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EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR OF

OPERATIONAL VEHICLES ESPECIALLY FREIGHT VEHICLE OF GOODS IN


PATI-REMBANG, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA
By
Nasher Andi Ariastha, ST, M.Eng
NIM: L4A0909004
ABSTRACT
The national road along the Northern Corridor of Java (NC-Java) is a strategic road for
development of national economy. This Corridor is often have attention from national media
electronic related to road damage condition, which is seen to be the constraint for movement of goods
and services. This Thesis try to present the characteristics of the vehicle axle load in segment of NC-
Java with take the sample at Pati-Rembang link road Km 90 - Km 91, Central Java, and analyze the
influence of the service life and road pavement thickness.
VDF Study on freight vehicles include heavy vehicles, 2 axle truck (1-2H) class 6B, 3 axle
truck (1-2.2) class 7A and single trailer (1.2-2.2; 1.2-2.2.2 and 1.2.2-2.2.2) class 7C (7C1, 7C2, 7C3)
occupies a number of vehicles 10% of the total AADT operational vehicle but have very large
damaging factor that is 97% compared to total VDF other types of vehicles that only 3%.. This
research also resulted in the increased vehicle load characteristics, the legal load of 10 tons to 15 tons,
while for the front axis from 6 tons to 7 tons. This situation affects the road service life, if roads are
designed with the load legal limit of 10 tons, the road was only able to serve for 2.5 years, 4 times
faster than the design life of 10 years. However, when compared with the design of Bina Marga on the
"as-built drawings" for the Pati-Rembang road link, road service life has been able to serve for 9.5
years from the design life of 10 years.
This study only analyzes the damage to road based on freight vehicle of goods from the
vehicle axle load survey results through the Weigh in Motion. Therefore, required the road historical
data and the road pavement thickness to a more detailed research on the causes of damage to roads.
Furthermore, these result are expected as an important input for planning especial for improvement
and maintenance of roads.
Keyword : Characteristic of vehicle load, Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF), load legal limit, road
service life, road pavement thickness.
INTRODUCTION
Road damage is a complex problem and the loss that suffered was great, especially for road
users, such as the occurrence of a long travel time, congestion, traffic accidents and others. Some of
the individual losses, if accumulated would be a global economic losses in the area. Damage of roads
can be grouped into two categories, namely Construction failure due to quality that is not standard.
Second, damage due to utilization caused by non-compliance against policies or regulations (such as
overload) or deviations of climate / weather (Anas Aly, 2005). In this thesis will analyze the damage
only on the basis of vehicle axle load and set of recommendations the load legal limit that are suitable
for road pavement design with take a Pati - Rembang road in STA 90+000 - STA 91+000 as a
location of research. The purpose of this thesis is to perform analysis on the Vehicle Damage Factor
(VDF) to types of operational vehicles in the field, load distribution on each axis for the purpose of
planning the optimum pavement thickness design. While its objective is to get the amount of load
distribution on each axis of the vehicle for various types of vehicles in the field which is then
evaluated based on output data WIM (Weight In Motion) survey that has done in 2007, 2009, and
2010. Limitation of the study used in this study are as follows:
a) The road that became the object of research namely segment of Pati-Rembang Km 90+000 - Km
91+000 from Semarang direction
b) Analyzing AADT based on secondary data of Bina Marga in year 2010, Jakarta. The Data of
traffic volume using automatic traffic counting Marksman 400 for 7 days of measurement in the
field.
c) Bina Marga Method Pt T-01-2002-B (adopted from AASHTO 1993) used as the basis for
analysis in determining the value of VDF.
d) Evaluating the VDF data output Weight In Motion (WIM) equipment from 2007, 2009, and
2010, each of which is 7 days of measurement, which is a secondary data of Bina Marga, Jakarta.
Vehicle axle load data in 2007, 2009, and 2010 is only used to determine the legal load limit that
appropriate with the real vehicle in the field. While for the comparative analysis of service life
and road pavement thickness is only used data for 2010.
e) The type of pavement being simulated on the road is flexible pavement construction.
f) Analysis of the estimated remaining road service life only based on Vehicle Damage Factor
(VDF) data.
g) This study focused on determining the value of the Load Legal Limit and Vehicle Damage Factor
based on operational vehicles in the segment of Pati-Rembang Km Smg.90+000 - Km 91+000
especially freight vehicle of goods (trucks and trailers).
h) Assumed the subgrade data on road pavement have typical CBR 5%
i) The road design life is 10 years
j) In the Pati-Rembang Km 90 +00 - Km 91 +000 will be conducted road widening program so that
the capacity of the road become 4 lane 2 way. It is assumed that the old road conditions will be
constructed road overlay, so have the force structure and the same elevation with a new road of
the Road Widening Program.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Load Legal Limit
Use of roads as a transportation infrastructure that can passed the vehicles that transport
passengers and goods to move from origin to destination with a comfortable, safe, quick and efficient.
This can be fulfilled if the vehicles that operate in the field in accordance with the planned road
infrastructure so that travel with ideal speed without any interference or obstacles in the path of right
and left side of the road. Standardizing the use of roads arranged in accordance with the laws and
regulations are summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1.
Table 1 Road classes based on function and usage
(Regulation 22/2009 article 19 paragraph 1 until 4)
Due to variation of existing traffic,
then its effects are also very diverse.
Therefore we need a standard axle
load as a benchmark against the
influence of the damage factor of
each axle load. It is necessary to
facilitate in consideration of traffic
influence which will be supported by
a pavement structure. All the
different axle load is transformed
into an equivalent number of axle
load using the damage factor
formula.
The total number of equivalent axle load or vehicle damage factor with the Load Legal Limit that
allowed to give a limited number of certain load that can be transported by vehicle.
Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)
It is a comparison between the destructive force of the axle load of a vehicle against the
destructive force of a standard axle load. This comparison is not linear, but exponential as follows:
4
16 , 8
) ( , _
(

