OP-AMP EXPERIMENTS

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
An integrated circuit is defined as a combination of interconnected circuit
elements inseparably associated on or within a continuous semiconductor (often
called a chip).
A number of important electronic devices, such as diodes and transistors, are
separate devices that are indi vidually packaged and interconnected in a circuit
with other devices to form a complete, functional unit. Such devices are referred
to as discrete components. In an IC, however, many transistors, diodes,
resistors and capacitors are fabricated on a single tiny chip of semiconductor
material and packaged in a single case to form a functional circuit. An IC is thus
treated as a single device.
Operational amplifiers (Op-amps) are integrated electronic devices. In our
laboratory course, we will be concerned wi th what the circuit does more from an
external viewpoint than from an internal, component-level viewpoint.
The operational amplifier is an electronic circuit element designed to be
used with other circuit elements to perform a specified signal processing
operation. It is basically a “solid-state device” wi th several circuits within a single
package capable of sensing and amplifying dc and ac input signals. (“Solid state”
gets its name from path that electrical signals take through solid pieces of
semiconductor material. Prior to the use of solid state devices, electricity passed
through various elements inside of a heated vacuum tube.)
Early op-amps were constructed with vacuum tubes and worked with high
voltages. Today’s op-amps are linear integrated circuits that use relati vely low dc
supply voltage and are reliable and inexpensi ve.
1. OP-AMP BASICS
SYMBOL AND TERMINALS
The schematic diagram for a standard op-amp is represented as a triangle as
shown in Figure 1.1.

The inverting input is represented by a minus sign. The voltage at this input will
cause the output voltage to be inverted by180°. The non-inverting input is
represented by a plus sign. The voltage at this input wi ll cause the voltage at the
output to be in phase. The output terminal is at the apex of the triangle. Power
supply leads are shown above and below the triangle. The dual (±) power supply
connections enable the output to swing both positi ve and negati ve. These dc
voltages must always be connected even though they may not be indicated on a
schematic diagram. Other leads coming out of the op-amp may be used for
frequency compensation or nulling components. These leads are also left off the
schematic symbol for simplicity. Thus the simplified standard op-amp symbol is:

CIRCUIT FUNCTION OF THE OP-AMP
The circuit function of the op-amp is that it senses the difference between voltage
signals applied at its two input terminals (v
non-in
- v
in
), multiply this by a number A
(or A
v
, called the differential gain or voltage gain) and cause the resulting voltage
A(v
non-in
– v
in
) to appear at the output terminal.
THE IDEAL AND PRACTICAL OP-AMP
To illustrate what an op-amp is, we consider its ideal characteristics. A practical
op-amp, of course, falls short of these ideal standards, but it is much easier to
understand and analyze the device from an ideal point of view.
Characteristics of an ideal op-amp are:
- Infinite voltage gain and infinite bandwidth
- Infinite input impedance (open) so that it does not load the driving source
- Zero output impedance
These characteristics are illustrated in Figure 1.3.

Although modern IC op-amps approach parameter values that can be treated as
ideal in many cases, the ideal device can never be made. Any device has
limi tations, and the IC op-amp is no exception. Op-amps have both voltage and
current limitations. Peak to peak output voltage, for example, is also limi ted by
internal restrictions such as power dissipation and component ratings.
Characteristics of a practical op-amp are:
- Very high input impedance, which produces negligible current at the inputs
- Very high voltage gain, which is useful for amplifying very small signals
- Very low output impedance, so that it is affected very little by other circuit
loads
These characteristics are illustrated in Figure 1.4.

INTERNAL BOLCK DIAGRAM OF AN OP-AMP
A typical op-amp is made up of three types of amplifier circuits as shown in block
diagram (Figure 1.5).

THE 741 OP AMP
The 741 operational amplifier is one of the commonly used integrated-circuit
op-amps. It has eight pin connections as shown in Figure 1.6.

The lead identification shown in the Figure 1.6 is usually self-explanatory. The
positi ve supply voltage is connected to the +V terminal, and the negati ve supply
voltage is connected to the –V terminal. Input and output terminals are clearly
indicated. The balance terminals (someti mes designated “Offset Null”) are
connected to a potentiometer for null adjusting. Terminals marked “NC” (no
connection) are included for physical ruggedness of the package.
OP-AMP INPUT SIGNAL MODES
Single-ended input
When an op-amp is operated in the single-ended mode, one input is grounded
and the signal voltage is applied only to the other input, as shown in Figure 1.7.
In the case where the signal voltage is applied to the inverting input as in Figure
1.7a, an inverted, amplified signal voltage appears at the output. In the case
where the signal is applied to the noninverting input with the inverting input
grounded, as in Figure 1.7b, a noninverted, amplified signal vol tage appears at
the output.

