgonda . Hyderabad.D. Singapore.Buxton.Tech degree in 2003 with a specialization in Electrical Power Systems from JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. Mar. Uma Rao is a Member of IEEE. pp. During her teaching career she taught various subjects like C language & Data Structures. Kukatpally.S. She has 4 International journals. IEEE/APEC‟01 Conference. pp.Bangalore.H. A. New Delhi in 2004. “UNDERSTANDING POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS”. L. Jaya laxmi was born in Mahaboob Nagar District. may 1994. She has worked as Visiting Faculty at Osmania University College of Engineering. India. Dr. D. She had 14 years of teaching experience. Life Member of IndianSociety of Technical Education and also Life Member of Institution of Engineers (I).Blaabjerg.E) and also Life Member of Indian Society of Technical Education (M.Mohan. . IEEE Trans. She has five years of Industrial experience and 12 years of teaching experience. In the year 1996.J.16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE.E (EEE) from University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering.Tech degree in 1993 and M. Univ. 15th-17th DECEMBER. “ Analysis and design of a series voltage unbalance compensator based on a three-phase VSI operating with unbalanced switching functions”. Osmania University. .” Westinghouse Electric Corporation.she completed her B. R.Tech. stood University First. K.” IEEE Trans. in proceedings of EMPD‟98. She completed her B. July 1999. Obtained her B.E). E. Associate Professor and Professor in various colleges and presently working as Professor and Head. a small town near Nagarjuna Sagar. RN Shetty Institute of Technology. 1998. Anantapur. She was awarded “Best Technical Paper Award” for Electrical Engineering in Institution of Electrical Engineers in the year 2006.Wunderlin. Power delivery. and H.Compos and G. Bangalore in 1984 and stood University First. She has 23 International and 5 National papers published in various conferences held at India and also abroad. pp. JNTU College of Engg.Sushama. INDIA. .V. 2010 209 .(Power Systems) from REC Warangal.Tech from JNT University. Life Member of Institution of Electrical Engineers Calcutta (M. Kukatpally. M.Hyderabad.. Life Member of System society of India. Her research interests are Neural Networks..I. Presently working as Associate Professor.I. Department of Electrical Engineering. T.1181-1186.Woodly. Doing research in Power Quality using Wavelets. P. on 07-11-1969.E (Power Systems) from University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering. College of Engg. on 10 March.Sundaram.3.Nielsen. M. INDIA. Electrical & Electronics Engineering in the Department of EEE.Tech from SASI Engineering College in 2007 and obtained her M. A. A.
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