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Note that we replaced the effect of the hydrostatic pressure force on the body by the buoyant force, FB. Another correct free-body diagram of the buoy is shown in Fig. 11.13c. The net effect of the pressure forces on the surface of the buoy is equivalent to the upward force of magnitude FB (the buoyant force). Do not include both the buoyant force and the hydrostatic pressure effects in your calculationsuse one or the other. L

In this chapter the pressure variation in a fluid at rest is considered, along with some important consequences of this type of pressure variation. It is shown that for incompressible fluids at rest, the pressure varies linearly with depth. This type of variation is commonly referred to as a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The distinction between absolute and gage pressure is discussed along with a consideration of barometers for the measurement of atmospheric pressure. Pressure measuring devices called manometers, which utilize static liquid columns, are analyzed in detail. A brief discussion of mechanical and electronic pressure gages is also included. Equations for determining the magnitude and location of the resultant fluid force acting on a plane surface in contact with a static fluid are developed. For submerged or floating bodies the concept of the buoyant force and the use of Archimedes principle are reviewed. The following check list provides a study guide for this chapter. When your study of the text and end-of-chapter exercises has been completed you should be able to

write out the meanings of the terms listed in the margins throughout the chapter and understand each of the related concepts. The subset of key terms listed here in the margin is particularly important. calculate the pressure at various locations within an incompressible fluid at rest. use the concept of a hydrostatic pressure distribution to determine pressures from measurements on various types of manometers. determine the magnitude of the resultant hydrostatic force acting on a plane surface using Eq. 11.13, and the location of this force using Eq. 11.15. use Archimedes principle to calculate the resultant fluid force acting on floating or submerged bodies.

hydrostatic pressure distribution pressure head absolute pressure gage pressure barometer manometer U-tube manometer Bourdon pressure gage center of pressure buoyant force Archimedes principle

Problems

Note: Unless otherwise indicated in the problem statement, use values of fluid properties given in the tables of Appendix FM-1 when solving these problems. Pressure 11.1 The water level in an open tank is 90 ft above the ground. What is the static pressure at a fire hydrant that is connected to the tank and located at ground level? Express your answer in psi. 11.2 Bathyscaphes are capable of submerging to great depths in the ocean. What is the pressure at a depth of 6 km, assuming that seawater has a constant specific weight of 10.1 kN/m3? Express your answer in pascals and psi. 11.3 A barometric pressure of 29.4 in. Hg corresponds to what value of atmospheric pressure in psi, and in pascals? 11.4 A pressure of 7 psi absolute corresponds to what gage pressure for standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi absolute? 11.5 Blood pressure is usually given as a ratio of the maximum pressure (systolic pressure) to the minimum pressure (diastolic pressure). Such pressures are commonly measured with a mercury manometer. A typical value for this ratio for a human would be 120 70, where the pressures are in mm Hg. (a) What would these pressures be in pascals? (b) If your car tire was inflated to 120 mm Hg, would it be sufficient for normal driving? 11.6 On the suction side of a pump a Bourdon pressure gage reads 40 kPa vacuum. What is the corresponding absolute pressure if the local atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa absolute? 11.7 (CD-ROM)

266

11.8 The closed tank of Fig. P11.8 is filled with water. The pressure gage on the tank reads 7 psi. Determine: (a) the height, h, in the open water column, (b) the gage pressure acting on the bottom tank surface AB, and (c) the absolute pressure of the air in the top of the tank if the local atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi absolute.

Open 7 psi Air 2 ft Water 2 ft A B h

11.11

(CD-ROM)

11.12 Water, oil, and an unknown fluid are contained in the open vertical tubes shown in Fig. P11.12. Determine the density of the unknown fluid.

1-in. diameter 2-in. diameter

1 ft Unknown fluid

2 ft

Figure P11.8

1 ft

Manometers 11.9 In Fig. P11.9 pipe A contains carbon tetrachloride (SG 1.60) and the closed storage tank B contains a salt brine (SG 1.15). Determine the air pressure in tank B if the gage pressure in pipe A is 25 psi.

Air B 4 ft

Figure P11.12

11.13 The mercury manometer of Fig. P11.13 indicates a differential reading of 0.30 m when the pressure in pipe A is 30-mm Hg vacuum. Determine the pressure in pipe B.

Oil

Figure P11.9

11.10 A U-tube mercury manometer is connected to a closed pressurized tank as illustrated in Fig. P11.10. If the air pressure is 2 psi, determine the differential reading, h. The specific weight of the air is negligible.

pair = 2 psi Air

Figure P11.13

11.14 Determine the angle of the inclined tube shown in Fig. P11.14 if the pressure at A is 2 psi greater than that at B.

B Air A

ft 10

1 ft

SG = 0.7

2 ft

1 ft

SG = 1.0

Water

2 ft

Figure P11.14

11.15 (CD-ROM)

2 ft

h

Figure P11.10

11.16 A rectangular gate having a width of 5 ft is located in the sloping side of a tank as shown in Fig. P11.16. The gate is hinged along its top edge and is held in position by the force P. Friction at the hinge and the weight of the gate can be neglected. Determine the required value of P.

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