Ova knjiga donosi veoma zanimljiv pristup uključivanja zapostavljene teme kulture u proces urbanog dizajna.

Proverene kroz rad sa studentima urbanog dizajna na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu, ideje iznete u ovoj knjizi pokazuju kako uvažavanje kulturne raznolikosti omogućava bolje razumevanje lokalnog konteksta i vodi prilagođavanju metoda rada i kreiranju adekvatnijih predloga intervencije. Knjiga prati savremene tendencije interakcije kulturnih tradicija i oblika u pravcu stvaranja interkulturnog društva koje utiče na promenu životnih stilova i zahteva odgovarajuća prostorna rešenja i nove prostorne oblike. Problemi vezani za kulturu, kulturna prava, kulturnu održivost, kulturne politike itd. danas imaju centralno mesto u svetskim agendama i deklaracijama ... Uvažavajući kulturu kao težišnu temu u urbanom dizajnu, autori ukazuju na činjenicu da nije moguće izgraditi jedinstven model koji je univerzalno upotrebljiv, već da svaka nova situacija zahteva kreativan doprinos obzirom da su različiti gradovi i njihovi delovi stvoreni i oblikovani istorijski i kulturno specifičnim faktorima. Ovo delo predstavlja nesumnjivo korisno štivo za studente arhitekture, urbanog dizajna i urbanog planiranja, čija edukacija treba da uključi saznanja o novom društveno-ekonomskom i kulturnom svetu i oslobodi kreativnost sposobnu za davanje najboljeg stručnog doprinosa urbanim intervencijama. Proširenje baze profesionalne discipline boljim uvidom u društvene nauke može pružiti razumevanje složenih procesa koji utiču na proizvodnju prostora i omogućiti rešavanje problema iz interdisciplinarne perspektive. Kompleksnost problema i ozbiljnost i trajnost posledica profesionalnog rada upućuje na stav da urbani dizajneri nužno moraju izaći iz okvira usko uspostavljene discipline u kojoj nedostaje definisani stav u odnosu na fizičko i društveno okruženje kao i na njihovu povezanost. Prof. mr Petar Arsić

Knjiga predstavlja jedno od retkih dela kod nas koje usmerava pažnju na temu kulture u urbanom dizajnu. Ono dolazi u trenutku kada gradovi, njihova uprava i struka pokušavaju da pronađu nove odgovore na pritiske globalizacije koji vode ka kulturnom ujednačavanju i gubitku lokalnog identiteta. Poseban značaj rukopis ima za zemlje u razvoju, kao što je Srbija, gde se traga za novim oblicima stručnog delovanja, usled prelaska na demokratski sistem i tržišnu ekonomiju, i razvojem odgovarajućih instrumenata prostornog usmeravanja koji garantuju prepoznavanje kulturnih razlika i primenu adekvatnih kulturnih politika. U takvim uslovima, gde se urbana intervencija pomera ka društveno-ekonomskim politikama sa jedne, i arhitekturi i građenju sa druge strane, autori predlažu specifičnu integraciju pristupa koja može da se desi unutar oblasti urbanog dizajna. Sugeriše se istraživački orijentisan i inovativni pristup urbanom dizajnu kao analitički i kreativni okvir za stručno delovanje na transformaciji urbanih javnih prostora. Koncept strateškog urbanog dizajna, koji autori predlažu podrazumeva promene procesa koji se kreće od preispitivanja i modifikacije generalne strateške vizije razvoja grada u odnosu na lokalne okolnosti i formulisanja posebnih, kulturno osetljivih oblikovnih principa i politika... ...Rukopis knjige autora Prof. dr Nade Lazarević Bajec i dr Marije Marune pod naslovom “Strateški urbani dizajn i kulturna raznolikost” predstavlja naučnu monografiju koja sadrži elemente udžbenika iz naučnih oblasti urbanog planiranja i urbanog dizajna. To je u naučnom smislu kompetentno, a u edukativnom izvesno korisno i svrhovito delo koje zaslužuje da se prezentuje kako našoj naučnoj i stručnoj javnosti i različitim profesionalcima u praksi, tako i studentima osnovnih, magistarskih i doktorskih akademskih studija arhitekture, urbanizma i drugih, bliskih disciplina i struka. Prof. dr Zoran Nikezić

The book is distinguished by an interesting approach that introduces a neglected theme of culture into the urban design process. Tested in work with urban design students at the Faculty of Architecture of Belgrade University, ideas put forth in this book demonstrate how the recognition of cultural diversity enables a better understanding of the local context, leading to adjustment of work methods and design of more adequate interventions. The book is inspired by contemporary tendencies of interaction of cultural traditions and forms toward creation of an intercultural society that transforms the lifestyles and calls for adequate spatial solutions and new spatial forms. The problems related to culture, cultural rights, cultural sustainability, cultural policies and similar emerge today at the forefront of global agendas and declarations… Having recognized the pivotal role of culture in urban design, the authors argue against a one size fits all model, reminding us that each new situation requires a creative contribution and that different cities and their parts are created and shaped by historically and culturally specific factors. This is a valuable book for students of architecture, urban design and urban planning, who need to broaden their knowledge on the new socio-economic and cultural world and free their creativity in order to provide the best professional contribution in urban interventions. Stretching the boundaries of the profession by a better insight into the social sciences may contribute to comprehending of complex processes that have a bearing on space production and enable multidisciplinary problem solving. The complexity of problems and severity and persistence of consequences of professional work pushes urban designers out of their comfort zone - a narrowly defined discipline lacking perspective on physical and social environments and their interconnectedness. Professor Petar Arsić, MSc. BSc.Arch

This is one of the rare studies presented to our public that draws attention to the subject of culture in urban design. The book comes at a time when cities, their administrations and professionals are seeking new responses to culturally unifying globalization pressures that are weakening local identities. It bears special importance for developing countries, such as Serbia, where transition to democratic system and market economy has prompted the search for new forms of professional action and development of adequate tools for spatial guiding which would ensure the recognition of cultural differences and implementation of adequate cultural policies. In a situation where urban intervention has shifted toward socio-economic policies on the one hand and architecture and construction on the other, the authors suggest a specific merger of approaches, which can take place within the field of urban design. A research-oriented and innovative approach to urban design is proposed, as an analytical and creative framework for professional action on transformation of urban public spaces. The concept of strategic urban design put forward by the authors assumes changes in the process, from reexamining and modifying general strategic vision of city development, in view of local circumstances, to formulation of specific, culturally sensitive design principles and policies... ...The study of professor Dr Nada Lazarević Bajec and Dr Marija Maruna “Strategic Urban Design and Cultural Diversity” is a scientific monograph including the elements of a textbook in the fields of urban planning and design. This scientifically meritorious and educationally valuable work deserves to be presented to our scientific public and professionals and practitioners of different profiles, as well students of undergraduate, graduate and doctoral studies in architecture, urbanism and other related disciplines. Professor Zoran Nikezić, Ph.D

Copyright © Arhitektonski fakultet, 2009 http://www.arh.bg.ac.rs

Naslov knjige: Strateški urbani dizajn i kulturna raznolikost Book title: Strategic Urban Design and Cultural Diversity Autori ¬ Authors: Nada Lazarević Bajec Marija Maruna Izdavač ¬ Publisher: Arhitektonski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade Za izdavača ¬ For the publisher: Prof. dr Vladimir Mako Recenzenti ¬ Reviewers: Prof.dr Zoran Nikezić Prof. mr Petar Arsić Prevod ¬ Translation: Tamara Stanisavljević, Svetlana Minić Nada Lazarević Bajec, Marija Maruna Lektor i korektor ¬ Editing and proofreading: Svetlana Minić Dizajn knjige ¬ Book design: Milica Milojević, Danijela Milojkić Dizajn korica ¬ Cover design: ALIMDAR DESIGN Štampa ¬ Print: COLORGRAFX Tiraž ¬ Number of copies: 300 Beograd ¬ Belgrade 2009. ISBN 978-86-7924-026-2

STRATEŠKI URBANI DIZAJN I KULTURNA RAZNOLIKOST STRATEGIC URBAN DESIGN AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Nada Lazarević Bajec Marija Maruna

Beograd Belgrade 2009.

CONTENTS Foreword

SADRŽAJ Predgovor

URBAN DESIGN IN AN INTERCULTURAL SETTING URBANI DIZAJN U INTERKULTURNOM AMBIJENTU 9 Urban identity 9 9 Urbani identitet Culture 11 11 Kultura The urban design ideology 16 14 Ideologija urbanog dizajna Education 17 17 Edukacija Integral approach to urban design 20 20 Integralni pristup urbanom dizajnu Summary 23 23 Rezime CULTURAL DIVERSITY AS AN URBAN RESOURCE 27 KULTURNA RAZNOLIKOST KAO URBANI RESURS Globalization processes and urban identity 27 27 Procesi globalizacije i urbani identitet Globalization and production of new cultures 30 30 Globalizacija i proizvodnja novih kultura Multiple cultural identities 31 31 Višestruki kulturni identiteti Multicultural communities and intercultural environment 33 33 Multikulturne zajednice i interkulturno okruženje Mixing of cultures 35 35 Mešanje kultura Guidelines for new cultural policies 39 39 Smernice za nove kulturne politike – New agendas and declarations – Nove agende i deklaracije Role of local government 40 40 Uloga lokalne uprave IDEOLOGICAL POSITION OF URBAN DESIGN 45 IDEOLOŠKA POZICIJA URBANOG DIZAJNA The changed context of urban design 45 45 Promenjen kontekst urbanog dizajna Strategic urban design 51 51 Strateški urbani dizajn Strategy and design 54 54 Strategija i oblikovanje Design by research 57 57 Dizajn kroz istraživanje Local diversity development strategy 59 59 Strategija razvoja lokalne raznolikosti Creation of recognizable urban spaces 62 62 Kreiranje prepoznatljivih urbanih prostora Developing language of communication 65 65 Razvijanje jezika komunikacije

URBANI PROSTORNI I KULTURNI PROCESI URBAN SPATIAL AND CULTURAL PROCESSES 69 69 Razumevanje kulture i Understanding culture and 69 kulturne raznolikosti u urbanom dizajnu cultural diversity in urban design 70 Mapiranje kulturne raznolikosti Cultural diversity mapping 70 90 Istraživanje vrednosti Values research 90 UPRAVLJANJE RAZVOJNIM POTENCIJALIMA MANAGING DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS 97 uRBANIh PoDRučJA OF URBAN AREAS 97 Analiza razvojnih procesa Development processes analysis 97 99 urbani život i proizvodnja prostora Urban life and space production 99 100 Ekonomski kriterijumi Economic criteria 100 110 Lokalne razvojne politike Local development policies 110 AGENDA FOR URBAN PRACTICE 121 AGENDA ZA URBANU PRAKSU 121 Redefinicija pristupa urbanim intervencijama Redefining the approach to urban interventions 121 122 Mogućnosti i ograničenja Possibilities and limitations 122 124 Nova uloga urbanog dizajna The new role of urban design 124 125 Dizajn i kultura Design and culture 125 References 130 Photography credits 138 130 Literatura 138 Autori fotografija

Foreword

Pronounced cultural diversity, as an important factor in a modern society breeding new forms of cultural life, is also a starting point for creative professional intervention in urban space design. Development of a new, research-oriented and innovative approach to urban design that draws on intercultural dynamic and culturally sensitive values is a challenge to traditional professional education, since it requires building and expanding of knowledge and skill sets. Along these lines, contemporary ideas converge toward a new ideology, exploring the ways for integration of urban design and strategically oriented and targeted urban planning. Strategic urban design, as the book defines it, is a comprehensive, value-ridden, process and product oriented approach to design, focused on translation of public policies that promote cultural integration into quality urban forms and creation of distinctive place identity. Intercultural approach to urban design has been applied since 2005 within Studio Project 3 – Urbanism (undergraduate course at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade) led by professor Dr Nada Lazarević Bajec, in cooperation with junior lecturer Dr Marija Maruna. Numerous associates participated in Studio work: senior lecturer Ivan Rašković, Dejan Mrđa, BSc(Arch), Dr Ivana Prica, sinologist and Vladimir Jereminov, BSc(Arch). In 2007 Danijela Milojkić and Zorana Matić, who were at that time attending master studies in urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture, also joined the Studio and significantly contributed to success of this course by their energy and commitment to working with students. Milica Milojević, BSc(Arch) and Danijela Milojkić, M.Arch showed great understanding in translation of the course experiences into the publication, by furnishing an excellent graphic form. We are indebted to the Secretariat for Culture, City Assembly of Belgrade and Faculty of Architecture, university of Belgrade for the financial assistance in publication of this book. Nada Lazarević Bajec Marija Maruna

