Christopher Walter

The Iconography of the Prophet Habakkuk
In: Revue des études byzantines, tome 47, 1989. pp. 251-260.

Abstract REB 47 1989 France p. 251-260, 8 pl. Ch. Walter, The Iconography of the Prophet Habakkuk. — The development of the iconography of Habakkuk is traced from its beginnings as an adjunct to that of Daniel in the lions' den through the illustration of his Ode in Psalters and of the Easter Homily of Gregory of Nazianzus to the Palaeologan version of the Latomos Miracle. An explanation is proposed of the prophet's characteristic twisted position in many of his later portraits.

Citer ce document / Cite this document : Walter Christopher. The Iconography of the Prophet Habakkuk. In: Revue des études byzantines, tome 47, 1989. pp. 251-260. doi : 10.3406/rebyz.1989.1815


Christopher WALTER The church of the Holy Apostles, Pec, built in the thirteenth century, was only decorated by stages. Around 1350, an unknown artist painted the central vault of the nave1. Among the paintings to be attributed to him are some portraits of prophets. At the top of the vault Christ is represented in bust form in a medallion, blessing with both hands. To one side of him are David and Solomon, to the other Isaiah and Habakkuk. For three of the prophets the artist chose a conventional frontal portrait. For the fourth, Habakkuk, he chose a curious pose. Habakkuk's body is twisted, so that, while his body faces the spectator, his head is turned completely backwards as he looks up at Christ blessing (Figures 1-2). This is perhaps the most striking example of a way of representing Habakkuk, which recurs in many contexts. It is not unique to him. For example, in the church of the Panagia tou Arakou at Lagoudera, Cyprus (1192), several prophets are represented moving in one direction and looking back in the other2. However this pose is unusual for other prophets than Habakkuk. A rather damaged example of him in this pose may be also seen in the narthex of the church of the Peribleptos at Ohrid (1294/5)3. Here Christ as an angel is painted in 1. The painting is mentioned, but not analysed, by V. Djuric, Vizantijske freske u Jugoslaviji, Belgrade 1974, p. 59, 209, and by B. Todic, Patrijarh Joanikije — ktitor fresaka u crkvi sv. Apostola u Peci, Zbornik za likovne umetnosti 16, 1980, p. 89, fig. 6. The text on Habakkuk's roll, kindly read for me by Dr Gojko Subotic, is the beginning of the first verse of his Ode (Habakkuk 3,2). See Anne-Mette Gravgaard, Inscriptions of Old Testament Prophecies in Byzantine Churches, Copenhagen 1977, no. 72, p. 44-45. I presented a first version of this article at the Eighth Symposium of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Archaeology and Art, Society of Christian Archaeology, Athens, May 1988. 2. A. and J. Stylianou, The Painted Churches of Cyprus, London 1985, p. 161. 3. Sirarpie Der Nersessian, Note sur quelques images se rattachant au thème du Christ-Ange, CA 13, 1962, p. 209-216; Djurio, op. cit. (note 1), p. 17-18. Revue des Études Byzantines 47, 1989, p. 251-260, 8 pi.