Differential input
In the differential mode, two opposite-polarity (out-of-phase) signals are applied
to the inputs, as shown in Figure 1.8. This type of operation is also referred to as
double-ended. The amplified difference between the two inputs appears on the
output.

Common-mode input
In the common-mode, two signal voltages of the same phase, frequency and
amplitude are applied to the two inputs, as shown In Figure 1.9. When equal
input signals are applied to both inputs, they cancel, resulting in a zero output
voltage.

This action is called common-mode rejection. Its importance lies in the situation
where an unwanted signal appears commonly on both op-amps inputs.
Common-mode rejection means that this unwanted signal will not appear on the
output and distort the desired signal. Common-mode signals (noise) generally
are the result of the pick-up of radiated energy on the input lines, from adjacent
lines, the 60 Hz power line, or other sources.
INPUT/OUTPUT VOLTAGE POLARITY
An important function to remember about an op-amp is the relationship of input
voltage polarity to output voltage polarity. Figure 1.10 illustrates this relationship,
where the noninverting input is at 0V or ground. If the inverting input is more
positi ve than the noninverting input, the output will be at negati ve voltage
potential. Similarly, if the inverting input is more negati ve than noninverting input,
the output voltage wi ll be at a posi ti ve potential. This relationship remains even if
both input voltages are positi ve or negati ve.

OP-AMP GAIN
Ideally, the gain of an op-amp should be infinite, however, practically, the gain
may exceed 200,000 in the open-loop mode. In the open-loop mode, there is no
feedback from the output to the input and voltage gain (A
v
) is maximum, as
shown in Figure 1.11a.

The open-loop voltage gain, A
OL
, of an op-amp is the internal voltage gain of the
device and represents the ratio of output voltage to input voltage when there are
no external components. The open-loop voltage gain, also referred to as large-
signal voltage gain, is not a well-controlled parameter. In a practical circuit, the
slight voltage difference at the inputs wi ll cause the output voltage to attempt to
swing to the maxi mum power-supply level. The maxi mum voltage at the output
will be about 90% of the supply voltage because of the internal voltage drops of
the op-amp. The output is said to be at saturation and can be represented (for
either polarity) by +V
sat
and –V
sat
. As an example, an op-amp circuit in the open-
loop mode using a ±15V supply would have its output swing from +13.5 to -13.5.
With this type of circuit the op-amp is very unstable and the output will be 0V for
a 0V difference between the inputs, or the output voltage wi ll be at ei ther
extreme, wi th a slight voltage difference at the inputs. The open-loop mode is
found primarily in voltage comparators and level-detector circuits.
The versatility of the op-amp is demonstrated by the fact that it can be used in so
many types of circuits in the closed-loop mode, as shown in Figure 1.11b.

External components are used to feedback a portion of the output voltage to the
inverting input. This feedback stabilizes most circuits and can reduce the noise
level. The voltage gain (A
v
) will be less than maxi mum gain in open-loop mode.
Closed-loop gain must be controlled to be of any value in a practical. By adding
resistor R
in
to the inverting input as shown in Figure 1.11c, the gain of the
op-amp can be controlled. The resistance ratio of R
f
to R
in
determines the voltage
gain of the circuit and can be found by the formula

f
v
in
R
A
R
= ÷
The minus sign indicates that the op-amp circuit is in the inverting configuration.

If both R
in
and R
f
are the same value, the A
v
equals 1, or unity gain as shown in
Figure 1.11d. In this noninverting configuration, the voltage out equals the
voltage in and A
v
equals +1.

OP-AMP FREQUENCY RESPONSE
The gain of an op-amp decreases with an increase in frequency. The gain gi ven
by manufactures is generally at zero hertz or dc. At very low frequencies, the
open-loop gain of an op-amp is constant, but starts to taper off at about 6Hz or
so at a rate of -6 dB/octave or -20db/decade (an octave is a doubling in
frequency, and a decade is ten-fold increase in frequency). This decrease
continues unti l the gain is uni ty, or 0dB. The frequency at which the gain is unity
is called the unity gain frequency. The unity gain point occurs at 1MHz. The unity
gain frequency establishes the reference point at which many op-amps are
specified by manufacturers.
Figure 1.12 shows a voltage-gain versus frequency-response curve. In the open-
loop mode, the gain falls off very rapidly as frequency increases. When the
frequency increases tenfold, the gain decreases by 10. The breakover point
occurs at 70.7% of the maxi mum gain. The frequency bandwidth is normally
considered at the point where the gain falls to the breakover point. Therefore, the
open-loop bandwidth is about 10 Hz for this example. Op-amps usually require
degenerati ve feedback in amplifier circuits, and this feedback increases
bandwidth of the circuit. For a closed-loop gain of 100, the bandwidth has
increased to about 10 kHz. Lowering the gain to 10 increases the bandwidth to
about 100 kHz.

