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Training & placement cell MID-Term Report of 6 Months Training In



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for

Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics & Comm.), Of LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIIVERSITY

Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, 2011-2012


To be a perfect engineer, it is necessary to have an idea about the industrial job and must know some basic facts like, how the work is done in Industry? What are the common problems and how to tackle them? There is great difference between theory and practical. Although, we do practical in college but these are not sufficient, as their industrial environment cannot be created. This can be done by sending students to various industries, which improves their knowledge and is very helpful in being a good engineer. Due to these facts LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY held In-plant Training for 6 Months. We are pursuing our In-Plant Training at ALCATEL-LUCENT (DELHI) from 1 JUNE 2011 in our 7thsemester.

This is a great opportunity to acknowledge and to thanks everybody without whose support and help this In-plant Training would have been impossible. I would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who where part of this In-Plant Training in numerous ways. I would like to thanks to my training guide SRINIVAS SIR, for providing me the right ambiance, valuable suggestion, moral support, constant encouragement and contribution of time for the successful going of our In-plan Training. We are very grateful to him, for providing all the facilities needed during the training. At the outset, we sincerely thank all faculty members of my institution for their extra effort to make our session on line inspire of all ideas.

Needless to say, without all the above help and support our training would not been a success.


1. Organization Profile and History 2. Joint Venture of Alcatel Lucent 3. Services and the Processes: 4. Facets of Transport: 5. Technology Used for transmission: a. PDH - PDH (advantage and disadvantage) c. SDH (origin) - advantages and disadvantages of SDH - SDH Topology - SDH PRINCIPLE - STM-1 - STM-1 frame -SDH Concatenation - Errors in SDH transmission -Alarms for error indication in SDH

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1. Organisation Profile And History

Alcatel-Lucents vision is to enrich peoples lives by transforming the way the world communicates. Alcatel-Lucent provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband access, carrier and enterprise IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the end-toend solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. With more than 77,000 employees and operations in more than 130 countries, Alcatel-Lucent is a local partner with global reach. The company has one of the largest research, technology and innovation organizations focused on communications Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs and the most experienced global services team in the industry. Alcatel-Lucent achieved adjusted revenues of Euro 16.98 billion in 2008, and is incorporated in France, with headquarters in Paris.

With a strong focus on complete solutions maximizing value for customers, Alcatel-Lucent is organized around four business groups and three geographic regions. The Application Software Group focuses on developing and maintaining innovative software products for its global customer base. The Carrier Product Group serves fixed, wireless and convergent service providers with end-to-end communications solutions. The Enterprise Product Group focuses on meeting the needs of business customers as well as the Industry & Public Sector. The Services Group designs, deploys, manages and maintains networks worldwide. The company's geographic regions are the Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; and Asia Pacific and China.

Innovation & Technology

Alcatel-Lucent is one of the largest innovation powerhouses in the communications industry, representing an R&D investment of Euro 2.5 billion, and a portfolio of more than 26,000 active patents spanning virtually every technology area. At the core of this innovation is Alcatel-Lucents Bell Labs, an innovation engine with researchers and scientists at the forefront of research into areas such as multimedia and convergent services and applications, new service delivery architectures and platforms, wireless and wireline, broadband access, packet and optical networking and transport, network security, enterprise networking and communication services and fundamental research in areas such as nanotechnology, algorithmic, and computer sciences.

History :
The formation of Alcatel-Lucent created the worlds first truly global communications solutions provider, with the most complete end-to-end portfolio of solutions and services in the industry. Alcatel-Lucent combined two entities Alcatel and Lucent Technologies which shared a common lineage dating back to 1986. That was the year Alcatels parent company, CGE (la Compagnie Gnrale dElectricit), acquired ITTs European telecom business. Nearly 60 years earlier, ITT had purchased most of AT&Ts manufacturing operations outside the United States. Lucent Technologies was spun off from AT&T. The combination of Alcatel and Lucent Technologies created the worlds first truly global communications solutions provider by building on two rich heritages. Alcatel-Lucent has three regional groups Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; and Asia Pacific and China - focused on addressing the unique needs of customers throughout the world.