=
ton Load Axle
k E
Axle
....................................................................................... (1)
DF = DF
Front Axle
+ DF
Central Axle
+ DF
Rear Axle
Factor equivalent to the standard axle load is distinguished several types, namely :
=
( )
,
.................................................................. (2)
=
( )
,
................................................................... (3)
= 0.086
( )
,
...................................................... (4)
= 0.053
( )
.
....................................................... (5)
=

{ } 365 ..................................... (6)
G
R
= { (1 + g)
n
1} / g
Where : CESAL = Cumulative Equivalent Single Axle Load
AADT = the number of each type of traffic
365 = number of days in a year
VDF = number of equivalent axle load
D
D
= directional distribution factor, 1 way 1; 2 ways
0,5
Lane Distribution Factor (D
D
)
D
L
= lane distribution factor
G
R
= Annual growth rate (depending on the rate of
traffic growth, g)
Source : Ditjen Bina Marga, Ministry of Public Works.2007
Figure 1 Configuration of Legal Limit
Traffic Volume for Road Pavement Design
AADT is defined as the amount of traffic for one year divided by the number of day within
one year are set out in the Passenger Car Unit (pcu), or vehicles / day. From the Transport Research
Laboratory (Howe, 1989), suggests that the effective data for AADT is 7x24 hours with a record of
reducing time of data collection tend to cause deviation of AADT estimate is higher.
By considering the factor of days, months, seasons in which the calculation is done, it can be
obtained AADT data are representative. Those factors shown in Table 2. Value of P and Cv are all
factors that present the seasonal variation, where :
P = seasonal factors at the time of measurement of traffic during T Day
Cv = The coefficient of variation estimation, amount to be determined according to the survey of
traffic during T-day.
By using a table weekly factors, the AADT can be estimated from the ADT the days sampled.
Technology Research and Development of Road Infrastructure (Puslitbang, 1999) formulate AADT
estimated as follows :
= ........................................................................................................................ (7)