The gain-bandwidth product is equal to the unity-gain frequency. It not only tells
us the upper useful frequency of a circuit, but allows us to determine the
bandwidth for a given gain. For example (referring to Figure 1.12, which shows a
frequency-response curve for a frequency-compensated op-amp, such as the
741), if you multiply the gain and bandwidth of a specific circuit, the product will
equal the unity-gain frequency:
gain- bandwidth product = gain bandwidth= unity - gain frequency ×
GBP = 100 10 kHz = 1000000 Hz (1MHz) ×
or
GBP = 10 100 kHz = 1000000 Hz (1MHz) ×

Therefore, if we wanted to know the upper frequency limit or bandwidth of a
circuit with gain of 100, we would di vide the unity-gain frequency by gain:

unity- gain frequency
bandwidth =
gain
1000000
BW = = 10kHz
100

OFFSET NULLING
Ideally the output voltage of an op-amp should be zero when the voltages at both
inputs are the same or zero. If the two input terminals of the op-amp are tied
together and connected to ground, it wi ll be found that a finite dc voltage exists at
the output (Figure 1.13a). This is the output dc offset voltage (V
OO
). In a critical
circuit, this offset can cause error voltages at output. If we divide the output dc
offset voltage by the gain A
OL
, we obtain the input offset voltage V
IO
. The latter
may be represented by a voltage source connected in series wi th one of the input
leads of an ideal op-amp, which would cause the output dc voltage to be reduced
to zero as shown in Figure 1.13b.

Most integrated circuit op-amps provide a means of compensating for offset
voltage. An external potentiometer is connected to one of the inputs and then it is
adjusted to bring back the output voltage to zero when the voltage difference at
the inputs is zero. This method is called “offset nulling” or “input offset voltage
compensation”. Many op-amps have offset nulling pins, as shown in Figure 1.14.
The ends of the potentiometer are connected to these pins wi th the viper
attached to the –V supply. Often null circuits are used wi th an op-amp but are not
shown on the schematic diagram.


2. OP-AMP PARAMETERS
The following parameters are useful to know when working with op-amps.
INPUT PARAMETERS:
Differential input voltage
The difference of voltage between the two inputs is called differential input
voltage.
Input offset voltage (V
IO
)
The ideal op-amp produces zero volts out for zero volts in. In a practical op-amp,
however, a small dc voltage, V
out
(error), appears at the output when no
differential input voltage is applied. The input offset voltage, V
IO
, is the differential
dc voltage required between the inputs to set the output to zero volts. Typical
values of input offset voltage are in the range of 2mV or less. In the ideal case, it
is 0 volts.
Input bias current (I
B
)
In order for the (real) op-amp to operate, its two input terminals have to be
applied by finite dc currents, termed the input bias currents. By definition, the
input bias current, I
B
, is the average of both input currents. Ideally, the two input
bias currents are equal.
Input offset current (I
IO
)
Ideally, the two input bias currents are equal, and thus their difference is zero. In
a practical op-amp, however, the bias currents are not exactly equal. The input
offset current, I
IO
, is the difference of the input bias currents (expressed as an
absolute value).
Common-mode input voltage range
All op-amps have li mitations on the range of voltages over which they will
operate. The common-mode input voltage range is the range of input voltages
which, when applied to both inputs, will not cause clipping or other output
distortion. Many op-amps have common-mode input voltage ranges of ±10V with
dc supply voltages of ±15V.
Input resistance (Z
I
)
This is the resistance “looking in” at either input with the remaining input
grounded.
OUTPUT PARAMETERS:
Output offset voltage (V
OO
)
Output offset voltage, V
OO
, is a slight unwanted voltage at the output when the
voltage between inputs is zero. Ideally, V
OO
should be zero.
Output short-circuit current (I
OSC
)
The maximum output current that the op-amp can deli ver to a load is called
output short-circuit current, I
OSC
.
Output voltage maximum swing (±V
Omax
)
Depending on the load resistance, output voltage maxi mum swing, ±V
Omax
, is the
maxi mum peak output voltage that the op-amp can supply without saturation or
clipping.
Output resistance (Z
O
)
This is the resistance “looking into” the op-amp’ s output.
DYNAMIC PARAMETERS:
Open-loop voltage gain (A
OL
)
Ratio of the output voltage to the differential input voltage in a differential
amplifier without the external feedback is called open-loop voltage gain, A
OL
, or
differential gain.
Slew rate (SR)
The maximum rate of change of the op-amp’s output voltage under large signal
conditions is called slew rate, SR.

out
ΔV
SR=
Δt

where
out max max
ΔV =+V - (-V )
Δt is the ti me interval required for the output voltage to go from its lower li mit to
its upper li mit.
The unit of slew rate is volts per microsecond (V/µs).
Slew rate tells how fast the op-amp can react to changes at input. It reflects the
op-amp’s ability of handling varying signals. If one tries to drive the output at a
rate of voltage change greater than the slew rate, the output would not be able to
change fast enough and would not vary over the full range expected resulting in
signal clipping or distortion. In any case, the output would not be an amplified
duplicate of the input signal if op-amp slew rate is exceeded.
Consider the unity gain follower circuit in Figure 2.1 and let the input voltage V
±
be the step voltage of height V (shown in Figure 2.2a). When the op-amp is slew
rate li mited (or slewing) it is not capable of responding to its input signal without
distortion and the output appears as shown in Figure 2.2b.