Alcatel-Lucent Fast Facts:

Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the end-to-end solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. With operations in more than 130 countries, Alcatel-Lucent is a local partner with global reach. The company has one of the largest research, technology and innovation organizations focused on communications Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs and the most experienced global services team in the industry. Alcatel-Lucent achieved revenues of Euro 16.98 billion in 2008 and is incorporated in France, with headquarters in Paris.

Alcatel-Lucent is a French company that provides hardware, software, and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises all over the globe. The company is incorporated in France, and has its global executive offices in Paris. The company does business in 132 countries, with almost equal sales distribution coming from both its European and North American regions, and an additional third of its channel located elsewhere in the world. Alcatel-Lucent was formed after Alcatel's buyout of Lucent Technologies on December 1, 2006.

2.Joint Venture Of Alcatel-Lucent:

JV will manage Airtels migration to next generation networks (NGN) to offer advanced services like high-speed internet, triple play, media-rich VAS, MPLS, VPN for both retail and business customers First managed services partnership for broadband and telephone services in India Paris and New Delhi, April 30, 2009 - Bharti Airtel, Asias leading integrated
telecom service provider, and Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) today announced that they have formed a joint venture to manage Bharti Airtels pan-India broadband and telephone services and help Airtels transition to next generation networks. Under the joint venture, Alcatel-Lucent will design, plan, deploy, optimize and manage Bharti Airtels broadband and telephone network across India. A new legal entity is being formed which will be operated by Alcatel-Lucent. This managed services partnership will include all end-to-end activities service rollout, installation and fault repair, service continuity and transformation. It will support Bharti Airtels transformation to next generation networks, offering advanced services like highspeed internet, triple play, media-rich VAS, MPLS, VPN for both retail and business customers. The partnership will also drive optimal capital investment and increase operational efficiency by moving voice and data traffic onto a single, 'packetized' infrastructure.

3. Services And The Processes:

The services provided to AIRTEL are on MANAGEMENT OF NETWORKS. These services include transmission of voice,data and voice/ data.The recently launched IPTV by AIRTEL is basically managed by ALCATEL- LUCENT. The INTERNET SERVICES also comes under ALCATEL LUCENTS management. As said the MAIN FUNCTION of ALCATEL-LUCENT is to look after voice, data and voice/data transmission. Now how exactly this process goes on is stated and explained with the help of the following :

Fig. Challenges of Transport

4. Means of Transport
1. Media
Wireline Copper , Aluminium

Wireless RF, W ( Electromagnetic) Optical OFC

2. Topology - (Pattern of connecting network element)

Mesh - Local Star -

Bus - for LAN Ring for SDH network

3. Technology
- Voice Communication PDH, - Modern Transport SDH, - DWDM

4. Network Management - Network Management Preside

5. Technology Used for transmission:

Before 1970 most of the worlds telephony systems were based on single line, voice frequency, connections over twisted copper pair. In the early 1970s digital transmission systems began to appear using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Alec Reeves of Standard telephone cables (STC) had first proposed this system of transmission in 1937. PCM enables analogue waveforms such as speech to be converted into a binary format suitable for transmission over long distances via digital systems. PCM works by sampling the analogue signal at regular intervals, assigning a value to the sample and then transmitting this value as a binary stream. This process is still in use today and forms the basis of virtually all the transmission systems that we currently use.
4 3 2 1 0





Fig 1.1 PCM Block diagram Engineers soon saw the potential to produce more effective transmission systems by combining several PCM channels together over the same copper pair. In Europe a standard was adopted where thirty-two, 64kbit/s channels were combined together in a process called "multiplexing", to produce a structure with a transmission rate of 2.048 Mbit/s (usually referred to as 2 Mbit/s). As demand for telephony services grew, it soon became apparent that the standard 2 Mbit/s signal was not sufficient to cope with the demands of the growing network, and so a further level of multiplexing was devised. Four, 2 Mbit/s signals were combined together to form an 8 Mbit/s signal (actually 8.448 Mbit/s). As the need arose, additional levels of multiplexing structure were added to include rates of 34 Mbit/s (34.368) and 140 Mbit/s (139.264). These transmission speeds are called Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy or PDH rates.