................................................................................................... (8)
ADT
N
= ADT obtained from the survey for T days, in this survey for 7 days (7x24 hours).
= coefficients which express the confidence level ( = 1.96 for a 95% confidence)
Table 2 Weekly factors, T = 7x24 hours
Estimation of AADT from ADT for 7x24 hours are assumed to have a linear portion between the
portions in a week against the portion of the year.
Design SN and Road Service Life
From AASHTO 1993 design equation :
.... ........................................................................................................ (9)
Where : W
18
: Estimation the number of ESAL 18-kips (CESAL)
Z
R
: Normal standard deviation
S
O
: Combination of standard error for traffic estimation and performance
PSI : present serviceability index
M
R
: Modulus Resilient
SN : Structural Number
Source : Puslitbang Teknologi Prasarana Transportasi, 1999
07 . 8 log 32 . 2
) 1 (
1094
40 . 0
5 . 1 2 . 4
log
20 . 0 ) 1 log( 36 . 9 ) ( log
19 . 5
18
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|

A
+ + + =
R o
M
SN
PSI
SN S Zr W
Table 3 Recommendation of reliability level for various road classifications
Application of the concept of reliability should consider the following steps :
1. Define the functional classification of roads and determine whether it is an urban road or
inter-urban road.
2. Select the level of reliability from interval that given on Table 3
3. Standard Deviation (S
O
) should be chosen that represent local conditions. Interval range is
from 0.35 to 0.45.
Table 4 Standard Normal Deviation for certain reliability service
Pavement design life is the number
of years from when the road was
opened to vehicle traffic until we
need a structural improvement (up
to required pavement overlay).
During the design life, road
pavement maintenance still have to
be done. To maintain road
conditions to remain on the level of
service in accordance with the
planned service life then
undertaken the road handling with
routine maintenance, periodic
maintenance, and improvement of
roads.
Work routine maintenance ie work performed continuously (whole year) to address road damage is
minor and requires immediate treatment, like filling holes, closing the cracks, cleaning canals and so
forth. Periodic maintenance works carried out every three years to overcome the damage to restore the
level of service plan. Routine and regular maintenance will greatly affect the level of road service life
associated with design life of road, as can be seen in the Figure 2.
Reliability (%) Normal Deviate
(Z
r
)
Reliability (%) Normal Deviate
(Z
r
)
50 -0.000 90 -1.282
60 -0.253 95 -1.645
70 -0.524 98 -2.054
75 -0.674 99 -2.327
80 -0.841 99.9 -3.090
85 -1.037 99.99 -3.750
Source : Saleh M. and Tamin O.Z., 2008
Figure 2 Relationship between condition, life, and type of road
services
METHODOLOGY
The data used are primary data and secondary data. Data axle load and traffic volume is a
secondary data from the Bina Marga. Axle load data obtained through surveys WIM (Weight In
Motion) in the Pati-Rembang segment for 3 years that are 2007, 2009, and 2010 with the installation
of a different location but still within the corridor of Pati-Rembang segment. Traffic volume data
obtained from automatic traffic counter survey using the Golden River Marksman 400 that has been
carried out by Bina Marga in 2010. For the primary data obtained through surveys road surface
conditions visually by IRI (international roughness index) is used to determine the level of damage in
the existing road at Pati-Rembang road link.
The data obtained were analyzed to obtain the value of vehicle damage factor (VDF) of
each type of vehicle, especially on freight vehicle of goods, where the value or magnitude of the
destruction of this road is determined based on the axle load and the type of axle configurations. VDF
calculation techniques are used based on the formula of the Bina Marga (Equation 1-6). Furthermore,
the analysis is directed to establish the legal load limit that is suitable for road pavement design based
on vehicle load of WIM measurement results, and simulate the pavement thickness and remaining life
of service due to operational vehicles.
ANALYSIS RESULT
Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
Traffic volume data used are based on secondary data, which have been surveyed by the
Bina Marga on 27 June - 3 July 2010 during 7 days observation using automatic traffic counter-
Golden River M-400 in Pati-Rembang Sta 90+000 - 91+000. Traffic survey results are expected to
give an idea of the type of vehicle and the composition of a road vehicle as in Figure 5.
After calculating the composition of the vehicle, then it can calculate AADT
E
as follows:
=
.
= 19176
19176
1 +
1.96 7.66
100