If sinusoidal waveform is applied at the inputs of the unity gain follower, the op-
amp slew rate li miting causes nonlinear distortion as shown in Figure 2.3.

OTHER PARAMETERS AND DEFINITIONS:
Supply current
This is the current the op-amp will draw from the power supply.
Common-mode voltage (V
CM
)
Common-mode voltage is an unwanted, but unavoidable voltage on both inputs,
such as 60-cycle hum.
Common-mode gain (A
CM
)
Ideally, an op-amp provides zero gain for common-mode signals but practical op-
amps do exhibi t a very small common-mode gain, (A
CM
), which is defined as the
ratio of the common-mode output voltage to the common-mode input voltage.
Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)
Common-mode rejection ratio, (CMRR), is a measure of the abili ty of the op-amp
to reject signals that are simultaneously present at both inputs. It is the ratio of
the open-loop voltage gain, A
OL
, to the common-mode gain, A
CM
.

OL
CM
A
CMRR=
A

The higher the CMRR, the better. A high value of CMRR means that the open-
loop gain, A
OL
, is high and the common mode gain A
CM
, is low and the
performance of the op-amp in terms of rejection of common mode signals is
better.
Power supply voltage rejection ratio (PSRR)
The ratio of the change in the power supply voltage to the resulting change in
input offset voltage is called power supply voltage rejection ratio, (PSRR).
Variation in power supply voltage wi ll also affect the input offset voltage.
Power supply decoupling
Capacitors in the range 0.1 to 1.0 µF connected from the power supply voltages
to ground to bypass voltage variations to ground provide the power supply
decoupling.
Input protection
Diodes, zener diodes, and/or resistors are used at the inputs to protect the op-
amp from excessi vely large input voltages.
Latch-up
Latch-up is a condition where a large input signal causes the output to remain in
+V
sat
or –V
sat
. Diodes and resistors used in the output circuit can prevent this.
Output protection
A low-value resistor connected in series wi th the output of an op-amp to li mit
current during a short-circuit condition provides output protection. Some op-amps
have the protection built in.

3. PRACTICAL OP-AMP CIRCUITS
(DESIGN USING OP-AMP)
One of the early applications of operational amplifiers was to build circuits that
performed mathematical operations. Indeed, the operational amplifier takes its
name from this important application. Many of the op-amp circuits that perform
mathematical operations are used so often that they have been gi ven names
(e.g. summing amplifier, difference amplifier, integrator, differentiator etc).
Op-amp can be connected in a large number of circuits to provide various
operating characteristics. Some of the basic applications are discussed below:
- “Open-loop mode” circuits
- “Basic linear amplifier” circuits
- “Integrator”, “Differentiator” and “Square wave generator” circuits
OPEN-LOOP MODE CIRCUITS:
Comparator is a circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an
output in either of two states indicating the greater than or less than relationship
of the inputs. In this application, the op-amp is used in the open-loop
configuration, with the input voltage on one input and a reference voltage on the
other.
The polarity of the voltage at the output of an op-amp depends on the
relationship of the polarity between the voltages at the inputs. The inverting ( -)
input is referenced to the noninverting (+) input. When the inverting (-) input is
more posi ti ve than the noninverting (+) input, the output will be negati ve and
when the inverting (-) input is more negati ve than the noninverting (+) input, the
output will be positi ve. Without a feedback path, the output wi ll either be at +V
sat

or –V
sat
. Figure 3.1 shows a comparator.

A comparator circuit can be used for:
Zero-level detection
Nonzero-level detection
Zero-level detector
Figure 3.2a shows a zero-level detector.

The inverting (-) input is grounded to produce a zero level and the input signal
voltage is applied to the noninverting (+) input. Because of the high open-loop
voltage gain, a very small voltage difference between the two inputs dri ves the
amplifier into saturation, causing the output voltage to go to its li mits.
Figure 3.2b shows the result of a sinusoidal input voltage applied to the
noninverting (+) input of the zero-level detector. When the sine wave is positi ve,
the output is at its maxi mum positi ve level. When the sine wave crosses zero, the
amplifier is driven to its opposite state and the output goes to its maxi mum
negati ve level. Thus the zero-level detector can be used as a squaring circuit to
produce a square wave from a sine wave.

