¤--rr ¤ · f¬q

trº¤ tatt¤ f¤arª ¤ ªrr fª¤r ~zo++-zo+z
aºrr
sv¤t ¬¤rrt¬r¬ ªr= trrºt¤ f¤arª q¤ ¤¤r¤t¢rt¤ frrorr ¤ªrrªt~zo+z
¤ ªrrr aºrr nr z¬r ¤r ¤ªrª ¤ · f¬q

¤ ªrr fª¤r =r¤r f¬a ¤tª r aq
fªrrrfªª rr
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN–2011-2011
AND
39
t h
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR SCIENCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN–2012
GUI DELI NES
For t he Pre parat ion of Exhibit s and Mode ls
and
Organi s i ng Exhibit ions
CONTENTS
1. GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS 30
2. GUIDELINES FOR ORGANISING ONE-DAY SEMINAR ON POPULARISATION OF SCIENCE 43
3. GUIDELINES FOR ORGANISING THE STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS 44
FOR CHILDREN–2011-12
• CALL FOR ENTRIES 44
• SCREENING, EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENTRIES 46
• CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF EXHIBITS 48
• EXPENDITURE NORMS 50
4. PROFORMAS 52
• MAINTENANCE OF ACCOUNTS 52
• INFORMATION ABOUT PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS 53
• INFORMATION ABOUT NATURE AND NUMBER OF 54
EXHIBITS DISPLAYE
• PANEL OF J UDGES THEME-WISE 55
• INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXHIBIT/ MODEL 56
5. AN EXEMPLARY WRITE-UP OF AN EXHIBIT “TOILET MODIFICATION IN INDIAN 58
TRAINS” DISPLAYED IN THE 35
TH
J AWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE
EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN–2008 (SOLAN)
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
1 GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS
INTRODUCTION
All ch ildr en a r e n a t u r a lly mot iva t ed t o lea r n
a n d a r e ca pa ble of lea r n in g. Th ey a r e n a t u r a l
lea r n er s a n d kn owledge is t h e ou t come of
t h eir own a ct ivit y.
Ch ildr en lea r n t h r ou gh in t er a ct ion s wit h
t h e en vir on men t a r ou n d, n a t u r e, t h in gs a n d
p eop le–b ot h t h r ou gh a ct ion s a n d t h r ou gh
la n gu a ges . Th ey con s t r u ct k n owled ge b y
con n ect in g n ew idea s t o t h eir exis t in g idea s
ba s ed on ma t er ia ls / a ct ivit ies pr es en t ed t o
t h em. Th e s t r u ct u r in g a n d r es t r u ct u r in g of
id ea s a r e es s en t ia l fea t u r es a s ch ild r en
pr ogr es s in lea r n in g. Th ey a ct ively en ga ge
wit h t h e wor ld a r ou n d t h em, exp lor in g,
r es pon din g, in ven t in g, wor kin g t h in gs ou t ,
a n d in t er p r et in g. In or d er t o s t imu la t e
cr ea t ivit y a n d in ven t iven es s in s cien ce,
Na t i on a l Cu r r i c u l u m Fr a me wor k (NCF)
2005 emph a s is es on a ct ivit ies , exper imen t s ,
t ech n ologica l modu les et c. NCF–2005 a ls o
e n c ou r a ge s i mp l e me n t a t i on of va r i ou s
cu r r icu la r a ct ivit ies (even if t h es e a r e n ot
pa r t of t h e exa min a t ion ) t h r ou gh a ma s s ive
exp a n s ion of n on -for ma l ch a n n els s u ch a s
or ga n is a t ion of s cien ce exh ib it ion a t t h e
n a t ion a l level for s ch ool s t u d en t s , wit h
fe e d e r e ve n t s a t s c h ool / b l oc k / t e h s i l /
dis t r ict / r egion / s t a t e levels . Th e object ive
mu s t be t o s ea r ch a n d n u r t u r e in ven t ive/
cr ea t ive t a len t a mon g s t u den t s . NCF – 2005
fu r t h e r e n vi s a ge s t h e u p gr a d a t i o n o f
cu r r en t a ct ivit y in t h is r ega r d b y ma n y
or der s of ma gn it u de, t h r ou gh co-or din a t ion
of s t a t e a n d cen t r a l a gen cies , NGOs , t ea ch er
a s s ocia t ion s et c. , fin a n cia l s u p p or t a n d
mobilis a t ion of exper t s in t h e cou n t r y. Su ch
a movemen t s h ou ld gr a d u a lly s p r ea d t o
ever y cor n er of In dia a n d even a cr os s Sou t h
As ia , u n lea s h in g a wa ve of cr ea t ivit y a n d
s cien t ific t emper a mon g you n g s t u den t s and
t heir t eachers.
Scien ce is a power fu l wa y of in ves t iga t in g
a n d u n der s t a n din g t h e wor ld. Th er efor e, t h e
t ea ch in g of s cien ce mu s t en a ble ch ildr en t o
e xa m i n e a n d a n a l ys e t h e i r e ve r yd a y
exper ien ces . Ever y r es ou r ce mu s t be explor ed
t o en a ble ch ildr en t o expr es s t h ems elves a n d
t o h a n d le ob ject s . Con cer n s a n d is s u es
pert ain in g t o t h e en viron men t s h ou ld be given
impor t a n ce on a ll pos s ible occa s ion s t h r ou gh
a wide r a n ge of a ct ivit ies in volvin g ou t door
pr oject wor ks . Some of t h e in for ma t ion a n d
u n der s t a n din g, flowin g fr om s u ch a ct ivit ies
a n d p r oj e c t s c ou l d c on t r i b u t e t o t h e
ela bor a t ion of a pu blicly a cces s ible da t a ba s e,
wh ich wou ld in t u r n b ecome a va lu a b le
edu ca t ion a l r es ou r ce. Well-pla n n ed s t u den t
pr oject s ma y lea d t o kn owledge gen er a t ion .
Su ch pr oject s may t h en get a place for dis play
in var iou s s cien ce exh ibit ion s .
Th e Na t ion a l Cou n cil of Ed u ca t ion a l
Res ea r ch a n d Tr a in in g (NCERT), New Delh i
or gan is es J awah ar lal Neh r u Nat ion al Scien ce
Exh ibit ion for Ch ildr en (J NNSEC) ever y yea r
for popu la r is in g s cien ce a mon gs t ch ildr en ,
t eachers and pu blic in general. This exhibit ion
is now renamed as J awaharlal Nehru Nat ional
Exh ibit ion for Scien ce a n d En vir on men t a l
Ed u ca t ion for Ch ild r en (J NNESEC). Th is
e xh i b i t i on i s a c u l m i n a t i on of va r i ou s
exh ibit ion s or ga n is ed in t h e pr eviou s yea r by
t h e St a t es , UTs a n d ot h er or ga n is a t ion s a t
dis t r ict , zon al, r egion al an d fin ally at t h e s t at e
level. Selected schools from all States and Union
Territories, the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan,
t h e Na voda ya Vidya la ya Sa mit i, Depa r t men t
of At omic En er gy Cen t r a l Sch ools , CBSE
a ffilia t ed pu blic (in depen den t ) Sch ools a n d
Demon s t r a t ion Mu lt ip u r p os e Sch ools of
Region a l In s t it u t es of Edu cat ion part icipat e in
t h is n at ion al level exh ibit ion . Like in t h e pas t
s ever a l yea r s s u ch exh ib it ion s a r e t o b e
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
organ is ed from dis t rict t o s t at e level du rin g
2011 - 12 t oo. Th es e wou ld for m t h e fir s t
phas e of preparat ion for t he J awaharlal Nehru
Na t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n fo r S c i e n c e a n d
En vi r on me n t a l Ed u c a t i on for Ch i l d r e n
(J NNESEC) t o b e or ga n is ed in Novemb er
2012. To cr ea t e a ca r in g commu n it y in a well
developed s ociet y, t h e ma in t h eme for t h e
St a t e Level Scien ce Exh ibit ion s for Ch ildr en
(SLSEC)– 2011-12 wou ld be ‘Science, Societ y
and Environme nt '.
We con fr on t ma n y cr u cia l is s u es a s a
r apidly pr ogr es s in g s ociet y, wh ich ar e dir ect ly
or in dir ect ly r ela t ed t o s cien ce. Amon g t h es e
is s u es , t h er e a r e a n u mber of da ily a n d r ea l
life s it u a t ion s . Th er e a r e va r iou s pr oblems
r e l a t e d t o a gr icu lt u r e, gl ob a l wa r mi n g,
r e s ou r c e d e p l e t i on , p ol l u t i on , h e a l t h ,
n u t r it ion , dis as t er management , en vir on men t
et c. Ch ild r en n eed t o b e a wa r e of s u ch
s it u a t ion s , is s u es a n d pr oblems t h a t t h e
s ociet y is fa cin g. It is a imed t o empower t h em
t o a pply t h eir s cien t ific kn owledge a n d t h eir
mat h emat ical u n der s t an din g t o s olve t h em in
order t o s u s t ain well being of people of modern
s ociet y. Ch ildr en s h ou ld u n der s t a n d h ow
h u ma n s ociet ies u n limit ed u s e of n a t u r a l
r es ou r ces a ffect s t h e qu a lit y of life a n d
en vir on men t . Ch ildr en n eed t o be en cou r aged
to appreciate and participate in the responsible
u s e of s cien ce for t h e ben efit of t h e s ociet y an d
environment. They shou ld also have a scientific
vis ion abou t differ en t is s u es an d t h e abilit y t o
a c qu ir e a n d p r oc e s s in for ma t ion a b ou t
s cien t ific developmen t s a n d t h eir lon g t er m
implicat ion s on s ociet y an d en vir on men t .
The main object ives of t he exhibit ions are:
• t o p r ovid e a for u m for ch ild r en t o
pu r s u e t h eir n a t u r a l cu r ios it y a n d
in ven t iven es s t o qu en ch t h eir t h irs t for
creativity;
• t o make ch ildr en feel t h at s cien ce is all
ar ou n d u s an d we can gain kn owledge
as well as s olve man y problems als o by
r ela t in g t h e lea r n in g pr oces s t o t h e
phys ical and s ocial environment ;
• t o lay emph as is on t h e developmen t of
s cien ce a n d t ech n ology a s a ma jor
in s t r u men t for ach ievin g goals of s elf-
reliance and socio-economic and socio-
ecological development ;
• t o h igh ligh t t h e r ole of s cien ce a n d
t ech n ology for pr odu cin g good qu a lit y
a n d en vir on men t a l fr ien dly ma t er ia ls
for t h e u s e of s ociet y;
• t o en cou r a ge ch ild r en t o vis u a lis e
fu t u r e of t h e n a t ion a n d h elp t h em
b ecome s en s it ive a n d r es p on s ib le
cit izens;
• t o an alys e h ow s cien ce h a s developed
a n d i s a ffe c t e d b y ma n y d i ve r s e
in dividu a ls , cu lt u r es , s ociet ies a n d
environment ;
• t o develop crit ical t hinking abou t global
i s s u e s t o m a i n t a i n h e a l t h y a n d
s u s t a i n a b l e s oc i e t i e s i n t od a y' s
environment ;
• t o a pply ma t h ema t ics t o vis u a lis e a n d
s olve pr oblems per t a in in g t o ever yda y
life et c.
• t o a ppr ecia t e t h e r ole of s cien ce in
meet in g t h e ch allen ges of life s u ch as
climat e ch an ge, open in g n ew aven u es
in t he area of agricu lt u re, fert iliser, food
p r oc e s s i n g, b i ot e c h n ol ogy, gr e e n
e n e r gy, d i s a s t e r m a n a ge m e n t ,
i n for m a t i on a n d c om m u n i c a t i on
t ech n ology, a s t r on omy, t r a n s p or t ,
games an d s port s et c.
It is en vis a ged t h a t children a n d t ea ch er s
wou ld t r y t o a n a lys e a ll a s pect s of h u ma n
en dea vor wit h a view t o iden t ify wh er e a n d
h ow t h e n ew r es ea r ch es a n d developmen t s
in s cien ce a n d t ech n ology ca n br in g a n d
s u s t a i n p r ogr e s s of s oc i e t y l e a d i n g t o
i mp r ove me n t for t h e ch a llen ges of l i fe .
Th e or ga n is a t ion of s cien ce exh ibit ion s wou ld
a ls o pr ovide oppor t u n it ies t o a ll pa r t icipa t in g
s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d vi s i t or s t o ge t
acqu ain t ed wit h differ en t kin d of equ ipmen t s ,
devices a n d t ech n iqu es . Th is exer cis e wou ld
en a ble t h e s t u den t s a n d t ea ch er s t o gen er a t e
s c i e n t i fi c i d e a s for a d d r e s s i n g va r i ou s
pr oblems of t h e s ociet y an d en vir on men t .
In or der t o fa cilit a t e t h e pr epa r a t ion of
exh ib it s a n d mod els for d is p la y a n d t h e
organisat ion of St at e Level Science Exhibit ions
du r in g 2011 -12, s ix s u b-t h emes h a ve been
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
iden t ified. Th es e are:
1. Agr icu lt u r e a n d Food Secu r it y;
2. En er gy - Res ou r ces a n d Con s er va t ion ;
3. Health;
4. En vir on men t a l Is s u es a n d Con cer n s ;
5. Ma t h ema t ics a n d Ever yda y Life; an d
6. Dis as t er Man agemen t .
Th e impor t a n ce of ea ch s u b-t h eme in t h e
con t ext of t h e ma in t h eme a n d a n u mber of
idea s for developmen t of exh ibit s a r e given
b e l ow. Howe ve r , t h e s e i d e a s a r e on l y
s u gges t ive.* Pa r t icipa n t s a r e fr ee t o develop
exh ibit s ba s ed on ot h er r ela t ed idea s of t h eir
choice.
THEME: SCIENCE, SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT
1 . Agri c ult ure and Food Se c uri t y
Agricu lt u re, direct ly or in direct ly h as been t h e
ma in s ou r ce of livelih ood for t h e ma jor it y of
In dia n popu la t ion . In it ia t ives s t a r t ed for a n
over a ll a gr icu lt u r a l d evelop men t in t h e
cou n t r y in clu de t h e impr ovemen t in s cien ce
a n d t ech n ology ca pa bilit ies , pr odu ct ion a n d
s u pply of a gr icu lt u r a l in pu t s like s eeds a n d
fer t ilizer s , pu blic policy mea s u r es like la n d
reforms et c. One of t he great est asset s in ru ral
a r ea s cou ld be a n in t elligen t a n d effect ive u s e
of e m e r gi n g t e c h n ol ogi e s s u c h a s
b i ot e c h n ol ogy, m i c r ob i ol ogy, ge n e t i c
en gin eer in g, et c. It is impor t an t t o emph as ize
on all fron t s like res earch , edu cat ion , t rain in g
a n d ext en s ion t o fu lly r ea lize t h e a gr icu lt u r a l
p ot e n t ia l of t h e c ou n t r y b y in t e gr a t in g
a gr icu lt u r e wit h ot h er a llied a r ea s lik e
h or t icu lt u r e, ca s h cr ops a n d en er gy cr ops
pr odu ct ion , fis h er ies , agr o-for es t r y et c.
