Pre service training: A step towards job satisfaction An Indian Scenario

Dr. AP Kaushik Amity University Rajasthan- India Tel: +919636271300 / +919950834827 E-mail: apkaushik007@gmail.com/apkaushik007@yahoo.com

Abstract Purpose-the research paper presents the satisfaction of public sector employee and the private sector employees pre service training from the motivation and job satisfaction point of view, in the present Indian scenario, where the public sector and the private sector are in a neck to neck competition. Design /methodology / approach- the research paper examines the level of job satisfaction and its strategic implementation and implications towards the retention of the employees and the development of the organization in particular and the society in general. Findings- the sector employees found to have an edge over private sector employees. The public sector employee in officer’s category has scored 77/100 on Job Satisfaction Index where as the private sector employees have scored 41/100 on JSI. The supervisors of public sector employee are more satisfied than their counter parts and have scored 150/200 where as the supervisors of private sector employees have scored 111/200 on JSI. The workers of public sector employee are more satisfied than their counter parts and have scored 482/700 where as the workers of private sector employees have scored 304/700 on JSI. The composite awareness index of public sector employees is 709/1000, which is 70.9 percent and that of private sector employees is 456/1000 which is 45.6 percent. The composite awareness index of the total sample is 58.25 percent. Originality- the paper is based on the research conducted. For the purpose we have selected Public and private sector organizations. As far as the government/public sector employees are concerned, the constituent respondents are mainly from Indian Railways, Indian Defence Services, Gujrat State Electricity Board, Gujrat University and its Constituents College’s teaching and non-teaching staff, banking sector employees etc. Whereas the private sector’s employees are concerned, they are mainly from the private college’s teaching and non- teaching staff, Banking sector employees, Religare and fairwealth companies employees etc. it has been selected because of the proximity to the researcher’s work place. It was decided to examine the satisfaction level of the employee of selected Public and private sector organizations, 400 employees in the officers, supervisors and the worker’s category were selected based on proportionate, purposive and random sampling technique. By following this technique a sample of 40 officers, 80 supervisors and 280 workers were collected, equally from Public and Private sector organizations.

Key words- Public sector employees, Private sector employees, Pre service training, Paper type- Research paper

1. Objectives
The main objectives of the study are: 1. To find out the level of job satisfaction among the employees of public and private sector organizations, with respect to pre service training facilities provided by their organization. 2. To compare the level of satisfaction of public and private sector organizations, with respect to pre service training facilities provided by their organization. 3. To find out difference of job satisfaction among officers, supervisors and workers, with respect to pre service training facilities provided by their organization facilities. 1.1 Definition of job satisfaction: The term job satisfaction is commonly referred in the context of employee’s behavior at work. Job satisfaction can be understood more clearly in the context of employee’s extent of satisfaction in general in his total work/professional life situations. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job, an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitudinal concept but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. Universe and sampling: .For the purpose of the present study, both Public and private sector organizations have been selected. As far as the government / public sector employees are concerned, the constituent respondents are mainly from Indian Railways, Indian Defence Services, Gujrat State Electricity Board, Gujrat University and its Constituents College’s teaching and non-teaching staff, banking sector employees etc. Whereas the private sector’s employees are concerned, they are mainly from the private college’s teaching and nonteaching staff, Banking sector employees, Religare and fairwealth companies employees etc. it has been selected because of the proximity to the researcher’s work place. It was decided to examine the satisfaction level of the employee of selected Public and private sector organizations, 400 employees in the officers, supervisors and the worker’s category were selected based on proportionate, purposive and random sampling technique. The respondents belong to 15 states and union territories of India. By

following this technique a sample of 40 officers, 80 supervisors and 280 workers were collected, equally from Public and Private sector organizations. 1.1.2 Determinants of job satisfaction: The following are the main factors of job satisfaction: 1. Job satisfaction is closely related to the aptitude of the employees. 2. Democratic leadership style enhances the job satisfaction 3. Workers with high moral will be loyal to the organization. 4. Job perspective affects job satisfaction considerably. 5. Interpersonal relationship affects job satisfaction proportionately. 6. Facilities provided by the organization enhance the job satisfaction proportionately. 7. Job satisfaction relates to good working condition also. 8. Economic rewards play a significant role in influencing job satisfaction. 9. Job satisfaction is directly and indirectly related to the organizational culture & climate 1.1.3 Pre service training: A step towards job satisfaction: Pre service training is instruction which takes place before a person begins a job or task. 1.1.4 Benefit: Here is a benefit of pre service training The trainees can take all the time they need to focus on their learning without having other responsibilities 1.1.5 Drawbacks: Here is a disadvantage of pre service training: There are no immediate real-life situations for trainees to practice the skills they learned Pre service training moulds the employees in a required direction and fills the gap between the present skill level and the required skill level. The employer is spending a lot of financial and other resources on the training of an employees to achieve the organizational goals.. A general question was posed to the respondents regarding Pre service training facility given to the employee by the employer, and their satisfaction thereof. To what extent they are satisfied with the Pre service training facility, various responses made by the respondents in this regards are enumerated below:1. Not Available, 2. Available, 3. Reasonable, 4. Good, 5. Excellent