the dome, surrounded by four prophets in the pendentives. Again only Habakkuk is represented in this twisted position. The twisted pose recurs in illustration to his Ode in the "aristocratic" Psalters, although normally the artist preferred a conventional prayer position. There are, however, five examples in these Psalters of Habakkuk in the twisted position. Three belong to the Family 2400 : Athos Lavra Β 26, f. 264V ; London British Library 11836, f. 300v; Athens Benaki Museum 34.5, f. 184 (Figure 9)4. Two others are particularly striking : Athens National Library 15, f. 121V (ca 1180); Moscow GIM 407, f. 502v (first half of the fourteenth century)5. Did this twisted pose for Habakkuk have a special significance, and, if so, where did it originate? 1. Habakkuk and Daniel Habakkuk made his début in Christian iconography by carrying food to Daniel in the lions' den in Babylon6. He was carrying food to workers in the fields in Judaea, when an angel, seizing him by the hair, carried him off to Babylon. When he had given the food to Daniel, he was then transported by the angel back to Judaea7. According to Leclercq, the figure of Habakkuk carrying food was not introduced into the traditional representation of Daniel in the lions' den before the fourth century. He attributed a eucharistie meaning to this addition, since sometimes the loaves carried to Daniel are marked with a cross. The presentation varies considerably from one example to another. Thus on the panel of the doors of Santa Sabina, Rome (432-440), Habakkuk is portrayed being seized by the angel in the fields8. It was more usual to represent his arrival at the lions' den. On the pyxis in the British Museum (5th century) the arrival of Habakkuk, carried by the angel, virtually constitutes a separate scene beside the representation of Daniel (Figures 3-4) 9. On a sarcophagus in Brescia, the angel is not represented ; a hand emerges from a cluster of stars, holding Habakkuk by the hair10. On an ivory 4. A. Cutler, The Aristocratic Psalters in Byzantium, Paris 1984, p. 25, 47, 102. 5. Ibidem, p. 17, 55. 6. H. Leclercq, Habacuc, DACL 6, 1929-1937 ; Habakuk, Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie, II, 205. 7. Daniel 14,33-38; Septuaginta, edited A. Rahlfs, II, fourth edition, Stuttgart 1950, p. 940-941. 8. Age of Spirituality, edited K. Weitzmann, New York 1979, p. 486-488. 9. Ibidem, p. 485; Ο. Μ. Dalton, Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities ..., London 1901, p. 55-56 ; W. F. Volbach, Elfenbeinarbeiten der Spätantike und des frühen Mittelalters, third edition, Mainz, no. 167. 10. DACL 1, 3012, fig. 1042.



comb from Bône, now in the Louvre (fourth-sixth century), Habak kuk flies alone11. Since only a part of the comb has survived, it is likely that Habakkuk was balanced symmetrically by an angel flying on the other side of Daniel. On these objects there is no difference in scale between Habakkuk and Daniel. However, on a slab of marble from Thasos, now in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul (seventh century?), Habakkuk and the angel are very much smaller than Daniel. Both the angel and Habakkuk are represented horizontally12. At Aght' Amar (915-921), the two figures beside Daniel are again represented much smaller in scale13. In fact they are in bust form, and both raise their hands in a prayer gesture. This small scale for Habakkuk and the angel was adopted by the painter of the Serbian Psalter, f. 194 (fourteenth century), illustrating Daniel 3,86-8814. A further variant occurs in the manuscript of Cosmas Indicopleustes, Vatican gr. 699, f. 75 (ninth century)15. Here a standing haloed figure, his hand outstretched, has apparently emerged from heaven and is descending towards Daniel. Again he is smaller in scale, but he does not carry food, while the angel is omitted. Daniel is identified by a legend, while this figure is anonymous. It is likely that in the model for this miniature the descending figure was intended to be Habakkuk, but in the Vatican copy its sense remains obscure. In all these pictures Habakkuk occupies a subordinate position. Interest is concentrated on Daniel. However, the situation could arise where Habakkuk was the centre of interest, notably in illustration to his Ode. The earliest surviving "aristocratic" Psalters in which this is illustrated date from the eleventh century. However in Paris gr. 510, the ninth-century manuscript of the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus, f. 435V, four scenes are grouped together, which must have been recopied from Ode illustrations16. If the scene of Habakkuk carrying food to Daniel was taken from an illustration to his Ode, no 11. J. Strzygowski, Der algerische Danielkamm, Oriens christianus, Neue Serie 1, 1911-1912, p. 83-87; Volbach, op. cit. (note 9), no. 203. 12. H. Peirce and R. Tyler, The Elephant-Tamer Silk, vmth Century, DOP 2, 1941, p. 25, fig. 12. 13. J.-M. Thierry, Les arts arméniens, Paris 1987, plate 44. 14. J. Strzygowski, Die Miniaturen des serbischen Psalters, Vienna 1906, p. 72-73, no. 117; Suzy Dufrenne and R. Stichel, Inhalt und Ikonographie der Bilder, Der serbische Psalter, edited H. Belting, Wiesbaden 1978, p. 255-256. 15. C. Stornajolo, Le miniature délia Topografia Cristiana di Cosma Indicopleuste. Codice Vaticano Greco 699, Milan 1908; Cosmas Indicopleustès, Topographie chrétien ne, edited Wanda Wolska-Conus, Paris 1970, p. 262-265. II, 16. H. Omont, Miniatures des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque Nationale, second edition, Paris 1929; K. Weitzmann, Illustrations in Roll and Codex, Princeton 1947, p. 149-151.



