1. INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Material handling industry
Material handling is the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. The focus is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement material handling systems. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS).[6]

1.2 Material handling equipments
Material handling equipments are all equipments that relates to the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. Material handling equipment is the mechanical equipment involved in the complete system. Material handling equipment is generally separated into four main categories: storage and handling equipment, engineered systems, industrial trucks, and bulk material handling. Material handling equipment traditionally consisted of trolleys, conveyors, forklifts, overhead travelling cranes etc. These were primarily devices of mechanization; a lot of manual intervention was involved. These had limitations like low speed, handling problems like scratches, chipping, breaking, difficulty to monitor material flow etc.

A large number of new breed of material handling systems have been developed recently-like automated storage & retrieval systems, carousels, rail guided & automated guided vehicles, intelligent flexible modular conveyors, pick & place units etc. Gripper/holding devices are also available for fragile / delicate / super finished components. [6]

1

etc. and cereals. Products such as pallet rack. Forklift trucks are the most common example of industrial trucks but certainly aren't the extent of the category. 4. powered manually. Many distribution centers will optimize storage and picking by utilizing engineered systems such as pick modules and sortation systems.1. Tow tractors and stock chasers are additional examples of industrial trucks. The equipment that falls under this description is usually non-automated storage equipment. AS/RS. liquids. carts. Belong to storage and handling. shelving. Storage and handling equipment Storage and handling equipment is a category within the material handling industry. propane or electrically. 3. Many of these products are often referred to as "catalogue" items because they generally have globally accepted standards and are often sold as stock materials out of material handling catalogues. 2. AGV and most other automated material handling systems fall into this category. handling robots. Industrial trucks Industrial trucks usually refer to operator driven motorized warehouse vehicles. mines. Conveyors.3 Types of material handling equipments 1. Engineered systems Engineered systems are typically custom engineered material handling systems. by gasoline. they can go where engineered systems cannot. This equipment is often seen on farms. Engineered systems are often a combination of products integrated to one system. [7] 2 . Bulk material handling Bulk material handling equipment is used to move and store bulk materials such as ore. Industrial trucks assist the material handling system with versatility. shipyards and refineries.

3 . currency processing. For example. society or most of humankind. Fire. A complex automated material handling facility (AMHF) usually consists of a number of physically linked heterogeneous AMHS.e. Replacing humans in tasks that should be done in dangerous environments (i. Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks.  Initial costs are relatively high. space. when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th century.1 Advantages   Replacing human operators in tasks that are hard physical or monotonous. Sometimes and some kinds of automation implies improves in economy of enterprises. as well as public rail transportation systems. The automation of a new product required a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product. Since this cost can have a large impact on profitability. and in some cases.4. meals delivery in hospitals. seaport container handling. The research and development cost of automating a process is difficult to predict accurately beforehand. nuclear facilities. volcanoes. when an enterprise that has invested in automation technology recovers its investment.4. airfreight handling. underwater.2 Disadvantages  Technology limits.1. etc)  Economy improvement. airport baggage handling.  Unpredictable development costs. 1. although the cost of automation is spread in many product batches. it's possible to finish automating a process only to discover that there's no economic advantage in doing so. automated transfer of materials between machines in wafer fabs. automated warehouses. [3] 1. having some form of manual processing and/or transferring between subsystems.4 Automated material handling systems (AMHS) Automated material handling systems (AMHS) are increasingly being used in areas that range from manufacturing materials picking and storage.

wide aisles. accuracy is critical because of potential expensive damages to the load. A rack-entry vehicle is used to carry loads into the racks from the S/R machine.1. Stacking heights up to 130 ft. Stacking heights range from 12 to 20 ft.5. Manual or automatic control. S/R machine is similar to an order picker or turret truck and can sometimes operate as an industrial truck when outside an aisle.or double-deep storage racks 3.1 Types of AS/RS 1. or drawers within the storage structure. operator picks from shelves. 4.) Man-on-board AS/RS    Used for in-aisle picking. End-of-aisle order picking and replenishment. high. storage density is important because of space constraints. bin capacities range from 200 to 750 lbs. and is controlled by the S/R machine. with most ranging from 60 to 85 ft.) Deep-Lane AS/RS   Similar to unit load AS/RS. except loads can be stored to greater depths in the storage rack.[4] 1. [5] 4 . except the S/R is guided along a rail when operating in an aisle. Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) are typically used in applications where: there is a very high volume of loads being moved into and out of storage. single. bins.) Mini-Load AS/RS  Used to store/retrieve small parts and tools that can be stored in a storage bin or drawer. high..5 Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS) An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS or AS/RS) consists of a variety of computer-controlled methods for automatically placing and retrieving loads from specific storage locations. 5 to 6 ft. no value adding content is present in this process. 2.) Unit-Load AS/RS     Used to store/retrieve loads that are palletized or unitized and weigh over 500 lbs.