1.1.6 Satisfaction With Respect To Pre-Service Training of Public Sector Employees: Insert table 1 There is only 1 officers out of 20 officers of public sector employees, which form 5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the 1 out of 5. There are 4 officers out of 20 officers of public sector employees, which forms 20 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the 2 out of 4. There are 2 officers out of 20 officers of public sector employees, which forms 10 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the 3 out of 5. There are 3 officers out of 20 officers of public sector employees, which constitutes 15 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as 4 out of 5. There are 10 officer out of 20 in the sample and which forms 50 percent of their sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, who are fully satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 2 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of public sector employees, which form 5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 4 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of public sector employees, which forms 10 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 6 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of public sector employees, which forms 15 percent r respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 18 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of public sector employees, which form 45 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 10 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of public sector employees in this sample, which forms 25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, this implies that 25 percent of supervisors of public sector employees are completely satisfied with respect to their job requirement. There are 12 workers out of 140 workers of public sector employees, which form 8.57 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 18 workers out of 140 workers of public sector employees, which form 12.86 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 30 workers out of 140 workers of public sector employees, which form 21.43 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 56 workers out of 140 workers of public sector employees, which form 40 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 24 workers out of 140 workers of public sector employees, which forms 17.14 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, this implies that 17.14 percent of workers of public

sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 15 respondents out of 200 respondents of public sector employees, which form 7.5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 26 respondents out of 200 workers of public sector employees, which form 13 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 38 respondents out of 200 respondents of public sector employees, which form 19 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 77 respondents out of 200 workers of public sector employees, which form 38.5 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 44 respondents out of 200 respondents of public sector employees, which form 22 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, this implies that 22 percent of respondents of public sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. 1.1.7 Satisfaction With Respect To Pre-Service Training of Private Sector Employees Insert table 2 There are only 2 officers out of 20 officers of private sector employees, which for10 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 16 officers out of 20 officers of private sector employees, which constitute 80 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 1 officers out of 20 officers of private sector employees, which forms 5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are only 1 officers out of 20 officers of private sector employees, which forms 5 percent of their respective sample, who is satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There is no officer in this sample who is fully satisfied with the pre service training given to the officers of private sector organization. There are 4 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of private sector employees, which forms 10 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 8 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of private sector employees, which form 20 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 22 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of private sector employees, which form 55 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 5 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of private sector employees, which form 12.5 percent of their respective

sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There 1 supervisors out of 40 supervisors of private sector employees, which forms 2.5 percent of their respective sample, who is satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, this implies that 2.5 percent of supervisors of private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 36 workers out of 140 workers of private sector employees, which form 25.71 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 58 workers out of 140 workers of private sector employees, which form 41.43 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 32 workers out of 140 workers of private sector employees, which form 22.86 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 14workers out of 140 workers of private sector employees, which form 10 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There is no worker in this sample who is fully satisfied with the pre service training given to the worker of private sector organization. There are 42 respondents out of 200 respondents of private sector employees, which form 21 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 82 respondents out of 200 workers of private sector employees, which form 41 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 55 respondents out of 200 workers of private sector employees, which form 27.5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 20 respondents out of 200 workers of private sector employees, which form 10 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 1 respondent out of 200 respondents of private sector employees, which form .5 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5.This implies that .5 percent of respondents of private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. 1.1.8 Satisfaction With Respect To Pre-Service Training of Both Public And Private Sector Employees: Insert table 3 There are only 3 officers out of 40 officers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 7.5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction

rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 20 officers out of 40 officers of both public and private sector employees, which constitutes 50 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 3 officers out of 40 officers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 7.5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are only 4 officers out of 40 officers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 10 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 10 officers out of 40 officers of both public and private sector employees, which form 25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5. This implies that 25 percent of officers of both public and private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 6 supervisors out of 80 supervisors of both public and private sector employees, which forms 7.5 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 12 supervisors out of 80 supervisors of both public and private sector employees, which forms 15 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 28 supervisors out of 80 supervisors of both public and private sector employees, which forms 35 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 23 supervisors out of 80 supervisors of both public and private sector employees, which forms 28.75 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 11 supervisors out of 80 supervisors of both public and private sector employees in this sample, which forms 13.75 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5. This implies that 13.75 percent of supervisors of both public and private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 48 workers out of 280 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 17.14 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 76 workers out of 280 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 27.14 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 62 workers out of 280 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 22.14 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 70 workers out of 280 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are24 workers out of 280 workers of both public and private sector employees, which form 8.57 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5, this implies that 11.43 percent of workers