In view of t h e a bove, t h e a gr icu lt u r a l
a ct ivit ies t h a t lea d t o food pr odu ct ion a r e n o
lon ger a s u bject of clas s ical far min g on ly. Th e
mod er n a gr icu lt u r e ca n n ot s u s t a in it s elf
wit h ou t t h e s u ppor t of r es ear ch wor k don e by
s cien t is t s in t h e field of p la n t b r eed in g;
improved variet y of seeds; genet ic engineering;
b iot ech n ology et c. ; in d u s t r ies (ch emica l
fer t ilis er s a n d pa s t icides , t r a ct or s , fa r min g
machines and materials); transports (road, rail,
wa t er wa ys ); en er gy (elect r icit y, dies el, pet r ol,
ga s ol i n e e t c . ) ; m a n a ge m e n t (s t or a ge ,
pr oces s in g, pr es er vin g, qu a lit y con t r ol a n d
main t en an ce) an d man y ot h er s ect or s .
Th e ma in a im of t h is s u b-t h eme is t o ma ke
ou r s ch ool ch ildr en a n d t ea ch er s r ea lize t h e
need of s t u dying and removing t he cons t raint s
r es p on s ib le for k n owled ge ga p on r u r a l
pr ofes s ion s a n d bu ildin g ca pa cit y in food
s ecu rit y.
Food r es ou r ces developmen t is on e of t h e
mos t imp or t a n t a r ea s of h u ma n a ct ivit y.
Ap p lica t ion of t h e k n owled ge of va r iou s
s cien t ific pr in ciples h a s pla yed a s impor t a n t
r ol e i n p r ovi d i n g n e w t e c h n ol ogi e s for
impr ovin g food pr odu ct ion . Now, t h e wor ld is
a ble t o gr ow s u fficien t food for it s 6.6 billion
in h a bit a n t s . Bu t it is a ls o a r ea lit y t h a t ma n y
people s t ill do n ot h ave en ou gh food t o eat an d
many are malnou rished. It is ironical that qu ite
a la r ge n u mber a mou n t of food is gr os s ly
was t ed by s ome s ect ion s of ou r global s ociet y.
Recent ly ou r cou nt ry t oo is facing t his problem
r ela t ed wit h t h e food s ecu r it y. Th is pr oblem
n eeds immedia t e a n d a ppr opr ia t e a t t en t ion .
Abou t 15,000 ch ildr en of t h e wor ld die da ily
a s a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t c on s e qu e n c e of
in a dequ a t e n u t r it ion . People ca n r ea ch t h eir
fu ll in t ellect u a l a n d ph ys ica l pot en t ia l t o
c on t r i b u t e t o s oc i a l a n d e c on m oi c a l
developmen t of a cou n t r y on ly wh en t h ey a r e
well fed a n d well n ou r is h ed. Th er efor e, it is
import ant t o achieve food s ecu rit y for all. Food
secu rit y exist s when all people at all t imes have
ph ys ica l, s ocia l a n d econ omic a cces s t o s a fe
and nu t rit iou s food t o meet t heir diet ary needs
for a pr odu ct ive a n d h ea lt h y life.
Wit h t he help of science and t erchnology, we
ca n en h a n ce ou r a gr icu lt u r a l kn owledge t o
a ch ieve food s ecu r it y t o r ed u ce h u n ger,
ma ln u t r it ion a n d p over t y, a n d fa cilit a t e
equ it a b le, en vir on men t a lly, s ocia lly a n d
econ omically s u s t ain able developmen t .
The exhibit s / models in t his s u b-t heme may
pert ain t o:
*Exhi bi t s t ha t i nvol ve cur r i cul a r a r ea s a nd l ow -cos t t echnol ogi es a r e a l s o w el come t o p a r t i ci p a t e.
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
• S t u d i e s of c l i m a t i c c h a n ge on t h e
agr icu lt u r e;
• Ma n a gin g cr op yield d u e t o clima t ic
ch a n ge a r is in g fr om globa l wa r min g;
• Ec o- for e s t r y t o p r ot e c t a n d r e s t or e
e c os ys t e m for s u s t a i n a b l e for e s t
practices/ preserving and enhancing forest
biodiver s it y;
• Pres ervat ion an d con s ervat ion of s oil an d
ju diciou s u s e of wa t er ;
• Conventional biotechnology practices e.g.,
a p p l i c a t i on of b i ot e c h n ol ogy,
micr obiology, gen et ic en gin eer in g a n d
gen omics t o agricu lt u re for improved an d
h igh yieldin g var it ies ;
• Organic farming/ organic fertilisers versu s
ch emica l fer t ilis er s ; biodyn a mic liqu id
man u r e/ gr een man u r e;
• Pla n n in g a n d ma n a gin g en er gy cr ops
(Salix, poplar, J at r oph a, J ojoba et c.);
• Use of biot echnology for economically and
ecologically s u s t ain able biofu els ;
• En vir on men t al fr ien dly meas u r es of pes t
cont rol;
• Application of biotechnology and genetic
engineering in improving animal breeds and
production of animal products that are used
as food;
• Gr owin g fod d er s in h yd r o- p on ic
environment;
• In n ova t i ve / i n e xp e n s i ve / i m p r ove d /
in digen ou s t ech n ologies / met h ods of
s t or a ge/ p r es er va t ion / con s er va t ion /
transport of agricultural products and food
materials;
• Innovative/ improved practices for reducing
cost of cultivation;
• Growing plants without seeds;
• Identification of medicinal plants and their
applications;
• Effect of electric and magnetic fields on the
growth of plants and protective measures;
• Sugar levels in plant sep at different times
and dates;
• Gentic variations among plants;
• Factors affecting seed germination;
• Best conditions for mu shroom produ ction
and growth of ferns;
• Tropisms in plants and growth hor mones
etc.;
• In digen ou s des ign s of fa r m ma ch in er y,
a gr icu lt u r e implemen t s a n d pr a ct ices ;
• Impa ct of pollu t ion on food;
• Applica t ion of biot ech n ology a n d gen et ic
en gin eer in g t o a gr icu lt u r e for impr oved
a n d h igh yieldin g va r iet ies ;
• Im p r ove d / i m p r ovi s e d m e t h od of
pr oces s in g, pr es er va t ion , s t or a ge a n d
t r a n s por t of a n ima l pr odu ct s ;
• Or ga n i c fe r t i l i ze r s ve r s u s c h e mi c a l
fer t ilizer s ;
• E c ol ogi c a l l y s u s t a i n a b l e fa r m i n g
met h ods ;
• En vir on men t fr ien dly mea s u r es of pes t
con t r ol;
• Ha r n es s in g of a n ima l pr odu ct s keepin g
en vir on men t al con cer n s ;
• Iden t ifica t ion of medicin a l pla n t s a n d
t h eir a pplica t ion s ;
• S c h e m e s / d e s i gn s t o h e l p r e d u c e
pr odu ct ion cos t a n d con s er va t ion of r a w
mat erials ;
• Pla n s for pr oper ma n a gemen t of n a t u r a l
r es ou r ces a n d en vir on men t ;
• St r a t egies t o elimin a t e food in s ecu r it y;
• Is s u es relat ed wit h t he animal helat h and
food s ecu r it y;
• Food pr odu ct ion a n d dema n d of qu la it y
food a n d food s ecu r it y;
• Ad va n t a ge s a n d d i s a d va n t a ge s of
gen et ica lly modified (GM) food;
• Nu t r it ion e d u c a t ion / h e a lt h y e a t in g
h a bit s a n d food u t ilis a t ion by body;
• Pe p p i n g/ m u l c h i n g for we e d
ma n a gemen t a n d r oot developmen t in
s oil; et c.
• Devices t o con t r ol a n d mea s u r emen t of
t h e n ois e, a ir, s oil, wa t er pollu t ion ;
• Pr e s e r va t i on , c on s e r va t i on a n d
ma n a gemen t of s oil;
• An a l ys i s of s oi l s a m p l e s for t h e i r
compon en t s ;
• Ecological s t u dies of plan t s an d an imals ;
• Exper imen t s wit h biodegr a da bilit y;
• St u dy a n d r ecor d va r yin g wa t er levels ,
ove r t h e ye a r , i n t h e wa t e r b od y,
s u r r ou n din g en vir on men t ;
• Des ign an d developmen t of an au t omat ic
wea t h er r ecor din g device;
• Ozon e des t r u ct ion exper imen t s ; et c.
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
2 . Ene rgy - Re s ourc e s and Cons e rvat i on
Aft er food an d wat er ; en er gy is ou r mos t bas ic
n eed. All a ct ivit ies r equ ir e en er gy t o per for m.
Th e s ocia l a n d econ omic developmen t of a
cou n t r y a n d livin g s t a n da r d of it s in h a bit a n t s
depen ds on t h e availabilit y and proper u t iliza-
t ion of energy res ou rces of t hat cou nt ry. En-
ergy is an important concern that differentiates
t h e global rich and t he global poor and t he s o-
cial and economic inequ alit ies t hat resu lt .
All con ven t ion a l s ou r ces of en er gy a r e
exh a u s t ible. Developmen t of con ven t ion a l
for ms of en er gy for meet in g t h e gr owin g n eeds
is t h e main t as k. Fos s il fu els s u pply n ear ly 75
per cen t of t h e wor ld’s en er gy. Bu t fos s il fu els
a r e bein g deplet ed h u n dr ed t h ou s a n d t imes
fa s t er t h a n t h ey a r e bein g for med. At t h e
cu r r en t r a t e of con s u mpt ion , kn own r es er ves
of pet r oleu m will be exh a u s t ed in a bou t 35
years, natu ral gases in abou t 50 years and coal
s ome t ime wit h in 200 yea r s .
In t h e con t ext of globa l s u s t a in a bilit y, t h e
gr ea t con cer n a b ou t en er gy is n ot a b ou t
dimin is h in g s u pplies . It is r a t h er t h a n ou r
cu r r en t mod els of h a r n es s in g en er gy a r e
u n s u s t a in a ble beca u s e of en vir on men t a l,
economic, geographical and equ ity issu es. Ou r
cu r r en t en er gy models r ely on (i) fos s il fu els
t h a t ca u s e s mog a n d a cid r a in a n d a r e lin ked
wit h globa l wa r min g; (ii) t r a dit ion a l bioma s s
fu els t h a t pr ovide a bou t 10 per cen t of wor ld
en er gy, b u t con t r ib u t e t o d efor es t a t ion ,
d e s e r t i fi c a t i on a n d a i r p ol l u t i on ; (i i i )
hydroelectric power stations that provide abou t
05.5 per cen t of en er gy con s u med bu t lin ked
wit h environment al refu gee; (iv) Nu clear power
s t a t ion s t h a t pr ovide ju s t over 6 per cen t of
world energy bu t generat ed radioact ive was t es
t h a t r e q u i r e l on g t e r m s a fe d i s p os a l .
Re d e s i gn i n g s ys t e m of u t i l i za t i on a n d
conservat ion of energy cou ld not only minimize
en vir on men t a l imp a ct s b u t a ls o p r ovid e
t r emen dou s econ omic oppor t u n it ies t o fa s t
developin g cou n t r y like In dia .
On e of t h e impor t a n t a n d obviou s wa y of
redes igning s ys t em for harnes s ing energy is t o
d e ve l op a n d s h i ft t o c l e a n a n d n on -
conventional energy resou rces which are either
n on exh au s t ible or r en ewable as s olar en er gy,
wind energy, hydr oelect ric power, geo-t her mal
en er gy, en er gy fr om bioma s s a n d bioga s ,
ocean t hermal energy, wave energy and energy
from ot her emerging t echnologies . This energy
is a ls o ca lled Gr een En er gy. Ou r cou n t r y is
making efforts in this direction. The technology
t o exploit s u ch n on -con ven t ion a l s ou r ces of
en er gy mu s t h a ve t o be efficien t a n d ca pa ble
of bein g oper a t ion . An ot h er impor t a n t poin t
is t o ma ke efficien t u s e of exis t in g en er gy
r e s ou r c e s a n d t h e i r m or e e q u i t a b l e
distribu tion. As per the data available, two third
of en er gy is cu r r en t ly wa s t ed wor ldwide.
Ou r cou n t r y is en dowed wit h en or mou s
solar energy. It can generate u p to 20 MW solar
power s per s qu a r e kilomet er la n d a r ea t h a t
ca n be u s ed for va r iet y of a pplica t ion s . Th e
gr os s win d power is es t ima t ed t o be a bou t
45, 000 MW, bu t pr es en t ly ou r cou n t r y is
pr odu cin g on ly abou t 15,000 MW win d power.
Th e dema n d of elect r ic en er gy is gr owin g a t a
r a t e fa s t er t h a n a n y ot h er for m of en er gy. It s
r equ ir emen t in In dia is pr imar ily met t h r ou gh
a n et wor k of t h er ma l (a bou t 70 per cen t )
h ydr oelect r ic (a bou t 14 per cen t ) a n d n u clea r
(abou t 4 per cent ) power st at ion and remaining
from ot her resou rces. Nu clear elect ricit y holds
mu ch gr ea t er pot en t ia l of power s u pply in
fu t u r e. Bu t t h e s a fet y a n d en vir on men t a l
con cer n s wit h t h e n u clea r r es ou r ces a r e a ls o
import ant .
In t h is s cen a r io, we n eed t o des ign , develop
a n d in n ova t e n ew a n d econ omica lly via ble
t ech n ologies t o h a r n es s a n d con s er ve en er gy
from alt ern at ive res ou rces . Th is s u b-t h eme is
expect ed t o make t he children t hink of variou s
wa ys a n d mea n s for ma kin g efficien t u s e of
a va ila b le en er gy r es ou r ces a n d a ls o n ew
t ech n iqu es / met h ods of u s in g a n d con s er vin g
en er gy fr om b ot h con ven t ion a l a n d n on -
con ven t ion al s ou r ces . Th e exh ibit s / models in
t h is s u b-t h eme ma y per t a in t o:
• Va r iou s wa ys of h a r n es s in g geot h er ma l
en er gy s u ch a s en er gy fr om h ot s pr in gs /
geot h er ma l des a lin iza t ion / geot h er ma l
h ea t in g – con t r ollin g h ea t in g a n d coolin g
of a bu ildin g u s in g u n der gr ou n d h ea t by
ver t ica l/ h or izon t a l loop s / geot h er ma l
p owe r / e l e c t r i c i t y ge n e r a t e d fr om
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
n a t u r a lly oc c u r r in g ge ologic a l h e a t
s ou rces ;
• Models of gr een bu ildin g/ en vir on men t
bu ilding which harves t energy, wat er and
mat erials;
• Gr een r oof t ech n ologies / r oof mou n t ed
s ola r t ech n ologies s u ch a s s ola r wa t er
h eat er, s olar ligh t in g s ys t em;
• Hea t in g s ys t em of a bu ildin g by s ola r
heater;
• Models / in n ova t ive des ign s of domes t ic
h ydroelect ric gen erat or;
• Devices t o make breeze fu nneling t owards
you r h ome;
• Met h ods of h ea t r et en t ion in ma t er ia ls /
h ea t con t r ol in t h e des ign of h ou s e;
• Solar cooker/ solar distiller/ solar dryer for
food pr oces s in g/ s olar h eat ed h ou s es ;
• Solar thermal electricity/ commu nity solar
project ;
• Innovative designs and installation of solar
t ower;
• Hybr id s ola r ligh t in g (s ola r illu min a t ion
by r ou t in g da yligh t in t o t h e in t er ior pa r t
of t h e bu ildin g by r eflect in g a focu s ed
beam of su nlight on the end of optical fiber
cables);
• St u dies of variat ion in s u n s h in e in t en s it y
at a given place for developing indigenou s
met h od of it s u s a ge et c;
• Pr oject s for mea s u r in g a va ila bilit y of
s ola r / win d en er gy in a given a r ea ;
• Model of win d t u r bin e for domes t ic u s e
wit h vert ical/ h orizon t al axis ;
• Des ign s of low n ois e win d fa r m;
• Win d mill/ wat er mill for grin din g grain s /
d r a win g wa t er fr om t h e well a n d t o
generat e elect ricit y;
• Wa t er s en s it ive u r ba n des ign t o mit iga t e
wat er s h ort age;
• Wat er cris is management ;
• Use of tidal waves/ ocean cu rrents/ salinity
gr adien t for gen er at in g elect r icit y;
• Wa ve en er gy fr om os cilla t in g wa t er
con ver s ion / t idal bar r age gen er at or et c;
• En er gy fr om bioma s s s u ch a s s ea weeds ,
h u ma n / a n ima l wa s t es , keepin g in view
environment al concerns ;
• Improvised technologies for effective u sage
of bio-fu els ;
• In n ova t ive des ign s of bio ga s / bio ma s s
plant ;
• Bio dies el fr om pla n t oils (obt a in ed fr om
ca n ola , pa lm oil, micr o a lga e oil, wa s t e
veget able oil et c);
• Low cos t liqu id fu el (bio-et h a n ol, bio-
met h a n ol fr om cellu los e b ioma s s b y
improvis in g con vers ion t ech n iqu es );
• Bio en er gy for pover t y a llevia t ion ;
• Impa ct of bio-en er gy on food s ecu r it y;
• Mod e l s / d e s i gn s of fu e l - e ffi c i e n t
au t omobiles / machines ;
• Innovat ive designs of int ernal combu st ion
en gin e wh ich can fu n ct ion on var iou s bio
fu els;
• Pr od u ct ion of elect r ica l en er gy fr om
mech an ical en ergy/ n u clear res ou rces ;
• Mech a n is m of ext r a ct ion , s t or a ge a n d
pr oces s in g of fos s il fu els ,
• St u dy of a ir t ides ;
• Effects of landscaping and architectu re on
en er gy con s u mpt ion et c.