19176
1
1.96 7.66
100
16673 AADT 22564 vehicles
From the range, it can be taken that
the value of AADT = 20,000
vehicles. By multiplying the AADT
estimates by vehicle composition will
be obtained AADT value of each
type of vehicle as in Table 5.
Figure 3 Installation WIM and ATC equipment
in survey 2010
Figure 4 Survey road condition of Pati Rembang
Km90 - Km91 in 2011
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Class
2
Class
3
Class
4
Class
5A
Class
5B
Class
6A
Class
6B
Class
7A
Class
7B
Class
7C1
Class
7C2
Class
7C3
28,20%
26,68%
21,34%
5,25%
1,53%
6,96%
4,77%
3,53%
0,33%
0,95%
0,12% 0,33%
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Bina Marga Classification
Figure 5 Percentage composition of vehicles in
the Pati-Rembang
Table 5 The result of AADT calculation for every single type of vehicle in Pati-Rembang
Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) Analysis
Vehicle axle load data collection was done automatically by Bina Marga using WIM-TRS
for 7 days measurement. Time data collection along with the survey volume of vehicles through the
Golden River M400. In the segment of Pati-Rembang already done three times the axle load survey in
2007, 2009, and 2010 (Table 6).
Table 6 Time of implementation WIM-TRS survey at Pati-Rembang road
The calculation of the amount of
VDF is divided based on
configuration and composition of
the vehicle wheel axle. In
determining the average value of
VDF of a vehicle, not on the basis
of the average total weight of the
vehicle which then calculated the
value of its VDF.
Average of VDF is obtained by calculating the VDF every vehicle passing in a single type or class of
vehicle, which then calculated the average. Results of analysis at the link of Pati-Rembang for the
survey in 2007, 2009, and 2010 described by Table 7 until Table 9.
Table 7 Summary of axle load survey in 2007 in the Pati-Rembang Km 79 +000
Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5A Class 5B Class 6A Class 6B Class 7A Class 7B Class 7C1 Class 7C2 Class 7C3
ADT 6.474 6.124 4.899 1.205 351 1.598 1.095 811 75 218 28 75
Composition 28,20% 26,68% 21,34% 5,25% 1,53% 6,96% 4,77% 3,53% 0,33% 0,95% 0,12% 0,33%
Total ADT
Total AADT
AADT 5641 5336 4269 1050 306 1392 954 706 65 190 25 65
Traffic volume by Bina Marga Class
22.953
20.000
Analyzed by
Bina Marga
Raw data
(analyzed by
researchers)
Axle Axle Axle
Front Mid/Rear Rear
2 Axle Truck 1.2H/Fuso
(Class 6B)
3 Axle Truck
1.2.2/Tronton (Class 7A)
4 Axle Trailer 1.2 - 2.2
(Class 7C)
5 Axle Trailer 1.2 - 2.2.2
(Class 7C)
6 Axle Trailer 1.2.2 - 2.2.2
(Class 7C)
6676 22094 45151 6 56,8194 73921 2,5177 4,6221 49,6796
47,1428
7627 14672 51604 5 73904 4,2890 10,4531 84,7735 99,5156
64,5494
7791 17092 33078 4 57962 4,6697 19,2500 23,2231
60,3202 69,6260
8548 41545 3 50093 6,7664 57,7831
9257 22741 2 31998 9,3058
VDF
Total of Axle
Total of Axle
Load
VEHICLE TYPES
Total
Front Axle
Load
Mid/Rear Axle
Load
Rear Axle
Load
0
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
7.000
8.000
9.000
Class 6B Class 7A Class 7C1 Class 7C2 Class 7C3
2.022
4.019
183
395
116
3.732
7.072
428 293
151
4.649
8.309
431 416
204
T
h
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