Predgovor

Izražena kulturna raznolikost je značajan činilac savremenog društva koji vodi ka uspostavljanju novih oblika kulturnog života i predstavlja polazište za kreativnu stručnu intervenciju u oblikovanju urbanih prostora. Izgradnja novog istraživački orijentisanog i inovativnog pristupa urbanom dizajnu koji polazi od prepoznavanja interkulturne dinamike i kulturno osetljivih vrednosti predstavlja izazov za tradicionalno obrazovanje stručnjaka jer zahteva razvoj i uključivanje daleko širih znanja i veština. Savremene ideje se, u tom smislu, kreću u pravcu razvoja nove ideologije koja bi trebalo da istraži načine za integraciju urbanog dizajna i strateški ciljno orijentisanog urbanog planiranja. Definisan u ovoj knjizi kao strateški urbani dizajn, ovaj sveobuhvatni, vrednosno utemeljen, procesno i proizvodno orijentisan pristup dizajnu je usmeren na prevođenje javnih politika koje promovišu kulturnu integraciju u kvalitetne urbane forme i stvaranje karakterističnog identiteta mesta. Interkulturni pristup oblikovanju urbanih prostora se primenjuje u okviru Studio projekta 3 -Urbanizam u dodiplomskoj nastavi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu od 2005. godine koji vodi Prof. dr Nada Lazarević Bajec u saradnji sa asistentom dr. Marijom Marunom. u radu studija učestvovali su mnogobrojni saradnici: Doc. Ivan Rašković, dipl.ing. arh., Dejan Mrđa, dipl.ing.arh, dr Ivana Prica, sinolog i Vladimir Jereminov, dipl.ing.arh., a 2007. godine pridružile i Danijela Milojkić i Zorana Matić, tadašnji studenti master studija urbanističkog usmerenja na Arhitektonskom fakultetu koje su svojom velikom energijom i posvećenošću u radu sa studentima značajno doprinele uspehu ovog kursa. Veliko razumevanje za prevođenje iskustava sa kursa u publikaciju ove vrste su pokazale Milica Milojević, dipl.ing.arh. i Danijela Milojkić, dipl.ing.arh., kroz kreiranje izvanredne grafičke forme. Zaslugu za izdavanje ove knjige dugujemo Sekretarijatu za kulturu Skupštine grada Beograda kao i Arhitektonskom fakultetu univerziteta u Beogradu koji su finansijski podržali ceo poduhvat. Nada Lazarević Bajec Marija Maruna

1.1

Urban design in an intercultural setting
The general purpose of this book is to direct attention to the neglected subject of culture in urban design. After defining the importance of cultural diversity for urban development and establishing new ideology for professional action we analyze the features of cultural identity of ‘place’ as one of the main responses to globalization pressures. The concept of strategic urban design that we propose is the analytical and creative framework for professional activity in the transformation of urban public space. This research oriented, innovative approach to design is based on the recognition of intercultural dynamics and allows for consideration of cultural sensitive values, goals and criteria, as well as construction and verification of new methods and techniques. The ideas presented in this book have proven effective in work with students of urban design at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade (Serbia). The results show how a new cultural strategy allows a better understanding of local context, thereby facilitating adjustment of work methods and creation of better intervention proposals.

Urbani dizajn u interkulturnom ambijentu
Osnovni cilj ove knjige je da usmeri pažnju na zapostavljenu temu kulture u urbanom dizajnu. Nakon definisanja značaja kulturne raznolikosti za razvoj gradova i uspostavljanja nove ideologije u profesionalnom radu u tekstu se analizira karakter kulturnog identitet 'mesta' kao odgovor na pritiske globalizacije. Koncept strateškog urbanog dizajna koji predlažemo, predstavlja analitički i kreativni okvir za stručno delovanje na transformaciji urbanih javnih prostora. Ovaj istraživački orijentisani, inovativni pristup dizajnu polazi od prepoznavanja interkulturne dinamike i omogućava razmatranje kulturno osetljivih vrednosti, ciljeva i kriterijuma, kao i izgradnju i proveru novih metoda i tehnika. Ideje iznesene u ovoj knjizi su proverene u radu sa studentima urbanog dizajna na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu (Srbija). Rezultati pokazuju kako nova kulturna strategija, pre svega, omogućava bolje razumevanje lokalnog konteksta, a zatim vodi prilagođavanju metoda rada i kreiranju adekvatnijih predloga intervencije.

Urbani identitet
Gradovi danas okupljaju ljude različitog porekla, nacionalnosti, nasleđenih vrednosti, ideja, i religija, koji u interakciji kreiraju nov kulturni izraz, specifičnu mešavinu životnih stilova. Kulture stupaju u interakciju sa drugim kulturama, utiču jedne na druge, mešaju se i evoluiraju. Ljudi danas često menjaju mesta boravišta, ostvaruju nove kontakte, i nužno pri tom menjaju svoje osnovne kulturne odlike. Obeležja kultura se modifikuju dobijaju hibridni karakter i stvaraju nove obrasce svakodnevnog života. Nacionalne zajednice gube svoju koherentnost i postaju sve više fragmentirane, obuhvataju kolaž lo9

Urban identity
Cities today assemble people of different origin, nationality, inherited values, ideas and religions, who create new cultural expression, characteristic mixture of lifestyles through interaction. Cultures interfere with other cultures, influence each other, mix and evolve. People today often change places of residence, get in touch with other people and necessarily in the process change their basic cultural attributes. Cultural traits become modified and hybrid in their character, producing new patterns of every day life.

National communities lose their coherence and become more fragmentised, embrace the collage of local communities where new cultural mixtures emerge that include characteristics of traditional cultures, but also to some point represent integration and exchange in producing new quality. These place-specific cultural mixtures, worldviews, patterns and lifestyles can be valorised as an enormous potential for enrichment of the society and preservation of particularities that the world of capital in many occasions tends to brutally eradicate. Intercultural dynamics is more distinctive in cities that develop and change rapidly, where migratory processes and changes of population structure are faster. Namely, it happens in cities where local policies lay a foundation for creating intercultural networks, which can be used for promoting the city’s distinctive identity on the global scene. Physical environment helps in many ways to shape and develop a community’s identity and provides a sense of orientation. We argue that it is possible to single out a number of requirements that certain cultural patterns, customs, lifestyles, set in relation to the public or private space. Sometimes it is about individual activities and demands, other times it is about collective ones, those of organizations, families, clubs, etc. Multilayered and changing cultural heritage testifies about cultural creativity and presents a foundation for identity construction. Cultural identity relies on the past; it is historically conditioned and requires continuity. Collective memory is associated with space, which makes it important for urban planning and design. However, as British historian Raphael Samuel reminds us, memory is not passive, an archive of images from the past, but dynamic, developing with those who do the remembering, it is “historically conditioned changing colour and shape according to the emergencies of the moment”. It is creative and “involves a series of erasures, amendments and amalgama10

kalnih zajednica u kojima se stvaraju nove kulturne mešavine koje sadrže karakteristike tradicionalnih kultura, ali u određenoj meri predstavljaju integraciju i razmenu u stvaranju novog kvaliteta. Ove mešavine kultura karakteristične za mesto, pogledi na život, obrasci i životni stilovi se mogu valorizovati kao veliki potencijal za obogaćenje društva i zaštitu posebnosti koje svet kapitala u mnogim slučajevima brutalno uništava. Interkulturna dinamika je izrazitija u gradovima koji se ubrzano razvijaju i menjaju, gde su migratorni procesi i promene strukture stanovništva brže. Odnosno, u gradovima u kojima se posebnim lokalnim politikama kreira osnova za stvaranje interkulturnih mreža putem kojih bi se poseban identitet mogao promovisati na globalnoj sceni. Fizičko okruženje na mnogo načina pomaže uspostavljanju i izgradnji identiteta neke zajednice i obezbeđuje osećaj orijentacije. Smatramo da je moguće izdvojiti brojne zahteve koje određeni kulturni obrasci, običaji, stilovi života postavljaju u odnosu na javni ili privatni prostor. Nekada se radi o individualnim aktivnostima i zahtevima, nekada o kolektivnim, grupnim, zahtevima organizacija, porodica, klubova, itd. Slojevito i promenljivo kulturno nasleđe svedoči o kulturnoj kreativnosti i predstavlja temelj za izgradnju identiteta. Kulturni identitet se oslanja na prošlost, istorijski je uslovljen i zahteva kontinuitet. Kolektivna memorija se povezuje sa prostorom i zato je od posebnog značaja za urbani dizajn i planiranje. Međutim, kako nas britanski istoričar Rafael Samjuel podseća, memorija nije pasivna, arhiv slika iz prošlosti, već je ona dinamična, razvija se sa onima koji se sećaju, ona je „istorijski uslovljena promena boje i oblika u odnosu na nužnosti momenta”. Ona je kreativna „uključuje brisanje i spajanje ... integriše ono što je u originalu moglo biti drugačije ... oživljava poluzaboravljeno” i na taj način „produkuje slike jasnije od realnosti.” (Samuel, 1996, x )

tions … it integrates what in the original may have been divergent … and brings the half/forgotten back to life” and in that way produce “images far clearer than any reality could be” (Samuel, 1996, x ). Life in the community that cultivates values of distinctive cultures generates possibilities for creative development and innovation of cultural forms. Built urban structure related to distinct cultural characteristics provides support to continuity of the community and determines the framework in which future changes are shaped. Multiculturalism is an official policy in many modern societies. However, the problem of how to associate the right to diversity with the support for intercultural communication, as a dynamic phenomenon of cultural exchange, in order to translate concepts into policies and spatial projects (interventions) poses a great professional challenge. Globalisation does not necessarily mean homogenisation of culture and domination of one model over another. In a modern society community project supports generation of general, common values, hand in hand with multiculturalism and respect for differences. In that sense, the concept of diversity is focused on establishing new forms of urban life, primarily expressed through using and shaping of public spaces where different cultures meet. A pronounced cultural diversity is an important part of contemporary society and presents a starting point for creative professional intervention that will find the way to provide local specific changes in urban structure of cities.

Život u zajednici koja neguje vrednosti posebnih kultura, stvara mogućnost za kreativan razvoj i inovaciju kulturnih formi. Izgrađena urbana struktura povezana sa kulturnim posebnostima obezbeđuje podršku kontinuitetu zajednice i predstavlja definisani okvir u kome se traže rešenja za buduće promene. Multikulturalizam predstavlja zvaničnu politiku u mnogim savremenim društvima. Međutim, problem kako pravo na različitost povezati sa podrškom interkulturnoj komunikaciji, kao dinamičnom fenomenu kulturne razmene, sa ciljem prevođenja koncepata u politike i prostorne projekte (intervencije) se nameće kao veliki profesionalni izazov. Globalizacija ne mora da znači homogenizaciju kulture i dominaciju jednog modela nad drugim. U modernom društvu projekat zajednice podržava izgradnju opštih, zajedničkih vrednosti, ali i multikulturalizam, poštovanje različitosti. U tom smislu, koncept raznolikosti je usmeren na uspostavljanje novih oblika urbanog života, pre svega iskazanih kroz upotrebu i oblikovanje prostora u kojima se susreću različite kulture. Izražena kulturna raznolikost je značajan činilac savremenog društva i predstavlja polazište za kreativnu stručnu intervenciju koja će pronaći načine da obezbedi lokalno specifične promene u urbanoj strukturi gradova.

Kultura
Iako se danas susrećemo sa brojnim različitim definicijama kulture, u generalnom smislu možemo reći da je kultura istorijski izgrađen način egzistencije zajednice, stil života određene grupe ljudi. Kulturu čine akumulirani obrasci vrednosti, verovanja i ponašanja sa kojima se grupa identifikuje, verbalni i ne verbalni sistem simbola. To je skup normi i vrednosti koji se izražavaju kroz ponašanje članova grupe, prostor u kome se članovi osećaju dobro, u kome dele vrednosti koje ne moraju objašnjavati. Oblikuje se jezikom, etničkom pripadnošću, religi11

Culture
Although today we encounter numerous different definitions of culture, in general sense we can say that culture is historically developed way of existence of a community, a life stile of a certain group of people.