3 . He alt h
Hea lt h is a n over a ll s t a t e of body, min d a n d
s ocia l well bein g t h a t implies t o a n in dividu a l
an d people. Ou r h ealt h is con t in u ou s ly u n der
t h e in flu en ce of bot h en dogen ou s (wit h in ) an d
exogenou s (arou nd) environment and therefore
a mat t er of great concern es pecially in t he rap-
idly growin g s ociet y t o cope u p wit h n ewer s ci-
en t ific a n d t ech n ologica l in ven t ion s . Wh en
people a r e h ea lt h y, t h ey a r e mor e efficien t a t
wor k. Th is in cr ea s es pr odu ct ivit y a n d br in g
economic prosperity. Health also increases lon-
gevit y of t h e people a n d r edu ces in fa n t a n d
maternal mortality. When the functioning of one
or mor e or ga n s or s ys t ems of t h e body is a d-
ver s ely affect ed, ch ar act er ized by var iou s s ign
an d s ympt oms , a s t at e of dis eas e is r eflect ed.
The healt h is broadly affect ed by genet ic dis-
or der s , in fect ion s a n d lifes t yle bu t mu lt i-fa c-
t or ia l ca u s es a r e mor e pr eva len t in ca s e of
many diseases. In case of genetic disorders, de-
ficien cies / defect s a r e in h er it ed fr om pa r en t s
a n d t h e bes t exa mples a r e h emoph ilia a n d
colou r blin dn es s , h owever, dis ea s es like ca n -
cer a n d dia bet es mellit u s a r e a ls o kn own t o
h ave gen et ic bas is , t h es e ar e n on -in fect iou s .
3 6
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
Fu r t h er, man y dis eas es las t for s h or t per iod of
t ime ca lled a cu t e dis ea s es like common cold
bu t ma n y ot h er a ilmen t s la s t for lon ger du r a -
t ion a n d even a s mu ch a s life t ime like t u ber -
cu los is , t h ey a r e ch r on ic dis ea s es . Th e ca n cer
is on e of t h e mos t dr ea ded ch r on ic dis ea s es of
h u ma n bein gs a n d is a ma jor ca u s e of dea t h
a ll over t h e globe. Tr a n s for ma t ion of n or ma l
cells in t o ca n cer ou s n eo-pla s t ic cells ma y be
in du ced by ph ys ica l, ch emica l or biologica l
agent s . Ionizing radiat ions like X-rays , gamma
r a ys a n d n on ion izin g r a dia t ion s UV ca u s es
DNA da ma ge lea din g t o n eo-pla s t ic t r a n s for -
ma t ion . Ch emica l ca r cin ogen s pr es en t in t o-
ba cco s moke h a ve been iden t ified a s a ma jor
ca u s e of lu n g ca n cer. Ca n cer ca u s in g vir u s es
a r e a ls o kn own , t h ey pos s es s gen es ca lled vi-
r al on cogen es .
In fect iou s agen t s compr is es of a wide gr ou p
of or ga n is ms ca lled pa t h ogen s , t h ey a r e vi-
r u s es , ba ct er ia , fu n gi, pr ot ozoa n a n d mu lt i-
cellu lar worms, insects etc. The diseases cau sed
by t h es e or gan is ms in clu de in flu en za, den gu e
fe ve r , AIDS , t yp h oi d , c h ol e r a , ma l a r i a ,
r in gwor ms , fila r ia s is et c. Th e pa t h ogen s live
u n der differ en t en vir on men t a l con dit ion s a n d
h a ve gr ea t pot en t ia l t o a da pt t o t h e en vir on -
men t wit h in t h e h os t . For example, t h e pat h o-
gen s t h a t en t er t h e gu t kn ow t h e wa y of s u r -
viving in t he s t omach at low pH and res is t ance
t o va r iou s diges t ive en zymes . Pa t h ogen ic a t -
t a ck t o a n in dividu a l a n d s pr ea d t o s omeon e
els e t akes place t h r ou gh air, wat er, s oil, ph ys i-
ca l con t a ct a n d a ls o t h r ou gh ot h er a n ima ls .
Su ch an imals ar e t h u s t h e in t er mediar ies an d
ar e called vect or s . In man y in s t an ces t h e body
is able t o defend it s elf from mos t of t hes e infec-
t iou s agen t s t h r ou gh t h e immu n e s ys t em. Ac-
qu ired immu nit y is pat hogen specific; however,
we a ls o pos s es s in n a t e immu n it y fr om bir t h .
Ou r healt h is adversely affect ed du e t o many
en vir on men t a l h a za r ds t h a t lea d t o s ever a l
kin ds of in fect ion in t h e body. Wit h in cr ea s -
in g popu lat ion , deman d for food, wat er, h ome,
t r a n s por t , en er gy et c a r e in cr ea s in g ca u s in g
t r emen d ou s p r es s u r e on ou r n a t u r a l r e-
s ou r ces a n d t h er eby con t r ibu t in g t o pollu t ion
of a ir, wa t er a n d s oil. Th e lifes t yle in clu din g
food a n d wa t er we t a ke, t en den cy for ju n k/
fa s t food, r es t a n d exer cis e, h a bit s a n d dr u gs
a n d a lcoh ol a bu s e is a n ot h er ch a llen ge t o ou r
h ea lt h . In cr ea s in g level of obes it y, ea r ly de-
t ect ion of h yper glycemia a n d h yper t en s ion is
a gr ea t ca u s e of wor r y fr om t h e h ea lt h poin t
of view. Con t in u ou s effor t s of s cien t is t s , t ech -
nologis t s , doct ors and nat u ralis t have brou ght
ma n y n ew wa ys of s a fet y a n d s ecu r it y t o ou r
life. Ma jor in ven t ion s in bio-medica l dia gn os -
t ics , n ew va ccin es a n d a n t ibiot ics , s u r gica l
met h ods a n d gen et ic en gin eer in g h a ve given
relief t o t he mankind. These efforts are respon-
s ible for r a is in g t h e s t a n da r d of t h e per s on a l
h ealt h an d h ygien e an d in pr ovidin g bot h pr e-
ven t ive a n d cu r a t ive fa cilit ies t o t h e commu -
n it y. Mor t a lit y a ge h a s gon e u p, in fa n t a n d
ma t er n a l mor t a lit y gon e down a n d epidemics
a r e mu ch u n der con t r ol. Awa r en es s t owa r ds
med it a t ion a n d t r a d it ion a l k n owled ge of
h er ba l medicin es h a s in flu en ced commu n it y
health.
The pres ent s u b-t heme is propos ed wit h t he
objectives: to bring awareness among the you th
a bou t h ea lt h a n d fa ct or s a ffect in g ou r h ea lt h ,
to explore new scientific, technological and bio-
medical in t er ven t ion s in pr even t ion an d cu r e,
t o a n a lyze t h e r ole of s elf a n d s ociet y in keep-
in g ou r en vir on men t h ealt h y in or der t o main -
t ain good healt h and promot e innovat ive ideas
for bet t er man agemen t .
Th e exh ibit s a n d models in t h is s u b-t h eme
ma y per t a in t o:
• De m on s t r a t i on of h e a l t h a n d
differen t iat ion from t h e s t at e of ill h ealt h ;
• Demon s t r a t ion of fa ct or s a ffect in g t h e
h ealt h , differ en t ailmen t s in t h e body;
• Sh owin g a n d d es ign in g a ct ivit ies on
in fect iou s a n d n on -in fect iou s dis ea s es ,
r ela t ion s h ip wit h ca u s a t ive fa ct or s a n d
t h eir s ou rces ;
• Innovat ion t o develop cont rol measu res at
differen t levels , role variou s agen cies ;
• Pr e s e n t i n g me d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a n d
facilities, ru ral/ u rban and gender aspects;
• Sen s it is in g people t o be ca r efu l in h ea lt h
ma t t er s , explor e t h e pos s ibilit ies a n d
make u s e of t h e facilit ies available;
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
• Develop men t of k n owled ge- b a s e a n d
u n der s t a n d n ew s cien t ific, t ech n ologica l
a ids in bio-medica l a r ea ;
• Demon s t r a t ion of mea n s a n d wa ys t o
adopt met h ods for s elf con cen t r at ion an d
medit at ion an d t h eir u s es ;
• Demonstration of known facts and research
findings in different medical systems like
Indian, Modern, Homeopath etc.;
• Demonstration of lifestyle and relationship
with good and bad health based on known
fact s and res earches ;
• Demon s t r a t ion of t h e r ole of t r a dit ion a l
k n owl e d ge of h e r b a l p r od u c t s for
commu n it y h ealt h ; et c.
• Imp r oved met h od s of s a n it a t ion a n d
a p p r op r i a t e t e c h n ol ogy for wa s t e
dis pos a l, bot h biodegr a da ble a n d n on -
biodegr a da ble;
• Common prophylact ic measu res available
a n d a d va n t a ge s of i n oc u l a t i on a n d
vaccinat ion;
• Need for a ppr opr ia t e mea s u r es for fa mily
welfare;
• Need for developin g low-cos t n u t r it iou s
food;
• Gen er a l a wa r en es s a bou t occu pa t ion a l
h a za r ds a n d in n ova t ive t ech n iqu es t o
overcome t hem;
• Gen er a l a wa r en es s a bou t commu n it y
medicine;
• New medica l dia gn os t ic a n d t h er a peu t ic
t ools ;
• Impr oved a ids t o vis u a lly impa ir ed a n d
ph ys ica lly h a n dica pped per s on s ;
• Ne e d t o c u r b m e n a c e of a l c oh ol
c on s u m p t i on , d r u g a d d i c t i on a n d
s mokin g;
• Genet ic s t u dies ;
• St u dies of memor y s pa n a n d memor y
ret en t ion ; an d
• Fa ct or s a ffect in g t h e en zymes ’ r ea ct ion
rat es et c.
• S i mp l e t e c h n ol ogi e s for d e ve l op i n g
d i a gn os t i c s a n d e n vi r on m e n t a l
mon it orin g.
4 . ENVIRONMENTAL IS S UES AND
CONCERNS
Th e s pect a cu la r in du s t r ia l a n d econ omica l
development over t he pas t few decades has led
t o t h e r epla cemen t of t h e commu n it ies of
n a t u r e by ma n -ma de commu n it ies . However,
t h e pr in ciples t h a t gover n t h e life of n a t u r a l
commu nit ies have t o be observed if t hese man-
m a d e c om m u n i t i e s a r e t o fl ou r i s h .
Defor es t a t ion , over gr a zin g, in dis cr imin a t e
mining, and t ree-felling, fau lt y t illage pract ices
et c. h a ve led t o s ever e s oil er os ion . Over
ir r iga t ion a n d r iver -h a r ves t in g of a gr icu lt u r a l
lands has resu lt ed int o salinit y of wat er, wat er -
loggin g a n d degr a da t ion . Over -u s e of t u be-
wells h a s s u bs t a n t ia lly lower ed down t h e
u n der gr ou n d wat er t able. Des t r u ct ion of lu s h
t r ee cover s h a s occu r r ed du e t o t h e n eed of
mor e a gr icu lt u r a l a n d r es idu a l la n ds t o meet
t h e c h a l l e n ge s d u e t o ove r - p op u l a t i on .
In du s t r ial efflu en t s , for es t fir e an d u n plan n ed
gr owt h h a ve led t o s ever e wa t er a n d a ir
pollu t ion. Major cu rrent environment al is s u es
in clu de clima t e ch a n ge, s pecies ext in ct ion ,
pollu t ion , en vir on men t a l degr a da t ion , a n d
r es ou r ce deplet ion et c. Hu man livin g h as n ow
become u n s u s t a in a ble. However t h er e is a n
u n der s t a n din g t h a t t h e s u s t a in a bilit y is t h e
key t o pr even t in g or r edu cin g t h e effect of
en vir on men t a l is s u es . Th is n eeds t o pr a ct ice
t h e h u ma n u s e of n a t u r a l r es ou r ces t o wit h in
su stainable limits. Therefore for hu mans to live
s u s t a in a bly, t h e Ea r t h ’s r es ou r ces mu s t be
u s e d a t a r a t e a t wh i c h t h e y c a n b e
r eplen is h ed.