Nonzero level detector
An op-amp comparator can be used to detect a positi ve voltage level as shown in
Figure 3.3a. It is inverting input sensor. The reference voltage at the noninverting
input is found by the formula
( )
3
ref
2 3
R
V = +V
R R +


When the voltage at the inverting input is below V
ref
, the output is at +V
sat
. When
the voltage at the inverting input increases above V
ref
, the output swings to –V
sat
.
When V
ref
is at the inverting input as shown in Figure 3.3b, it becomes a
noninverting input sensor. The output will swing to +V
sat
the instant the voltage at
the noninverting input is greater than V
ref
.

If point A is moved to –V power supply the circuits will detect a negati ve voltage.
Figure 3.4a shows the arrangement with a sinusoidal input voltage applied to
noninverting input of the nonzero-level detector.

The resulting output is shown in Figure 3.4b.

BASIC LINEAR AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS:
Linear applications are those in which the output signal is directly proportional to
the input signal.
Negative feedback is one of the most useful concepts in electronics, particularly
in op-amp linear applications. Negati ve feedback is the process whereby a
portion of the output voltage of an amplifier is returned to the input with a phase
angle that opposes (or subtracts from) the input signal.
The usefulness of an op-amp in an open-loop mode (i.e. without negati ve
feedback) is severely restricted and is generally limited to comparator and other
nonlinear applications. As the inherent open-loop voltage gain of a typical op-
amp is very high therefore, an extremely small input voltage drives the op-amp
into its saturated output states and the op-amp becomes nonlinear. With negati ve
feedback, the closed-loop voltage gain can be reduced and controlled so that the
op-amp can function as a linear amplifier. Negati ve feedback is illustrated in
Figure 3.5.

The inverting input effecti vely makes the feedback signal 180° out of phase with
the input signal. The “negati ve feedback network” closes the loop around the op-
amp. The gain of op-amp in such configurations is called the closed loop gain.
Inverting Amplifier
An op-amp connected as an inverting amplifier with a controlled amount of
voltage gain is shown in Figure 3.6.

The input signal is applied through a series input resistor R
in
to the inverting
input. Also the output is fed back through R
f
to the same input. The noninverting
input is grounded.
The gain of the circuit is calculated by the formula A
v
= -R
f
/R
in
(the minus sign
indicates only that the polarity of the output voltage is opposite to the polarity of
the input voltage) or can be found by A
v
= -V
out
/V
in
.
The junction of R
f
and R
in
at the inverting input is about the same voltage as the
noninverting input and is referred to as virtual ground.
To reduce the offset bias currents, the noninverting input is not directly grounded
but a resistor R
n
is used. R
n
is equal to the value of R
in
and R
f
in parallel
(R
n
=R
in
R
f
/R
in
+R
f
).
When inverting amplifier is used for ac signals, capacitors are used at the input
and output terminals, to block any dc voltage from the circuit which might cause
distortion. The frequency response of an op-amp circuit depends on its gain. The
lower the gain, the wider the frequency response.
Noninverting Amplifier
An op-amp connected as a noninverting amplifier with a controlled amount of
voltage gain is shown in Figure 3.7.

The input signal is applied to the noninverting input. The output is applied back to
the inverting input through the feedback circuit (closed loop) formed by the input
resistor R
in
and the feedback resistor R
f
.
The gain of the circuit is calculated by the formula A
v
= R
f
/R
in
+1 or

A
v
= V
out
/V
in
.
When the noninverting amplifier is used for ac signals, capacitors are used at the
input and output terminals, to block any dc voltage form the circuit that might
cause distortion. Even though the input voltage changes, an ampli fier’s gain
remains the same. A noninverting amplifier is used for high input impedance,
where R
in
cannot be made larger, because of affecting the gain of the circuit and
creating more noise.
Voltage followers (or Source followers)
Voltage followers are special cases of the noninverting and inverting amplifiers. A
noninverting amplifier with R
f
=0 and R
in
=∞, becomes a noninverting voltage
follower as shown in Figure 3.8a. It has a gain of 1 because of the zero
resistance feedback loop. It is referred to as voltage follower since the output
“follows” the input and is in phase with the it. Because of gain of 1, this circuit is
also named as the uni ty gain amplifier. The impedance to this circuit can be
made very high.

An inverting amplifier with R
f
=R
in
becomes an inverting voltage follower as shown
in Figure 3.8b.

The gain of this circuit is 1 (A
v
= -R
f
/R
in
) and the output voltage is 180° out of
phase with the input voltage. The input i mpedance to this circuit is lower, being
limi ted by the value of R
in
.
Voltage followers are used to match circuit impedances and act as buffer
amplifiers, isolating one circuit from another.
Summing Amplifier
If more than one input is used on an inverting amplifier, it becomes a summing
circuit or adder as shown in Figure 3.9.