attempt was made to bring Habakkuk into prominence ; he and the angel are both much smaller in scale than Daniel. In the two eleventh-century "aristocratic" Psalters, Paris suppl. gr. 610, f. 252V (Figure 6), and Washington Dumbarton Oaks cod. 3, f. 76, this is changed17. In both cases the iconography is virtually identical. Daniel has been entirely omitted. The angel, holding Habakkuk by the hair, flies horizontally above a personification of Babylon. In accordance with the frequent practice in these two Psalters and in Paris gr. 139, the scene is doubled, within the same miniature, with a portrait of the author of the Ode at prayer18. In no other Psalter is Habakkuk's Ode illustrated with this incident from the Life of Daniel. Possibly this was because meanwhile Habakkuk's status had become much higher in Byzantine tradition. He had become one of the leading prophets of the coming of the Messiah. 2. The Portrait of Habakkuk According to Ulpius the Roman, Habakkuk had a rounded beard, not completely cupshaped ; his beard and head were sprinkled with grey19. In the ninth-century Sacra parallela, Paris gr. 923, he is represented consistently with parted white hair and white beard20. He is represented similarly at Aght' Amar. However, in what is probably the earliest surviving portrait, in one of the medallions surrounding the mosaic of the Transfiguration at Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai (ca 565), he has curly hair and a rounded beardless chin21. In his portrait, as opposed to the Daniel scene, in Vatican gr. 699, f. 69V, he is represented with dark hair and a beard22. On the other hand, in the Menologium of Basil II, Vatican gr. 1613, p. 219, he is beardless with dark hair (Figure 10)23. In later pictures there is no more consistency. He may be represented with a dark or grey beard, or he may be young and beardless. Ultimately the youthful form of his portrait became the most usual, but not before the fourteenth century was it standardized. Yet there is no obvious connection between a portrait type and the characteristic twisted position. 17. Cutler, op. cit. (note 4), p. 72,94-95. 18. Ch. Walter, The Aristocratic Psalters and Ode Illustration in Byzantium, Byzantinoslavica (printing). 19. M. Chatzidakis, Έκ των Έλπίου τοϋ Ρωμαίου, EEBS 14, 1938, ρ. 410. 20. Κ. Weitzmann, The Miniatures of the Sacra Parallela, Parisinus graecus 923, Princeton 1979, p. 140-141, fig. 321-323. 21. G. Forsyth and K. Weitzmann, The Monastery of Saint Catherine at Mount Sinai, The Church and Fortress of Justinian, Ann Arbor 1968, plate 136-137. 22. Stornajolo, op. cit. (note 15); Topographie chrétienne, ed. cit. (note 15), p. 229. 23. // Menologio di Basilio II, edited C. Stornajolo and P. Franchi de' Cavalieri, Milan 1907, p. 219.

THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET HABAKKUK 3. Typological Pictures in Illuminated Psalters


In the Chludov Psalter, Moscow GIM 129 D, Habakkuk is represented twice24. The first miniature, f. 48V, illustrates Psalm 49,1 : "The Lord has spoken and called the earth from the rising of the sun to its setting." Here the rising sun takes the form of Helios driving a chariot, while, for the setting sun, the head of a personification is disappearing behind a mountain. Between them is a clipeate image of Christ with David standing to one side and Habakkuk to the other. The second miniature illustrates his Ode, f. 154V. Here the rising sun is represented as a full sun with rays, accompanied by a legend : ανατολή. To the right the sun is setting behind a mountain. In the centre stands Habakkuk, represented frontally, but pointing upwards with his right hand towards a clipeate image of Christ. Above the image is a legend : άπό μεσεμβρίας (sic) ό XC. The two miniatures are taken up in the London Psalter, British Library 19352, f. 61v-62r and f. 198, and in the Barberini Psalter, Vatican Barb. gr. 372, f. 84V and f. 257V (Figure 5)25. In neither manuscript does the artist seem to have properly understood either of the miniature subjects. In the Kiev Psalter, Leningrad State Public Library 1252 F. vi, the first miniature is omitted, while, for Habakkuk's Ode, f. 216, the youthful prophet turns back, in the characteristic twisted position, looking up at a hand emerging from a segment26. Habakkuk is cited twice in the New Testament. There is a passing reference in Hebrews 10,38, to the just man who lives by faith (Habakkuk 2,3-4). Secondly in Acts 13,40-41, Saint Paul, addressing the incredulous Jews, cites Habakkuk 1,5 : "I am doing a deed in your days, a deed which you will never believe when you are told of it." Cosmas Indicopleustes, on account of this, designates Habakkuk as prophet of the Resurrection27. For a Messianic interpretation of the Ode (Habakkuk 3), it is necessary to turn to the Patristic commentators. Both Cyril of Alexandria and Theodoret comment verse 3 : "God shall come from Theman and the Holy One from the dark shady Mount Pharan." They identified Theman as Bethlehem and Mount Pharan was referred to the ancestors of Christ. Bethlehem, being placed to the