Th e b i op h ys i c a l e n vi r on m e n t t h a t
c omp r is e s t h e Ea r t h ’s b ios p h e r e is t h e
s ymbios is bet ween t h e ph ys ica l en vir on men t
a n d t h e b iologic a l life . Th e b iop h ys ic a l
e n vi r on m e n t c a n b e d i vi d e d i n t o t wo
ca t egor ies : t h e n a t u r a l en vir on men t a n d t h e
m a n - m a d e e n vi r on m e n t . Th e i n d u s t r i a l
r e vol u t i on h a s m a d t h e m a n - m a d e
en vir on men t a n in cr ea s in gly s ign ifica n t pa r t
of t h e Ea r t h ’s en vir on men t . Th e s cope of t h e
bioph ys ica l en vir on men t is a ll t h a t con t a in ed
in the biosphere, which is that part of the Earth
i n wh i c h a l l l i fe oc c u r s . A b i op h ys i c a l
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en vir on men t is t h e complex of biot ic, climat ic,
and edaphic fact ors t hat act u pon an organism
a n d det er min e it s for m a n d s u r viva l, a n d
mor ph s it s elf in t h e pr oces s . Ecos ys t ems , of
wh ich t h er e a r e n u mer ou s t ypes a n d a r e a
defined part of t he biosphere, collect ively make
u p t h e wh ole of t h e bios ph er e. Wit h in a n
ecos ys t em t h er e a r e h a bit a t s in wh ich a n
or ga n is m (in clu din g h u ma n bein gs ) exis t s . At
it s mos t n a t u r a l s t a t e, a n en vir on men t wou ld
la ck a n y effect s of h u ma n a ct ivit y, a lt h ou gh
t h e s ca le of t h is a ct ivit y is s u ch t h a t a ll a r ea s
of t h e Ea r t h h a ve h a d a t lea s t s ome in flu en ce
by h u man s . At t h e ot h er en d of t h e s cale is t h e
ma n -ma de en vir on men t a n d in s ome ca s es it
h a s t h e biot ic compon en t t h a t is vir t u a lly
a bs en t . Emph a s is is n ow for pr ot ect ion of
en da n ger ed s pecies a n d pr ot ect ion of a n y
ecologica lly va lu a ble n a t u r a l a r ea s .
Th e u n der s t a n din g of Ea r t h h a s r e-
markably increased in recent times throu gh En-
vironmental Science wh ich is a ba s is for a d-
dr es s in g en vir on men t a l is s u es . It is n ow a
mu lt i-dis ciplin ary academic s t u dy t au gh t an d
s t u died at all s t ages of edu cat ion inclu ding t he
school edu cation. environmental Science is the
s t u dy of t h e in t er a ct ion s wit h in t h e bioph ys i-
cal environment. Part of this scientific discipline
is t h e in ves t iga t ion of t h e effect of h u ma n a c-
t ivit y on t h e en vir on men t . Ecology, a s u b-dis -
ciplin e of biology a n d a pa r t of en vir on men t a l
s cien ces , is oft en mis t a ken a s a s t u dy of h u -
ma n in du ced effect s on t h e en vir on men t . En-
vironmental Studies is a br oa der a ca demic
dis cipline t hat is t he s ys t emat ic s t u dy of int er -
act ion of h u man s wit h t h eir en viron men t . It is
a br oa d field of s t u dy t h a t in clu des t h e n a t u -
ral environment, man-made environments and
s ocia l en vir on men t s . En vir on men t a lis m is a
broad social and philosophical movement t hat ,
in a la r ge pa r t , s eeks t o min imize or elimin a t e
t h e effect of h u man act ivit y on t h e bioph ys ical
environment .
En vir on men t a l is s u es a n d con cer n s a r e
addressed at a regional, nation or international
l e ve l b y s e ve r a l gove r n m e n t a n d n on -
gove r n m e n t or ga n i za t i on s . Mi n i s t r y of
Environment and Forest , Government of India,
has established National Green Corps to set u p
a n d r u n eco- clu b s in s ch ool ed u ca t ion .
Th r ou gh t h e eco-clu bs differ en t en vir on men t
r ela t ed a ct ivit ies s u ch a s gr een in g of s ch ool
c a m p u s , c ol l e c t i on of wa s t e s , wa s t e
management, water conservation practices etc.,
and other activities related to spread awareness
a bou t t h e en vir on men t s u ch a s or ga n izin g
r a l l i e s , p a i n t i n g c om p e t i t i on e t c . a r e
u n der t a ken . Wit h s u ch in it ia t ives of Na t ion a l
Gr een Cor ps a n d s ch ool s ys t ems , In dia n
ch ild r en h a ve fin a lized In d ia n Ch ild r en ’s
Chart er of Res pons ibilit ies . This Chart er “Let ’s
Ta ke Ca r e of In dia ” s a ys : We, the children of
India, res olve to w ork together to tak e care of
our environment Air, Water, Fire (Energy ) and
Ea rt h by a s s u min g t h e In d ia n Ch ild re n ’s
Charter of Res pons ibilities .
Th e ma in object ive of t h is s u b-t h eme is t o
make general pu blic and children in part icu lar
a wa r e wit h t h e cu r r en t en vir on men t a l is s u es
a n d con cer n s for a ch ievin g s u s t a in a bilit y t o
prevent t he effect of environment al is s u es . The
models a n d exh ibit s in t h is s u b-t h eme ma y
pert ain t o:
• Evir on men t al is s u es r elat ed wit h h u man
activities su ch as agricu ltu re, energy, fish-
in g, foor es t s , min in g, s h ippin g, pa per,
wa r, occea n deoxygen a t ion , dea d zon e,
paint et c.;
• En vir on men t a l is s u es wit h con s er va t ion
— s pecies ext in ct ion , pollin a t or declin e,
cor a l blea ch in g, Holocen e ext in ct ion , in -
vasive species, poaching, endangered spe-
cies et c. ea n deoxygen a t ion , dea d zon e,
paint et c.;
• Environmental issu es with energy conser -
vat ion , ren ewable en ergy, efficien t en ergy
u s e, ren ewable en ergy commercializat ion
etc;
• Environmental controversies su ch as dam
cont roversies, genet ically modified organ-
is ms / food con t r over s y, s ea lin g, dioxin
con t r over s y, wa t er flu or ida t ion con t r o-
vers y et c.;
• En vir on men t al dis as t er s s u ch as Bh opal
dis as t er, oil s pills , n u clear acciden t s et c.
• En docr in e dis r u pt or s ;
• Climat e change — global warming, green-
h ou s e ga s es , fos s il fu els , s ea level r is e,
ocean acidificat ion et c.;
• Is s u es r elat ed wit h en vir on men t al h ealt h
s u ch a s a ir qu a lit y, a s t h ma , elect r oma g-
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n et ic r a dia t ion s a n d fields , lea d pois on -
in g, in door a ir qu a lit y, s ick bu ildin g s yn -
dr ome et c;
• Ozon e deplet ion – CFC;
• Environmental effects of intensive farming
s u c h a s ove r gr a zi n g, i r r i ga t i on ,
plas t icu lt u re, pes t icides et c.;
• Wa t er pollu t ion — a cid r a in , ma r in e pol-
lu t ion , Ocea n du mpin g, eu t r oph ica t ion ,
ma r in e debr is , t h er ma l pollu t ion , a lga l
boom, micr o-plas t ics , et c;
• Air pollu t ion — s mog, ozon e, pa r t icu la t e
mat t er, s u lph u r oxide et c;
• Ligh t , n ois e, vis u a l, poin t s ou r ce a n d ex-
t en ded s ou r ce pollu t ion ;
• Ur ba n s pr a wl, h a bit a t fr a gmen t a t ion ,
h abit at des t ru ct ion ;
• Soil er os ion , s oil con t a min a t ion a n d
s alin at ion , an d Was t e;
• Aviat ion an d en vir on men t ;
• Environmental impacts of irrigation, dams
an d res ervoirs ;
• GAIA hypothesis and environment protec-
tion;
• E n vi r on m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i on s of
n a n ot ech n ology (n a n o- t oxiology a n d
n an o-pollu t ion ).
5 . Mat he mat ic s and Eve ryday Life
The fascinating world of mathematics provides
us with an unlimited scope to perceive problems
pertaining to thr ee s it u a t ion s vis u a lized in t h e
for m of con cr et e, a bs t r a ct ion a n d in t u it ion .
Th e impor t a n t s egmen t of ma t h ema t ics ⎯t h e
abilit y t o reas on an d t h in k clearly is ext remely
u s efu l in ou r ever yday life. Pr oofs an d dedu c-
t ion s a r e h a llma r ks of ma t h ema t ics . Mu ch
more than arithmetic and geometry, mathemat-
ics t oda y is a diver s e dis ciplin e. It a ls o dea ls
wit h da t a , mea s u r emen t s a n d obs er va t ion s
fr om s cien ce, mat h emat ical models of n at u r al
ph en omen on in clu din g h u ma n beh a vior a n d
s ocial s ys t ems . It s domain is n ot molecu les or
cells bu t nu mbers , chance, forms , pat t ern and
order, algorit hms , and change. As a s cience of
a bs t r a ct object s , ma t h ema t ics r elies on logic
r a t h er t h a n on obs er va t ion , a s it s s t a n da r d of
tru th, yet employs observation, simu lation, and
even experimen t at ion as mean s of dis coverin g
t r u t h . Ma t h ema t ics offer s dis t in ct ive mode of
t h ou gh t s wh ich are vers at ile an d powerfu l, in -
clu ding mat hemat ical modeling, opt imizat ion,
logica l a n a lys is , in fer en ce fr om da t a a n d u s e
of s ymbols . Exper ien ce wit h ma t h ema t ica l
mod e s of t h ou gh t b u i l d s ma t h e ma t i c a l
power ⎯a capacit y of min d of in creas in g valu e
in t h is t ech n ologica l a ge t h a t en a bles on e of
r ea d cr it ica lly, t o iden t ify fa lla cies , t o det ect
bias, to assess risk, and to su ggest alternatives.
Fr om medica l t ech n ology t o econ omic
pla n n in g (in pu t / ou t pu t models of econ omic
b e h a vi or ), fr om ge n e t i c s t o ge ol ogy,
mat hemat ics has made an indelible imprint on
ever y pa r t of moder n s cien ce, even a s s cien ce
it s elf h a s s t imu la t ed for gr owt h of ma n y
bran ch es of mat h emat ics . Applicat ion s of on e
part of mat h emat ics t o an ot h er -of geomet ry t o
a n a lys is , of pr oba bilit y t o n u mber t h eor y-
u n it y of ma t h ema t ics . Des p it e fr equ en t
con n ect ion s a mon g pr oblems in s cien ce a n d
ma t h ema t ics , t h e con s t a n t dis cover y of n ew
a llia n ces r et a in s a s u r p r is in g d egr ee of
u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y. Wh e t h e r p l a n n e d or
u n plan n ed, t h e in t imacy bet ween s cien ce an d
m a t h e m a t i c s i n p r ob l e m s ol vi n g,
u n der s t a n din g t h eor ies a n d con cept s h a s
r a r ely been gr ea t er t h a n it is n ow, in t h e la s t
qu ar t er of t wen t iet h cen t u r y.
Mathematics gives an exactness in thinking
a n d pr ovides a qu a n t it a t ive a ppr oa ch . Th e
s pecia l r ole of ma t h ema t ics in edu ca t ion is a
con s equ en ce of it s u n iver s a l a pplica bilit y. In
gen er a l, t o s olve pr a ct ica l pr oblems we follow
a s et pr ocedu r e in vovin g s t eps r ela t ed wit h
d efin in g va r ia b les ; wr it in g equ a t ion s or
in equ alit ies ; collect in g dat a an d or gan ize in t o
t a bles ; ma kin g gr a ph s a n d illu s t r a t ion s ; a n d
calct au lat in g pr obabilit ies .
Wit h t h e a bove fr a gr a n ce of ma t h ema t ics ,
let u s obs er ve a s it u a t ion a n d exa min e h ow
mat h emat ics is in volved in it .
S it u a t ion : Su p p os e ou r p r ob lem is t o
es t ima t e t h e n u mber of fis h / fis h es in a pon d.
It is n ot pos s ible t o capt u re each of t h os e fis h /
fis h es a n d cou n t t h em. We ma y ca pt u r e a
s a mple fr om t h e pon d a n d es t ima t e t h e t ot a l
nu mber of fish/ fishes in it. How can we do this?
For t h e a bove s it u a t ion , let u s fir s t t a ke a
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
s ample of fis hes . Now, how do we es t imat e t he
entire popu lation? We wou ld have to then mark
t he s ampled fis hes , allow t hem t o mix wit h t he
r ema in in g on es in t h e pon d, a ga in dr a w a
s a mple fr om t h e pon d, a n d s ee h ow ma n y of
t h e pr eviou s ly mar ked on es ar e pr es en t in t h e
new sample. Then, u sing rat io and proport ion,
we ca n come u p wit h a n es t ima t e of t h e t ot a l
popu lat ion . For in s t an ce, let u s t ake a s ample
of 20 fishes from t he pond and mark t hem, and
t h en r elea s e t h em in t h e s a me pon d, s o a s t o
mix wit h t h e r emain in g fis h es .
We then take another sample (say 50), from
t h e mixed popu lat ion and s ee how many are
marked. We collect dat a and analyze it .
On e ma jor a s s u mpt ion we a r e ma kin g is
t h at t h e mar ked fis h es mix u n ifor mly wit h t h e
r ema in in g fis h es , a n d t h e s a mple we t a ke is a
good r epr es en t a t ive of t h e en t ir e popu la t ion .
Th e s imp lified ma t h ema t ica l p r ob lem
developed h er e is t h en s olved u s in g va r iou s
mathematical techniques .
For instance, su ppose in the second sample
5 marked fishes are present. So, 5/ 50, i.e. 1/ 10,
of t h e popu lat ion is marked. If t h is is t ypical of
t h e wh ole p op u la t ion , t h en 1 / 1 0
t h
of t h e
p op u la t ion is equ a l t o 2 0 . So, t h e wh ole
popu la t ion = 20 x 10 = 200.
Now, let u s go back t o t he original sit u at ion
and see if t he resu lt s of t he mat hemat ical work
ma ke s en s e. If n ot s o, we u s e t h e model u n t il
n e w i n for m a t i on b e c om e s a va i l a b l e or
as s u mpt ion s ch an ge.
Somet imes, becau se of t he simplificat ion of
as s u mpt ion s we make, we may loos e es s en t ial
a s pect s of t h e r ea l pr oblem wh ile givin g it s
ma t h ema t ics des cr ipt ion . In s u ch ca s es , t h e
s olu t ion cou ld ver y oft en be off t h e ma r k, a n d
n ot ma ke s en s e in t h e r ea l s it u a t ion . If t h is
h a ppen s , we r econ s ider t h e a s s u mpt ion s in
fir s t s t ep a n d r evis e t h em t o be mor e r ea lis t ic,
pos s ibly by inclu ding s ome fact ors which were
n ot con s ider ed earlier.
For in s t a n ce, t h e n u mber ma y n ot be t h e
a ct u a l n u mber of fis h es in t h e pon d. We n ext
s ee wh et h er t h is is a good es t ima t e of t h e
popu la t ion by r epea t in g t h e a bove s t eps a few
more t imes, and t aking t he mean of t he resu lt s
obt ain ed. Th is wou ld give a clos er es t imat e of
t h e popu la t ion .
Th e impor t a n ce of ma t h ema t ics lies in
explor in g it s a pplica t ion s in t h r ee differ en t
dimen s ion s a t t r ibu t ed t o it s fu n da men t a l
as pect s , viz , cu lt u ral valu e, dis ciplinary valu e,
an d u t ilit ar ian valu e.
To en cou r a ge a n d s t imu la t e s t u den t s ’
i n t e r e s t i n Ma t h e m a t i c s , s om e of t h e
ma t h ema t ica l pr in ciples bein g t r a n s a ct ed a t
school stages with their applications have been
in dicat ed below.