The second concept uses automatic storage and retrieval machines with high-rise racks. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Here two concepts are considered. One concept uses manually operated turret trucks in a very narrow aisle configuration and standard industrial. it is called the AS/RS Concept. the “VNA Concept” is a justifiable solution to many storage applications.1 VNA Concept Figure 1 – Partial Plan View – VNA Concept Given the right circumstances. for the circumstances of this paper.2. The VNA Concept. [1] 2. post and beam pallet racks. is shown 5 . this is called the VNA Concept.

6 . fourth and sixth levels in the picking racks. The layout shows positions 1 & 2 in the first bay and positions 67 & 68 in the 34th bay. The storage racks are the same for uniformity. In addition. It is anticipated that there would be two levels of intermediate sprinklers in the racks. with each truck normally staying in its aisle. half of the time. The trucks are able to come out of the aisle should one machine fail. The second. are provided on the floor at the front of the racks near the aisle for each aisle. Figure 3 provides an illustration of a typical VNA turret truck. are of a two-deep push back rack construction. The post and beam rack construction has two pallets per bay with their 40” dimension into the opening. and 23 feet for run-out maneuvering at the front. 12 feet for run-out at the end of the aisle. The elevation view (Figure 2) shows the six levels. The system uses eight turret trucks. A nominal 4” beam has been used to support the two 2500 pound pallets and provide 5” of lift in each opening. there needs to be an area for the battery charger and spare battery. The sixth level load beam is at 379” (31’-7”). The first level in all the racks is at 22” to accommodate the flow racks and provide the best ergonomic location for picking out of the racks. and all of the storage racks levels. Adding 10” above the 6th load sets a minimum clear height requirement of the building at 452” (37’-8”) say 38’. Two pick-up and drop-off positions. Should someone want 6” of lift. which allows for the height of the turret trucks and enables the pallet to be rotated in the aisle. This represents an area of 67. shown. one per aisle. The turret truck aisle is 72” wide. The system could then operate at some reduced throughput with two machines each transferring between two aisles. The plan view (Figure 1) shows three of the eightaisle storage / replenishment system with 68 pallet positions down the aisle and double deep across the aisles.by two sketches: Figures 1 and 2. Also shown are two of the four threehigh pick tunnels. A 10’ x 45’ addition to an existing battery area would require an extra 450 square feet of low bay building. each serviced by two Turret Truck aisles. The rack system is 303’–6” feet long.122 square feet. the extra inch may be added to each level. and one level in the trusses to provide the required 3’ clearance above the top load.

tied to the pallet ID number. 7 . When one of the turret trucks has stored the load.Figure 2 – Elevation View – VNA Concept This concept would operate with counter-balanced fork trucks bringing pallets to the system and taking stacks of empties away. the operator would gun-scan the location to confirm the store operation. From then on. A load would be set down in one of the two pick-up locations at one of the Turret truck aisles. using the one nearest the racks if it is open. The location would be kept in the local control. The control would make the connection of the information about the load and the pallet ID number. The turret truck operator would gun-scan the bar code on the load and the barcode on the pallet. This information would be passed on to the Host computer for future use. the local control would only need to use the pallet ID number for identification and location.

If there aren’t any stores to be made. Likewise if there isn’t any replenishment. they would be pulled to keep the pick lanes full. but replenishments are needed. Normal operation is for the scheduler to have a queue of empty pick locations to fill. [1] Figure 3 – Photo Showing a Typical Turret Truck in a Storage Aisle 8 . they would be put away. The local control would then show the operator the location from which to pull the replenishment. such that after every store operation there would be a retrieve for the truck to get while it is in the aisle.The replenishment cycle would operate on the basis whereby the Host computer would know when a reserve pallet position is open on a picking lane. but there were stores. The Host computer would give the local control the pallet ID number. The turret truck operator would drive his/her machine to the rack location and retrieve the load. He/she would then travel to the open pick lane and deposit the load.