a
x
l
e

l
o
a
d

d
a
t
a
Bina Marga Classification
Total sample of axle load data by WIM-TRS
Survey in 2007
Survey in 2009
Survey in 2010
Figure 6 The number of sample data that was obtained after 7 days measurement
Table 8 Summary of axle load survey in 2009 in the Pati-Rembang Km 90 +500
Table 9 Summary of axle load survey in 2010 in the Pati-Rembang Km 90 +500
Increases in value of VDF were very high against the VDF standards set by Bina Marga. Although
traffic volume is lower than the volume of passenger traffic and buses, but it has a destructive force
is much larger than other types of vehicles, such as the graph below.
Therefore, there needs to be set a new standard approach VDF value of vehicles operating in the
field. Increase in value of VDF impact on road thickness design. The greater the value of VDF, the
thicker the road thickness design.
Determine The Legal Limits of Axle Load in Accordance With Operational Vehicles in
The Field
In determining the value of particular axle load of freight vehicles that match with the operational
vehicles on the field, it will be used 3 types of analysis, namely :
1. Based on the average of axle load for every single truck /trailer
Axle Axle Axle
Front Mid/Rear Rear
2 Axle Truck 1.2H/Fuso
(Class 6B)
3 Axle Truck
1.2.2/Tronton (Class 7A)
4 Axle Trailer 1.2 - 2.2
(Class 7C)
5 Axle Trailer 1.2 - 2.2.2
(Class 7C)
6 Axle Trailer 1.2.2 - 2.2.2
(Class 7C)
VDF
Total of Axle
Total of Axle
Load
VEHICLE TYPES
Total
Front Axle
Load
Mid/Rear Axle
Load
Rear Axle
Load
6988 14101 2 21089 3,0229 8,9172 11,9401
6175 27004 3 33179 1,8426 10,3140 12,1566
10543 14408 32139 4 57090 15,6614 9,7185 20,6949 46,0748
6421 14033 47859 5 68313 2,1544 8,7462 62,7144 73,6150
6757 23908 42664 6 48,5851 73329 2,6413 6,3377 39,6061
Passenger
car, bus, mini
truck (Type 2 -
Type 6A)
3%
Truck and
Trailer (Type 6B
- Type 7C3)
97%
Comparison of damage factor between vehicles
Passanger car;
76%
Bus and mini
truck; 14%
Truck and
Trailer; 10%
Comparison Traffic volume
2. Based on the average of Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)
3. Based on CESAL calculation, with assume that traffic growth equal 6% in Pati-Rembang road.
Based on three parameters above, it will be determined an appropriate value of the axle load or
approach to the actual conditions. From the analysis, it was found that in determining the legal load
limit based on the average of axle load and VDF is closer to the operational vehicle axle load value
rather than based on the calculation of CESAL (over design if applied on a pavement design).
Research shows that there has been increase in value of vehicle axle load in Pati-Rembang link road
as in Figure 7.
Figure 7 The new standard axle load based on the average of axle load survey and VDF in Pati-
Rembang segment
The Rest of Pavement Service Life Due To Vehicle Axle Load That Operating in the
Field
To analyze the remaining of service life in a simple way can be done by calculating the
result of comparison between the actual value based on the output CESAL WIM-Survey with
standard CESAL value of Bina Marga (Legal Limit of 10 tons) as in equation 2.6.
CESAL from survey 2010 = 91.0499 x 10
6
Design life = 10 year
=
21.2530
91.0499
10 = 2.33
=
84.54
91.0499
10 = 9.3
The result shows that the design of
Bina Marga in Pati-Rembang was
approaching the value CESAL of
actual vehicle, so the road service
life can maintain for 9.3 years in
steady condition. Figure 8 shows
the graph of remaining life of
service road.
Figure 8 The remaining of service life at Pati-Rembang link road
y = 0,005x
3
+ 0,184x
2
+ 6,740x - 0,025
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
C
E
S
A
L