Th e exh ibit s / models in t h is s u b-t h emes
ma y per t a in t o:
• Pr in ciples of s equ en ce a n d s er ies in s ev-
er a l s ph er es of h u ma n a ct ivit ies viz, ca l-
cu la t in g t h e a mou n t of mon ey over cer -
t a in per iod of t ime u n der given r a t e of
s imple in t er es t or compou n d in t er es t /
fin din g depr eciat ed or in cr eas ed valu e of
a certain commodity over a period of time;
• Det er min in g expen dit u r es n eeded for
ma n u fa ct u r in g wa t er t a n k/ r ect a n gu la r
box/ cylin dr ica l/ con e- s h a ped object s of
a cer t ain mat er ial pr ovided cos t of mat e-
r ia l per s qu a r e/ cu be/ u n it a r e kn own ;
• Us in g pr in ciples of per mu t a t ion s a n d
combinat ions t o cou nt t he nu mber of ar -
r an gemen t s an d s elect ion s (for example,
det er min in g h ow ma n y r ou t es a r e t h er e
fr om Cit y A t o Cit y C via Cit y B pr ovided
t h ere are five rou t es from Cit y A t o Cit y B
a n d s even r ou t es fr om Cit y B t o Cit y C);
• Det er min in g per imet er, a r ea of a r egion
bou nded by polygons / t he circu mference
and area of a circu lar region/ su rface area
a n d volu me of cu be/ cu boid/ cylin der /
con e/ s ph er e/ h emis ph er e of s olid wh en
t wo ba s ic s olids a r e join ed t oget h er ;
• Const ru ct ion of sphere by revolving circle
a bou t it s dia met er / r igh t cir cu la r cylin -
der by r evolvin g r ect a n gle/ r igh t cir cu la r
con e by r evolvin g r igh t a n gled t r ia n gle/
con s t r u ct ion of con ics , pa r a bola , ellips e
an d h yperbola by cu t t in g dou ble n apped
con es by pla n es ;
• An a lyt ica l t ools s u ch a s con ics u s ed in
designing parabolic reflect ors in au t omo-
b ile h ea d ligh t / s u s p en s ion of ca b le
br idges / lou d s pea ker s in r a dio;
• Pr in ciples of s ymmet r y for in dir ect mea -
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
s u r emen t for t h e h eigh t of cer t ain object ;
• Fin din g t h e r a t io of a r ea of qu a n t it ies of
s u bs t a n ces in t h e for ma t ion of com-
pou n ds or mixt u r es ;
• Applica t ion of s emi-ellipt ic s pr in gs a n d
ellipt ic s h a ped gea r s in en gin eer in g a n d
in du s t r y;
• Constru cting an open water tank of maxi-
mu m capacit y by cu t t ing squ ares of same
s ize a t ea ch cor n er of t h e s h eet a n d fold-
in g u p t h e s ides by u s in g given r ect a n -
gu lar sheet of metal/ finding when the res-
ervoir will overflow by kn owin g t h e dept h
of wat er at var iou s in s t an t s of t ime;
• Des ign s of pa r kin g a r ea for ma ximu m
u t ilizat ion of s pace;
• Pr edict in g t h e ch a n ges in va lu e of a pa r -
t icu lar st ock by knowing it s present valu e
t h rou gh fin an cial in s t it u t ion s ;
• Pr edict in g t h e popu la t ion of s pecies over
cer t a in per iod of t ime u n der given con -
straints;
• Es t imat in g/ calcu lat in g s ize of win dows /
door s / r ooms in ou r s ch ool or h ome/ es -
t imat in g n u mber of plan t s lyin g in a par -
t icu lar flower bed/ calcu lat in g h eigh t of a
bu ildin g or a t r ee;
• Es t ima t in g t h e degr ee of u n cer t a in t y r e-
ga r din g t h e h a ppen in g of a given ph e-
n omen on s u ch as a can didat e appear in g
for an int erview for a post may be select ed
or may n ot be s elect ed/ it may or may n ot
r a in t oda y;
• Applica t ion s of lin ea r pr ogr a mmin g in
s olvin g pr oblems per t ain in g t o man u fac-
t u r in g of goods / t r a n s por t / diet is s u es ;
• St u dy of r ot a t ion a l s ymmet r y in pla n t s
a n d a n ima ls / r ole of r epea t ed s ymmet r i-
ca l pa t t er n s in ma kin g fa br ic des ign s ,
wallpaper et c.;
• Applica t ion s of ma t h ema t ics in decor a t -
in g h ome e.g. h ow ma n y r olls of wa llpa -
per / n u mber of t iles a r e n eeded t o cover
t h e wall;
• Us e of t r ia n gles / ma kin g geomet r ica l de-
s ign s on a t a ble of cer t a in r a diu s , a de-
s ign is for med lea vin g a n equ ila t er a l t r i-
a n gle in t h e middle a n d fin din g t h e a r ea
of t h e des ign );
• Us in g ma t h ema t ics in cookin g a n d n u -
trition/ estimating nu mber of calories and
qu a n t it y of n u t r ien t s (ca r boh ydr a t es ,
pr ot ein s , fat s , min er als et c.) in a s ample
por t ion of va r iou s food it ems ;
• Es t ima t in g qu a n t it y of s eeds n eeded for
a cr op/ es t ima t in g cr op yields in a pa r -
t icu lar field wit hou t cu t t ing or weighing/
es t ima t in g/ ca lcu la t in g len gt h of wir e
n eeded t o fen ce ou r field/ es t ima t in g life
s pa n of a n elect r ic bu lb/ es t ima t in g t h e
volu me of blood in s ide t h e body of a per -
s on / es t imat in g amou n t of wat er n eeded
t o fill a s wimmin g pool;
• Es t ablis h in g a mat h emat ical r elat ion by
con s ider in g a ll pos s ible pa r a met er s t o
h a ve ma ximu m pr ofit in pr odu cin g cer -
t a in it ems by a fa ct or y;
• Helpin g t o decide/ det er min e pr emiu m
on insu rance policies/ to make important
decis ion s in bu s in es s ;
• Fin din g in s t an t an eou s s peed of a pis t on
in a cylin der of a n a u t omobile en gin e;
• Applica t ion of ma t h ema t ica l t ools a n d
compu t er t ech n iqu es in biology. For
exa mple, n a r a t ion of s t or y of evolu t ion
t h r ou gh compu t er media t ed a s s embly
of phylogenic t rees and dendograms; et c.
6 . Dis as t e r Manage me nt
Dis a s t er s h a ve s ign ifica n t r ela t ion s h ip wit h
n a t u r a l r e s ou r c e ma n a ge me n t , p ove r t y
a lleva ia t ion a n d s u s t a in a ble developmen t .
Va r iou s d is a s t er s ca n ca u s e d a ma ge t o
h u ma n life, en vir on men t , in fr a s t r u ct u r e,
lowering t he qu alit y of life, los s of different bio-
or ga n is ms , polit ica l in s t a bilit y a n d con flict s ,
demogr a ph ic imba la n ce, u n employmen t et c.
Th er e is ch a os a n d dis or ga n is a t ion in t h e
even t of a n y n a t u r a l or ma n ma de dis a s t er.
People a r e a ffect ed a n d dis t u r bed. Th e is s u e
of dis a s t er ca n be ma n a ged by ma kin g a ll
pos s ible pr epa r edn es s t o fa cilit a t e pr oper
coor din a t ion a mon g differ en t compon en t s of
t h e s ys t em s u ch a s commu n ica t ion , medica l,
fir e figh t in g a gen cies , police, s ocia l wor ker s ,
4 2
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
media, elect r ic s u pply agen cies , ar med for ces ,
s cien t is t s , en gin eer s a n d t ech n ologis t s , a n d
other agencies. The whole system inclu ding the
gen er a l pu blic a lt oget h er mu s t kn ow wh a t t o
do a n d a t wh a t t ime t o do. Pr epa r edn es s ,
coor d in a t ion a n on gs t d iffer en t a gen cies
in clu din g t h e gover n men t a gen cies , pla n n in g
a n d clea r vis ion of a ct ion t o be t a ken a r e t h e
keys t o a n y dis a s t er ma n a gemen t .
Geoclima t ic con dit ion s of ou r cou n t r y a r e
prone t o cert ain nat u ral disast ers like drou ght ,
flood, cyclon e a n d ea r t h qu a ke. Ar ou n d 60 %
of In dia n la n dma s s is pr on e t o ea r t h qu a ke of
va r yin g degr ee; 8 per cen t of t ot a l a r ea t o
cyclon e; 68 per cen t t o dr ou gh t ; 0.5 million
h ect a r e t o flood. Seven t y five per cen t of t h e
a n n u a l r a in fa ll occu r s d u r in g mon s oon
mont hs . As a res u lt , almos t all t he rivers carry
h ea vy d is ch a r ge wit h t h em d u r in g t h os e
mon t h s . In t h e cu rren t decade, t h e damage in
t er ms of h u ma n s u ffer in gs , los s of life,
agr icu lt u r al pr odu ct ivit y an d econ omic los s es
have been as t ronomical. Forecas t ing, warning
a n d c om m u n i c a t i n g u s i n g a d va n c e d
technologies: setting u p, maintaining reviewing
a n d u pgr a din g of pr epa r edn es s mea s u r es :
s ens it izat ion: t raining: exercis e and behavioral
c h a n ge p r ogr a mme s of t h e c ommu n it y;
effect ive en for cemen t of bu ildin g s a fet y codes
a n d in for ma t ion ma n a gemen t a r e s ome of t h e
is s u es r elat ed wit h dis as t er man agemen t .
In ou r cou n t r y, t h e is s u e is a ls o a bou t t h e
n eed for effect ive r es ou r ce mobiliza t ion a n d
s peedy act ion . Wh at s h ou ld we do wh en faced
wit h a flood, cyclon e, qu a ke or a n y ot h er
dis a s t er wh en we a r e a t h ome, s ch ool or a t
work? Trained local t eams s hou ld be equ ipped
t o deal swift ly and efficient ly in any emergency.
Scien ce an d t ech n ology can be of great h elp as
in mos t dis a s t er s r es pon s e t ime is cr u cia l t o
preven t fu rt h er los s .
The objective of this sub-theme is to increase
awareness of the dangers posed by disasters and
t o h elp ch ildr en fin d mea s u r es for effect ive
mit iga t ion of t h os e da n ger s . Th e exh ibit s /
models in t his s u b-t heme may per t a in t o:
• Bet t er in for ma t ion a n d pu blic a ddr es s
s ys t ems in t he event of dis as t er t o prevent
ch aos an d con fu s ion ;
• Acces s of clea n a n d s a fe dr in kin g wa t er
in t h e even t of dis as t er ;
• Ext en din g logis t ic s u ppor t s du r in g va r i-
ou s ca la mit ies , u n der t a kin g r es cu e a n d
rehabilitation measu res du ring calamities;
• Improvis ed/ improved devices for effect ive
commu n ica t ion bet ween va r iou s emer -
gen cy s er vices -medica l, police, milit a r y
and ot her adminis t rat ive bodies / commit -
tees;
• Va r iou s mea s u r es / models for pla n n in g,
pr epa r edn es s a n d coor din a t ion of differ -
en t agen cies in t h e even of dis as t er / com-
mu nit y level preparednes s for t he variou s
man-made dis as t ers s u ch as gas leakage,
n u clea r a cciden t s , ba t t er y/ bomb explo-
sions, et c.;
• Us e of geo-s t at ion ar y s at ellit es in pr ovid-
ing informat ion pert aining t o met eorologi-
cal proces s es ;
• Tech n ologies in for eca s t in g a n d wa r n in g
of cyclon es , floods a n d s t or ms ;
• In n ova t ive des ign s of flood a la r m/ flood
for eca s t in g a n d cyclon e wa r n in g n et -
wor ks ;
• In format ion man agemen t from s h ips an d
ocea n s bu oys - u s e of r a da r s in cyclon e
det ect ion;
• Va r iou s flood pr even t in g mea s u r es s u ch
a s con s t r u ct ion of r a is ed pla t for ms , em-
bankment of rivers , maint enance of man-
gr oves an d ot h er mit igat ion meas u r es ;
• To en s u r e t h e effect iven es s of dr a in a ge
s ys t em for clea r a n ce of s ewa ge befor e
mon s oon s ea s on / t o ca r r y off s t or m wa -
ter;
• Emergency mechanisms and mobilization
cen t er s / impr ovemen t in commu n icat ion
an d t r an s por t at ion s ys t em;
• Informat ion management and early warn-
in g s ys t ems for flas h floods ;
• St u dies of t h e impa ct of globa l wa r min g
on hu man healt h (s pread of epidemic like
den gu e, malar ia, yellow fever et c.;
• Recon s t r u ct ion of r iver ba n ks in flood a f-
fect ed areas for agricu lt u ral an d reh abili-
t at ion of lan dles s people;
• St u dies of t h e ch a n ges in a n ima l beh a v-
ior a s a wa r min g t o n a t u r a l dis a s t er ;
• Des ign s a n d developmen t of a u t oma t ic
weat h er r ecor din g devices et c.
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Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
Th e Un it ed Na t ion s decla r ed yea r 2011 a s t h e
In t er n a t ion a l Yea r of Ch emis t r y (IYC). Th e
a ct ivit ies t o be ca r r ied ou t in t er n a t ion a lly a n d
n a t ion a lly in t h is yea r 2011 will emph a s ize on
t h e imp or t a n ce of ch emis t r y in s u s t a in in g
n at u r al r es ou r ces . In addit ion , t h e year will als o
dr a w a t t en t ion t o t h e UN deca de of Edu ca t ion
for Su s t a in a ble Developmen t 2005 – 2014.
Th e yea r 2011 is t h e 100
t h
a n n iver s a r y of t h e
awar d of Nobel Pr ize in Ch emis t r y t o Mme Mar ia
Sklodows ke Cu rie. Th u s IYC – 2011 als o provide
a n oppor t u n it y t o celebr a t e t h e con t r ibu t ion of
women t o s cien ce. Th is yea r is a ls o t h e 100
t h
a n n i ve r s a r y of t h e fou n d a t i on of t h e
In t er n a t ion a l As s ocia t ion of Ch emica l Scien ces
(IACS) t o a ddr es s t h e n eeds for in t er n a t ion a l
s cien t ific commu n ica t ion a n d coop er a t ion
amon g ch emis t s by s t an dardizin g n omen clat u re
an d t er min ology (t oget h er wit h t h e In t er n at ion al
Un ion of Pu re an d Applied Ch emis t ry wh ich was
es t ablis h ed in 1919 by ch emis t s an d academia).