1.2

It consists of accumulated patterns of values, beliefs and behaviour with which the group identifies, verbal and non verbal system of symbols. It is a set of norms and values that are expressed through the behaviour of group members, the space in which the members feel comfortable, in which they share values that are mutually understood and do not have to be explained. Culture is shaped by language, ethnicity, religion, attitude toward power, class, history, geography, gender, way of life, values, beliefs, traditions, ways of thinking and acting. Hofstede who views culture as a value system defines culture as a “collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (Hofstede 1980, 260). UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity regards culture as “the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs” (UNESCO,2001). François Matarasso offers the following view about the importance of culture for the city:
Culture is the expression of human values. When we express ourselves we create meanings where there were none, and consequently change the way in which we and others behave. In shaping European society, and the values of nations and communities within it, culture is of the utmost importance. It is, indeed, perhaps the only thing which can save the city (Matarasso, 2001, 55).

jom, odnosom prema moći, klasom, istorijom, geografijom, rodnom pripadnošću, načinom života, vrednostima, verovanjima, tradicijom, načinom mišljenja i delovanja. Hofstede koji posmatra kulturu kao sistem vrednosti, definiše je kao „kolektivno programiranje uma koje razlikuje članove jedne grupe ili kategorije ljudi od druge.” (Hofstede 1980, 260) Opšta deklaracija o kulturnoj raznolikosti UNESCO-a posmatra kulturu kao „skup posebnih duhovnih, materijalnih, intelektualnih i emocionalnih karakteristika društva ili društvenih grupa, i to obuhvata, pored umetnosti i književnosti, stilove života, načine zajedničkog života, sisteme vrednosti, tradicije i verovanja.” (UNESCO, 2001) Fransoa Mataraso nudi sledeći stav o značaju kulture za grad:
Kultura je izraz ljudskih vrednosti. Kada se izražavamo mi stvaramo značenja tamo gde ih nije bilo, i time menjamo način na koji se mi i drugi ponašamo. U oblikovanju evropskog društva, kao i vrednosti naroda i zajednica unutar njega, kultura je od najveće važnosti. To je, zaista, možda i jedina stvar koja može spasiti grad. (Matarasso, 2001, 55)

It should be stressed that in this book we accept a broad definition of culture as “the complex of values, customs, beliefs and practices which constitute the way of life of a specific group” (Eagleton, 2000, 34). The choice of definition influences the basic concepts adopted. That is why we consider the concept of multiculturalism inadequate. Systematization of cultures on the one hand leaves out many impor13

Treba naglasiti da u ovoj knjizi prihvatamo široku definiciju kulture kao „kompleks vrednosti, običaja, verovanja i prakse koji predstavljaju način života za određenu grupu.” (Eagleton, 2000, 34) Izbor definicije uslovljava i osnovne koncepte koje usvajamo. To je razlog zbog kojeg smatramo da koncept multikulturalizma nije adekvatan. Razvrstavanjem kultura, sa jedne strane, izostavljaju se mnoge važne grupe i identiteti, imenujući ih ‘sub-kulturama’, na periferiji modela. Sa druge strane, ljudi ne pripadaju samo jednoj određenoj kulturi već se menjaju, zadržavaju tradicionalne obrasce ili ih se oslobađaju, zamenjujući ih univerzalnijim formama kroz promišljanje i dijalog. Za razliku od multikulturalnosti, koncept interkulturalnosti, kulturne raznolikosti nam omogućava da sagledamo i uporedimo različite vrednosti, vero-

tant groups and identities labelling them as ‘subcultures’ on the periphery of the model. On the other hand, rather then belonging to a single specific culture, people change, retain the traditional forms or break free from them, replacing them with more universal forms through reasoning and dialogue. Unlike the concept of multiculturalism, concept of interculturalism, cultural diversity enables us to perceive and compare different values, beliefs and lifestyles and assess the impact of cultures on the dynamics of urban space production. Books, buildings and other products of human action can not be considered a culture. They only represent things that are produced and used through knowledge and skills of a culture and reflect the cultural pattern. That is why it is not easy to reconstruct a distinct culture on the basis of physical artefacts of which we are aware in archaeology and even more in contact with less known cultures while travelling. Common human perception usually can identify three levels of culture. The first level is the cultural tradition by which communities differ. The second level consists of subcultures as a part of personal identity. The third level is one of cultural mixtures. In complex and diverse societies, people who come from different corners of the world often retain much of their original cultural traditions while accepting some forms of the culture they live in and in this way become part of new, often unidentified and separate mixture within the community. In research of local urban situations when the term culture is used, cultural mixtures are of special interest as retreats from dominant culture (super culture that characterizes a society), i.e. as varieties of realization of culture. Diversions from the basic model, selections from the corpus of cultural behaviour, new cultures arising in the process of intercultural communication, can also be defined as a dynamic model of cultural patterns that we try to recognize, evaluate and connect with places and physical forms. It is most certainly challenging, and not an easy task.
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vanja i stilove života i procenimo uticaj koji kulture imaju na dinamiku proizvodnje urbanog prostora. Knjige, zgrade i drugi proizvodi ljudskog delovanja se ne mogu smatrati kulturom. Oni samo predstavljaju stvari koje su proizvedene i korišćene kroz znanje i veštine neke kulture i koje odražavaju kulturni obrazac. Zato nije lako rekonstruisati specifičnu kulturu polazeći od fizičkih artefakata čega smo svesni u arheologiji, a još više u susretu sa manje poznatim kulturama prilikom putovanja. Uobičajena ljudska percepcija može da prepozna tri nivoa kulture. Prvi nivo predstavlja kulturna tradicija po kojoj se zajednice razlikuju. Drugi nivo čine subkulture kao deo ličnog identiteta. Treći nivo čine kulturne mešavine. U složenim i raznolikim društvima, ljudi koji dolaze iz različitih krajeva sveta često zadržavaju velik deo svojih izvornih kulturnih tradicija uz prihvatanje nekih oblika kulture u kojoj žive i na taj način postaju deo nove, često neidentifikovane i odvojene mešavine unutar zajednice. Prilikom proučavanja lokalnih urbanih situacija kada upotrebljavamo termin kultura posebno su nam interesantne kulturne mešavine kao odstupanja od preovlađujuće kulture (superkulture koja karakteriše jedno društvo), odnosno, kao raznolikosti realizacije kulture. Odstupanja od osnovnog modela, izbori iz celine kulturnog ponašanja, različite nove kulture nastale u procesu interkulturne komunikacije, se takođe mogu definisati kao dinamičan model kulturnih obrazaca koji pokušavamo da prepoznamo, vrednujemo i povežemo sa prostorom i fizičkim formama. To sigurno predstavlja izazovan ali ne i lak zadatak.

Ideologija urbanog dizajna
Podržavanje interkulturnog identiteta svakako uključuje sve oblasti društvenih politika od ekonomije do urbanog planiranja. Prirodni procesi u stvarnom svetu prevazilaze koegzistenciju različitih kultura u određenoj sredini i usmeravaju našu pažnju na odnose između tradicionalnih kultura kao i novih oblika

1.3

The urban design ideology
Supporting intercultural identity indeed includes all domains of social policy from economics to urban planning. Processes in the real world go beyond mere coexistence of different cultures in a certain environment and bring to our attention the relationship between traditional cultures and new cultural forms emerging through interaction. Cultural diversity concept reflects a new condition of hybrid cultures that cancel the boundaries of traditional culture and produce new cultural forms (Skot-Hansen, 2002). Many urban design critics believe that it is focused exclusively on shaping urban space and has no social dimension, ie. that it is just about return of the aesthetics in urban planning. It seems however that urban design as a direct factor in production of distinct urban space could be considered as a process of striking a balance between spatial and design aspects, on one side, and social and economic issues on the other. Consideration of complexity and diversity of life styles points to new approaches and methods of professional work. Understanding identities of different actors, their relationship to urban space, meanings and the sense of belonging is the basis of any successful urban intervention (Wood, Landry & Bloomfield, 2006). Culture viewed in the wider context, as a resource in urban design is primarily recognized at the local level, with strong roots in the local community. Professional proposals are associated with management and decision-making models at the local level, and above all, communication with stakeholders. Certainly many problems that occur in translation of concepts into development policies and concrete construction should be pointed out. It is therefore of great importance to re-examine the basis of cultural policy, advantages of cultural diversity and intertwining of cultures in design proposals and regulations.
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kulture koji se stvaraju u procesu interakcije. Koncept kulturne raznolikosti odražava novu situaciju hibridnih kultura koje poništavaju granice tradicionalnih kultura i stvaraju nove kulturne forme. (SkotHansen, 2002) Mnogi kritičari urbanog dizajna smatraju da je on usmeren isključivo na oblikovanje prostora i da nema socijalnu dimenziju, tj. da se tu radi o povratku estetike u urbano planiranje. Čini se, međutim, da bi urbani dizajn, kao direktan činilac proizvodnje konkretnog urbanog prostora, mogao biti razmatran i kao proces uspostavljanja ravnoteže između prostornih i oblikovnih sa jedne i socijalnih i ekonomskih tema sa druge strane. Uvažavanje kompleksnosti i raznolikosti životnih stilova upućuju na nove pristupe i metode profesionalnog rada. Razumevanje identiteta različitih aktera, njihovog odnosa prema urbanom prostoru, značenja i pripadanja predstavljaju osnov svake uspešne urbane intervencije. (Wood, Landry & Bloomfield, 2006) Kultura posmatrana u širem kontekstu, kao resurs u urbanom dizajnu se pre svega prepoznaje na lokalnom nivou, sa jakim korenima u lokalnoj zajednici. Stručni predlozi se povezuju sa modelima upravljanja i odlučivanja na lokalnom nivou i pre svega, komunikacijom sa zainteresovanim akterima. Svakako da treba uočiti i brojne probleme koji nastaju u prevođenju koncepata u razvojne politike i konkretnu izgradnju. Zato je od velike važnosti preispitati osnove kulturne politike, prednosti kulturne raznolikosti i prožimanja kultura u prostornim predlozima i regulativi. Fokusiranje na kulturu kao oslonac u oblikovanju gradova utiče na promenu pristupa urbanom dizajnu. Prvo, naglašava se potreba za kulturnom osetljivošću, prepoznavanjem kulturnih posebnosti, uočavanjem i razumevanjem karaktera, prostornih i fizičkih obrazaca, manifestacija lokalnih kultura i njihovim pretvaranjem u potencijale za razvoj. Drugo, to takođe znači povezivanje različitih nivoa i sektora u kojima se donose odluke, otvorenost za nove ideje i

Considering culture as pivotal in shaping of cities transforms the approach to urban design. First of all, the need for cultural sensibility, recognizing the cultural particularities, identification and understanding of nature, spatial and physical patterns, manifestations of local cultures and their transformation in the potential for development is stressed. Secondly, it also means linking different decisionmaking levels and sectors, openness to new ideas and projects emerging at the local level, combining the ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ approach, from the local to the city as a whole. And thirdly, more flexible approach to defining the relationship between urban planning and design. Strict separation between methods of strategic planning, land use planning and design can be substituted by integration of some aspects of these approaches with the aim of formation of urban places, public space with a special cultural character. In contemporary urban design intercultural approach means understanding the phenomenon and developing methods and techniques to support the decisive factors in building new environments. This requires a democratic orientation of a society which is acknowledging interculturalism as an ideology, that is, modification of traditional approaches according to the new concept that can enrich a society.

projekte koji se javljaju na lokalnom nivou, kombinovanje pristupa ‘odozgo na dole’ i ‘odozdo na gore’, od lokalnog ka gradu kao celini. I treće, fleksibilniji pristup definisanju odnosa između urbanog planiranja i oblikovanja. Stroga podela na metode strateškog planiranja, planiranja namene površina i oblikovanja se može zameniti integracijom određenih aspekata ovih pristupa sa ciljem formiranja urbanih mesta, javnog prostora sa posebnim kulturnim karakterom. Interkulturni pristup u urbanom dizajnu podrazumeva razumevanje fenomena i razvijanje metoda i tehnika koje podržavaju značajne aspekte u stvaranju novih prostora. To zahteva demokratsku orjentaciju društva i priznavanje interkulturalizma kao ideologije, odnosno prilagođavanje tradicionalnih pristupa novom konceptu koji može obogatiti društvo.

Edukacija
Novi pristup urbanom dizajnu zahteva proširenje, uske, arhitektonski orijentisane tradicije prostorne intervencije. Čini se da taj specifični zahtev za unapređenjem veština može započeti promenama u oblasti edukacije kojima će se na novi način povezati oblasti arhitekture, urbanog planiranja i dizajna u cilju formiranja stručnjaka koji će biti u stanju da razumeju šta čini identitet gradskih prostora i kako ga podržati svojim akcijama. (Royal Town Planning Institute, 2001) Proširenje baze profesionalne edukacije, učenje na marginama različitih naučnih oblasti može pružiti uvid u složene procese koji utiču na proizvodnju prostora i omogućiti rešavanje problema iz interdisciplinarne perspektive. Značaj približavanja urbanog planiranja i dizajna u cilju inovativnog i maštovitog pristupa specifičnim urbanim problemima se konstatuje u okviru obe danas razdvojene discipline. U dokumentu Načela osnovnog obrazovanja urbanih planera, Britanskog kraljevskog udruženja urbanih planera (RTPI) naglašava se „značaj oblikovnog procesa u stvaranju
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Education
New approach to urban design requires broadening of narrow architecture-oriented tradition in spatial intervention. It seems that this specific demand for expanding skills can start by changes in professional education that would reconnect architecture, urban planning and design in a new way in order to shape a professional profile able to understand what makes the identity of urban spaces and how to support it by professionals’ actions (Royal Town Planning Institute, 2001). Broadening the base of professional education by learning across the borders of different

