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# Definition of edges

## - Edges are significant local changes of intensity in an image.

- Edges typically occur on the boundary between two different regions in an image.

Edge detection
is a fundamental tool in image processing and computer vision, particularly in the areas
of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital
image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has
discontinuities.
Goal of edge detection
- Produce a line drawing of a scene from an image of that scene.
- Important features can be extracted from the edges of an image (e.g., corners,
lines, curves).
- These features are used by higher-level computer vision algorithms (e.g., recognition).

Edges are places in the image with strong intensity contrast.
- Edges often occur at image locations representing object boundaries.
- Edge detection is extensively used in image segmentation when we
want to divide the image into areas corresponding to different objects.
- Edges consist of mainly high frequencies.
- For the edge detection we can applying a highpass frequency filter in
the Fourier domain or convoluting the image with an appropriate kernel
in the spatial domain.

Approaches :
first order differentiation
second order derivative
other..

Definition for a first derivative

Must be zero in flat segments
Must be nonzero at the onset of a gray-level step or ramp; and
Must be nonzero along ramps

Definition of the 1st-order derivative
A basic definition of the first-order derivative of a one-dimensional function f(x) is

) ( ) 1 ( x f x f
x
f
+ =
c
c

Definition for a second derivative

Must be zero in flat areas;
Must be nonzero at the onset and end of a gray-level step or ramp;
Must be zero along ramps of constant slope

Definition of the 2nd-order derivative
We define a second-order derivative as the difference

). ( 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2
x f x f x f
x
f
+ + =
c
c

- 1
st
order derivative :
1- Sobel edge detector
2- Roberts edge detector
3- Prewitt edge detector
This techniques discussed in chapter 4
Canny edge detector technique
Canny technique is very important method to find edges by isolating noise from the
image before find edges of image, without affecting the features of the edges in the image
and then applying the tendency to find the edges and the critical value for threshold.
It calculates the gradient using the derivative of the Gaussian filter. The Canny method
uses two thresholds to detect strong and weak edges. It includes the weak edges in the
output only if they are connected to strong edges. As a result, the method is more robust
to noise, and more likely to detect true weak edges
- This is probably the most widely used edge detector in computer vision.
- Canny has shown that the first derivative of the Gaussian closely approximates the
operator that optimizes the product of signal-to-noise ratio and localization.
- His analysis is based on "step-edges" corrupted by "additive Gaussian noise

The gradient method detects the edges by looking for the maximum and minimum in the
first derivative of the image.
T
y
x
y
f
x
f
G
G
f
(

c
c
c
c
=
(

= V
Magnitude
y x y x
G G G G f mag + ~ + = V
2 2
) (
Angle
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
y
G
G
y x
1
tan ) , ( o

- The gradient is a vector which has certain magnitude and direction:
- The magnitude of gradient provides information about the strength of the edge.
- The direction of gradient is always perpendicular to the direction of the edge (the edge
direction is rotated with respect to the gradient direction by -90 degrees).

Note :
The gradient has a large peak centered around the edge, the edge has become
"thick" due to the thresholding.
The edge occurs at the peak, we can localize it by computing the laplacian (in one
dimension, the second derivative with respect to t) and finding the zero crossings.

2
nd
order derivative :
Edge points can be detected by finding the zero-crossings of the second derivative.

Laplacian Operator
2
2
2
2
2
y
f
x
f
f
c
c
+
c
c
= V

- The Laplacian is usually used to establish whether a pixel is on the dark or light
side of an edge.
- The Laplacian method searches for zero crossings in the second derivative of the
image to find edges.
- An edge has the one-dimensional shape of a ramp and calculating the derivative of
the image can highlight its location.

Properties of the Laplacian
- It is an isotropic operator.
- It is cheaper to implement (one mask only).
- It does not provide information about edge direction.
- It is more sensitive to noise (differentiates twice).

The Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LOG)
- To reduce the noise effect, the image is first smoothed with a low-pass filter.
- In the case of the LOG, the low-pass filter is chosen to be a Gaussian.
Steps :
- Smooth the image to reduce noise
- Then calculate the 2nd derivative
- Finally, find the zero-crossing
- Gradient works well when the image contains sharp intensity transitions and low noise
- Zero-crossings of LOG offer better localization, especially when the edges are not very
sharp(Edges are blurry) .

Classical (Sobel,
prewitt, robert,)
Simplicity,
Detection of
edges and their
orientations
Sensitivity to
noise, Inaccurate
Zero
Crossing(Laplacian,
Second directional
derivative)
Detection of
edges and their
orientations.
Having fixed
characteristics in
all directions, edges
are thinner.,
noise reduction
capability;
Responding to
some of the
existing edges,
Sensitivity to
Noise, computation
complex.
Laplacian of
Gaussian(LoG)

Finding the
correct places of
edges, Testing
wider area
around the pixel
Malfunctioning
at the corners, curves
and
where the gray
level intensity
function varies.
Not finding the
orientation of
edge because of
using the
Laplacian filter
Gaussian(Canny,
.)
Using
probability for
finding error
rate,
Localization and
response.
Improving signal
to noise ratio,
Better detection
specially in
noise conditions
Complex
Computations,
False zero
crossing, Time
consuming