24. Marfa Söepkina, Miniatjuri Hludovskoj Psaltyri ..., Moscow 1977. 25. Sirarpie Der Nersessian, L'illustration des psautiers grecs du Moyen Âge. II. Londres Add. 19.352, Paris 1970, p. 32, 60. 26. G. Vzdornov, Issledovanie ο Kievskoj Psaltiri, Moscow 1978, no. 288. 27. Topographie chrétienne, éd. cit. (note 15), p. 228-229.



south of Jerusalem, Christ would come from there28. This would seem to be the source of the miniature and its legend in the Chludov Psalter. The most developed miniature illustrating Habakkuk's Ode is in the twelfth-century illuminated Psalter, Vatican gr. 1927, f. 274V (Figure 7)29. The painter has combined in the same miniature illustrations to several verses of the Ode, indicating by a legend to which verse each detail corresponds. Some details are literal illustrations of the verse in question : "The nations see and are liquidated" (verse 6) ; "The princes beheaded and the poor man eating in secret" (verse 14); "The cattle before an empty manger" (verse 17). However verse 13 : "You went out to the salvation of your people", is illustrated typologically by a portrait of Christ. More original is the illustration of verse 3. For this verse, Habakkuk is represented kneeling before a mountain, above which are represented in bust form the Virgin and Child Jesus. It was inevitable that at some time a rapprochement should be made between the phrase κατασκίου δασέως of the Ode and the phrase δύναμις υψίστου επισκιάσει σοι of the account of the Annunciation (Luke 1,35). Yet no commentator of the Ode seems to have done this earlier than Theophylact of Ohrid (before 1050-ca 1108)30. He refers the dark shady mountain explicitly to the power of the Most High overshadowing the Virgin, and thus makes Habakkuk a prophet of the Annunciation. The same rapprochement may be found in the Menaia, for example in the office of the Forefathers31. However the only surviving miniature inspired by it seems to be that in Vatican gr. 1927. Verse 11 of the Ode : "The sun was exalted", is referred by Theophylact to the exaltation of Christ on the Cross32. More explicitly in the Menaia, Habakkuk is said to have prophesied the divine kenosis on the Cross33. This same sentiment is expressed in a dodecasyllable which serves as title to the Ode in Paris suppl. gr. 610, f. 252V, and Washington Dumbarton Oaks cod. 3, f. 76 : "Habakkuk demonstrat ing the abasement of the Logos"34. Yet in both manuscripts the Ode 28. Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarius in Habacuc prophetam : PG 71, 904 (CPG, III, no. 5204); Theodoret, Interpretatio prophetae Habacuc: PG 81, 1825 (CPG, no. 6208). 29. Ε. Τ. De Wald, The Illustrations in the Manuscripts of the Septuagint. III. Psalms and Odes. 1. Vaticanus graecus 1927, Princeton 1941, p. 46-47. 30. Theophylact, Expositio in prophetam Habacuc : PG 126, 880. 31. Menaia, II, Rome 1889, p. 530. 32. Theophylact, op. cit. (note 30), 889. 33. Menaia, II, p. 529. 34. Ch. Astruc, Un psautier byzantin à frontispices : le suppl. grec 610, CA 3, 1948, p. 106-114; Sirarpie Der Nersessian, A Psalter and New Testament Manuscript at Dumbarton Oaks, DOP 19, 1965, p. 153-183.