1.4

scientific disciplines can provide the insights into the complex processes that influence the production of space and enable solving problems from an interdisciplinary perspective. In urban planning and design, two currently separate disciplines, there is a growing awareness of the importance of convergence, in an effort to achieve innovative and imaginative approach to specific urban problems. The RTPI (Royal Town Planning Institute) Policy Statement on Initial Planning Education also stresses “the importance and process of design in creating high quality places and enhancing the public realm for the benefit of all in society, and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative design approaches in achieving this” (RTPI, 2004, 6.8.). In creating an adequate educational model for a new design, the focus shifts to the question on how to understand different socioeconomic, political and above all cultural aspects of urban intervention. Strategic local visions are connected with the insight into broad public policies and translated into design options and regulations. These options enable the review of adopted values that can be transformed to criteria relevant for decision-making. Therefore, traditional education for space-related disciplines which is, as Salama finds, “predominantly artistic paradigm that emphasizes subjective judgments, personal feelings, intuition and imagination at the expense of social and cultural responsibilities” (Salama, 1999, 136) has to be transformed and a comprehensive concept of urban space introduced. As the decision-making process becomes more collaborative and conversational, design alternatives and visual representations are again becoming important as key tools. According to Kaliski, the public demands more information about alternative futures and accessible means to understand the data, and professionals are increasingly using digital software and visualization to allow real-time explorations of the relationships between social, environmental,
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urbanih mesta visokog kvaliteta i poboljšanja javnih prostora na dobrobit svih članova društva, kao i procena efektivnosti alternativnih pristupa dizajnu koji te ciljeve ostvaruju.” (RTPI, 2004, 6.8.) Formiranje adekvatnog modela edukacije za novi dizajn stavlja u fokus pitanje načina uključivanja razumevanja različitih socioekonomskih, političkih i iznad svega kulturnih aspekata urbane intervencije. Razmatranje lokalnih strateških vizija koje se povezuje sa uvidom u raznovrsne javne politike se prevodi u varijante projekata i regulative. One omogućavaju proveru usvojenih vrednosti koje se, zatim, mogu transformisati u kriterijume relevantne za donošenje odluka. Zato tradicionalno obrazovanje za discipline koje se bave prostorom, koje je kao što Salama primećuje, „uglavnom u okviru umetničke paradigme koja naglašava subjektivne procene, lična osećanja, intuiciju i maštu na štetu socijalne i kulturne odgovornosti” (Salama, 1999, 136), mora biti transformisano uz uvođenje složenog koncepta urbanog prostora. Sa razvojem procesa odlučivanja ka sve većoj saradnji i komunikaciji, projekti alternativnih rešenja i vizuelni prikazi ponovo postaju važni, ključni alati. Kako Kaliski primećuje, javnost zahteva više informacija o alternativnim budućnostima i pristupačan način razumevanja podataka, i profesionalci sve više koriste digitalne softvere i vizuelizacije kako bi omogućili istraživanje o relacijama između društvenih, ekonomskih, ekoloških, podataka o korišćenju zemljišta i predloga izgrađenih formi u realnim situacijama. Oblikovni sadržaj planova, projekata i regulative zahteva struku više okrenutu ka formi koja je sposobna da integriše potrebe i vrednosti zajednice u inovativno urbano okruženje. (Kaliski, 2006) Dok je u razvijenim društvima taj proces veoma institucionalizovan, u zemljama u razvoju ima mnogo prostora za eksperimentisanje u uvođenju nove prakse. Jedan od izazova u oblasti urbanog dizajna je učiniti profesionalce svesnim posredničke uloge profesije u

economic, and land-use data with built form proposals in real life situations. Formal content of plans, designs and regulation demands more form-based profession capable to integrate community based needs and values into innovative urban environments (Kaliski, 2006). While in developed societies this process is highly institutionalized, in developing world, there is much more space for experimentation to be done on the introduction of new practices. One of the challenges in the field of urban design is to make professionals sensitive to the mediating function of their profession in establishing the framework for effective intercultural communication. Recognition of diversity of the populations and cultures, and dynamic processes of acculturation should be the basis of the new ideology that will enable effective engagement in the creation of a better physical environment. It is expected that it will lead to the recognition of the necessity of knowledge needed for understanding interculturally shaped human behaviour, cultural differences and the way people interact with the built environment (Salama, 1999). It will also lead to understanding broad social and economic issues, as well as the specific local situations helpful in creation of public policies and visual representations for local projects that can serve as a starting point for communication and decision-making.

uspostavljanju okvira za efikasnu interkultunu komunikaciju. Prepoznavanje raznolikosti stanovništva i kultura, kao i dinamičnih procesa akulturacije, bi trebalo da bude osnova za nove ideologije koje će omogućiti efikasnije uključivanje u proces stvaranja boljeg fizičkog okruženja. Očekuje se da će to voditi prepoznavanju potrebe za znanjem koje omogućava razumevanje interkulturno indukovanog ponašanja, kulturnih razlika i načina na koji ljudi komuniciraju sa izgrađenim okruženjem. (Salama, 1999) To će takođe dovesti do razumevanja širih društvenih i ekonomskih pitanja, kao i specifičnih lokalnih situacija, koje pomažu u kreiranju javnih politika i vizuelnih prezentacija za lokalne projekte koji čine startnu poziciju za komunikaciju i odlučivanje.

Integralni pristup urbanom dizajnu
Koncept strateškog urbanog dizajna može ponuditi mogućnosti za prevazilaženje jaza koji postoji između različitih disciplina vezanih za prostorne intervencije. Kreativnost mora naći svoje mesto u dizajnu i planiranju koje će nas osloboditi od sadašnjih prepreka i omogućiti profesiji da iskorači ka novim rešenjima koja će se nositi sa izazovima budućnosti. Ovaj eklektički pristup koji integriše urbani dizajn i planiranje se prvenstveno fokusira na proizvodnju urbanih javnih prostora povezanu sa specifičnim skupom vrednosti. Proučavajući mogućnosti novog pristupa došli smo do zaključka da nema jedinstvenog modela koji može biti univerzalno upotrebljiv, već da svaka nova situacija zahteva kreativni doprinos jer su različiti gradovi i njihovi delovi, po prirodi, stvoreni i oblikovani istorijski i kulturno specifičnim faktorima. Predloženi pristup se zasniva na pretpostavci da najveći doprinosi razvoju urbane strukture ne dolaze sa nivoa makro politika već sa nivoa na kojem se kreira prostor. Težište je na pragmatičnom nivou gde se sredstva za dalji razvoj mogu naći u već izgrađenom lokalnim područjima sa kvalitetima koji su utemelje20

Integral approach to urban design
The concept of strategic urban design offers opportunities to fill the gap between different spatial intervention-related disciplines. Creativity must find its place in design and planning that will free us from current constraints and stretch the boundaries of the profession towards new solutions able to cope with future challenges. This eclectic approach that integrates urban planning and design is primarily concerned with the production of urban public places connected with a specific set of values. By analyzing

the possibilities of the new approach we came to the conclusion that there is no single universally applicable model and each new situation calls for creative input because different cities and their parts are, by their very nature, characterized and shaped by historically and culturally specific factors. The proposed approach is based on the assumption that greatest contribution to the development of urban structure comes not from a macro-policy level but from the level of place making. The focus is on a pragmatic level where the means for further development can be found in already built local areas with the qualities based on the recognition and mirroring of a new intercultural community and its new possibilities. The emphasis is not only on the problem-solving character of urban design but also on its exploratory capacity, investigating urban area development possibilities. The underlying assumption is that to the degree that designers understand how different actors read and evaluate cities, they will be able to offer creative solutions contributing to socially responsible changes. The aim is to define an integral approach that will lead to spatial propositions beyond traditional classification to general planning of land uses and concrete design that regulates physical and visual spaces. The strategic design process in intercultural environment requires professionals to work effectively across a wide range of scales. They are expected to develop understanding of urban places and independent components, buildings, landscapes, and public places, as well as the social and economic forces that shape them. On the one side, the urban project is directed to identification and understanding how detailed space arrangements and regulations influence space-related behaviours of different cultural groups. On the other side, the exploration process, as an integral part of design, includes recognition, creative translation of relevant agendas and
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ni na prepoznavanju i preslikavanju nove interkulturne zajednice i njenih novih mogućnosti. Naglasak nije samo na orijentaciji urbanog dizajna ka rešavanju problema, već u njegovim istraživačkim kapacitetima koji preispituju razvojne mogućnosti urbanog područja. Pristup se zasniva na pretpostavci da ukoliko dizajneri mogu da razumeju način na koji različiti akteri čitaju i vrednuju gradove, onda mogu i da ponude kreativna rešenja koja doprinose socijalno odgovornim promenama. Cilj je definisati integralni pristup koji će dovesti do prostornih predloga van tradicionalnih klasifikacija generalnog planiranja namena površina i konkretnog dizajna koji reguliše fizičke i vizuelne prostore. Proces strateškog dizajna u interkulturnom okruženju zahteva od profesionalaca da rade efektivno na više različitih nivoa. Od njih se očekuje da razviju razumevanje urbanih prostora i nezavisnih komponenata, građevina, urbanog pejzaža i javnih prostora, kao i društvenih i ekonomskih sila koje ih oblikuju. Sa jedne strane, urbani projekat je usmeren na identifikaciju i razumevanje uticaja detaljnih prostornih aranžmana i regulative na prostorno uslovljena ponašanja različitih kulturnih grupa. Sa druge strane, istraživački proces kao sastavni deo dizajna, podrazumeva prepoznavanje, kreativno prevođenje relevantnih agendi i javnih politika koje mogu uticati na prostorne obrasce procesa kulturne interakcije i kako se pretpostavlja, doprineti interkultunoj saradnji. U okviru urbanog dizajna kao delatnosti usmerene na konkretne akcije u urbanom prostoru cilj je: 1. Otvoriti debatu o mestu kulture i kulturnih razlika u urbanim intervencijama; 2. Promeniti percepciju gradova: od monokulturnog ka multikulturnom, odnosno interkulturnom identitetu; 3. Uključiti istraživanje područja interkulturne komunikacije u rutinu profesionalnog rada i političkog odlučivanja u gradu.

public policies that can influence spatial patterns of cultural interaction processes and supposedly contribute to intercultural cooperation. In the framework of urban design as an activity focusing on concrete actions in urban space the goal is to: 1. Open a debate about the place of culture and cultural differences in urban interventions; 2. Change the perception of cities from monocultural to multicultural i.e. intercultural identity; 3. Include the research of intercultural communication in the routine of professional work and political decision-making in the city. These goals are based on the following views: 1. Globalization does not necessarily entail the loss of individuality and distinctiveness. Culture gains relevance, because issues of place identity are becoming increasingly more important against the background of intensifying globalization processes. There is an increased desire, especially in European societies, to preserve local cultures and defend them from globalization. 2. Culture is not static but a dynamic concept. Unlike the theorists who view culture as stable and determining, it is necessary to consider different approaches emphasizing intertwining and mixture of cultures (transculturation, aculturation) and understand that belonging to a cultural group is neither fixed, nor invariable. 3. In order for the issue of cultural diversity to be adequately accounted for in professional work, urban design methods need to be adjusted. The presented proposals are based on practical experiences and theoretical speculations supported by fragmentary research findings in the various scientific fields. 4. Starting from the position that it is necessary to support a variety of cultural patterns in urban design we must bear in mind that not all cultural
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Ovi ciljevi su zasnovani na sledećim stavovima: 1. Globalizacija ne mora nužno da eliminiše posebnosti. Kultura postaje važna, zato što pitanja prostornog identiteta postaju značajnija kako se globalizacija zahuktava. Postoji povećana želja, posebno u evropskim društvima, da se lokalne kulture očuvaju i odbrane od globalizacije. 2. Kultura nije statičan već dinamičan koncept. Za razliku od teoretičara koji posmatraju kulturu kao stabilnu i određujuću, potrebno je razmotriti i drugačije pristupe koji naglašavaju pojavu međusobnog prožimanja i mešavine kultura (transkulturalizacija, akulturizaciju), odnosno da pripadanje određenoj kulturnoj grupi nije ni fiksno ni nepromenljivo. 3. Da bi u stručni radu na adekvatan način uključili temu kulturne raznolikosti potrebno je prilagoditi metode urbanog dizajna. Predlozi koji su izneti zasnovani su na praktičnim iskustvima i teorijskim spekulacijama podržanim fragmentarnim rezultatima istraživanja u okviru različitih naučnih oblasti. 4. Polazeći od stava da je potrebna podrška različitim kulturnim obrascima u urbanom dizajnu, mora se imati u vidu da se ne mogu svi kulturni obrasci i grupe tretirati ravnopravno. Svakako da se ne mogu prihvatiti kulturni obrasci koji podržavaju kulturni konzervativizam, osporavaju pravo na izbor načina života, ukratko ugrožavaju ljudska prava. Potrebna je selekcija, odlučivanje, šta se može podržati kao kulturno adekvatan obrazac a šta ne. Kako to proceniti i na osnovu kojih kriterijuma? Na stručnjacima je da ih prepoznaju i definišu, na urbanim dizajnerima da ih razumeju i prevedu u prostorne obrasce i istraže njihove potencijale i ograničenja u daljem razvoju grada. Odluke se donose u političkom procesu. Pošli smo od dve osnovne pretpostavke. Prva pretpostavka je da postoji potreba za uspostavljanjem nove profesionalne ideologije koja može da učini naše okruženje raznovrsnijim, da podstakne jačanje

patterns and groups should be treated equally. Obviously, cultural patterns supporting cultural conservatism, challenging the right to choose the way of life, and threatening human rights can not be accepted. Selection is required and decision on what is to be supported as culturally adequate form and what is not. How to make an evaluation and on the basis of which criteria? It is the experts’ task to identify and define such forms, and urban designers’ to understand and translate them in the spatial form and explore their potential and limitations in further development of the city. Decisions are made in the political process. We have started from two basic assumptions. The first assumption is that there is a need for establishment of new professional ideology that can make our environment more diverse, strengthen identity of cities and bring to the forefront intercultural processes that can play a significant role in the city promotion and economic benefit. The second assumption is that culture as a particular system of customs, beliefs, patterns, that are materially and space - specific, can serve as a basis for understanding differences among individuals and groups, and as a starting point for developing visions, responsive ideas, as well as creative and innovative design proposals.

identiteta u gradovima, da naglasi interkulturne procese koji mogu imati značajnu ulogu za promociju i ekonomsku dobrobit grada. Druga pretpostavka je da kultura kao specifičan sistem običaja, verovanja, obrazaca koji su materijalno i prostorno određeni, može služiti kao osnova za razumevanje razlika među pojedincima i grupama, te može biti polazna tačka za razvoj vizija, prihvatljivih ideja, kao i kreativnih i inovativnih dizajnerskih predloga.