Comparison of hierarchical PDH rates:

Whilst the European hierarchy was being developed a similar system was being devised in America. Although the same principal was used, a different hierarchical structure was adopted.

Europe Primary

2.048 Mbit/s 8.44 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s

North America Primary 1.544 Mbit/s 6.132 Mbit/s 44.736 Mbit/s

Although each of the systems works fine as a stand-alone hierarchy, it does make international inter-connection very difficult and costly. This was the major reason for the development of a new internationally agreed standard.

PDH n Suffix
The PDH rates are often referred to by an n suffix. This suffix is also used within SDH to refer to the various different PDH input signals. The table below shows these suffixes and there associated rates.

n Suffix 11 12 21 22 31 32 4

Bit rate (Kbit/s) 1,544 2,048 6,312 8,448 34,368 44,736 139,264

Disadvantages of PDH networks:

Because of the way that PDH signal is structured, it is impossible to extract a single 2 Mbit/s signal from within a higher order (say 140 Mbit/s) stream. Therefore when a 2 Mbit/s signal needs to be cross-connected between one transmission system and another, it must be de-multiplexed back down to its primary rate first. This forms what is referred to a multiplexer mountain.
34 Mbit/s
140 Mbit/s LTE 140 / 34 140 / 34 140 Mbit/s LTE

8 Mbit/s
34 / 8 34 / 8

2 Mbit/s
8 / 2 8 / 2

ADD DROP 2Mbit's Tributary

As we can see, the multiplexer mountain means that we need to have a lot of expensive equipment just to connect 2 Megs together. This means that: Valuable space is taken up in racks in node sites and more equipment means more maintenance-associated problems. Each of the equipment levels is synchronised from a different source and at a different rate. This can lead to clocking problems that can cause errors. This equipment must also be jumperd not only at the 2 Mbit/s level for customer interconnection, but also between the various multiplexers that make up the individual transmission system. This leads to large amounts of coax wiring, which is physically very bulky and also relatively high maintenance, due to the fact that the terminating plugs work on a mechanical nature. An advantage of PDH is the small overhead of the system. This leads to efficient use of bandwidth. Unfortunately because of this lack of overhead in the structure, management facilities in PDH are severely limited: There is no automatic storage of route information so comprehensive and accurate paper records must be kept to avoid problems.

There is no ability to remotely configure equipment and the alarm monitoring is rudimentary, effectively only reporting loss of inputs.

Protection of the transmission paths is generally only available using 1+1 protection at the higher PDH levels i.e.140 Mbit/s and above, leaving customer 2 Mbit/s circuit vulnerable to failure.

Overview of PDH Limitations:

Interconnection between national (European/North American) systems difficult. PDH 'multiplexer mountain' is costly and inflexible. All hierarchy levels are clocked individually, so slips possible. Protection of paths is at higher rates only. Management is very limited. Relatively prone to faults (by today's standards).

Origins of SDH(Synchronous digital hierarchy):

As can be seen from the previous chapter PDH is a workable but flawed system. At its conception it used the best available technology and was a giant leap forward in transmission, but with the advent of silicon chips and integrated microprocessors, customer demand soon provided the need to introduce a new and better system. This new system needed to solve the existing limitations of PDH, but also provide for applications of the future. The first of the working systems to be introduced was the SYNTRAN (Synchronous Transmission) system from Bellcore. This was however realy only a development system and was soon replaced with SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). Initially SONET could only carry the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) bit rates i.e. 1.5, 6, 45 Mbit/s. Since the aim of the project was to provide easier international interconnection, SONET was modified to carry the European standard bit rates of 2, 8, 34 & 140 Mbit/s. In 1989 the ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication's standardisation section), published recommendations which covered the standards for SDH. These were adopted in North America by ANSI (SONET is now thought of as a subset of SDH), making SDH a truly global standard.

Features and Advantages of SDH :

SDH permits the mixing of the existing European and North American PDH bit rates. SDH is synchronous. All SDH equipment is based on the use of a single master reference clock source. Compatible with the majority of existing PDH bit rates SDH provides for extraction/insertion, of a lower order bit rate from a higher order aggregate stream, without the need to de-multiplex in stages. SDH allows for integrated management using a centralised network control. SDH provides for a standard optical interface thus allowing the inter-working of different manufacturers equipment. Increase in network reliability due to reduction of necessary equipment/jumpering.