Ch e m i s t r y i s fu n d a m e n t a l t o ou r
u n der s t a n din g of t h e wor ld a n d t h e cos mos . All
kn own ma t t er is compos ed of t h e ch emica l
elemen t s . Th is is t h e kn owledge of ch emis t r y
t h a t ma k es u s t o u n d er s t a n d t h e ma t er ia l
n a t u r e. Th e molecu la r t r a n s for ma t ion s a r e
cent ral t o t he produ ct ion of food, medicines, fu el,
a n d cou n t les s ma n u fa ct u r ed a n d ext r a ct ed
p r od u c t s . In d e e d a ll livin g p r oc e s s e s a r e
con t r olled by ch emica l r ea ct ion s . It is a ls o
cer t a in t h a t ch emis t r y will pla y a ma jor r ole in
developin g a lt er n a t ive en er gy s ou r ces a n d in
feedin g t h e wor ld’s gr owin g popu la t ion . Du r in g
IYC – 2011, t h e a ch ievemen t s of ch emis t r y a n d
it s con t r ibu t ion s t o t h e well-bein g of h u ma n it y
will be celebr a t ed. Th r ou gh t h e Yea r, t h e wor ld
will celebr a t e t h e a r t a n d s cien ce of ch emis t r y,
a n d it s es s en t ia l con t r ibu t ion s t o kn owledge, t o
en vir on men t a l p r ot ect ion a n d t o econ omic
developmen t . Th e IYC will give a globa l boos t t o
chemical s cience in which ou r life and ou r fu t u re
a r e gr ou n ded. Du r in g t h e IYC, a ct ivit ies woiu ld
b e p l a n n e d t o (i ) In c r e a s e t h e p u b l i c
appr eciat ion of ch emis t r y in meet in g wor ld n eeds ;
(ii) In cr eas e in t er es t of you n g people in ch emis t r y;
(i i i ) In c r e a s e t h e p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i on a n d
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c h e mi s t r y; (i v) Ge n e r a t e
en t h u s ia s m for t h e cr ea t ive fu t u r e of ch emis t r y;
(v) Ra is in g pu blic a wa r en es s a bou t ch emis t r y is
a ll t h e mor e impor t a n t in view of t h e ch a llen ges
of s u s t a in a ble developmen t ; (vi) Pr omot e t h e r ole
of ch emis t r y in con t r ibu t in g t o s olu t ion s t o globa l
c h a l l e n ge s ; a n d (vi i ) Ce l e b r a t e t h e 1 0 0 t h e
a n n iver s a r y of t h e Mme Cu r ie Nobel Pr ize a n d t h e
1 0 0
t h
a n n i ve r s a r y of t h e fou n d i n g of t h e
In t er n a t ion a l As s ocia t ion of Ch emica l Socit ies
(IACS).
Du r i n g t h i s On e - Da y S e m i n a r on
Popu la r iza t ion of Scien ce, ch ildr en , t ea ch er s ,
pa r en t s a n d a ll con cer n ed a r e in vit ed t o gen er a t e
idea s . Th e a ct ivit ies in t h is s emin a r ma y in clu de:
• Or ga n i s i n g h a n d s - on a c t i vi t i e s a n d
d e m on s t r a t i on s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n i n
u n der s t an din g wor kin g in ch emis t r y-r elat ed
areas , s u ch a s per iodic t a ble, molecu les t h a t
h a ve led t o r evolu t ion in h u ma n life, a t omic
models , u s e of ma t h ema t ica l modellin g et c.
• Promot in g des ign in g project s t o promot e an d
s t imu lat e modern development s in chemis t ry
an d ch emical r es ear ch at all levels of s ch ool
edu cat ion.
• Or ga n iza t ion of vis it s t o in du s t r ia l s it es
inclu ding manu factu res, chemical produ cers,
p la n t s , met a l a n d p et r oleu m r efin er ies , .
s cien ce expr es s t r a in et c.
• Pu blicizin g t h e con t r ibu t ion s t h at ch emis t r y
makes t o h u man kin d by ar r an gin g lect u r es
or by pu blicat ion s et c.
• Or ga n i zi n g p os t e r e xh i b i t i on - c u m -
compet it ion s h igh ligh t in g u s efu ln es s a n d
won der s of ch emis t r y.
• In vit in g profes s ion als t o s ch ools t o s h ow h ow
ch emis t r y is applied an d u s ed in t h eir jobs .
• Dis pa ly of low-cos t exh ibit s a n d models
con veyin g cu r r icu la r t opics .
• Scr een in g of s lide s h ows , demon s t r a t ion s
exper imen t s et c.
2 GUIDELINES FOR ORGANISING ONE-DAY SEMINAR ON
POPULARISATION OF SCIENCE
INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF CHEMISTRY – 2 0 1 1
NOTE: The One-Day S eminar on Popularis ation of S cience s hould preferably be organis ed one d ay
before the organis ation of S tate Level S cience Exhibition for Child ren.
4 4
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
OBJECTIVES
Th e p u r p os e of s cien ce exh ib it ion s is t o
d evelop s cien t ific a t t it u d e in t h e you n g
generat ion of ou r cou nt ry t o make t hem realise
t h e in t er depen den ce of s cien ce, t ech n ology
a n d s ociet y a n d t h e r es p on s ib ilit y of t h e
s cien t is t s of t omor r ow. Th es e object ives ma y
be a ch ieved by pr es en t in g t h e exh ibit s a s a n
excit in g exper ien ce of cr ea t ivit y of ch ildr en ,
innovat ions t hrou gh improvis at ions of s cience
kit s , a n d va r iou s devices a n d models for
pr ovidin g s olu t ion s t o ma n y pr es en t a n d
fu t u r e s ocio-econ omic pr oblems pa r t icu la r ly
t h os e con fr on t ed in t h e r u r a l a r ea s , u s in g
a va ila ble ma t er ia ls a n d loca l r es ou r ces .
Th e exh ib it ion will h elp ch ild r en a n d
t each er s t o lear n fr om each ot h er exper ien ces
a n d mot iva t e t h em t o des ign a n d develop
somet hing new and novel. It will also provide a
medium for popularising science and increasing
awar en es s amon g t h e pu blic t owar ds it . Th e
objectives of organising science exhibitions may
br iefly be pu t as follows :
• s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e a n d
t ech n ology a n d in cu lca t in g s cien t ific s pir it
in you n ger gen er a t ion ;
• explor in g a n d en cou r a gin g s cien t ific a n d
t ech n ologica l t a len t a mon g ch ildr en ;
• in cu lca t in g in t h em a s en s e of pr ide in
t h eir t a len t ;
• ma kin g ch ildr en r ea lis e t h e r ela t ion s h ip
between science and technology and society;
• u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n e e d for p r op e r
man agemen t for t h e opt imu m u t ilis at ion of
r es ou r ces a n d pr eva ilin g t ech n ologies ;
• p r ovi d i n g e xp l or a t or y e xp e r i e n c e s ,
e n c ou r a gi n g c r e a t i ve t h i n k i n g a n d
pr omot in g ps ych omot or a n d ma n ipu la t ive
s kills a mon g ch ildr en t h r ou gh s elf devis ed
exh ibit s or models or s imple a ppa r a t u s ;
• encou raging problem solving approach and
developin g t h e a ppr opr ia t e t ech n ologies ,
es pecially for r u r al ar eas an d in t egr at in g
scient ific ideas wit h daily life sit u at ions;
• incu lcat ing int ellect u al hones t y, t eam s pirit
and aesthetic sense among the participants;
• popu la r is in g s cien ce a mon g ma s s es a n d
cr ea t in g a n a wa r en es s r ega r din g t h e r ole
of science and t echnology in socio-economic
a n d s u s t a in a ble gr owt h of t h e cou n t r y;
• d evelop in g a p p r op r ia t e t ech n iqu es for
commu n ica t ion of s cien ce, t ech n ology a n d
it s ma n a gemen t .
CALL FOR ENTRIES
Th e ma in t h eme for t h e St a t e Level Scien ce
Exhibit ions for Children – 2011-2012 and for t he
39t h J a wa h a r la l Neh r u Na t ion a l Exh ibit ion for
Scien ce a n d En vir on men t a l Ed u ca t ion for
Ch ildr en (J NNESEC – 2012) wou ld be 'Sc ie nc e ,
Soc i e t y and Envi ronme nt '. Th e iden t ified s ix
s u b-t h emes a r e:
1. Agr icu lt u r e a n d Food Secu r it y;
2. En er gy – Res ou r ces a n d Con s er va t ion ;
3. Healt h ;
4. En vir on men t a l Is s u es a n d Con cer n s
5. Ma t h ema t ics a n d Ever yda y Life; a n d
6. Dis a s t er Ma n a gemen t
In order to facilitate the preparation of exhibits
and models for display in dist rict t o st at e level
science exhibitions du ring 2011-2012, Guidelines
for the Preparation of Exhibits and Models are also
being commu nicated.
i. Ch i l d r e n fr om a l l s c h ool s [i n c l u d i n g
gover n men t , gover n men t -a ided, pu blic a n d
pr iva t e, ca t h olic, mis s ion , a r med-for ces
(Ar my, Air For ce, Na vy, Sa in ik, BSF, ITBP,
As s a m- Rifles , CRPF, Police et c. ), DAV
3 GUIDELINES FOR ORGANISING THE STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS
FOR CHILDREN – 2 0 1 1 -2 0 1 2
4 5
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
ma n a gemen t , Ma h a r s h i Vid ya Ma n d ir,
S a r a s wa t i Vi d ya Ma n d i r , Na vyu g,
Mu n icip a lit y, Bh a r t iya Vid ya Bh a va n ,
Scien ce Clu bs et c.] are eligible t o part icipat e
i n S t a t e Le ve l S c i e n c e E xh i b i t i on s .
Pr efer en ce ma y be given for s t u den t s in
s en ior cla s s es (i.e. in s econ da r y a n d h igh er
s econ da r y s t a ges ).
No t e f o r a l l S t a t e Le v e l S c i e n c e
Exhi bi t i ons c oordi nat ors be longi ng t o
s t at e / UT gove rnme nt s :
Followin g or ga n is a t ion s con du ct t h eir own
s cien ce exh ibit ion s s epa r a t ely:
• Ken dr iya Vidya la ya Sa n ga t h a n ;
• Na voda ya Vidya la ya Sa mit i;
• Depa r t men t of At omic En er gy Cen t r a l
Sch ools ;
• CBS E a ffi l i a t e d Pu b l i c S c h ool s
(in depen den t s ch ools ); a n d
• Demon s t r a t ion Mu lt ipu r pos e Sch ools of
Region a l In s t it u t es of Edu ca t ion .
Th es e or ga n is a t ion s s en d t h eir s elect ed
en t r ies for con s ider a t ion for pa r t icipa t ion
in J awah arlal Neh ru Nat ion al Exh ibit ion for
Scien ce a n d En vir on men t a l Edu ca t ion for
Ch ildr en (J NNESEC) - 2012 t o t h e NCERT
direct ly. Therefore, it may pleas e be ens u red
t h a t e n t r i e s b e l on gi n g t o t h e s e
or ga n is a t ion s a r e n ot for wa r ded t o NCERT.
ii. Wide pu blicit y s h ou ld be given for in vit in g
en t r ies . Guid elines for the Preparation of
Exhibits and Models for dis play in dis trict to
s tate level s cience exhibitions during 2011-
2012 s hould be provided to all s chools . These
gu idelin es may als o be t r an s lat ed in local
la n gu a ges , if pos s ible, a n d be given wide
pu blicit y. Th is ma y a ls o be given on t h e
In t er n et webs it e(s ) of t h e r es pect ive s t at es /
u n ion t er r it or ies a n d ot h er pa r t icipa t in g
or ga n is a t ion s . It is a ls o en vis a ged t h a t
gu idelin es be pr in t ed in local lan gu age(s ),
Hin di, an d En glis h in t h e for m of a booklet
for their dissemination among all the schools
for gen er at in g t h e ideas for developin g t h e
exh ibit s an d models . Th es e gu idelin es ca n
a l s o b e vi e we d on NCE R T we b s i t e
(www.ncert.nic.in).
iii. Pu blic Sect or Undert akings , Indu s t ries , and
ot h e r Non - gove r n me n t Or ga n i s a t i on s
wor kin g in t h e a r ea s (wh er e t h es e s cien ce
exh ib it ion s a r e or ga n is ed ) ma y a ls o b e
i n vi t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a s t h e e xh i b i t s
dis played by t h em wou ld be of in s t r u ct ion al
va lu e for t h e ch ildr en a n d t ea ch er s .
4 6
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
SCREENING, EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF
ENTRIES
1. A s cr een in g commit t ee s h ou ld be s et u p t o
fin a lis e t h e s elect ion of en t r ies fr om t h e
variou s ins t it u t ions for part icipat ion in t he
St at e Level Science Exhibit ion for Children
in ca s e Dis t r ict s / Region a l Level Scien ce
Exh ibit ion s ar e n ot bein g or gan is ed by t h e
st at e/ UT.
2. Th e Scr een in g Commit t ee ma y con s is t of
r epr es en t a t ives of SISE/ SIE a n d s ome
s elect ed r epr es en t a t ive in s t it u t ion (s ). All
records abou t the meeting of the committee
s h ou ld b e ma in t a in ed . Th e s elect ion
p r oc e d u r e a d op t e d s h ou l d l a y mor e
emph a s is on t h e qu a lit y of t h e exh ibit s
r a t h er t h a n qu a n t it y. It s hould be ens ured
t h a t t h e e x h ib it s a re n ot cru d e a n d
haz ardous a n d h a ve good fin is h a n d a r e
pr es en t able.
3. The above mentioned Screening Committee
or a s ep a r a t e p a n el of ju d ges s h ou ld
eva lu a t e t h e exh ibit s a ccor din g t o t h e
cr it er ia of eva lu a t ion a t t a ch ed h er ewit h .
Best t hree exhibit s in each su b-t heme from
ea ch ca t egor y, viz., h igh er s econ da r y a n d
ot h er s mu s t a ls o be s elect ed by t h e s a id
pa n el of ju dges .
4. A s eparat e lis t of t h e s elect ed en t ries of t h e
exh ibit s a n d models u n der ea ch s u b-
t h eme (t o be dis pla yed in t h e s t a t e level
s cien ce exh ibit ion ) mu s t be prepared. Th is
mu s t con t a in t h e n a me of t h e exh ibit /
model, names of t he st u dent (s) and gu iding
t ea ch er (s ), n a me of t h e s ch ool a n d a br ief
in for ma t ion a bou t t h e exh ibit (ma y be in
t wo s en t en ces on ly). Th is lis t ma y a ls o be
d i s t r i b u t e d a m on g a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g
ch ildr en a n d t ea ch er s . A copy of t h is lis t
s h ou ld be for wa r ded t o NCERT t oget h er
wit h t h e for ma l r epor t of t h e exh ibit ion .
S u c h a l i s t m a y b e p r e p a r e d i n
a ccor da n ce wit h t h e NCERT u n -pr iced
pu blica t ion on "Lis t of Exh ibit s ", t o be
dis pla yed in J a wa h a r la l Neh r u Na t ion a l
Scien ce Exh ib it ion for Ch ild r en (n ow
r en a med a s J a wa h a r la l Neh r u Na t ion a l
Exh ibit ion for Scien ce an d En vir on men t al
Edu ca t ion for Ch ildr en ). It is pu blis hed
every year and distributed to all participating
children, t eachers, and visit ors du ring t he
exh ibit ion . A copy of this may be obtained
from the Head, Department of Education in
Science and Mathematics , National Council
of Educational Res earch and Training, Sri
Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016.
5. A for ma l r epor t of t h e St a t e Level Scien ce
Exhibition and Seminar on Popu larisation
of Scien ce s h ou ld r ea ch NCERT wi t hi n
one mont h a ft er t h e con clu s ion of t h e
exh ibit ion . It s h ou ld in clu de t h e followin g:
i Da t es a n d ven u e of exh ibit ion .
ii Pr ofor ma s I - V du ly filled u p.
iii Lis t of s ch ools pa r t icipa t in g a n d t h e
n u m b e r of s t u d e n t s / t e a c h e r s
p a r t icip a t in g a s p er t h e p r ofor ma
a t t a ch ed. Br ea k-u p of t h e ma le a n d
fema le pa r t icipa n t s s h ou ld a ls o be
given . It s h ou ld a ls o r eflect on t h e
n u mber of r u r a l a n d u r ba n s ch ools ,
t h a t pa r t icipa t ed in t h e exh ibit ion .
iv List of entries of the exhibits and models
being displayed in the state level science
exhibition, as explained in paragraph-4
a bove. Nu mber of exh ibit s dis pla yed
u nder each su b-theme shou ld also be
mentioned separately.
v Hi g h l i g h t s o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n
in clu d in g ot h er a ct ivit ies s u ch a s
lect u r es , film s h ows , book exh ibit ion
e t c . a n d p a r t i c i p a t i on of ot h e r
s cien t ific/ in d u s t r ia l or ga n is a t ion s .