Rezime
U profesionalnom radu možemo izabrati između dve opcije: negirati značaj kulturnih razlika ili upotrebiti razlike kao potencijal koji će se koristiti ukoliko norme i predloge usmeravanja urbanog razvoja stavimo u kontekst kulture. Primetno je da se u savremenom svetu oseća duboka potreba za promenom pristupa u urbanoj intervenciji, za novim interkulturnim pristupom koji zahteva posmatranje problema savremenih gradova kroz odnos različitih kultura. Promena pristupa može uticati i na promenu prioriteta u prostornim politikama na gradskom ili višem nivou (evropskom, svetskom) u pravcu sagledavanja problema i rešenja sa stanovišta različitih, često zapostavljenih grupa sa posebnim vrednostima i identitetom. U ovoj knjizi predlažemo nov konceptualni, analitički i kreativni okvir, strateški urbani dizajn, u kojem lokalne kulturne dinamike predstavljaju osnovni okvir, u kojem se razmatraju nove vrednosti, ciljevi i kriterijumi, kao i metode i tehnike. Nakon definisanja važnosti uspostavljanja nove ideologije za profesionalno delovanje, analiziraćemo važnost kulturnog identiteta urbanog ‘mesta’ kao jednog od glavnih odgovora na pritisak globalizacije. Smatramo da je vredno istraživati dinamiku kulturnih obrazaca, uočavati njihove manifestacije u urbanom prostoru iz najmanje dva razloga. Prvo, postoji moralni razlog. Urbane intervencije predstavljaju odgovor na legitimna očekivanja, zahteve, potrebe
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Summary
In professional work we can choose between two options: negate the importance of cultural differences or use them as guidelines in shaping the norms and directions of urban development in the context of culture. In modern world there is a deep need to change the approach in urban intervention for a new intercultural approach that observes the problems of modern cities through relations of different cultures. The change of approach can lead to re-prioritised spatial policies on city or higher level (European, global) in the light of problems and solutions perceived from the standpoint of various, often neglected groups with distinctive values and identity.

1.5

In this book we propose a new conceptual, analytical and creative framework, strategic urban design, where local intercultural dynamics represents the basic context within which new values, goals and criteria are considered and new methods and techniques developed. Having established the importance of new ideology for professional action we analyze the importance of the cultural identity of ‘place’ as one of the main responses to the pressure of globalization. We believe that it is worth to explore the dynamics of cultural patterns and observe their manifestations in the urban space from at least two reasons. First, there is a moral reason. Urban interventions represent a response to legitimate expectations, requirements, needs and interests of participants in urban life and respect for existing differences. Culture is certainly one of them. The second reason is economic. In the world of global unification a specific mixture of cultures may be an element of distinction, identity, and the way to orient oneself on the global map of cities. This may be an important factor in choice of location for different economic activities and thus contribute to the overall city economic development.

i interese učesnika u urbanom životu i uvažavanje razlika koje postoje. Kultura je svakako jedna od njih. Drugi razlog je ekonomski. U svetu globalnih ujednačavanja specifična mešavina kultura može predstavljati elemenat razlikovanja, identiteta, način prepoznavanja na globalnoj mapi gradova. To može biti važan činilac izbora lokacije za različite ekonomske aktivnosti i na taj način doprinositi ukupnom ekonomskom razvoju grada.

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2.1

Cultural diversity as an urban resource
Globalization processes and urban identity
In numerous texts and researches, we find two completely different positions concerning culture and globalisation. While one group of authors express fear that process of globalisation will contribute to reducing of differences and uniforming of cultures, other group is of opinion that, in the long term, quite the opposite will happen. Owing to numerous reasons, including economic ones, globalisation will encourage definition of local identities and breed greater cultural diversity emerging as a reaction to unification forces. The process of globalization is about globalization of modernity, and modernity is harbinger of identity (Tomlinson, 2003). Gidens, one of the most influential thinkers of our time, notices that globalisation processes are connected to the increasing differentiation of cultural traditions and forms. Global society has overcome cultural homogeneity and moves toward a society which respects diversity of cultures coexisting in the world. Local traditions are promoted together with a large number of other cultural forms coming from abroad, enabling people to learn about a confusing conglomerate of lifestyles among which they make their own choices. Local cultural identities experience a revival, unlike national that are undergoing radical changes. Global perspective means that the sense of identity is no longer built only on the basis of national state where people live, but also on the grounds of other criteria. Quoting Baudrillard and Hall, Giddens states that instead of uniform global culture and established identities and ways of life rooted in local communities and cultures, processes lead to fragmentation of cultural patterns and emergence of new shapes of ‘hybrid identities’ consist27

Kulturna raznolikost kao urbani resurs
Procesi globalizacije i urbani identitet
U brojnim tekstovima i istraživanjima nailazimo na dva potpuno različita stava o vezi kulture i globalizacije. Dok jedna grupa autora izražava bojazan da će proces globalizacije doprineti smanjivanju raznolikosti i ujednačavanju kultura, druga smatra da će se dugoročno desiti upravo suprotno. Globalizacija će, iz brojnih razloga među kojima su i ekonomski, podsticati definisanje lokalnih identiteta i uticati na nastajanje veće kulturne raznolikosti koja će se stvarati upravo kao reakcija na sile ujednačavanja. U procesu globalizacije radi se zapravo o globalizaciji modernosti, a modernost je vesnik identiteta. (Tomlinson, 2003) Gidens, jedan od najuticajnijih savremenih mislilaca, primećuje da se procesi globalizacije povezuju sa sve većom diferencijacijom kulturnih tradicija i oblika. Globalno društvo prevazilazi kulturnu homogenost i kreće se ka društvu koje uvažava raznolikost kultura koje uporedo postoje u svetu. Lokalne tradicije se promovišu zajedno sa mnoštvom drugih kulturnih oblika koji dolaze iz inostranstva, omogućujući ljudima da se upoznaju sa zbunjujućim konglomeratom načina života u okviru koga prave sopstvene izbore. Lokalni kulturni identiteti doživljavaju ponovni procvat za razliku od nacionalnih koji prolaze kroz korenite promene. Globalna perspektiva znači da se osećaj identiteta više ne gradi samo na osnovu nacionalne države u kojoj ljudi žive, već i na osnovu drugih kriterijuma. Pozivajući se na Bodrijara (Baudrillard) i Hola (Hall), Gidens navodi da umesto jednoobrazne globalne kulture i uspostavljenih identiteta i načina života ukorenjenih u lokalnim zajednicama i kulturama, procesi vode ka fragmentaciji kulturnih obrazaca, kao i pojavi novih

ing of elements from different cultural sources (Giddens, 2003). Castells also rejects cultural uniformization through globalization and supports the idea that globalization endows localization processes with a new meaning. It could be said that the global world system, informational network society, a society producing timeless and placeless structures, creates unfavourable environment for people’s identity that is tied to historic context, culture and memory. In his book The Power of Identity, the Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. II Castells defines the term identity as “the construction of meaning on the basis of cultural attribute, or related set of cultural attributes, that is/are given over other sources of meaning” (Castells,1997, 6). Castells also stresses differences between identities of legitimization that are imposed by institutions in an effort to dominate social actors, identities of resistance developed by actors for protection of their cultural particularities, and project identities as new collective projects aimed at redefining the actor’s position in the society, as was, for example, the case with feminism, patriarchal family, reproduction and sexuality (Castells, 1997). In such circumstances, as Castells argues, the phenomenon of constructing cultural identity becomes the central challenge for social actors that build their true meanings according to cultural attributes (Castells, 1994). The notion of identity is a modern phenomenon. In contrast to traditional society where such problem did not exist, in modern society personal identity is not strictly fixed but stems from a series of choices. As a result, identity is fluid and unstable, “there are dilemmas and doubts regarding the identification and affiliation” (Golubovic, 1999, 7). Researchers indicate that there is also a danger that in response to the perception of abstract identity imposed by the unification in global society, the concept of identity is connected with the belonging to a specific community perceived as static, that can eventually lead to
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oblika ‘hibridnog identiteta’ koga čine elementi iz različitih kulturnih izvora. (Gidens, 2003) Kastels takođe negira kulturno ujednačavanje kroz globalizaciju i podržava ideju da globalizacija daje procesima lokalizacije novo značenje. Moglo bi se reći da globalni svetski sistem, informatičko, umreženo društvo, društvo koje stvara strukture koje nisu vremenski i prostorno određene, predstavlja nepovoljno okruženje za identitet ljudi koji je vezan za istorijski kontekst, kulturu i memoriju. U svojoj knjizi Moć identiteta, informacijsko doba: ekonomija, društvo i kultura (II deo) Kastels definiše pojam identiteta kao „konstruisanje značenja na osnovu kulturnih atributa, ili skupa kulturnih osobina koje su date preko drugih izvora značenja.” (Castells, 1997, 6) Kastels takođe naglašava razliku između identiteta legitimizacije koje nameću institucije u cilju dominacije nad društvenim akterima, identiteta otpora koje razvijaju akteri u cilju očuvanja kulturne posebnosti i identitete kao nove kolektivne projekte koji su usmereni na redefinisanje pozicije aktera u društvu, kao što je to na pr. slučaj sa feminizmom, patrijarhalnom porodicom, rađanjem i seksualnošću. (Castells, 1997) Upravo u takvim okolnostima, kako Kastels naglašava, fenomen izgradnje kulturnog identiteta postaje suštinski izazov za društvene aktere koji izgrađuju svoj značaj prema kulturnim osobinama. (Castells, 1994) Pojam identiteta je moderna pojava. Za razliku od tradicionalnog društva gde problem identiteta ne postoji, u modernom društvu identitet individue nije jasno određen već je posledica niza izbora. To utiče na nestabilnost identiteta, „javljaju se dileme i sumnje u pogledu identifikacije i pripadnosti.” (Golubović, 1999, 7) Istraživači ukazuju na opasnost da se kao odgovor na percepciju apstraktnog identiteta koji nameće unifikacija u globalnom svetu, koncept identiteta povezuje sa pripadnošću konkretnoj, statično koncipiranoj zajednici, što može voditi provincijalizmu i izolaciji, odnosno, sukobima oko zaštite etničkog, rasnog ili religijskog identiteta.

provincialism and isolation, that is, conflicts around the protection of ethnic, racial or religious identity. Psychological research literature underlines that people have multiple, interconnected identities. They belong to different collective identities, such as national, ethnic, racial, gender, socioeconomic, vocational, etc. Identities are co- created in relationship to others, they are evolving through self-definition in terms of belonging to social categories. It is important to point out the character of identity as a process, not as a state. “An individual as well as social group live in a dynamic social and cultural environment and must constantly harmonize their relations. This harmonization involves individuals in the group, and individuals and groups in the society, so they could learn their place and their roles, as well as the principles that are acceptable and that will govern their lives” (Golubovic, 1999, 9). Cultural identity involves self-understanding that is developed through the feeling of belonging to the group, formal or informal, with which we share values, beliefs, knowledge, behavior, attitudes and ways of life. There are numerous identity formation theories that look into the process of formation of individual identity. Although they focus on monocultural identity based on ethnicity or race, it seems that there is more sense to talk about multicultural identity. Individual identity is a product of belonging to different cultural groups, and is actually in its basis multicultural. Multicultural identity is dynamic and more open to change. According to Adler
It is an identity based not on a ‘belongingness’, which implies either owning or being owned by culture, but on a style of self-consciousness that is capable of negotiating ever new formations of reality. In this sense the multicultural person is a radical departure from the kinds of identities found in both traditional and mass societies (Adler, 1998, 228).

Psihološka istraživanja naglašavaju da ljudi imaju višestruke, povezane identitete. Oni pripadaju različitim kolektivnim identitetima kao što su nacionalni, etnički, rasni, rodni, društveno ekonomski, profesionalni, itd. Identiteti se stvaraju kroz odnose sa drugima, razvijaju se kroz samodefiniciju u odnosu na pripadnost društvenim kategorijama. Važno je istaći da se naglašava karakter identiteta kao procesa, ne kao stanja. „I pojedinac i društvena grupa žive u dinamičnoj društvenoj i kulturnoj sredini, i stalno moraju da usaglašavaju svoje odnose, kako pojedinac u grupi, tako i jedni i drugi u društvu, da bi znali svoje mesto i svoje uloge, kao i to koji su principi prihvatljivi, prema kojima će se odvijati i njihovi životi.” (Golubović, 1999, 9) Kulturni identitet podrazumeva predstavu o sebi koja se razvija kroz osećaj pripadnosti grupi, fomalnoj ili neformalnoj, sa kojom se dele vrednosti, verovanja, znanja, ponašanja, stavovi i način života. Postoje brojne teorije formiranja identiteta koje posmatraju formiranje individualnog identiteta. Mada se one fokusiraju na monokulturni identitet zasnovan na etnicitetu ili rasi, čini se da je ima više opravdanja govoriti o multikulturnom identitetu. Individualni identitet je proizvod pripadanja različitim kulturnim grupama, te je zapravo u osnovi multikulturni. Multikulturni identitet je dinamičan i otvoren za promene. Prema Adleru
To je identitet koji nije zasnovan na ‘pripadanju’, koji nagoveštava bilo pripadanje ili uklapanje u kulturu, već na obliku samosvesti koja je u stanju stvara uvek novu realnost. U tom smislu multikulturna osoba bitno odstupa od vrste identiteta koje nalazimo i u tradicionalnim i masovnim društvima. (Adler, 1998, 228)

Za izučavanje interkulturne komunikacije na lokalnom nivou od posebne je važnosti grupni identitet kao elementarna forma kolektivnog identiteta. Svaki pojedinac pripada brojnim grupama i u većoj ili manjoj meri se povezuje svoj identitet sa njima. Pri tome
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For the study of intercultural communication at the local level group identity, as a basic form of collective identity, is of special interest. Each individual belongs to a number of groups and to a different degree associates his/her own identity with them. In that way multicultural identity of an individual is not a simple sum of characteristics of different cultural groups, but a special fluid mixture that is established through intercultural communication.

multikulturni identitet pojedinca ne predstavlja jednostavan zbir karakteristika pojedinih kulturnih grupa, već predstavlja posebnu fluidnu mešavinu koja se uspostavlja kroz interkulturnu komunikaciju.