The output voltage is the algebraic sum of the inputs, but inverted, and can be
found by the formula

f f f
out 1 2 n
1 2 n
R R R
V V V ..... V
R R R
| |
= ÷ + + +
|
\ .

where R
n
and V
n
are the number of input resistors and input voltages. The output
voltage is weighted sum of the input signals (V
1
, V
2
,….V
n
). This circuit is
therefore called weighted summer. Each summing coefficient may be
independently adjusted by adjusting the corresponding “feed-in” resistors (R
1
to
R
n
).
When all the resistors in the summing amplifier are of the same value, the circuit
becomes unity gain summing amplifier and the formula for V
out
simplifies to

( )
out 1 2 n
V V V ..... V = ÷ + + +
When all input resistors are of the same value with R
f
a larger value, the circuit
becomes summing amplifier with gain. V
out
is given by

( )
f
out 1 2 n
R
V V V ..... V
R
= ÷ + + +
where R is the value of each equal-value input resistor.
When in the summing amplifier with gain, the ratio R
f
/R is set equal to the
reciprocal of the number of inputs (n), the circuit becomes “averaging amplifier”.
Hence the summing amplifier produces the mathematical average of the input
voltages when R
f
/R=1/n.
When different weights are assigned to each input of a summing amplifier, by
adjusting the values of the input resistors, the circuit becomes scaling adder. In
this circuit, some inputs influence the output voltage more than the others. The
weight of a particular input is set by the ratio of R
f
to the resistance R
x
for that
input (R
x
= R
1
, R
2
,….,R
n
). For example, if an input voltage is to have a weight if 1,
then. Or, if a weight of 0.5 is required, R
x
=2R
f
. The smaller the value of input
resistance R
x
, the greater the weight, and vice versa.
The input currents and current through R
f
add up to zero at the inverting input,
referred to as the current summing point. The summing amplifier can also be
used as an audio signal mi xer.
Difference Amplifier
Both inputs are used (or active) for a difference amplifier or subtractor, as shown
in Figure 3.10. The output voltage is found by the formula

( )
( )
2 1
2
out 1 2
1 3 4
1 R R
R
V V V
R 1 R R
+
= ÷ +
+


If all resistors are equal, the formula simplifies to V
out
=V
2
-V
1
; however, the
polarity of the output voltage depends on the relationship of the inverting and
noninverting inputs polarities, simi lar to a comparator circuit.
A difference amplifier may have gain or use scaling input arrangement where one
input has more influence on the output.
DIFFERENTIATOR, INTEGRATOR AND SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR
CIRCUITS:
Op-amp Differentiator
An op-amp differentiator simulates mathematical differentiation, which is a
process of determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function. The basic
op-amp differentiator, shown in Figure 3.11, is similar to the basic inverting
amplifier, except that the input element is a capacitor. This circuit produces
output that is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage and is gi ven
by

in
out f
dV
V R C
d t
= ÷
The product R
f
C is called the time constant and it should be approxi mately equal
to the period of the input signal to be differentiated.

Op-amp Integrator
An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration, which is basically a
summing process that determines the total area under the curve of a function.
The basic op-amp integrator, shown in Figure 3.12, is similar to the basic
inverting amplifier, except that the feedback element is a capacitor. This circuit is
said to be inverse of the differentiator circuit, which is consistent wi th the
mathematical operation of differentiation and integration.
The output voltage of the integrator, as a function of time, is given by

t
out in
0
1
V V dt
RC
= ÷
}

The product RC is the ti me constant and, as with the differentiator circuit, it is
made approxi mately equal to the period of the input signal to be integrated.

Op-amp square wave generator
An op-amp can be constructed to produce a square-wave generator as shown in
Figure 3.13. Resistors R
2
and R
3
form a voltage di vider from the output of the op-
amp to ground and determine the ±V
ref
. Assume, initially, that V
out
is at +V
sat
.
Capacitor C
1
begins to charge through R
1
to +V
sat
. The instant the voltage on the
capacitor is greater than +V
ref
at the noninverting input, the output switches to
–V
sat
. The capacitor now charges toward –V
sat
and the instant it is greater than
–V
ref
, the output switches back to +V
sat
and the process begins again. The square
wave output at V
out
is ±V
sat
in ampli tude. The amplitude of V
C1
is ±V
ref
and can be
found by the formula
( )
3
ref sat
2 3
R
+V +V
R R
=
+
and ( )
3
ref sat
2 3
R
-V -V
R R
=
+

If R
3
is 86% of R
2
, the approxi mate output frequency can be found by the formula

out
1 1
1
f
2R C
=


BEFORE STARTING THE EXPERIMENTS
 Inverter check: Before starting the experiments, check that your IC is
working properly. This can be easily done by connecting the op-amp in an
inverting unity gain amplifier (as shown in figure below) and checking the
output signal on scope for any suitable input signal.