(
x
1
0 6
)
Design life (Year)
CESAL Pati-Rembang
In Figure 9, shows that due to the actual load on the ground, the road has begun to experience damage
(unstable condition) in third year. Pt value has reached 2.47 smaller than the steady condition is 2.5.
Then, if this condition
continues to occur without any
improvement, in seventh year,
the condition of the road
surface reaches a critical
condition, where the damage is
very significant.
Figure 9 Simulation conditions of the road damage caused by the actual vehicle
Under normal circumstances that should be the road to survive for 10 years, from Figure 9 showed
that the road can only survive
for 3 years. In third year, the
road already require a periodic
maintenance to recover the
road surface conditions
become steady (Pt> 2.5). If
carried out road maintenance,
then the simulation becomes
as shown by Figure 10.
Figure 10 Maintenance Program due to actual load by the survey data
of 2010
Due to loads that were not standard, it needs periodic maintenance 2 times. From the Figure 10
showed that periodic maintenance can be performed on the fourth year, then performed again in
seventh year. With 2 times the periodic maintenance, road conditions can reach the design life for 10
years. If Bina Marga set a
standard road design such as in
Pati-Rembang road on 'as built
drawing' Km 90+000 - Km
91+000, then in 10 year design
of road service life, it will only
do the periodic maintenance
once. The simulation is
illustrated in Figure 11.
Figure 11 Maintenance Program due to actual load by the survey data of 2010 if using SN design of
Bina Marga in Pati-Rembang road
CONCLUSIONS
From the description that was submitted earlier, then a conclusion can be drawn as follows:
1. AADT calculation was shows that the number of heavy vehicles (trucks and trailers) only
amounted to 10% of the total AADT. However, if evaluated the damage, heavy vehicles (trucks
and trailers) type 6B - 7C3 has the destructive force of more than 90% when compared with the
damage factor of other vehicles. Therefore, the fifth of the freight vehicle of goods (truck/ trailer
class 6B - class 7C3) suitable for technical planning of road pavement.
2. Based on the calculation of the actual vehicle axle load, single axle load 7 tons for single wheel
and single axle load 15 tons for a double wheel was the legal load limit that is suitable for road
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
E
R
M
I
N
A
L

S
E
R
V
I
C
E
A
B
I
L
I
T
Y

(
P
t
)
DESIGN LIFE (YEAR)
The remaining of road service life in Pati-Rembang
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
E
R
M
I
N
A
L

S
E
R
V
I
C
E
A
B
I
L
I
T
Y

(
P
t
)
DESIGN LIFE (YEAR)
The remaining of road service life in Pati-Rembang
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
5,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
E
R
M
I
N
A
L

S
E
R
V
I
C
E
A
B
I
L
I
T
Y

(
P
t
)
DESIGN LIFE (YEAR)
The remaining of road service life in Pati-Rembang
thickness design. The new of load legal limit total showed that in Class 6B was reach 22 ton (VDF
= 14), Class 7A was 37 ton (VDF = 18.7), and for single trailer class 7C was reach the average of
67 ton (VDF = 60.5).
3. Remaining pavement service life due to the actual vehicle load :
If using Bina Marga legal limit of 10 tons, so the remaining of road service life will be 2.2 years
from the design life for 10 years. Requires 2 times periodic maintenance to achieve design life of
10 years.
If using Bina Marga Design in Pati-Rembang road, so the remaining of road service life will be 9.5
years from the design life for 10 years and only once do the periodic maintenance that is in tenth
year, according to the design life of road.
REFERENCES
AASTHO, 1986. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures 1986. WashingtonDC
AASTHO, 1988. Guide for Maximum Dimension and Weights of Motor Vehicles and Overweight
Vehicles, Wasington DC.
AASTHO, 1993. Guide for Design of Pavements Structures 1993, Washington DC.
Agah HR, 2008. Kerusakan Jalan: Akibat, Kesengajaan atau Dampak, FTUI, Jakarta.
Badan Litbang Departemen PU, 2004. Laporan Ringkas Kondisi Ruas Jalan Lintas Timur Sumatera
dan Ruas Jalan Pantai Utara Jawa. Jakarta.
Dewan Standarisasi Nasional DSN, 1989. Tata Cara Perencanaan Tebal Perkerasan Lentur Jalan
Raya Dengan Metode Analysa Komponen SNI 1732 1989 F (SKBI-2.3.26.1987).
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Marga, 1992. Panduan Survai Perhitungan Lalu Lintas (Cara Manual),
Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, Jakarta.
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Marga, 1997. Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia (MKJI), Departemen
Pekerjaan Umum, Jakarta.
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Marga, 1997. Tata Cara Perencanaan Geometrik Jalan Antar Kota,
Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, Jakarta.
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Marga, 2002. Pedoman Teknis Perencanaan Tebal Perkerasan Lentur,
Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, Jakarta.
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Marga, 2007. Analisis VDF di Jalur Pantura Jawa dan Jalur Lintas Timur
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