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There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of uid mechanics materials. The rst approach introduces the uid kinematic and then the basic governing equations, to be followed by stability, turbulence, boundary layer and internal and external ow. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Dierential Analysis, and continue with Empirical Analysis. The need to have some understanding of uid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. For example, people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. Later, a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. At some point, people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. The rst progress in uid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the rst chambered canal lock near Milan. He also made several attempts to study the ight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. After his initial work, the knowledge of uid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo,Torricelli, Euler, Newton, Bernoulli family, and DAlembert. 1.2 KINDS OF FLUIDS The uid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. The main dierence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost x volume. 1.3 FLUID PROPERTIES The uids have many properties which are similar to solid. -The density - The Viscosity - Surface tension 1.4 Dimensions

Pressure units 1Pa = 1 N/m2 = 10-5 Bar 1 at =1.013 bar = 760 mmhg =10333 mmw =101325 Pa 1 2

2.1 NOTION OF PRESSURE a) Definition Pressure is the (compression) stress at a point in a static fluid. Next to velocity, the pressure p is the most dynamic variable in fluid mechanics. Differences or gradients in pressure often drive a fluid flow, especially in ducts.

P= F S

in Pascal (Pa)

p = 1atmosphere

= P gdz

where

dz = altitude difference

kg/m3xN/kgxm=N/m2=Pa

b) The Hydrostatic principle If the fluid is at rest or at constant velocity, the pressure distribution reduces to

PAB = gZ AB PB PA = .g ( Z B Z A ) = .g ( Z A Z B )

w = g

This is a hydrostatic distribution and is correct for all fluids at rest, regardless of their viscosity, because the viscous term vanishes identically.

2.2 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY One of the oldest known scientic research on uid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. Archimedes principle is related to question of density and volume. This same principles used to compute hydrostatic forces on surfaces can be applied to the net pressure force on a completely submerged or floating body. The results are the two laws of buoyancy discovered by Archimedes in the third century B.C.:

A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. 1 2

A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it floats.

Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container, the air. Thus,

F = gv

(extrait dans Mcaniques des Fluides BTS Industriels page 29)

APPLICATION EXERCISE

The figure below is the representation of a simplified central heating installation, in which water flow in closed circuit. The part B is located at a height Hb, above the part A; The part C is located at a height Hc above the part A. A manomether place at A show the pressure PA. Datas: Hc= 3m; HB= 5m; Pa= 5.105 Pa ; = 1000 kg /m3 ;g=10m/s2 We suppose that the eating process is stopped and that water does not circulate.

1) What is the expression of the pressure PB, in the part B? Calculate

PB.

2) What is the expression of the pressure PC, in the part C? Calculate

PC.

Part B

Solution

1) The line OZ is oriented up, therefore

1 2

PB = PA .g .( z B z A ) = PA .g .hB

2) The line Oz is oriented up, therefore

Pc = PA .g .( z c z A ) = PA + .g .hc

1 2

CHAPTER 2

In this chapter, a review of several denitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.

The following basic denitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this lesson. a) Work In mechanics, the work was dened as: F = PS W=F.dl =PS.dl W= -P.dV mechanical work = This denition can be expanded to include two issues. The rst issue that must be addressed, that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two, there is a transfer of energy so that its eect can cause work. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isnt. b) System This term will be used in this lesson and it is dened as a continuous (at least partially) xed quantity of matter. In this denition, it is assumed that the system speed is signicantly lower than that of the speed of light. S.dl = dV

dl

This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating system, the conservation is applied to all systems. The statement describing the law is the following:

1 2

W=

a) Isobaric process

dW = PdV W12 = PdV = P (V2 V1 ) = P (V1 V2 )

1 1

dW = PdV W12 = PdV = 0 Because dV=0 (Constant 1

1

Volume)

dV W12 = mrT T

With r= 287j/Kgok

d) Adiabatic process It occur without loss or gain of heat, that means dQ=0

cp cv

1 2

cv and cp respectively specific volume heat and specific pressure heat in Kj/Kgok, and the specific heats ratio Then cv = 1 W12 = 1 dT PdV = 1 dT or P = V V dV = 1 dT Dividing the last expression by T, then V dV = 1 T By intergrading the last term we come out with:

TV PV

( ) 1

rT

rT

dT

= cste

= cste

V P2 = 1 V P 1 2

(T2

T1 )

P T2 = 2 P T1 1

P2V2 P V1 1 1

e) Application Exercise 1 kg of air describe the below cycle, compose of two isothermals and two isochoric processes. The datas are follows: P1= 10N/cm2, T1= 300oK V1= ? T2 = T1 P2= ? T3= 1000k

V2 =

V1 6

1- Determine the characteristics of each point of the cycle 2- Determine the work done during each process and the total work done during one cycle

1 V

1 2

SOLUTION 1Process 1 -2 Isothermal then T1=T2 Process 2-3 Isochoric then V1=V2 Process 3-4 Isothermal then T3=T4 Process 1- 4 Isochoric the V1=V4

V1 =

V2 =

P2 =

P3 =

P4 =

At the end of this question 1 student should be able to fill the table below

1 2

Point 1 2 3 4

Pressure

Volume

Temperature

2- (W+Q)Cycle=0 Process 1-2 isothermal then V 0,86 W12 = mrT ln 1 = 1 287 300 ln = 139579 ,63 J V2 0,17 Process 2-3 Isochoric then W2-3=0 Process 3-4 Isothermal then W2 3 = mrT ln Process 4-1 isochoric then W4-1=0 Cycle: Wcycle = W1-2+W2-3=139582.26 J

1 2

2) Heat Expression

a) Isothermal process

In an isothermal process, the variation of internal energy is zero dE=0 =dQ+dW=0 dQ=-dw

W12 = mrT ln V1 V2 V1 V2

Q12 = mrT ln

b) Isochoric Process

Q12 = cV (T2 T1 )

c) Isochoric Process

Q12 = c p (T2 T1 )

Meyer Relation

r = c p cv R = C p Cv

For air

cv= 710 j/kgok and Cv= 29kj/kmoloc cp = 1000j/kgok and Cp= 20,7 kj/kmoloc

Cp=Mcp

Q12 = W12 n 1

1 2

Cv=Mcv

cp cv

W12 =

With n<or> than

P2V2 P V1 1 n 1

APPLICATION EXERCISE

1o 3

o

2-

Determine the work and Heat exchanged during the following processes 1-2 that interest 1 kg of air a) Isochoric process

1 2 2 2

P = 10N/cm

1 o 2

P = 60 N/cm T =?

T = 20 c

1

V =? b) Isobaric Process

1 2 2 3

P = 80N/cm

1 o 2

V = 0.8m /kg T =? 1 2

T = 80 c

V =? SOLUTION

IV The second law of thermodynamics - entropy The second law of thermodynamics, developed rigorously in many modem thermodynamic textbooks, enables the concept of entropy to be introduced and ideal thermodynamic processes to be defined. An important and useful corollary of the second law of thermodynamics, known as the Inequality of Clausius, states that for a system passing through a cycle involving heat exchanges,

1 2

This formula would be applied for each process and we can come out with a final table that summarizes all formula seeing before.

1 2

Internal ENERGY

PROCESS

EQUATION

WORK ( W )

HEAT ( Q )

(U)

ENTHALPY (H)

ENTROPY (S)

ISOTHERMA L

ISOBARIC

ISOCHORIC

ADIABATIC

POLYTROPI C

1 2

1 2

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