of both public and private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. There are 57 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 14.25 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 108 respondents out of 400 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 27 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 93 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 23.25 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 97 respondents out of 400 respondents of public sector employees, which form 24.25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 45 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 11.25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5. This implies that 11.25 percent of respondents of both public and private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their job requirement. 1.1.9 Comparative analysis: The officers of public sectors have scored 77/100 at the satisfaction index, which is 77 percent of their category; where as the officers of private sectors have scored 41/100 at the satisfaction index, which is 41 percent of their category. The public sectors officers are 36 percent more satisfied than their counterparts, i.e. the officers of private sector are. The mean score of satisfaction index of the officer’s category in the sample is 59/100. The supervisors of public sectors have scored 150/200 at the satisfaction index, which is 75 percent of their category; where as the supervisors of private sectors have scored 111/200 at the satisfaction index, which is 55.5 percent of their category. The public sectors supervisors are 19.5 percent more satisfied than their counterparts, i.e. the supervisors of private sector are. The mean score of satisfaction index of the supervisor’s category in the sample is 130.5/200, which is 65.25 percent. The workers of public sectors have scored 482/700 at the satisfaction index, which is 68.86 percent of their category; where as the workers of private sectors have scored 304/700 at the satisfaction index, which is 43.43 percent of their category. The public sectors workers are 25.43 percent more satisfied than their counterparts, i.e. the workers of private sector are. The mean score of satisfaction index of the worker’s category in the sample is 393/700, which is 56.14 percent. The public sector employees have scored 709/1000 and the private sector employees have scored 456/1000 in the job satisfaction index, related with their job perspective. The satisfaction level of the public sector employee is 70.9 percent and the private sector employee is 45.6 percent. All the three categories in the sample i.e, officers, supervisors

and the workers of public sector employees are more satisfied than their counterpart’s i.e officers, supervisors and the workers, respectively, of private sector employees. The public sector employees are 25.3 percent more satisfied than the private sector employees. The mean score of satisfaction index of public sector employees and the private sector employees for pre service training is 582.5/1000, which is 58.25 percent. 1.1.10 Findings: There are 57 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 14.25 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as the lowest, which is 1 out of 5. There are 108 respondents out of 400 workers of both public and private sector employees, which forms 27 percent of their respective sample, who have given their satisfaction rating as low as 2 out of 5. There are 93 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 23.25 percent of their respective sample, who have given their medium satisfaction rating as 3 out of 5. There are 97 respondents out of 400 respondents of public sector employees, which form 24.25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to a higher level and given the satisfaction grading of 4 out of 5. There are 45 respondents out of 400 respondents of both public and private sector employees, which forms 11.25 percent of their respective sample, who are satisfied to the highest level and given the satisfaction grading of 5 out of 5. This implies that 11.25 percent of respondents of both public and private sector employees are completely satisfied with the attitude with respect to their pre-service training. The sector employees found to have an edge over private sector employees. The public sector employee in officer’s category has scored 77/100 on Job Satisfaction Index where as the private sector employees have scored 41/100 on JSI. The supervisors of public sector employee are more satisfied than their counter parts and have scored 150/200 where as the supervisors of private sector employees have scored 111/200 on JSI. The workers of public sector employee are more satisfied than their counter parts and have scored 482/700 where as the workers of private sector employees have scored 304/700 on JSI. The composite awareness index of public sector employees is 709/1000, which is 70.9 percent and that of private sector employees is 456/1000 which is 45.6 percent. The composite awareness index of the total sample is 58.25 percent. 1.1.11 Conclusion: The objectives of the research have been achieved. There is a lot of difference between the satisfaction of employees of public and private sector, as far as the pre service training in India is concerned. The most affected category is the officer’s category followed by the supervisors and the workers of private sector organization. Though the private sector organizations are trying to put in the maximum of funds for the pre service training of their employees but the economical-political uncertaintinity may the main factor behind the hesitation of huge deployement of funds by the private sector organizations. The main reason of this difference is the infra structure and the resources

available with the public sector organizations and on the other hand the crunch of funds in particular and the non availability of the resources with the private sector organizations in general

References:
1. Locke, 1976 cited in Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2001). Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279-307, p. 282 2. Cranny, Smith & Stone, 1992 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194, p.174 3. Brief, 1998 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194, p. 174 4. Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194 5. L M Prasad, as quoted by –Nishi Goyal, Industrial Psychology, Krishna Publication Media (P) Ltd,2010 page-41 6. Wikipedia

TABLE 1 SATISFACTION WITH RESPECT TO PRE-SERVICE TRAINING OF PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES

SATISFACTION OFFICER 1 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 4 2 3 10 20

SUPERVISOR 2 4 6 18 10 40

WORKER 12 18 30 56 24 140

TOTAL 15 26 38 77 44 200

TABLE 2

SATISFACTION WITH RESPECT TO PRE-SERVICE TRAINING OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYEES

SATISFACTION OFFICER 1 2 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 16 1 1 0 20

SUPERVISOR 4 8 22 5 1 40

WORKER 36 58 32 14 0 140

TOTAL 42 82 55 20 1 200

TABLE 3 SATISFACTION WITH RESPECT TO PRE-SERVICE TRAINING

OF BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYEES

SATISFACTION OFFICER 1 3 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 20 3 4 10 40

SUPERVISOR 6 12 28 23 11 80

WORKER 48 76 62 70 24 280

TOTAL 57 108 93 97 45 400

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