The plan view (Figure 4) shows two of the 9 . the “AS/RS Concept” is a justifiable solution to many storage applications. is shown by two sketches: Figures 4 and 5. The AS/RS Concept.2 AS/RS Concept Figure 4 – Partial Plan View – AS/RS Concept Given the right circumstances.2. for the circumstances of this paper.

arranged with their 40” dimension into the opening. Space is provided for a 2” lift-off in each opening. eighth. one per aisle. with each machine staying in its aisle. Adding 16” above the 12th load sets a minimum clear height requirement of the building at 897” (74’-9”) say 75’. each serviced by two S/R machine aisles. The high-rise rack construction has one pallet per column of storage. The layout shows positions 1 & 2 at the front and positions 67 & 68 at the rear. sixth. are two deep. which allows a nominal 4” clearance on each side of the travelling load as it. The system uses four S/R machines. This represents an area of 31. passes the stored loads. and twelfth levels in the picking racks. The elevation view (Figure 5) shows twelve levels. 10 . The first level is at 26” to accommodate the flow rack pitch. 12 feet run-out is planned at the end of the aisle and 23 feet for run-out and delivery or takeaway of the loads at the front. shelf angle constructions.029 square feet. to accommodate the SR machine’s lowest obtainable shuttle fork level. fourth. with the two pallets deep. and all of the storage racks levels. six-high pick tunnels. The storage only racks are the same height for uniformity. The twelfth-level shelf angles are at 821” (68’. tenth. Shelf angles are attached to the columns to support the 2500-pound pallets.four-aisle storage / replenishment system with 68 pallet positions down the aisle and double deep across the aisles. The storage retrieval machine aisles are 50” wide. and to provide the best ergonomic location for picking out of the racks. The second. It is anticipated that there would be four levels of intermediate sprinklers in the racks plus one level up in the roof trusses to get the required 3’ clearance above the top load. The rack system is 312 feet long. and 7” clearance below the pallet for shuttle entry.5”). Also shown is one of the two.

Input and output at the front end of the system is by twoposition pick-up and drop-off conveyors. The output conveyors are principally for stacks of empty pallets.Figure 5 – Elevation View – AS/RS Concept Figure 6 provides an illustration of a typical S/R machine within a double deep. but may be used if there was ever product in the system that 11 . single width aisle construction.

Next. the S/R machine would travel to the front of the system and place the stack on the dropoff conveyor. The control would then start the automatic cycle to pull the pallet from storage. If the second position were open. The information would be passed on to the Host computer for future use. the load would move away from the racks into the second position on the drop-off conveyor. The local PC control would remember the location for automatic retrieval when required. and the S/R machine would pick up the stack. When the storage retrieval machine (S/R machine) stores the load. If a stack of empty pallets is ready to be retrieved. The Host computer would give the local PC control the pallet ID number and the pick lane destination. The S/R machine would move to the proper rack location and retrieve the load. the local PC control would give the S/R machine the destination. matching the first rack level. These are shown in the plan view (Figure 4) and are provided at 26” above the floor. A load brought to the system would be set down on the pick-up conveyor. This concept would operate with fork trucks bringing pallets to the system and taking stacks of empty pallets away. the location is kept in the PC control. 12 . Next. tied to the pallet ID number. the S/R machine would move to the pick lane and deposit the load.needed to be recalled. From then on the local control would only need to use the pallet ID number for identification. The replenishment cycle would operate on the basis whereby the Host computer would know a reserve pallet position is open on a picking lane.

Figure 6a – End of Aisle Illustration of a Typical Single Aisle/Single Deep Unit Load AS/RS 13 .

based on the picking activity. but replenishments are needed. when the loads need to be retrieved to keep the picking lanes with a backup pallet to assure the picker always has product to pick. This transfer operation for the S/R machine is normally done after every store operation and happens while the S/R machine is in the aisle. they would be pulled to keep the flow lanes full. but there are stores. [1] Figure 6b –View of an Empty Pallet in the Rear Position and a Single Aisle Unit Load AS/RS with its Shuttle Forks Extended to a Double Deep Load 14 . if there aren’t any transfers. they would be put away.Normal operation is for the Host to know. If there aren’t any stores to be made. Likewise.

