Assignment no 1

MICRO CONTROLLER

2011

to large stationary installations like traffic lights. The Pentium is designed to meet a broad range of general computing needs that are provided with a personal computer. Some embedded systems are mass-produced. They are optimized to provide only the raw arithmetic and logic functions required by the operating system at the highest speed. By contrast. input or output functions such as parallel ports or serial ports etc. input/output ports. Complexity varies from low. peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. and mouse. Computer system Typically a computer system is defined as a physical computer and the components connected to it to make it usable. .Embedded system An embedded system is a computer system designed to do one or a few dedicated and/or specific functions often with real-time computing constraints. to very high with multiple units. keyboard. benefiting from economies of scale Physically. is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. the embedded systems can be self-sufficient and be able to deal with cut electrical and communication systems. such as a personal computer (PC). Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks. parallel. factory controllers. Micro processor Microprocessors such as the Pentium inside a personal computer have only the Central Processing Unit and Math Co-processing unit. and mass storage are provided by external chips and devices. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3players. All other components required to make the computer such as memory. These microprocessors do not have built in memory. not counting the network or peripherals like a printer. serial. computer case. or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. So that would be the monitor. with a single microcontroller chip. a general-purpose computer. design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance.

Micro controller a typical microcontroller one of the first things we notice is that the microcontroller contains its own memory. The instructions cover a very broad range of tasks and functions. Some of these instructions can be complex and take many internal steps to execute within the processor. hand held devices. appliances.A microprocessor such as the Pentium inside a personal computer normally has a very large instruction set. Computers that have separate memory spaces for data and program instructions are classified as the Harvard Architecture. cell phones and many other areas. Each memory area has its own data bus to the CPU so operations can go on during the same time frame. One particular advantage of the Harvard Architecture is that data access operations can be taking place simultaneously with program instruction execution. In computer jargon we categorize this type of instruction set as CISC or Complex Instruction Set Computer. automobile engine controllers. power tools. In the case of PIC microcontrollers we will find both flash program memory where instructions are stored and a separate ram memory space where only data is stored. clock and very often a good number of peripheral functions not found on a microprocessor. The design and . Microcontrollers usually get embedded into other products such as microwave ovens. CISC has its advantages in the area that it is used in such as high level languages and operating systems. Many different manufacturers use the Harvard Architecture for designs of microcontrollers because this design is very efficient for designing specific purpose controllers that go into other systems. In the case of the Pentium it is several hundred instructions. parallel ports. industrial instruments.

programming for these types of products and applications has become so specialized that it has taken on its own identity as “embedded design”. The strategy that is used in the design of this type of microcontroller is to make a few very simple instructions that execute very fast. Computers that use just a small number of very simple instructions that execute very fast are classified as RISC or Reduced Instruction Set Computers. This unit only uses 35 instructions! This is the same for all microcontrollers in the midrange family. . Since PIC microcontrollers use only 35 very simple instructions they fit neatly into this category. The PIC microcontroller also has a very different type of instruction set. The particular PIC microcontroller located on the trainer board we will be using is the PIC16F877A. Using this strategy a complex task can be accomplished with the combination of many very fast simple instructions in a relatively short time. This is in the midrange family but its capabilities are at the top end of the midrange family.

Microcontrollers usually get embedded into other products such as microwave ovens. . industrial instruments. appliances. This is in the midrange family but its capabilities are at the top end of the midrange family. hand held devices. This unit only uses 35 instructions! This is the same for all microcontrollers in the midrange family. Computers that use just a small number of very simple instructions that execute very fast are classified as RISC or Reduced Instruction Set Computers. power tools. The PIC microcontroller also has a very different type of instruction set. Since PIC microcontrollers use only 35 very simple instructions they fit neatly into this category. The particular PIC microcontroller located on the trainer board we will be using is the PIC16F877A. Using this strategy a complex task can be accomplished with the combination of many very fast simple instructions in a relatively short time. automobile engine controllers.Architecture for designs of microcontrollers because this design is very efficient for designing specific purpose controllers that go into other systems. The strategy that is used in the design of this type of microcontroller is to make a few very simple instructions that execute very fast. The design and programming for these types of products and applications has become so specialized that it has taken on its own identity as “embedded design”. cell phones and many other areas.

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