Fig. 1. — David and Solomon, Holy Apostles, Pec.

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is illustrated by a miniature of Habakkuk being carried to Babylon. In fact this typological interpretation of the Ode does not seem to have been taken up by Byzantine artists. The only other typological miniature illustrating Habakkuk's Ode is in the Spencer Psalter, New York Public Library Spencer cod. gr. 1, f. 37835. Here Habakkuk is portrayed in the historiated initial Κ holding the Child Jesus in his hands. However, since both Hannah (f. 376) and Isaiah (f. 38 lv) are represented in the same way, there is no specific allusion to Habakkuk as prophet of the Messiah36. It is implied rather that this was a common attribute of prophets. Since Habakkuk is not represented in these typological miniatures in Psalters in the characteristic twisted position, its origin must be sought elsewhere. 4. The Illuminated Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nazianzus begins his Homily 45 In sanctum Pascha with a quotation from Habakkuk 2,1 : " I will stand upon my watch", says the admirable Habakkuk37. The chapter continues : "The Lord said, 'Write down these visions'." Gregory then provides a (fictitious) account of a vision, a man placed on the clouds with a face like an angel, who says : "Today is salvation for the world ... Christ has risen from the dead." Thus Habakkuk is presented as prophet of the Resurrection. In Paris gr. 510, f. 285, to illustrate this Homily, the artist has placed a youthful winged figure in a mandorla, with other angels to right and left (Figure II)38. Below to the right stand Gregory and Habakkuk. The prophet looks back at Gregory while extending his right hand towards the vision. This is the earliest example of Habakkuk represented in a twisted position. In its context its significance is clear. A very similar pose may be seen in the miniature of the Ascension in the Rabbula Gospels (dated 586)39. Here an angel points up towards the ascending Christ, but is turned back towards an apostle with a dark beard, probably Saint Paul. When this same Homily was illustrated in the "liturgical" edition, the subject chosen was again Habakkuk's vision. However the iconography underwent modifications. The figure in the mandorla was variously interpreted as an angel or as Christ himself; this is not

35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Cutler, op. cit. (note 4), p. 57. Ibidem, p. 57. PG 36, 624 (CPG, II, no. 3010). Omont, op. cit. (note 16). C. Cecchelli, The Rabbula Gospels, Olten 1959.



relevant to the present enquiry40. More significant is the fact that Gregory and Habakkuk were usually separated, and that Habakkuk was portrayed not looking at Gregory but at the vision. In Paris gr. 550, f. 30, and in Dionysiou 61, f. 4, the two figures are placed respectively to left and right of the vision, which Habakkuk is facing41. More frequently, Habakkuk is turned away from the vision but looks back towards it. This is the case in Sinaiticus 339, f. 9V, and Paris gr. 543, f. 27V42. In Jerusalem Taphou 14, f. 6, the two figures are placed side by side, with Habakkuk in a twisted position43. Here it seems that Gregory is showing Habakkuk the vision rather than the other way about. In Paris gr. 533, f. 7, Gregory and Habakkuk are placed to either side of the column of text, and Habakkuk's pose is almost as exaggerated as in the painting at the Holy Apostles, Pec44. Finally in Paris Coislin 239, f. 6, Habakkuk, in his twisted position is quite separated from the vision and placed in a historiated initial letter, while Gregory is not represented at all (Figure 8)45. Thus it seems that the development of Habakkuk's typical pose can be traced and explained. It began quite logically with him facing Gregory but pointing at the vision. Later it was maintained but lost its original purpose, once Habakkuk was represented turned not towards Gregory but towards the vision. Finally the pose was accepted as peculiar to Habakkuk. Its original purpose was entirely forgotten, and it was used in contexts where his vision was not represented. 5. The Latomos Miracle Around the year 1395, the empress Helen, wife of Manuel II, presented a bilateral icon to the monastery of Poganovo46. It is now in the Nevsky Museum in Sofia. On one side is represented a scene which is described in the legend as the miracle in Latomos. Above, Christ Emmanuel is seated in a mandorla. Below, either side of a pool in which fishes swim, are two figures. The one to the left looks up towards Christ and is standing. The one to the right, who is beardless, is seated ; his head rests on his shoulder and is turned away from Christ. According to the legends they are Ezekiel and Habakkuk. 40. Der Nersessian, art. cit. (note 3), discusses this question. 41. G. Galavaris, The Illustrations of the Liturgical Homilies of Gregory Nazianzenus, Princeton 1969, fig. 402, 357. 42. Ibidem, fig. 379, 455. 43. Ibidem, fig. 100. 44. Ibidem, fig. 236. 45. Ibidem, fig. 181. 46. T. Gerasimov, L'icône bilatérale de Poganovo au musée archéologique de Sofia, CA 10, 1959, p. 279-288.