67 m/s 0.back Inherent Bar code tags two sides Randomly tied to pallet ID number at entry Automatic scanner on input conveyor reads pallet ID number and load contents information provided or bar code read by fixed scanner Included in PC based AS/RS supervisory control system Inventory control 15 . COMPARISON OF VNA CONCEPT AND AS/RS CONCEPT: Table 1 – A Comparison of VNA and AS/RS Operating Conditions VNA Concept System throughput required Peak per hour: 120 pallets stored 120 transferred (replenished) 16 pallet stacks retrieved Total loads moved/system Machine operators Maintenance personnel Supervisory personnel Scheduling personnel Concept Capability 15 / truck 15 / truck 2/ truck 256 16 per day 40% of a person 25% of a person 30% of a person AS/RS Concept Concept Capability 31 / SR Machine 31 / SR Machine 4 / SR Machine 260 None 20% of a person 10% of a person 15% of a person Table 2 – A Comparison of VNA and AS/RS Equipment Characteristics Weight Capacity Speeds Travel Hoist/Lift Store/Retrieve Rotate in aisle Controls Pallet ID number Load information Code reading VNA Concept 1140 pounds 9.5 seconds .3.41 m/s down 23 seconds – front 29 seconds .7 m/s) 0. load contents bar code and storage location bar code Part of bar code scanner equipment and system AS/RS Concept 1140 pounds 2.8 seconds – front 10.523 m/s 7.65 km/h (2.25 m/s up/0.back 10 seconds Bar code tags two sides Randomly tied to pallet ID number at entry Operator with gun scanner reds pallet ID number.

4. SUMMARY The VNA Concept provides a number of advantages and disadvantages: • Operates at higher throughput with 1 machine down • But has a machine down more often • Has lower initial cost • But lower return on investment The AS/RS Concept provides a number of advantages and disadvantages: • Eliminates machine operators • Has less throughput with 1 machine down • Uses less square footage • Higher return on investment The AS/RS Concept has more subtle advantages such as: • More capability than standard inventory control • The S/R machine does not take breaks • Reduced training time • Higher inventory security • Less product damage 16 .

The key to AS/RS living up to their potential as a tool for productivity improvement across the supply chain is the confidence users hold for the reliability of these types of systems. Most Favorable Markets for AS/RS Application    High volume manufacturing sectors like automobile parts manufactures Manufacturing and assembling of electronic family Warehousing and distribution with high throughput Most Favorable Operational Conditions for AS/RS Applications     Multi shift operation Critical Inventory levels Staging for production flexibility Dual cycle throughput 10 to 35 per hour (20 to 70 loads moved) Favorable Locations    High cost of land Where building height restrictions are not limiting Skilled technician’s availability 17 . but having the flexibility needed to cope with change. space efficiency. allowing them to be applied more broadly than in the past. accuracy. Current research studies clearly show that today's AS/RS do offer these very high levels of reliability.5. the answer may be working with vendors to produce systems customized to meet specific needs. make for a powerful tool in Lean and JIT applications. and other benefits inherent in AS/RS. CONCLUSIONS There are definite opportunities for expanding the role of AS/RS in today's Lean and JIT oriented applications. combined with the flexibility needed for coping with today's world of rapid change. Ideally. time efficiency. In some cases.

Luo.B.blogspot. http://www.E. Ray Kulwiec.php5 18 . Zhao.com/s_industry/handlingpackaging. P. Zhuang. “Reliability of automated storage And retrieval systems (AS/RS)”. http://en. “On-line reconfiguration to enhance the routing flexibility of complex automated material handling operations”.wikipedia. REFERENCES 1. Wong_.org/ 7. February 2006 4. Tan. C.M.H.org/wiki/Automated_storage_and_retrieval_system 5. Ray Kulwiec associates 3. Y. M. http://hello-dcm.mhia. L. J. Howard Zollinger.seweurodrive. benefits and justification In comparison to other storage methods: a white paper”. Zollinger Associates.Z. “AS/RS application..com/ 6. M. January 2001 2. http://www.Q. Zhang. Inc.6.

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