Basic SDH Network Topology:

SDH networks are usually deployed in protected rings. This has the advantage of giving protection to the data, by providing an alternate route for it to travel over in the event of equipment or network failure. Each side of the ring (known as A and B, or sometimes, East and West), consists of an individual transmit and receive fibre. These fibres will take diverse physical paths to the distant end equipment to minimise the risk of both routes failing at the same time. The SDH equipment can detect when there is a problem and will automatically switch to the alternate route.





Customer A A

Customer B

Customer A

Customer B

"Ring Normal"

"Fibre break on the Ring Customer B Switches"

To speed up switching times, although SDH multiplexers transmit on both sides of the ring simultaneously, they only receive on one side at any time. This means that only the receiving end needs to switch, thus reducing the impact of a fault on the customers' data.

SDH Principles: Overview

The SDH standard defines a number of 'Containers' each corresponding to an existing PDH input rate. Information from the incoming PDH signal is placed into the relevant container. Each container then has some control information known as the 'Path Overhead' (POH) and stuffing bits added to it. The path overhead bytes allow the system operator to achieve end to end monitoring of areas such as error indication, alarm indication and performance monitoring data. Together the container and the path overhead form a 'Virtual Container' (VC). Due to clock phase differences, the start of the customers' PDH data may not coincide with the start of the SDH frame. Identification of the start of the PDH data is achieved by adding a 'Pointer'. The VC and its relevant pointer together form a 'Tributary Unit' (TU). Tributary units are then multiplexed together in stages (Tributary User Group 2 (TUG-2) Tributary User Group 3 (TUG-3) - Virtual Container 4 (VC-4)), to form an Administrative Unit 4 (AU-4). Additional stuffing, pointers and overheads are added during this procedure. This AU-4 in effect contains 63 x 2 Mbit/s channels and all the control information that is required. Finally, Section Overheads (SOH) are added to the AU-4. These SOH's contain the control bytes for the STM-1 section comprising of framing, section performance monitoring, maintenance and operational control information. An AU-4 plus its SOH's together form an STM-1 transport frame.

STM Hierarchy and Container Bit Rates

The first hierarchy level for SDH is set at 155,520 kbit/s/s. This is known as a Synchronous Transport Module 1 (STM-1). Higher levels are simply multiples of the first level, which are denoted by the number after the - At present the SDH hierarchy is as follows: STM-1: STM-4: STM-16: STM-64: 155,520 kbit/s. 622,080 kbit/s. 2,488,320 kbit/s. 9,953,280 kbit/s. (155 Mbit/s) (620 Mbit/s) (2.5 Gbit/s) (10 Gbit/s)

The STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module level-1) is the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network transmission standard. It has a bit rate of 155.52 Mbit/s. The other levels are STM-4, STM-16 and STM-64. Beyond this we have wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) commonly used in submarine cabling.

Frame structure:
'The STM-1 frame is the basic transmission format for SDH'. A STM-1 signal has a byteoriented structure with 9 rows and 270 columns of bytes with a total of 2430 bytes (9 rows * 270 columns = 2430 bytes). Each byte corresponds to a 64kbit/s channel. The frame consists of two parts, the transport overhead and the path virtual envelope (virtual container with a(VC-4) capacity).

Transport overhead

RSOH: Regenerator Section OverHead. MSOH: Multiplex Section OverHead.

Frame characteristics
The STM-1 base frame is structured with the following characteristics: - Length : 270 column x 9 row = 2430 bytes - Duration (Frame repetition time): 125 s i.e. 8000 frames/s - Rate (Frame capacity): : 2430 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s - Payload = 2340 bytes i.e. 149.760 Mbit/s 1 byte i.e. 64 kbit/s (e.g. speech channel)

STM-1 Frame Structure

The STM-1 transport frame has a duration of 125s. It contains 2430 bytes of information. Each byte contains 8 data bits (i.e. a 64kbit/s channel). The number of frames per second is 1 second 125s = 8000 Frames per second. Therefore the rate transmitted to line is: 8 bits x 2430 bytes x 8000 per second = 155,520,000 bits/s or 155 Mbit/s. As each frame consists of 2430 bytes, this would prove very difficult to show as a diagram on a page. To get round this, we show the frame chopped up into 9 segments, stacked on top of each other as shown in the diagram below.