(It is better to do a quick inverter check than to waste time
experimenting with a damaged IC.)
 Power supply range: Op-amps are designed to be powered from
voltage supply which is typically in the range of ±5 to ±15 volts. To
avoid damaging the op-amp use ±12 volts for voltage supply in the
experiment.
 Power supply polarity: Never reverse power supply polarity to the op-
amps. Applying a negative voltage to the “+V” pin and a positive to the
“-V” pin, even momentarily will result in destructive current flow through
the op-amp!
 Power and signal sources: After wiring the circuit, connect or turn on
the power and signal sources to the breadboard last!
 Planning the experiment: Plan your experiment beforehand. Know
what type of results you are expected to observe. Don’t mindlessly
take data unless you have a good idea of what should be observed.
You can analyze things before doing the lab or as you go along.

4. EXPERIMENTS

EXPERIMENT 1
To demonstrate the basic operation of an op-amp as a comparator circuit.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp,
10kO pontenti meters, 10kO resistors, bread board for constructing circuit

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.1. V
1
and V
2
are set to
definite values and the corresponding values of V
out
are recorded, indicating
polarity.



















EXPERIMENT 2
Observations
V
1

(V)
V
2

(V)
V
out

(V)
+1 0
-1 0
0 +1
0 -1
+2 +1
+1 +2
+1 -1
-1 +1
-1 -2
-2 -1
To demonstrate the operation of an op-amp inverting amplifier with dc and ac
voltages and calculate gain of the circuit.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, oscilloscope,
AC signal generator, 10 kO potentiometer, breadboard for constructing circuit,
resistors (4.7kO, 6.8kO, 10kO, 22 kO, 47kO, 100kO), 1µF capacitors

Procedure: For dc amplifier, circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.2a. For
different values of R
in
, R
f
and V
in
(as shown in data table), V
out
is measured. Gain
is calculated by the formulae: A
v
=-R
f
/R
in
and A
v
=V
out
/V
in
.



Observations and Calculations
R
in

(kO)
R
out
=R
f

(kO)
V
in

(V)
V
out

(V) A
v
=-R
f
/R
in
A
v
=V
out
/V
in

10 47 +1
10 100 +1
10 22 +1
4.7 47 -1
22 47 -1
10 47 -1

For ac amplifier, circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.2b. For
R
f
=100kO, the frequency generator is set at V
in
=1V
p-p
and V
out
is measured for
different frequencies (f). Gain is calculated by: A
v
=V
out
/V
in
. Graph is plotted
between A
v
and f. Same procedure is repeated for R
f
=47kO.


Observations and Calculations
R
f
=100kO R
f
=47kO
f (kHz)
(for V
in

at
1 V
p-p
)
V
out

(V
p-p
) A
v
=V
out
/V
in

V
out

(V
p-p
) A
v
=V
out
/V
in

0.1
0.15
0.2
0.5
1
1.5
2
5
10
15
20
50
100
150
200
500
1000
1500
2000




EXPERIMENT 3
To demonstrate the operation of an op-amp non-inverting amplifier with dc and
ac voltages and calculate gain of the circuit.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, oscilloscope,
AC signal generator, 10 kO potentiometer, breadboard for constructing circuit,
resistors (4.7kO, 6.8kO, 10kO, 22 kO, 47kO, 100kO), 1µF capacitors

Procedure: For dc amplifier, circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.3a. For
different values of R
in
, R
f
and V
in
(as shown in data table), V
out
is measured. Gain
is calculated by the formulae: A
v
=R
f
/R
in
+1 and A
v
=V
out
/V
in
.


Observations and Calculations
R
in

(kO)
R
f

(kO)
V
in

(V)
V
out

(V) A
v
=R
f
/R
in
+1 A
v
=V
out
/V
in

10 47 +1
10 100 +1
10 22 +1
4.7 47 -1
22 47 -1
10 47 -1

For ac amplifier, circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.3b. For
R
f
=100kO, gain is calculated by the formula: A
v
=R
f
/R
in
+1. The frequency
generator is set at 1kHz and V
out
is measured for different input voltages V
in
(V
p-p
).
V
out
is also calculated by the formula: V
out
=A
v
V
in
.



Observations and calculations
V
in

(V
p-p
)
V
out

(V
p-p
)
(measured)
V
out
=A
v
V
in

(V
p-p
)
(calculated)
0.1
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.5



EXPERIMENT 4
To demonstrate the operation of op-amp voltage followers, and to show the
difference between the inverting and non-inverting types.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, oscilloscope,
AC signal generator, breadboard for constructing circuit, 1µF capacitors, resistors
(4.7kO, 10kO, 100kO)

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figures 4.4a and 4.4b. The signal
generator is set for 1kHz at 2V
p-p
for V
in
. V
out
is measured and the output
waveform is drawn for both the circuits.