Globalizacija i proizvodnja novih kultura
Kulturna globalizacija se može posmatrati kao dijalektički proces u kome globalizacija i lokalizacija, homogenizacija i fragmentacija, centralizacija i decentralizacija, nisu suprotnosti koje se isključuju, već neodvojivi delovi istog procesa. Savremeni svet i globalno društvo u kome se ideje i ljudi kreću brže nego ikada ranije, obeležava kulturna kompleksnost koja predstavlja snažnu pokretačku snagu u promeni urbane strukture. Prema Gidensu,
Ovi procesi iz temelja menjaju društvo u kome živimo. Mnoga društva, po prvi put, postaju etnički raznolika; ostala uočavaju da se postojeći obrasci multietničnosti menjaju i intenziviraju. Međutim, u svim društvima ljudi redovno dolaze u kontakt sa drugim ljudima, koji razmišljaju drugačije, izgledaju drugačije i žive drugačije. Te interakcije dešavaju se kroz neposredne susrete, kao posledica globalnih migracija, ali i kroz slike koje se prenose putem medija i interneta. Neki prihvataju ovu etničku i kulturnu složenost kao izuzetno važan deo Kosmopolitskog društva. Drugi to vide kao opasnost i pretnju. (Gidens, 2003, 283)

Globalization and production of new cultures
Cultural globalization can be seen as a highly dialectic process, in which globalization and localization, homogenization and fragmentation, centralization and decentralization, are not mutually exclusive opposites, but inseparable facets of the same process. The contemporary world and global society, in which ideas and people are moving faster than ever before, are characterized by profound cultural complexity, which is a powerful driving force in the changes of urban city structures. According to Gidens,
These processes profoundly change the society in which we live. Many societies become ethnically diversified for the first time; others are becoming aware of changing or intensifying of the existing multiethnic patterns. However, in every community people regularly find themselves communicating with those who think differently, look differently and lead different lives. These interactions occur through direct encounters, as consequence of global migrations, but also through images that are transmitted through the media and the Internet. Some people accept this complex ethnic and cultural diversity as an important part of the cosmopolitan society. Other regard it as danger and threat (Gidens, 2003, 283, translation from Serbian).

Globalization also breeds new cultures, new cultural forms and we are witness to cultural traditions mixing all around the world, giving rise to new practices and world views. Ulf Hannerz uses the term creolization to denote creativity and richness of cultural
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Globalizacija takođe utiče na proizvodnju novih kultura, nastanak novih kulturnih formi i i može se reći da se širom sveta kulturne tradicije mešaju i kreiraju nove prakse i poglede na svet. Alf Henerc (Ulf Hannerz) koristi pojam kreolizacija, u smislu kreativnosti i bogatstva kulturnog izraza koji nema istorijskih korena, već su rezultat globalne međupovezanosti. Henerc piše:
Pre nekoliko godina, kada sam konceptu toka posvetio istaknut deo svoje knjige Kulturna kompleksnost (1992), bio sam zapravo, u prvom redu zainteresovan za dimenziju vremena u procesualnom razumevanju

expressions which do not have historical roots, but stem from global interconnections. Hannerz writes
Some years ago, as I myself gave the flow concept a conspicuous part in my book Cultural Complexity (1992), I was actually primarily concerned with the time dimension, with the processual understanding of culture. I wanted to emphasize that only by being constantly in motion, forever being recreated, can meanings and meaningful forms become durable. Taking process seriously can at the same time be seen as keeping people in the picture. To keep culture going, people as actors and networks of actors have to invent culture, reflect on it, experiment with it, remember it (or store it in some other way), debate it, and pass it on (Hannerz, 1997, 5).

kulture. Želeo sam da naglasim da samo kroz stalno kretanje, kontinualnu re-kreaciju, značenja i smisleni oblici postaju trajni. Ozbiljno bavljenje procesom se može razumeti kao fokusiranje na ljude. Da bi se kultura razvijala, ljudi kao akteri i mreže aktera treba da izmisle kulturu, ogledaju se u njoj, eksperimentišu sa njom, pamte je (ili na neki način sačuvaju), raspravljaju o njoj, i prenose je dalje. (Hannerz, 1997, 5)

Zato Henerc ističe da ideju kulture treba prihvatiti kao tok, reku, koja posmatrana sa distance izgleda statična, ali bliže posmatranje pokazuje da je u stalnoj promeni. (Hannerz, 1992) Kao rezultat povećanja međusobne povezanosti, stari oblici raznolikosti nestaju, ali u isto vreme se pojavljuju novi oblici kulturne raznolikosti. Iako se nacionalne zajednice sve više pluralizuju i fragmentizuju, u isto vreme se pojavljuju nove lokalne kulturne mešavine, ljudi u lokalnim zajednicama i susedstvima razvijaju različita kulturna obeležja koja obuhvataju tradicionalna, ali takođe u izvesnoj meri predstavljaju integraciju i razmenu u proizvodnji novih kvaliteta. Posebne kulturne mešavine, pogledi na svet, obrasci i stilovi života se mogu prihvatiti kao izuzetna šansa samo-realizacije i obogaćenja društva i voditi plodonosnom dijalogu o opcijama budućeg urbanog razvoja.

That’s why Hannerz emphasizes that the idea of culture has to be approached as a flow, a river, which perceived from a distance seams static, but at a closer look is in the constant change (Hannerz, 1992). As a result of increasing interconnection, old forms of cultural diversity vanish, as new ones emerge. Although national communities are increasingly pluralized and fragmentized, at the same time new local cultural mixes appear, people in communities and neighbourhoods are developing distinct cultural features that embrace traditional ones, but also to some point represent an integration and interchange in producing new qualities. Specific cultural mixes, worldviews, patterns and lifestyles can be experienced as an unimagined chance for self-realization and enrichment of society and lead to a fruitful dialogue about future urban development options.

Višestruki kulturni identiteti
Masovne migracije i mobilnost, koji karakterišu gotovo sva društva u modernom svetu, skreću pažnju na ideju multikulturalnog društva i koncepte ‘asimilacije’ i ‘integracije’ ili interkulturalne dinamike i akulturacije koji postavljaju izazove za koncept identiteta. Migracijska kretanja putem demografskih, ekonomskih i društvenih promena doprinose razvoju etničke i generalno kulturne raznolikosti. Novi stanovnici gradova, migranti i imigranti, pristigli sa sela, iz drugih zemalja ili čak i kontinenata imaju potrebu da ponovo zadobiju kontrolu nad prostorom, naprave sebi dom, vežu se za nove susede. U tom procesu se neminovno odvija proces komunikacije sa okru31

Multiple cultural identities
Massive migrations and mobility, characteristic of almost all societies in the modern world, bring into focus the idea of multicultural society and concepts of ‘assimilation’ and ‘integration’ or intercultural dynamic and acculturation that challenge the concept of identity.

Migratory movements contribute to the development of ethnic and generally cultural diversity through demographic, economic and social changes. New city inhabitants, migrants and immigrants, from surrounding rural regions, other countries or even continents, have a need to reacquire control over space, create their home, bond with new neighbours. Communication with the surroundings is inevitable in the process, defining immigrants’ place in the new culture. Urban areas of local ethnic communities can play a symbolic role. Those areas are, for many members of displaced communities, the embodiment of their national memory, intimately linked to their everyday lives. In time, they become a part of their identity. Ethnic areas often fulfil the function of staging post for the newly arrived migrants, the first step towards gradual integration into the new social world. Theoretically, there are various models of ethnic integration. Giddens distinguishes three basic models of multiethnic societies:
Assimilation model means that immigrant groups accept the views and language of the society that they arrived to. ‘Melting pot’ model means that different cultures and traditions of various nationalities blend and become assimilated in one society. Pluralism, on the other hand, means that ethnic groups exist and are treated as equal participants in economic and political affairs (Gidens, 2003, 284).

ženjem i definiše mesto imigranata u novoj kulturi. Lokalne etničke zajednice mogu imati simboličku ulogu. Ova područja za mnoge pripadnike dijaspore, predstavljaju oličenje njihove nacionalne memorije koja je blisko povezana sa njihovim svakodnevnim životom. Ova mesta postaju tokom vremena, deo njihovog identiteta. Tako etnička područja često dobijaju funkciju organizacionog prostora za novo pristigle migrante, prvi korak u postepenoj integraciji u novo društvo. Teorijski posmatrano postoje različiti modeli etničke integracije. Gidens razlikuje tri osnovna modela multietničkih društava:
Model asimilacije podrazumeva da su nove imigrantske grupe prihvatile stavove i jezik zajednice u koju su došli. U modelu ‘lonac za rastapanje’ (‘melting pot’), različite kulture i tradicije etničkih grupa stapaju se i sjedinjuju u jednom društvu. Pluralizam, pak, znači da etničke grupe postoje odvojeno i tretirane su kao ravnopravni učesnici u privrednom i političkom životu. (Gidens, 2003, 284)

Discussing situation in European cities Castells points out to the emerging problem brought about by mixing of ethnic groups. Arrival of numerous immigrants and establishment of multicultural society produces non-homogenous culture and threatens national identity. As a reaction racism and xenophobia are growing, identity is protected by confinement to territorially defined entities, regional or local, even at neighbourhood level. He emphasizes
European cities will be increasingly oriented toward their local culture, while increasingly distrustful of

Razmatrajući situaciju u evropskim gradovima Kastels (Castells) uočava problem koji nastaje mešanjem različitih etničkih grupa. Dolazak brojnih imigranata i stvaranje multikulturnog društva proizvodi ne homogenu kulturu i ugrožava nacionalni identitet. Kao reakcija raste rasizam i ksenofobija, identitet se štiti zatvaranjem u teritorijalno definisane celine, regionalne ili lokalne, čak na nivou susedstva. On naglašava
Evropski gradovi će se sve više orjentisati na svoju lokalnu kulturu, uz sve manje poverenja u kulturne identitete definisane na višem nivou. Problem će biti da li se gradovi mogu otvarati prema celom svetu a da ne podlegnu lokalističkim, kvazi plemenskim reakcijama koje će usloviti podelu među lokalnim kuturama, evropskim institucijama i globalnom ekonomijom. (Castells, 1994, 23)

Treba konstatovati da se kulturnoj raznolikosti u svetu pristupa na različite načine. U savremenim urba32

higher order cultural identities. The issue then is to know if cities can reach out to the whole world without surrendering to a localistic, quasi-tribal reaction that will create a fundamental divide between local cultures, European institutions, and the global economy (Castells, 1994, 23).

One should be aware of differences in the approach to cultural diversity across the world. In modern urban communities that are growing in complexity, individuals are on one side reluctant to accept predetermined patterns of behaviour that may influence and modify their lifestyle. On the other side, especially in Europe, in contrast to USA and Canada where diversity is regarded as an advantage and incorporated into national identity, there is a reserve towards ‘others’ who also build and develop their specific identities. In design of urban environment the research of urban life is especially focused on change processes, dynamic of different cultural patterns and their connection to space. “In each culture there are conflicts of that what is active, creative, a break through into something new, and that what becomes passive – inert field of petrified values. This conflict is the result of general conflict of goals and means … work and creativity, an individual and the society, needs and interests” (Životić, qtd. in Božović, 1993, 576). In order to understand the complexity of cultural dynamic and create adequate scenarios for involving ethnic and multicultural local resources in urban renewal, it is necessary to develop a method of professional work that will be open for new ways of integrating culture and, above all, economy in producing space.

nim zajednicama koje postaju sve kompleksnije, pojedinci, sa jedne strane, ne žele da za sebe prihvate utvrđene obrasce ponašanja koji se tiču modifikacije identiteta njihovog načina života. Sa druge strane, posebno u Evropi, za razliku od SAD i Kanade gde se raznolikost smatra prednošću i ugrađena je u nacionalni identitet, postoji rezerva prema ‘drugima’ koji isto tako grade i razvijaju svoje specifične identitete. Prilikom oblikovanja gradskih prostora istraživanje urbanog života je posebno usmereno na procese promena, dinamiku različitih kulturnih obrazaca i njihovu vezu sa prostorom. „U svakoj kulturi postoje sukobi onoga što je aktivno, stvaralačko, što je prodor u novo i onoga što postaje pasivno – inertno polje okamenjenih vrednosti. Ovaj sukob je rezultat opšteg sukoba ciljeva i sredstava … rada i stvaralaštva, individue i društva, potreba i interesa.” (Životić, cit. u Božović, 1993, 576) Za razumevanje složenosti kulturne dinamike i osmišljavanje adekvatnih scenarija za uključivanje etničkih i multikulturnih lokalnih resursa u urbanu obnovu potrebno je razviti metod stručnog rada koji će biti otvoren za nove načine povezivanja kulture i pre svega, ekonomije, u proizvodnji prostora.