4 7
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
vi Pa n el of ju d ges for eva lu a t in g t h e
e xh ib it s / mod e ls d is p la ye d in t h e
exh ib it ion (in a ccor d a n ce wit h t h e
Cr it er ia for Eva lu a t ion of Exh ibit s ).
vii Lis t of s elect ed exh ibit s bein g s en t for
con s id er a t ion for d is p la y in 3 9 t h
J NNESEC - 2012 bea r in g t h e n a me of
The Report
and
Proformas I-V
Sh ou ld s t r ict ly follow t h e a bove for ma t a n d be for wa r ded
wit hin one mont h
a ft er t h e con clu s ion of t h e exh ibit ion t o :
Dr. Gagan Gupt a
Co-ordinat or
St at e Le ve l Sc ie nc e Exhibit ions for Childre n - 2 0 1 1 -1 2
and
Jawaharlal Ne hru Nat ional Exhibit ion for Sc ie nc e and
Environme nt al Educ at ion for Childre n - 2 0 1 1
Depa r t men t of Edu ca t ion in Scien ce a n d Ma t h ema t ics
Na t ion a l Cou n cil of Edu ca t ion a l Res ea r ch a n d Tr a in in g
Sr i Au r obin do Ma r g, New Delh i 110 016
Te le fax: 011-26561742
e -mail: des m.ncert@nic.in; jnnes ec2011@y ahoo.com
We bs it e : www.n cer t .n ic.in
s t u den t , t each er, s ch ool, et c. an d t h eir
wr i t e u p s for c on s i d e r a t i on for
pa r t icipa t ion in J NNESEC -2012.
(A pr ofor ma for in for ma t ion a bou t t h e
exh ibit / model is a ls o a t t a ch ed for t h is
pu r pos e).
viii Nu mber of vis it or s t o t h e exh ibit ion .
4 8
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
The J awaharlal Nehru Nat ional Exhibit ion for
Scien ce a n d En vir on men t a l Edu ca t ion for
Children - J NNESEC (earlier called J awaharlal
Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children
- J NNSEC) is or ga n is ed ever y yea r by t h e
NCERT. It receives ent ries for considerat ion for
participation from States/ UTs selected from the
St a t e Level Scien ce Exh ibit ion s h eld in t h e
pr ecedin g yea r. In or der t o keep a u n ifor m
criteria for evalu ating the exhibits in all States/
UTs and on t he basis of t he feedback received
from different agencies, the following criteria for
judging the exhibits is suggested (the percentage
given in bracket are su ggest ive weight ages):
1. In volvemen t of ch ildr en ’s own cr ea t ivit y
a n d ima gin a t ion (20 per cen t );
2. Origin alit y an d in n ovat ion s in t h e exh ibit /
model (15 per cen t );
3. Scientific thou ght/ principle/ approach (15
per cen t );
4. Te c h n i c a l s k i l l , wor k m a n s h i p a n d
cr a ft s ma n s h ip (15 per cen t );
5. Ut ilit y/ ed u ca t ion a l va lu e for la yma n ,
ch ildr en , et c.; (15 per cen t )
6. Economic (low cost ), port abilit y, du rabilit y,
et c. (10 per cen t ); a n d
7. Pres en t at ion - as pect s like demon s t rat ion ,
expla n a t ion , a n d dis pla y (10 per cen t ).
It is fu r t h er a dvis ed t o divide t h e en t r ies
into two categories, viz., (i) u pto secondary level;
an d (ii) h igh er s econ dar y level. On t h e bas is of
t he crit eria su ggest ed above, t hree ent ries from
e a c h s u b - t h e m e m a y b e s e l e c t e d a n d
for wa r ded t o NCERT for con s ider a t ion for
pa r t icipa t ion in J NNESEC-2012. Bes ides t h e
popu la r is a t ion of s cien ce, t h e object ive of t h is
a ct ivit y is t o s ea r ch a n d n u r t u r e in ven t ive or
cr ea t ive t a len t a mon g ch ildr en . J u dges a r e
r equ es t ed t o eva lu a t e t h e en t r ies on t h e ba s is
of p u p ils ’ in volvemen t . Ima gin a t ion a n d
innovat ions made by t he child in des igning t he
exh ib it / mod el s h ou ld b e a s s es s ed . Th ey
s h ou ld a ls o ju d ge wh et h er t h e mod el is
t r a d it ion a l or a n imp r ovemen t over t h e
t r a dit ion a l model or it is in n ova t ive. Va r iou s
s kills in volved in con s t r u ct in g t h e exh ibit an d
m od e l , t h e d e gr e e of n e a t n e s s a n d
craft smanship may also be t aken int o accou nt .
Every ef f ort mus t be mad e t o rule out t he
t e n d e n cy of p rocu rin g t h e re a d y -m a d e
exhibits / mod els .
Gen er a l la you t of t h e exh ibit , r eleva n ce,
clarit y of chart s accompanying t he exhibit and
over a ll a t t r a ct iven es s t o t h e la yma n a n d
ch ildr en s h ou ld a ls o be a s s es s ed. Wor kin g
models s h ou ld be en cou r a ged.
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF EXHIBITS
4 9
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
S
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:
5 0
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
Th e ‘Gr a n t -in -Aid’ pr ovided by t h e NCERT t o
r es pect ive s t a t es / UTs is a c at alyt ic grant for
organ is in g t h e St at e Level Scien ce Exh ibit ion s
a n d Semin a r on ‘Popu la r is a t ion of Scien ce’.
St a t es a n d UTs a r e expect ed t o s pen d t h e
a ddit ion a l expen dit u r e, if a n y, fr om t h e s t a t e
fu n ds . Th e fu n ds given t o t h e St a t es / UTs a r e
t o b e u t ilis ed exclu s ively f or meet in g t h e
t ra vel a n d boa rd in g cos t s of pa rt icipa t in g
s tudents and their teachers and experts . It
is s u gges t ed t h a t t h e followin g n or ms of
pa ymen t ma y be followed:
1 . Fo r Org a n i s i n g t h e S e m i n a r o n
Populari s at i on of Sc i e nc e
(i) Th e s emin a r s h ou ld b e or ga n is ed
d u r i n g t h e d a ys of e xh i b i t i on i n
mor n in g/ even in g h ou r s .
(ii) Hon or a r iu m t o four (t wo ou t s t a t ion
a n d t wo loca l) exper t s / s cien t is t s ma y
be dis bu r s ed a t t h e r a t e of Rs 500.00
each.
Not e : Th e exper t / s cien t is t s h ou ld be
p r efer a b ly fr om a r es ea r ch in s t it u t e/
la bor a t or y/ u n iver s it y.
(iii) Tr a vellin g a llowa n ce t o t wo ou t s t a t ion
exper t s / s cien t is t s fr om a ma ximu m
dis t a n ce of 500 km ma y be dis bu r s ed
a s per t h e s t a t e/ cen t r a l gover n men t
ru les .
(iv) Daily allowance and incident al charges
t o t wo ou tstation experts/ scientists for
a ma ximu m of t h r ee d a ys ma y b e
d i s b u r s e d a s p e r s t a t e / c e n t r a l
gover n men t r u les .
(v) Con veya n ce ch a r ges t o t wo loca l
expert s/ scient ist s may be disbu rsed as
per s t at e/ cen t r al gover n men t r u les .
(vi) Con t in gen cy gr a n t for t ea / coffee wit h
ligh t s n a cks : t ypin g/ ph ot ocopyin g/
EXPENDITURE NORMS cos t of t r a n s pa r en cies / t r a n s pa r en cy
pen s / CDs et c: Rs . 2,500.00.
1 . For Organi s i ng t he St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e
Exhi bi t i ons
(i) Hon or a r iu m t o four (loca l) ju dges ma y
be dis bu r s ed a t t h e r a t e of Rs . 500.00
e a c h . NCERT f a c u l t y m e m be rs
s h o u l d n o t be p ro v i d e d a n y
Ho n o rari u m f ro m t h i s h e ad, i f
i nvi t e d as a judge i n t he e xhi bi t i on.
(ii) On ly on e s t u den t an d on e t each er may
be per mit t ed t o pa r t icipa t e wit h ea ch
exh ibit . However, for mor e t h a n on e
t e a c h e r m a y b e p e r m i t t e d t o
par t icipat e.
(iii) Tr a vellin g a llowa n ce: a ct u a l s econ d
cla s s s leeper r a il/ bu s (n on -AC) fa r e.
(iv) Incident al charges : Rs . 50.00 each way
for ou t wa r d a n d in wa r d jou r n eys
s u bject t o a ma ximu m of Rs . 100.00
provided t he jou rney t ime by rail or bu s
is more t han 6 hou rs . For jou rneys les s
t h a n 6 h ou r s n o in ciden t a l ch a r ges
s h ou ld be pa id.
(v) Boar din g expen s es : Rs .80.00 per h ead
p er d a y for ea ch p a r t icip a n t for a
ma ximu m of 4 da ys . In cas e if t he
boarding facilities are not provided by
t h e orga n is e rs t h e n a s u m of
Rs .120.00 per pers on may be provided
as daily allow ance (DA).
(vi) Loca l con veya n ce ch a r ges ma y b e
d i s b u r s e d a s p e r s t a t e / c e n t r a l
gover n men t r u les .
(vii) c on t i n ge n c y gr a n t for t yp i n g/
ph ot ocopyin g et c. Rs . 2,500/ -
It is n eces s a r y t o mai nt ai n a s e parat e
ac c ount for t h e expen dit u r e of t h e gr a n t s -
in -a id pr ovided by t h e NCERT a n d t h e s a me
s h ou ld be for wa r ded t o t h e NCERT, a lon g
5 1
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
wit h a ll r eleva n t vou ch er s a n d r eceipt s , in
or igin a l WITHIN ONE MONTH OF THE
CLOS E OF THE EXHIBITION fo r
a dju s t men t in t h e NCERT a ccou n t . Pr ofor ma
I is given for con ven ien ce. All vou ch er s ma y
be s ign ed by t h e Coor din at or / In -ch ar ge of t h e
exh ibit ion . All t h os e vou ch er s / r eceipt s t h a t
a r e in r egion a l la n gu a ge s h ou ld a ccompa n y
wit h a t r a n s la t ed copy in En glis h cer t ified by
t h e Coor din a t or / In -ch a r ge of t h e St a t e Level
Scien ce Exh ib it ion t o fa cilit a t e a u d it a n d
s e t t l e m e n t o f a c c o u n t s . On l y t h o s e
Vou ch er s / Receip t s a ga in s t s u ch it ems of
exp en d it u r e, wh ich a r e cover ed u n d er t h e
exp en d it u r e n or ms , ma y p lea s e b e s en t t o
t h is depa r t men t for a dju s t men t / s et t lemen t
of a ccou n t s . All p a ymen t s exceed in g Rs
5 0 0 0 / - s h ou ld b e s u p p or t ed b y p a yee’s
r eceipt wit h a r even u e s t a mp.
It ma y p le a s e b e e n s u r e d t h a t e a c h
Vou ch er / Receipt a ga in s t t h e expen dit u r e is
du ly ver ified for t h e a mou n t a n d t h en pa s s ed
for pa ymen t . Th e s pecimen of t h is cer t ifica t e
is in dica t ed below for con ven ien ce:
Verified and pas s ed for pay ment of Rs ........................
(Rupees ........................................................ only ).
Sign a t u r e of t h e Co-or din a t or / In -ch a r ge
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION
5 2
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
4 PROFORMAS
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN - 2 0 1 1 -2 0 1 2
Proforma I
MAINTENANCE OF ACCOUNTS
St a t e/ Un ion Ter r it or y: ________________________________
Da t es of Exh ibit ion : ________________________________
Ven u e of Exh ibit ion : ________________________________
Cer t ified t h a t t h e expen dit u r es h a ve been ma de in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e n or ms a n d Gu idelin es a s
given by t h e NCERT for or ga n is in g t h e St a t e Level Scien ce Exh ibit ion for Ch ildr en . It is a ls o cer t ified
t h a t n o ot h er vou ch er is in clu ded.
Sign a t u r e of t h e In -Ch a r ge (Con t r ollin g Officer )
Officia l Sea l
Receipt Expen dit u r e
Signature of
Coordinating
Officer
Vou ch er
No.
Da t e of
Receipt
Pa r t icu la r s
of Gr a n t
Dr a ft No.
Da t e
Amou n t
Received
Vou ch er
No.
Da t e of
Expen dit u r e
Particulars
(Head-wise)
Amou n t
Spen t
Ot h er
in come, if
any
Tot al
Ba la n ce Refu n ded
t o NCERT, if a n y,
vide
Tot al
Da t e
5 3
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
* G. Gove rnme nt : A Gover n men t Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by t h e St a t e Gover n men t or Cen t r a l Gover n men t
or Pu blic Sect or Un der t a kin g or a n Au t on omou s Or ga n is a t ion complet ely fin a n ced by t h e Gover n men t ;
L. B. Loc al Body: A Loca l Body Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by Pa n ch a ya t i Ra j a n d Loca l Body In s t it u t ion s s u ch
a s Zila Pa r is h a d, Mu n icipa l Cor por a t ion , Mu n icipa l Commit t ee or Ca n t on men t Boa r d;
P. A. Pri vat e Ai de d: A Pr iva t e Aided Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by a n in dividu a l or a pr iva t e or ga n is a t ion a n d
r eceives gr a n t s fr om t h e Gover n men t or Loca l Body;
P. U. Pri vat e Unai de d: A Pr iva t e Un a id ed Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is ma n a ged b y a n in d ivid u a l or a p r iva t e
or ga n is a t ion a n d does n ot r eceive a n y gr a n t fr om t h e Gover n men t or Loca l Body.
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN - 2 0 1 1 -2 0 1 2
Proforma II
INFORMATION ABOUT PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS
St a t e/ Un ion Ter r it or y: ________________________________
Da t es of Exh ibit ion : ________________________________
Ven u e of Exh ibit ion : ________________________________
Type of
Sch ool*
No. of
Sch ools
Tr iba l/
Ru r a l/
Urban
Nu mber of
Exh ibit s /
Models
Pa r t icipa n t s fr om t h e Sch ool
Ma le Fema le Tot a l Boys Gir ls Tot a l SC/ ST
G
LB
PA
PU
Tot al
T
R
U
T
R
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R
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T
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Teach er s St u den t s
5 4
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
S
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5 5
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
*
R
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5 6
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
39 TH JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
FOR CHILDREN (JNNESEC) - 201 2
The me : Sc ie nc e , Soc ie t y and Environme nt
Proforma V
INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXHIBIT/ MODEL
1. Tit le of t h e Exh ibit / model ___________________________________
(in block let t er s ) ___________________________________
2. Su b-t h eme:
(Tick on ly on e or s t r ike ou t a ll ot h er s ) Agr icu lt u r e a n d Food Secu r it y/ En er gy –
Res ou r ces a n d Con s er va t ion / Hea lt h /
En vir on men t a l Is s u es a n d Con cer n s /
Ma t h ema t ics a n d Ever yda y Life/ Dis a s t er
Ma n a gemen t
3. Na me(s ) of t h e _________________________________ (M/ F)
St u den t (s ) _________________________________ (M/ F)
(in block let t er s ) _________________________________ (M/ F)
_________________________________ (M/ F)
4. Na me(s ) of t h e _________________________________ (M/ F)
Tea ch er (s ) _________________________________ (M/ F)
(in block let t er s )
5. Na me a n d complet e a ddr es s of t h e s ch ool (in block let t er s ) :
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................Pin ...........................