EXPERIMENT 5
To demonstrate how an op-amp can be used to sum algebraically various input
voltages.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, resistors
(4.7kO, 10kO, 22kO), 10 kO potentiometers, breadboard for constructing circuit

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.5a, using all 10kO
resistors. V
1
and V
2
are set at different voltages and corresponding V
out
is
measured. V
out
is also calculated by the formula: V
out
= -(V
1
+V
2
). Same procedure
is repeated after changing R
f
to 22kO but with V
out
calculated by:
V
out
= -R
f
(V
1
/R
1
+V
2
/R
2
).





Observations and calculations
R
f
=10kO R
f
=22kO
Input voltage V
out
algebraic sum (inverted) Input voltage V
out
algebraic sum (inverted)
V
1
V
2
Calculated Measured V
1
V
2
Calculated Measured
(V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V)
+1 +2 +1 +2
+1 -2 +1 -2
+2 +1 +2 +1
+2 +1 +2 +1
-2 -2 -2 -2



Circuit shown in Figure 4.5b is constructed by using the voltage di vider circuits
of the first part. V
1
and V
2
are set at different voltages and corresponding V
out
is
measured. V
out
is also calculated by the formula: V
out
= -R
f
(V
1
/R
1
+V
2
/R
2
).
















EXPERIMENT 6
To demonstrate how an op-amp can be used to find the algebraic differences
between two input voltages.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp,
10kO resistors , 10 kO potentiometers, breadboard for constructing circuit

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.6. V
1
and V
2
are set at
different voltages and corresponding V
out
is measured. V
out
is also calculated by
the formula: V
out
= -(V
2
-V
1
).

Observations and calculations
Input voltage V
out
algebraic sum (inverted)
V
1

(V)
V
2

(V)
Calculated
(V)
Measured
(V)
+1 +2
+1 -2
+2 +1
+2 -1
-2 -2














EXPERIMENT 7
To demonstrate how an op-amp can sense a specific voltage level and how to
calculate the reference voltage (V
ref
).

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, resistors
(10kO, 22kO), 10 kO potentiometer, breadboard for constructing circuit

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.7a. Wiper of R
1
is placed
at gound and V
ref
is calculated by the formula: V
ref
= (+V)(R
3
)/(R
2
+R
3
). Using the
voltmeter V
out
and V
ref
are measured. R
1
is adjusted until V
out
changes and the
new reading is recorded. Wire at point A is removed from the +V supply and
connected to the –V supply and the above steps are repeated to detect negati ve
supply. Same procedure is repeated to detect voltages for circuit shown in Figure
4.7b.

Observations and calculations
Input voltage V
out
algebraic difference (inverted)
V
1

(V)
V
2

(V)
Calculated
(V)
Measured
(V)
+2 +4
+4 +2
+4 -2
-2 +4
-4 +2
Observations and calculations










To detect positive voltage
V
ref
= -----V
V
out
= -----V when V
in
is less than V
ref

V
out
= -----V when V
in
is greater than V
ref

To detect negative voltage
V
ref
= -----V
V
out
= -----V when V
in
is less than V
ref

V
out
= -----V when V
in
is greater than V
ref


















EXPERIMENT 8
To show how an op-amp can be used as a square-wave generator and how to
calculate its output frequency.

Apparatus: dual ±12V power supply, digital voltmeter, 741 op-amp, oscilloscope,
breadboard for constructing circuit, capacitors(0.1µF, 0.02µF, 0.05µF), resistors
(22kO, 80 kO, 4.7kO, 10kO, 100kO)

Procedure: Circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 4.8. V
ref
is calculated using
the formulae: +V
ref
=(+V
sat
)(R
3
)/(R
2
+R
3
) and –V
ref
=(-V
sat
)(R
3
)/(R
2
+R
3
). Using the
oscilloscope f
out
,+V
sat
, -V
sat
, +V
ref
and –V
ref
are measured and waveforms at V
ref
,
V
out
and V
1
are drawn. Frequency of the generator is calculated by: f
out
=1/2R
1
C
1
.
These steps are repeated for different values of R
1
and C
1
.
Observations and calculations
To detect positive voltage
V
ref
= -----V
V
out
= -----V when V
in
is less than V
ref

V
out
= -----V when V
in
is greater than V
ref

To detect negative voltage
V
ref
= -----V
V
out
= -----V when V
in
is less than V
ref

V
out
= -----V when V
in
is greater than V
ref



Observations and calculations
R
1

(kO)
C
1

(µF)
f
out
(Hz)
Calculated
f
out
(Hz)
Measured
10 0.05
22 0.05
4.7 0.05
10 0.02
10 0.1

REFERENCES:
 Electronic devices by Thomas L. Floyd
 Electronic devices and circuit theory by Robert L. Boylestad and Louis
Nashelsky
 Introduction to electric circuits by Richard C. Dorf and James A. Svoboda
 Microelectronic circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smi th
 Operational Amplifiers (Electronic Technology Series) by Heathkit
educational systems


(Lab Manual Op-Amp Experiments by: Arooj Mukarram)

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