The subject of the picture and its origin are not in doubt. Some time between the fifth and seventh centuries, a mosaic with a similar subject was executed in the church of Hosios David in Thessaloniki. It was covered up, perhaps during the period of Iconoclasm, and only rediscovered some centuries later. The discovery was recounted by the monk Ignatius, who describes the mosaic and attributes the discovery to a miracle47. Hence the legend on the icon. The mosaic was again covered up, no doubt during Turkish times, only to be rediscovered a second time in 1927 48. Since then an enormous amount has been written about it. The point which concerns us here is the identity of the seated prophet on the right. On the original mosaic there are no legends. Yet Ignatius names them Ezekiel and Habakkuk, attributions which were taken up on the Poganovo icon. Unfortunately an intermediary version of the Latomos miracle, badly damaged, in the ossuary chapel at Backovo also has no legends49. A. Grabar first called in doubt the designation of the prophet on the right as Habakkuk50. Various other identifications have been proposed. However I do not think that any scholar has put the question why Ignatius should have made this identification. That it was considered plausible, is clear since the painter of the Poganovo icon maintained it, although, in accordance with Palaeologan practice, he represented Habakkuk beardless, while in the mosaic he has a white beard. But this is neither here nor there, for, as has been shown, there is no single tradition for the portrait of Habakkuk. On the other hand the observations made on the previous pages may help us to understand Ignatius's identification. Given the reputation of Habakkuk as visionary and prophet of the Messiah, he was an obvious candidate. Furthermore the lay out of the mosaic, with Christ in a mandorla and two figures below to left and right, closely resembles that of miniatures of his vision in illuminated 47. A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Varia graeca sacra, Sbornik greceskih neizdannih tekstov, Saint Petersburg 1909, p. 102-113; English translation, C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire 312-1453, Englewood Cliffs 1972, p. 155-156; V. Grumel, La mosaïque du "Dieu Sauveur" au monastère du "Latome" à Salonique, EO 29, 1930, p. 157-175. 48. A. Xyngopoulos, Τό καθολικόν της Μονής τοϋ Λατόμου έν Θεσσαλονίκη καΐ το έν αΰτω ψηφιδωτόν, Άρχχιολογικόν Δελτίον 12, 1929, ρ. 142-180. 49. Elka Bakalova, Baëkouskata kostnica, Sofia 1977, p. 65-66. 50. A. Grabar, Martyrium, II, Paris 1946, p. 198-200; Idem, A propos d'une icône byzantine du xive siècle au musée de Sofia, CA 10, 1959, p. 289-304. Credit lines : Department of Medieval and Later Antiquities, British Museum, London, figures 3, 4; Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, figures 5, 7, 10; Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, figures 6, 8, 11 ; Benaki Museum, Athens, figure 9.



manuscripts of the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus. A third consideration might be the prophet's pose, for, although he does not look at the vision, his position is slightly twisted. In the absence of a legend no certain identification is possible. However Ignatius's proposal of Habakkuk seems as plausible as those of modern scholars. Conclusion Habakkuk, who entered Christian iconography as a modest adjunct to Daniel in the lions' den, gained in stature as the typological exegesis of his Book progressed. He was considered to be prophet of the coming of Christ, of the Annunciation, of his abasement on the Cross and of his Resurrection. In the marginal Psalters his was the only Ode to be illustrated typologically. However the main subject in which he occurs is the illustration of Gregory's Homily 45 In sanctum Pascha. It is in this that he acquired his typical twisted pose, which was then used for his portrait accompanying his Ode in some "aristocratic" Psalters and, in the company of other prophets, in church decoration. Christopher Walter Centre byzantin 67 Asklipiou Street GR-106 80 Athens

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