Multikulturne zajednice i interkulturno okruženje
U metropolama savremenog sveta nalazimo višestruke identitete, manjinske i većinske grupe koji čine multikulturni kolaž. Ukoliko polazimo od pretpostavke da među različitim grupama i pojedincima nužno postoji razmena i izgradnja višestrukog identiteta, onda govorimo o interkulturnom identitetu. (Kim, Y.Y. 1979, 1994) Definicija u Enciklopediji političke kulture opisuje prirodu procesa formiranja kulturnih obrazaca: „Posredstvom kulturnih procesa sa neizbežnim mehanizmom ‘stimulus – odgovori’ dolazi do novih ponašanja jer svaka kultura se transformiše pod uticajem druge kulture i na nov način modelira ono što prima od kultura sa kojima je ostvarila komunikaciju.
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Multicultural communities and intercultural environment
In metropolis of contemporary world, we find multiple identities, minority and majority groups that make up multicultural collage. If we start from the

assumption that among different groups and individuals an exchange and building of multiple identity inevitably takes place, then we are speaking of intercultural identity (Kim, Y.Y. 1979, 1994). The definition in Encyclopaedia of Political Culture describes the processual nature of the formation of cultural patterns: “By means of cultural processes with inevitable mechanism ‘stimulus – answers’ new behaviours occur, since each culture is transformed under the influence of other culture and models, and receives inputs from cultures it communicates with. That is how, bit by bit, change of model of behaviour occurs” (Božović, 1993, 570). Theories on acculturation and intercultural identity emphasize the ability of an individual to accept new cultures and combine their characteristics through the process of communication. On the one hand, the acculturation can be observed as a one-way process, as nesting of minority groups into majors; even undesirable, as losing the old culture and replacing it with a new one. On the other hand, acculturation is considered an interactive process. The majority culture influences the minority culture, but also vice versa, which creates ‘the third culture’. Since in the process of adjusting the link to original culture is not lost, it can present enrichment and a contribution to greater social cohesion. Certain preconditions are, of course, necessary. Ghettoisation, spatial isolation, insistence on repeating historically outdated forms developed in traditional culture, ethnic, religious or other, most certainly does not facilitate these processes. In the integration process, it is essential to keep in mind the difference between identity and identification, which means that different cultural groups can adopt a general framework of cultural identity, assimilate, and still not lose their self-identity. The process assumes critical reinterpretation of the general cultural frame of reference and appreciating differences, which is a condition for survival of a multicultural community (Golubovic, 1999).
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Tako i dolazi malo po malo, do promena modela ponašanja.” (Božović, 1993, 570) Teorije akulturacije i interkulturnog identiteta naglašavaju sposobnost pojedinaca da prihvataju nove kulture i kombinuju njihove karakteristike kroz proces komunikacije. Sa jedne strane proces akulturacije se može posmatrati kao jednosmeran, uklapanje manjih grupa u veće, i čak nepoželjan, kao gubljenje stare kulture i zamenjivanje novom. Sa druge, akulturacija se smatra interaktivnim procesom. Većinska kultura utiče na manjinsku, ali i obrnuto čime se stvara ‘treća kultura’. Kako se u procesu adaptacije ne gubi veza sa originalnom kulturom, on može predstavljati obogaćivanje i doprinos većoj društvenoj koheziji. Za to su, naravno potrebni određeni preduslovi. Getoizacija, prostorna izolacija, insistiranje na ponavljanju istorijski prevaziđenih oblika koji su razvijeni u tradicionalnoj kulturi, etničkoj, religijskoj, i drugoj, svakako ne pogoduje ovim procesima. U procesu integracije važno je uočiti razliku između identiteta i identifikacije te da različite kulturne grupe mogu usvojiti generalni okvir kulturnog identiteta, asimilovati se, a da pri tom ne gube samoidentitet. U procesu se podrazumeva kritička reinterpretacija opšteg referentnog kulturnog okvira i održavanje razlika što predstavlja uslov za opstanak multikulturne zajednice. (Golubović, 1999 ) Multikulturne zajednice podrazumevaju koegzistenciju i toleranciju prema različitim kulturama. Uočava se potreba za novim formama interkulturne komunikacije zasnovane na dijalogu, prilagođavanju i prihvatanju multikulturnih identiteta. Zahtevi za očuvanjem kulturne raznolikosti sa jedne strane i potraga za sintezom sa druge, svakako stvaraju paradokse i izazivaju brojne probleme. Shodno tome, potreban je novi oblik interkulturnog dijaloga, koji će biti usmeren na razlike i upravljanje konfliktima u cilju postizanja koordinacije među različitim kulturnim perspektivama.

Multicultural communities involve coexistence with and tolerance towards different cultures. There is a need for new forms of intercultural communication based on a dialogue, adjustment and acceptance of multicultural identities. Requirements for preservation of cultural diversity, on the one hand, and search for the synthesis of the other, certainly create paradoxes and cause numerous problems. Consequently, a new form of intercultural dialogue, dealing with differences and managing conflicts, is needed to achieve coordination among different cultural perspectives.

Mešanje kultura
Interkulturni pristup ne znači samo pluralizam etničkih kultura i razvnopravnu participaciju u ekonomskom i političkom životu (Gidens, 2003), već priznavanje višestrukih kulturnih identiteta, gde svako pripada ne samo jednoj etničkoj ili religijskoj kulturi, koliko god da je to važno, već i mnogim drugim, rodnoj, regionalnoj, starosnoj (dobnoj) profesionalnoj, itd. U velikim gradovima, lokalna tradicija se promoviše zajedno sa mnogim drugim kulturnim formama koje dolaze iz inostranstva, koje, kako Gidens naglašava, omogućavaju ljudima da se upoznaju sa zbunjujućim i kompleksnim različitim oblicima života koje mogu izabrati. Tako je očigledno da definisani identiteti i načini života ukorenjeni u lokalnim zajednicama i kulturama popuštaju pred novim formama ‘hibridnih identiteta’. (Gidens, 2003) Prilagođavanje i mešanje kultura, stvaranje transkulturnih formi i podržavanje interkulturne komunikacije otvara paradoks koji uočava Baraldi. Osetljivost za kulturnu raznolikost, sa jedne strane podrazumeva očuvanje kulturnih razlika, konzervaciju kulturnih tradicija, dok se sa druge traga za sintezom, inovacijama i prožimanju kultura. I otvorenost prema kulturnim promenama, koju podržava globalizacija, kao i odbijanje kulturne kontaminacije koju podržavaju njeni protivnici, u isto vreme ide u prilog kulturnoj raznolikosti i ugrožava je. Polazeći od konstatacije da je „svaka komunikacija interkulturna, pošto su individue kulturno različite”, interakcija među njima podrazumeva naglašavanje individualnih razlika kao otelotvorenja kulturne raznolikosti. U tom smislu Baraldi ističe
Kulturna raznolikost nije produkt razlika između stabilnih grupa ili društava: ona je posledica kontinualnog procesa hibridizacije kroz interkulturnu komunikaciju. Nepredvidljivost ove raznolikosti, međutim, utiče na traganje za kulturnom stabilnošću: osetljivost za sve kulturne forme po sebi može voditi harmoničnoj poli-

Mixing of cultures
Intercultural approach does not mean only pluralism of ethnic cultures, and fair participation in economic and political life (Gidens, 2003), but acknowledging multiple cultural identities where everybody belongs not just to one ethnic or religious culture, however important it might be, but also to many others, gender, regional, age, professional etc. In big cities, local traditions are being promoted together with many other cultural forms that come from abroad, which, as Gidens stresses, enables people to become familiar with bewildering and complex conglomerate of different ways of life, from which they can choose for themselves. However, it is obvious that defined identities and ways of life rooted in local communities and cultures yield before new forms of ‘hybrid identities’ (Giddens, 2003). Adaptation and mixing of cultures, origination of transcultural forms and supporting intercultural communication creates a paradox identified by Baraldi. Sensitivity to cultural diversity on the one hand assumes the preservation of cultural differences, conservation of cultural traditions, while on the other there is a search for synthesis, innovation and cross cultural adaptation. Both openness to cultural change, which is promoted by the supporters of globalization, as well as closure to cultural contamina-

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2.2

tion that is supported by its opponents, at the same favour cultural diversity and undermine it. Starting from the observation that “every communication is intercultural, because each individual is culturally different from any other”, the interaction between them involves pronouncing individual differences as embodiment of cultural diversity. In that sense, Baraldi stresses
Cultural diversity is not the product of differences between stable groups or societies: it is the consequence of a continuous production of hybridization through intercultural communication. The high contingency of this variety also produces a search for cultural stability: sensitivity to all cultural forms in itself can lead to harmonious polyphony, as well as to fundamentalism. In order to promote the former and avoid the latter, some successful form of intercultural communication is necessary (Baraldi, 2006, 61).

foniji, ali i fundamentalizmu. U cilju ostvarivanja prvog, a izbegavanja drugog, potrebno je ustanoviti efikasne oblike interkulturne komunikacije. (Baraldi, 2006, 61)

Tragajući za novim oblicima interkulturne komunikacije Baraldi ukazuje na značaj mešovitog kodiranja (mixed coding), postupka prevođenja informacija u kategorije u neizvesnim, specifičnim društvenim situacijama gde se susrećemo sa različitim značenjima. Zapravo, reč je o postizanju kombinacije različitih kulturnih formi, spajanje različitih istorija i tradicija, uključivanje mešavina i hibridizacija, pluralističko i hijerarhijsko kodiranje, čime se objedinjuje funkcionalna diferencijacija i stratifikacija. Preduslov za uspešnu interkulturnu komunikaciju je podržavanje i poštovanje kulturnih razlika, suočavanje sa kontradikcijama i konfliktima a ne njihovo zanemarivanje. (Baraldi, 2006) Interkulturna komunikacija podrazumeva dijalog i učenje. Dijalog omogućava usklađivanje i međukulturnu adaptaciju. Kao što Baraldi naglašava
Kroz interkulturno učenje učesnici mogu definisati značenje informacija koristeći nove kulturne forme. Interkulturno učenje je učenje od drugih kultura, ne o njima, pošto dopušta upotrebu drugačijih obrazaca, a ne samo saznanje o njima. Asimilaciju kulturnih obrazaca prati njihova primena i stvaranje novih značenja: interkulturno učenje kroz upotrebu kulturnih formi postaje kreativno i inovativno čime se razlikuje od kulturne adaptacije. (Baraldi, 2006, 62)

Searching for new forms of intercultural communication, Baraldi points to the importance of mixed coding, a method that translates information into categories in uncertain, distinct social situations in which we are confronted with different meanings. Specifically, the point is to achieve a combination of different cultural forms, fusion of their history and tradition, inclusion of mixture and hybridization, pluralistic and hierarchical coding, that comprise functional differentiation and stratification. A prerequisite for successful intercultural communication is the support and respect for cultural differences; dealing with the contradictions and conflicts and not neglecting them (Baraldi, 2006, 60). Intercultural communication assumes dialogue and learning. Dialogue on its part enables harmonization and inter-cultural adaptation. As Baraldi points out
Through intercultural learning, participants can assign a meaning to information using new cultural forms. Intercultural learning is learning from other cultures, not about other cultures, as it permits the use of other forms, not simply the knowledge of them. Assimilation

Koncept interkulturne komunikacije podrazumeva uvažavanje pluraliteta kultura i podsticanje njihovog učešća u aktivnostima zajednice. Istraživanja koja se bave imigrantima pokazuju da njihov uspeh u novim zajednicama ne zavisi toliko od mogućnosti očuvanja izvornih kulturnih običaja, već od mogućnosti njihove adaptacije u novo društvo. Interkulturna komunikacija u okviru multikulturne zajednice pruža mnogo šire mogućnosti individuama i socijalnim grupama za uspostavljanje modernog (posttradicionalnog) identiteta, koji se oslobađa izolovanosti, zatvoreno37

of cultural forms is followed by their application and creation of new meanings: use of cultural forms differentiates intercultural learning from cultural adaptation as it is creative and innovative (Baraldi, 2006, 62).