The bits start at the top left with byte number one and are read from left to right and top to bottom. They are arranged as 270 columns across and 9 rows down. Therefore byte 270 is the byte in column 270, row 1. Byte 271 is in column 1, row 2 and byte 2430 is located at column 270, row 9 etc.


270 Columns (bytes)

1 1 9 10 270

SOH 9 R o w s
3 4 5


VC-4 Payload

SDH Concatenation:
The SDH frame can be thought of as an articulated lorry. The data to be transported is placed in the VC-4 'Container'. This is then hitched to the SOH 'Cab unit' that 'drives' the data to its destination. The maximum carrying capacity of the vehicle is determined by the size of the 'container'. Therefore although the SDH signal is 155 Mbit/s in size, the largest single circuit that can be transmitted at any one time by the customer is limited to the size of the VC-4 i.e. 140 Mbit/s.

140 M/bits Payload

VC-4 Payload SOH

155 M/bits SDH Frame

When using higher rates of SDH (STM-4, STM-16 etc), multiple 'containers' and 'cabs' are added one after another, to form a bigger vehicle. The customer is still limited to a single circuit size of 140 Mbit/s however, because each individual 'container' is still the same size (140 Mbit/s). They can however transmit multiple 140 Mbit/s circuits simultaneously. The diagram below represents the standard STM-4 structure


VC-4 Payload

VC-4 Payload

VC-4 Payload

This limitation of 140 Mbit/s per individual circuit is not a particularly efficient way of managing bandwidth and a method of combining 'containers' together has been developed which is called 'Concatenation'. The diagram below represents an STM-4 concatenated structure (VC-4-4C).

VC-4 Payload SOH

Concatenated paths are commonly defined as VC-4-xC circuits (where x is size of the concatenation), as shown below: STM-4 concatenation (written as VC-4-4c), provides a single circuit with a bit rate of approximately 600M (actually 599.04 Mbit/s) STM-16 concatenation (written as VC-4-16c), provides a single circuit with a bit rate of approximately 2.2G (actually 2.2396160 Gbit/s) STM-64 concatenation (written as VC-4-64c), provides a single circuit with a bit rate of approximately 10G (actually 9.584640 Gbit/s) STM-256 concatenation (written as VC-4-256c), provides a single circuit with a bit rate of approximately 38G (actually 38.338560 Gbit/s)

Errors when transmitting data in SDH:

Transmission in SDH network is mainly optical.Optical transmission is not as sensitive as electrical.Fiber optics has fewer interaction with environment than electrical cable, where many cables can be coupled, fiber optics has any how errors caused by its physical characterstics such as; attenuation in fiber optics cable, absorption, scattering,distortion in optical signal. The greatest threat is anyhow is the break of the fibre. When a cable break or similar to it happens, SDH networks reroutes all traffic in few milliseconds. SDH frame provides the information of what to do if the frame does not reach the recipient. These information is divided into well defined bytes. The most common instruction at the time of break of the cable is to go back to the same route and try to reach the end point using different route. When the re-routing is done the add and drop multiplexer notices the re-rout frame and it commands to switch to change all the data going through this non functioning line to the alternating route.

ALARMS in SDH Networks:

Some important alarms in SDH Networks are explained next. SDH equipment are set to alarms if some specified errors occur. 1. LOS (loss of signal) : LOS alarms is given if the SDH equipment notices that the signal level is Below the specification, usually so low that the information is not separated from noise, there is also usually a measurement in network for both optical and electrical power depending on the transmission medium. 2. LOF (loss of frame): When the SDH networks cannot receive correct frame byte, network element defines the frame lost. Los alarm is given only if the frame bytes are incorrect during the certain time. When the network element recognizes the correct byte again the alarm is removed.