6. Type of s ch ool* Gover n men t / Loca l Body/ Pr iva t e Aided/ Pr iva t e
Un a ided/ An y ot h er (Plea s e Specify)
_____________________ _________________
7. Affilia t ion of t h e Sch ool St a t e Boa r d/ ICSE/ CBSE
An y ot h er (Plea s e Specify) ________________
8. Loca t ion of t h e Sch ool Tr iba l/ Ru r a l/ Ur ba n
9. Na t u r e of t h e Exh ibit / Model In n ovat ive/ Impr ovis ed Appar at u s / Wor kin g/ St at ic
Model/ St u dy Repor t An y Ot h er (Plea s e Specify)
________________
10. Appr oxima t e Cos t of t h e Rs _____________
Exh ibit / Model
11. Requ ir emen t for Dis pla y
(i) Sh a mia n a / Open Spa ce/ Da r k r oom ____________________________
(ii) Ta ble Size Len gt h : _____ m; widt h : ______ m.
(iii) Wa t er Su pply Yes / No
(iv) Nu mber of Elect r ica l Poin t s No.: _____ (5 A); No.: _______ (15 A)
* G. Gove rnme nt : A Gover n men t Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by t h e St a t e Gover n men t or Cen t r a l Gover n men t or
Pu blic Sect or Un der t a kin g or a n Au t on omou s Or ga n is a t ion complet ely fin a n ced by t h e Gover n men t ;
L. B. Loc al Body: A Loca l Body Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by Pa n ch a ya t i Ra j a n d Loca l Body In s t it u t ion s s u ch a s
Zila Pa r is h a d, Mu n icipa l Cor por a t ion , Mu n icipa l Commit t ee or Ca n t on men t Boa r d;
P. A. Pri vat e Ai de d: A Pr iva t e Aided Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is r u n by a n in dividu a l or a pr iva t e or ga n is a t ion a n d
r eceives gr a n t s fr om t h e Gover n men t or Loca l Body;
P. U. Pri vat e Unai de d: Pr iva t e Un a ided Sch ool is t h a t wh ich is ma n a ged by a n in dividu a l or a pr iva t e or ga n is a t ion
a n d does n ot r eceive a n y gr a n t fr om t h e Gover n men t or Loca l Body.
5 7
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
12. Sou r ce of in s pir a t ion / h elp for pr epa r in g t h e exh ibit / model:
(Plea s e expla in br iefly a bou t t h e n a t u r e a n d for m of h elp r eceived fr om t h e followin g):
(i) Fr om Tea ch er s / Sch ool
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(ii) Fr om Pa r en t s
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(iii) Fr om Peer Gr ou p
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(iv) An y ot h er
___________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
13. Br ief Su mma r y (Plea s e expla in t h e pu r pos e a n d t h e s cien t ific pr in ciple in volved in t h e
exh ibit / model in n ot mor e t h a n t h r ee lin es ).
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
14. Wr it e-u p of t h e Exh ibit / Model (not more t han 1 , 0 0 0 words ) i n t he followi ng format . (Not e:
Proper s ubmis s ion of the w rite-up w ill ens ure that if s elected for participation in the 39
h
Jaw aharlal
Nehru National Exhibition for S cience and Environmental Exhibition for Child ren (JNNES EC) –
2012, it w ill be cons id ered for publicat ion in t h e booklet ent it led : S t ruct ure and Work ing of
S cience Mod els . For con ven ien ce a n exempla r y wr it e-u p is a ls o given h er e. ):
I. Introduction
(i) Ra t ion a le beh in d con s t r u ct ion of t h e exh ibit ; a n d
(ii) Th e s cien t ific pr in ciple in volved.
II. Des cription
(i) Ma t er ia ls u s ed for t h e con s t r u ct ion ;
(ii) Con s t r u ct ion a n d wor kin g of t h e exh ibit / model; a n d
(iii) Applica t ion s , if a n y.
III. References
Books , jou r n a ls or ma ga zin es r efer r ed for pr epa r a t ion of t h e exh ibit / model.
IV. Illus trations
(i) Bla ck a n d wh it e lin e dia gr a m of t h e model, illu s t r a t in g t h e wor kin g of t h e exh ibit .
(ii) Clos e-u p ph ot ogr a ph s of t h e exh ibit .
Not e : (i) Plea s e n eit h er pin n or pa s t e t h e ph ot ogr a ph s of t h e exh ibit s . En clos e t h em in a s epa r a t e
en velope. Des cr ipt ion of t h e ph ot ogr a ph ma y be wr it t en on it s ba ck.
(ii) Plea s e d o n ot en clos e t h e p h ot ogr a p h s of p a r t icip a t in g s t u d en t (s ) a n d t h eir gu id e
t ea ch er (s ).
(Sign a t u r es of a ll s t u den t s a n d t ea ch er s )
5 8
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
5 AN EXEMPLARY WRITE-UP OF AN EXHIBIT “TOILET MODIFICATION IN INDIAN
TRAINS” DISPLAYED IN THE 35 TH JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL
SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN—2 0 0 8 (SOLAN)
INTRODUCTION
Wh en it comes t o dis pos a l of h u ma n excr et a a n d ot h er wa s t es t h e cou n t r y’s la r ges t pu blic
s ect or u ndert aking, t he Indian Railways , has been groping in t he dark for many years . Unt reat ed
excr et a a n d s ewer a ge a r e dis ch a r ged in t o t h e open , lea vin g r a ilwa y t r a cks a r epu ls ive s igh t .
Mos t of t h e pas s en ger coach es h ave fou r t oilet s , t wo on bot h en ds of each coach . Th e h u man
wa s t e fr om t h es e t oilet s is dir ect ly dis ch a r ged on t o t h e open t r a cks . Un h in der ed du mpin g of
s u ch wa s t e is r es u lt in g in u n h ygien ic con dit ion s t h a t ma y a ls o ca u s e s pr ea d of dis ea s es .
Hu ma n wa s t e, es pecia lly of s ick pa s s en ger s , ma y con t a in a la r ge n u mber of ger ms of ma n y
dis eas es like diarrhoea, cholera, t yphoid, hepat it is , ot her wat er -bor ne dis eas es bes ides paras it ic
infect ions. Parasit es like hookworm, rou ndworm and pinworm are spread mainly t hrou gh hu man
wa s t e t h a t r es u lt s in t h e s pr ea d of commu n ica ble dis ea s es . Th e s eemin gly in n ocen t a ct ion of
t h e r a ilwa ys con t a min a t es t h e en vir on men t a n d pr omot es u n s a n it a r y con dit ion s , n ega t in g t h e
ver y s ma ll s t r ides ma de in s a n it a t ion a n d commu n it y h ea lt h .
Toilet dis charge is anot her major s ou rce of corros ion of rails and fas t enings . Large amou nt of
wat er u sed in t he t oilet s at present needs t o be minimised in or der t o conserve wat er. Wast e wat er
ca n be t r ea t ed a n d r ecycled s o t h a t t h e pr oblems of cor r os ion of t h e t r a cks a s well a s s pr ea d of
dis eas es can be ch ecked.
RATIONALE BEHIND CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXHIBIT
Th is pr oject is a n a t t empt t o s olve t h e pr oblems a r is in g du e t o t h e pr es en t mode of dis pos a l of
h u ma n wa s t e in In dia n t r a in s wit h a ddit ion a l ben efit of r ecyclin g t h e wa t er a ft er pr oper
t reat ment . In t he pres ent model t he wat er u s ed in t he t oilet is filt ered and chemically t reat ed and
r ecir cu lat ed s o t h at wat er u s age can be min imis ed as well as t h e r eleas e of u n t r eat ed wat er in t o
t h e t r a cks ca n be a voided. Aft er s epa r a t in g wa t er t h e h u ma n excr et a is s t or ed s epa r a t ely a n d
ca n be u s ed t o pr odu ce bioga s
SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE INVOLVED
Collection: Hu ma n wa s t e flu s h ed fr om t oilet s is collect ed in a t a n k.
Filtration: Filt er s u s ed in t h e pr opos ed s ys t em filt er s wa t er fr om t h e h u ma n wa s t es flu s h ed
fr om t h e t oilet . Th e filt er ed wa t er is collect ed in a s epa r a t e t a n k.
Teacher
Ajit h S.R.
Ken dr iya Vidya la ya
Por t Tr u s t
Kochi
Kerala
St udent s
Sh ameer S. Hameed
Sh a h id S. Ha meed
Nit es h Pr a bh u
Deept h i Mu r a li
5 9
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
Dis in f e ct ion : Th e filt e r e d wa t e r is t r e a t e d c h e mic a lly u s in g c h lor in e s olu t ion a n d
1per cen t ph en ol.
Recirculation of Water Us ing Sens or Controlled Pump: Th e pu mp a u t oma t ica lly s wit ch es ON t o
pu mp u p wat er t o t h e overh ead t an k. Th is pu mp is au t o con t rolled wit h an IC an d s en s or circu it
and swit ches ON when t he wat er has been t reat ed and swit ches OFF when wat er has been pu mped
u p t o a n over h ea d t a n k.
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION
Plywood, t r a n s pa r en t pla s t ic boxes , t r a n s pa r en t pipes , wa t er pu mp (wa s h in g ma ch in e),
fevibon d, ph en ol, blea ch in g powder, met a l cla mps , s cr ews a n d n a ils , wooden s t a n d a n d
a ct iva t ed ch a r coa l.
CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING
Th e pr es en t wor kin g model con s is t s of t h e followin g ma jor compon en t s in t h e given figu r e.
(i) Toilet a n d over h ea d t a n k;
(ii) Faecal s t or in g t an ks ;
(iii) Chemical t reat ment t ank;
(iv) Pipes for wa t er cir cu la t ion ; a n d
(v) Pu mp wit h s en s or.
Wa t er fr om t h e overh ea d t a n k flu s h es in t o t h e t oilet a ft er u s e a n d t h e h u ma n wa s t e wit h
wa t er get s collect ed in t a n k 1 a ft er pa s s in g t h r ou gh a t u be ben t in U-s h a pe. Th is U-ben t t u be
a lwa ys h olds s ome wa t er wh ich a ct s a s a s ea l (t o pr even t s pr ea d of odou r ). In t a n k 1 t h e h ea vy
ma t t er of t h e excr et a is a llowed t o s et t le. A pipe h a s been a t t a ch ed t o t h is t a n k in or der t o
pr even t a ir blocka ge. Th is t a n k h a s a n ot h er pipe n ea r it s t op t h r ou gh wh ich , wa t er a n d
t h e ligh t weigh t ma t t er over flows t o t a n k 2. Ta n k 2 is con n ect ed t o t a n k 3 t h r ou gh a pipe fixed
n ea r it s ba s e. Wa t er r ea ch in g t a n k 3 ma y con t a in s ome pa r t icles , wh ich ma y s et t le down a ft er
s ome t ime.
Wh en t a n k 3 get s filled u p, wa t er fr om it over flows t o t a n k 4 wh er e it get s filt er ed. Filt er s
remove t iny part icles and t he wat er is t hen t ransferred t o t he t reat ment t ank. Chemical t reat ment
is don e wit h t h e h elp of t wo ch emica ls , 10 per cen t blea ch in g powder s olu t ion a n d 1 per cen t
1 2 3 4
6 0
Gui de li ne s for St at e Le ve l Sc i e nc e Exhi bi t i ons for Chi ldre n 2 0 1 1 -1 2
ph en ol s olu t ion . Bot h ch emica ls a r e kept in t wo s epa r a t e t a n ks , fixed over t h e t r ea t men t t a n k,
a n d a r e con n ect ed t o t h e t r ea t men t t a n k t h r ou gh pipes , wit h va lves t o con t r ol t h e flow of
chemicals .
An a git a t or is pr ovided in t h e t r ea t men t t a n k, for t h e pr oper mixin g of ch emica ls wit h t h e
wa t er. Th e t r ea t ed wa t er is t h en s en t t o t h e a ds or pt ion t a n k wh er e u n wa n t ed ch emica ls get
a ds or bed by a ct iva t ed ch a r coa l. Ch a r coa l r emoves fou l odou r a s well a s ch emica ls s u ch a s
phenol by t he process of adsorpt ion and makes t he wat er clean. The t reat ed wat er is t hen pu mped
in t o t h e overh ea d t a n k wit h t h e h elp of a s en s or -oper a t ed pu mp. Wh en ever t h e wa t er level
r ea ch es a pa r t icu la r level (ma ximu m), t h r ou gh a r ela y s ys t em a n d IC, t h e pu mp get s s wit ch ed
ON a n d wa t er is pu mped t o t h e over h ea d t a n k. Th e s a me pr oces s is r epea t ed a ga in a n d a ga in .
Th e wa t er in t h e over h ea d t a n k is on ly mea n t for u s e in t oilet s for flu s h in g, n ot for wa s h in g
a n d ot h er pu r pos es . For t h is , a n ot h er t a n k h a s t o be pr ovided a dja cen t t o t h e over h ea d t a n k.
Th e s olid compon en t of h u ma n excr et a s t or ed in t h e r et en t ion t a n ks is s u cked ou t by a
mot or when t he t rain reaches t he des t inat ion s t at ion. This can t hen be t rans ferred t o t he diges t er
t a n k of bioga s pla n t wh ich a r e t o be in s t a lled in t h e ya r d n ea r t h e ma in s t a t ion s .
APPLICATIONS
1. Th e pr es en t model en s u r es s afe dis pos al of h u man was t e in r u n n in g t r ain s an d h elps in
min imis in g u s e of wa t er by r ecyclin g it .
2. Th e s u gges t ed s ys t em wou ld a ls o h elp in pr even t in g s pr ea d of dis ea s es ca u s in g ger ms
an d par as it ic in fect ion s .
3. An a er obic fer men t a t ion of h u ma n wa s t e pr odu ces bioga s . Hen ce, t h e bioga s pla n t s et
u p in t h e r a ilwa y ya r ds cou ld meet s ome of t h e en er gy n eeds of t h e r a ilwa y s t a t ion .
4. Th is model en s u r es t h a t r a ilwa y s t a t ion s a n d t r a cks a r e kept clea n bes ides , pr even t in g
cor r os ion of r a ils a n d fa s t en in gs .
5. Th e bioga s pr odu ced ca n min imis e en er gy con s u mpt ion of t h e r a ilwa ys . Bes ides , s lu r r y
ca n be u s ed a s ma n u r e for pla n t s a lon g t h e r a ilwa y lin es a n d a t r a ilwa y s t a t ion s .
REFERENCES
1. ACCIDENTS civilaviat ion .n ic.in / ccrs / acciden t s
2. PIB Pr es s Relea s e: pib.n ic.in / a r ch ive/ lr elen g/ lyr 2003
3. In dian Railways :www.in dian r ailways .gov.in / dept t s / s afet y
4. Depar t men t of Tr an s por t , www.dft .gov.u k/ t r an s por t for you / acces s / r ail/