Concept of intercultural communication fosters respect for plurality of cultures and encourages their participation in the life of the community. The research on immigrants show that their success in new communities depends not as much on possibility to preserve original cultural customs, as it does on the possibility of their adaptation into the new society. Intercultural communication in a multicultural community offers many opportunities to individuals and social groups to establish a modern (post-traditional) identity, free of isolation, restriction and uniformity (Golubovic, 1999). Many cities have developed special programs for stimulating employment of ethnic and other minorities created special spaces and facilities, such as cultural zones or incubation points, developed cultural tourism, etc. Creation of intercultural environment implies “cultural policy which assumes reciprocity, fair and full exchange between all cultures in contact” (Stojković, 2008, 141). In contrast to a static multiculturalism, intercultu-ralism brings dynamism through support to new life styles emerging from migrations and development. The intercultural approach not only supports different traditional cultures which inhabitants and business belong to, but tries to explore what new qualities are achieved in the interaction. In the context of increased mobility and global influences traditional cultures are being modified. Urban designers and spatial planners are faced with a major task of understanding new life styles arising from migrations and development and creative production of new patterns which could give people the sense of belonging to specific meaningful places. On the macro policy level it means finding such solutions in plan
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sti i uniformnosti. (Golubović, 1999) Mnogi gradovi su razvili posebne programe za podsticanje zapošljavanja etničkih i drugih manjina, stvaranje posebnih prostora i objekata kao što su zone kulture ili inkubacione tačke, razvoj kulturnog turizma itd. Stvaranje interkulturnog okruženja podrazumeva „kulturnu politiku koja pretpostavlja uzajamnost, ravnopravnu i punopravnu razmenu među svim kulturama koje su u kontaktu.” (Stojković, 2008, 141) Za razliku od multikulturalizma, koji je statičan, interkulturalizam, kao dinamičan uključuje podržavanje novih životnih stilova koji su posledica migracija i razvoja. Interkulturni pristup ne podrazumeva samo podršku različitim tradicionalnim kulturama kojima stanovnici i ekonomski akteri pripadaju, nego pokušaj da se istraži šta su novi kvaliteti koji se u interakciji ostvaruju. U kontekstu velike pokretljivosti i globalnih uticaja tradicionalne kulture su izložene procesu modifikacije. Glavni zadatak urbanih dizajnera i prostornih planera je razumevanje novih životnih stilova koji su proizvod migracija, i razvoj i kreativna proizvodnja novih obrazaca koji mogu pružiti ljudima osećaj pripadnosti mestima sa posebnim značenjem. Sa nivoa makro politika to znači pronalaženje takvih rešenja u proizvodnji planova i politika kao i dizajna, koja mogu otvoriti prostor za lokalne inicijative i kreativna rešenja. Stav koji podržava razumevanje kulture i uvažavanju raznolikosti ne podrazumeva kompromise i manipulaciju, nametanje nove društvene organizacije. Tu se radi pre svega o razvijanju interkulturnog senzibiliteta, spremnosti za izvlačenje novih značenja u zajedničkoj tradiciji kroz otvoreni dijalog i demokratsku razmenu koja uključuje i obogaćuje vrednosti i kulturu. (Bennet&Bennett, 2004)

and policy making and in design, that could create room for local initiatives and creative solutions. The attitude that supports understanding of culture and appreciation of diversity does not mean resorting to compromises and manipulation, enforcement of new social organization. Above all, it relies on cultivating intercultural sensitivity, the readiness to draw out new meanings from a common tradition through open dialogue and democratic interchange that includes and enriches values and culture (Bennet&Bennett, 2004).

Smernice za nove kulturne politike – – Nove agende i deklaracije
Problemi vezani za kulturu, kulturna prava, kulturnu održivost, kulturne politike, itd., dobijaju centralno mesto u svetskim agendama i deklaracijama. Kao reakcija na snage globalizacije, liberalizacije trgovine i brze tehnološke promene koje prete očuvanju i razvoju lokalne kulture, javne politike koje afirmišu kulturnu raznolikost se izdvajaju kao presudni faktor održivog urbanog razvoja. Prema Opštoj deklaraciji o kulturnoj raznolikosti koju je UNESCO usvojio 2001.godine promocija kulturnog pluralizma predstavlja jedan od suštinskih elemenata za transformaciju urbane i društvene stvarnosti u cilju postizanja intelektualnije, emocionalnije, moralnije i duhovnije egzistencije. (UNESCO 2001, paragraf 3) UNESCO deklaracija izjednačava kulturu i ekološku održivost ističući kulturnu raznolikost kao izvor razmene, inovacija i kreativnosti za čovečanstvo, slično značaju koji ima biodiverzitet za prirodu. (UNESCO, 2001, paragraf 1) Mada se u konvenciji ne definišu precizno pojmovi, ona ipak predstavlja čvrst oslonac za politike koje podržavaju raznolikost kultura. U Agendi 21 za kulturu, kulturna raznolikost se smatra najvažnijom tekovinom ljudske civilizacije. (UCLG, 2004, paragraf 1) Agenda zagovara utvrđivanja osnova za preuzimanje obaveza u gradovima i lokalnim samoupravama u odnosu na kulturni razvoj i ističe važnost kulturne raznolikosti koji se smatra najznačajnijim dostignućem ljudske civilizacije. (UCLG, 2004) Kao vodeći dokument za kreiranje javne kulturne politike, Agenda 21 za kulturu nudi preporuke za kreiranje dugoročnih vizija u kojima kultura predstavlja razvojni oslonac. Naglašava se uloga lokalne uprave kao nosioca kulturnog razvoja i daju preporuke za kreiranje politika koje podržavaju raznolikost i kulturno izražavanje.
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Guidelines for new cultural policies – – New agendas and declarations
Issues connected with culture, cultural rights, cultural sustainability, cultural politics, etc. came to the forefront of global agendas and declarations. As a reaction to globalization forces, trade liberalization and rapid technological changes which threaten the preservation and development of local cultures, public policies that promote cultural diversity, are recognised as a crucial factor of sustainable urban development. According to the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by UNESCO in 2001, promotion of cultural pluralism is one of the crucial elements for transformation of urban and social reality and a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence (UNESCO, 2001, para. 3). The UNESCO Declaration equalizes culture and environmental sustainability emphasizing cultural diversity as a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, as necessary for human kind as biodiversity is for nature (UNESCO, 2001, para. 1). Although its concepts could benefit from more clarity, the Declaration nevertheless provides a solid framework for policies that support cultural diversity. In Agenda 21 for Culture, cultural diversity is considered the most significant achievement of human

civilisation (UCLG, 2004, para. 1). The Agenda advocates establishing the groundwork of an undertaking by cities and local governments for cultural development and emphasizes the importance of cultural diversity that is considered the most significant achievement of human civilization (UCLG, 2004). As the leading document for creating public cultural policy, the Agenda offers recommendations for creating long-term development visions underpinned by culture. Local government is seen as agent of prime importance for cultural development and recommendations are laid for creation of policies that foster diversity and cultural expression. According to Agenda 21 recommendations, culture must take a central place in local policies. With a view to cherishing cultural diversity, local governments have to be strategically oriented to cultural development, primarily in the sense of: a) identification of cultural resources of the city, b) supporting cooperation within cultural sector, c) encouraging new partnerships and division of responsibilities between the cultural sector and other stakeholders. Agenda 21 identifies several clusters of local policies that support cultural diversity: - Cultural rights and intrinsic values of culture; - Cultural diversity and social inclusion; - Public spaces as areas of conviviality and interaction; - Culture, creative industries and economy; - Governance of culture at the local level (UCLG, 2004).

Prema preporukama Agende 21, kultura mora zauzeti centalno mesto u lokalnim politikama. U cilju razvoja kulturne raznolikosti lokalne uprave moraju biti strateški usmerene ka kulturnom razvoju pre svega u smislu: a) identifikacije kulturnih resursa grada, b) podrške saradnji unutar kulturnog sektora, c) podsticanje novih partnerstava i podele odgovornosti između kulturnog sektora i drugih aktera. Agenda 21 prepoznaje nekoliko grupa lokalnih politika koje podržavaju kulturnu raznolikost: - Kulturna prava i suštinske vrednosti kulture; - Kulturna raznolikost i uključivanje u društvo; - Javni prostori kao područja okupljanja i interakcije; - Kultura, kreativne industrije i privreda; - U pravljanje u oblasti kulture na lokalnom nivou. (UCLG, 2004)

Uloga lokalne uprave
U uslovima teških urbanih problema i velike kompleksnosti društva, velika odgovornost u upravljanju procesima leži na lokalnoj upravi. Iako naizgled ekonomija dominira, a uprave imaju ograničenu moć, dobri primeri prakse mnogobrojnih evropskih i svetskih gradova pokazuje suprotno. Kreativna ekonomija i vešta uprava potpomognuta nekonvencionalnim i imaginativnim planiranjem i dizajnom nude brojne primere obnove gradova zasnovane na optimalnom odnosu između globalnih ekonomskih procesa i specifičnih lokalnih kultura. Globalizacija ne mora da znači homogenizaciju kulture i dominaciju jednog modela nad drugim. Moderni projekat društvene zajednice podržava izgradnju opštih, zajedničkih vrednosti, ali i multikulturalizam, poštovanje različitosti. Izražena kulturna raznolikost je značajan činilac savremenog društva i predstavlja polazište za kreativnu stručnu intervenciju koja će pronaći načine da obezbedi lokalno specifične promene u urbanoj strukturi gradova.
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Role of local government
Amid grave urban problems and growing complexity of society, local government bears major responsibility in governing processes. Although economic constraints seem to dominate and confine the powers of local governments, best practices of numerous cities

in Europe and worldwide demonstrate quite the opposite. Creative economy and skilled administration, supported by unconventional and imaginative planning and design, offer numerous examples of city revival where the balance is struck between global economic processes and specific local cultures. Globalisation does not necessarily mean cultural homogenisation and domination of one model over another. The modern project of social community supports building of universal, common values, hand in hand with multiculturalism and respect for differences. A profound cultural diversity is an important part of contemporary society and a starting point for creative professional intervention exploring how local-specific changes can be reflected in urban structure of cities. Local governments have an important role in ensuring socio-cultural integration within multicultural population. Different policies at local level are concerned with interaction between people who speak different languages, have different religious beliefs, belong to different socio-economic groups and enjoy different life styles. As positive forces of social integration, local governments develop new forms of governance, improve development policies, render new policies and measures, adjust plans and design solutions. Their power relies on strong participation of local community in development processes - informed public expressing individual demands legitimates local government. Participation in decision making of individuals with different cultural background makes an important contribution to the advancement of civil society. It is believed that cultural diversity must be addressed at the same time at national and local levels, if one wants to lay out planning and design guidelines. “Diversity implies organized efforts at the preservation of cultural differences, … governmental efforts, perhaps government subsidies to various programs run by the advocates of ‘diversity’” (Sowell, 1991, 37).
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Lokalne uprave imaju važnu ulogu u obezbeđivanju sociokulturne integracije unutar multikulturne populacije. Različite politike na lokalnom nivou se bave interakcijom ljudi koji govore različitim jezicima, imaju drugačija religiozna ubeđenja, pripadaju različitim socioekonomskim grupama, i imaju različite životne stilove. Kao pozitivne sile društvene integracije, lokalne uprave razvijaju nove oblike upravljanja razvojem, unapređuju razvojne politike, donose nove oblike politka i mera, prilagođene planove i projektna rešenja. Njihova moć počiva na jakom učešću lokalne zajednice u razvojnim procesima, koja kroz informisanost i mogućnost iznošenja pojedinačnih zahteva daje legitimitet lokalnoj upravi. Osim toga, participacija u odlučivanju pojedinaca različitog kulturnog porekla predstavlja važan element razvoja građanskog društva. Smatra se da kulturna raznolikost mora biti razmatrana paralelno na nacionalnom i lokalnom nivou, u cilju kreiranja uputstava za praksu planiranja i dizajna. „Raznolikost podrazumeva organizovane napore na očuvanju kulturnih razlika, …vladine napore, ….vladine subvencije za razne programe pokrenuti od strane zagovornika ‘različitosti’.” (Sowell, 1991, 37) Nacionalnim politikama se preporučuje razvijanje čitavog niza instrumenata i zakona kojima bi se kulturna raznolikost štitila, promovisala i unapredila. Smatra se da kvalitet lokalnog razvoja zavisi od povezanosti kulturnih i drugih politika usmerenih na socijalno, ekonomsko, ekološko i urbano planiranje kao i regulativu u oblasti oblikovanja. Posebno se ističe važnost uočavanja urbanih sredina u kojima su uspostavljeni principi kulturne raznolikosti, naročito onih aspekata koji podstiču koegzistenciju, demokratiju i učešće građana. Rastući značaj kulturne raznolikosti u savremenom svetu ukazuje na potrebu za uspostavljanjem direktne veze između kreiranja kulturnih i socijalnih politika. Naime, lokalne politike usmerene na kulturni razvoj se često prepliću sa ljudskim pravima, održi-

Preferably, national policies should develop a whole series of instruments and laws protecting, promoting and upgrading cultural diversity. What is seen as crucial for quality local development is interconnection between cultural and other policies focused on social, economic, environmental and urban planning, as well as regulations in the field of design. Identifying urban environments with established principles of cultural diversity is especially important, particularly those aspects encouraging coexistence, democracy and participation of citizens. Growing significance of cultural diversity in contemporary world brings to the fore the need to establish direct link between cultural and social policy creation. Namely, local policies focused on cultural development are often intertwined with human rights, sustainable development, citizens’ participation in decision making according to democratic processes, and preservation of peace. Cultural rights issues are much broader than the subject of artistic expression and creativity. Cultural rights call for developed mechanisms that support social responsibility, participation of public, right to cultural expression, protection and education as basic underlying principles of local policy creation. Cultural relations, whether arising from integration or segregation, are manifested physically, i.e. spatially. Therefore, cultural relations are not just social but also a spatial phenomenon. In that sense, built environment reflective of intercultural dynamic requires a policy fostering intercultural dialog. It calls for development of institutions committed to monitoring of integration processes which strike a balance between integration and segregation, and set guidelines for building appropriate spatial structures. In order to support the goals of cultural diversity, local policies, translated into strategic plans and projects, should be created in a participatory process, involving interested stakeholders. Bottom-up initiatives based on civil, private and government
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vim razvojem, participativnim učešćem građana u odlučivanju shodno demokratskim procesima i očuvanjem mira. S druge strane, oblast kulturnih prava je mnogo šira od tema koje su usmerene na umetničko izražavanje i kreativnost. Kulturna prava zahtevaju razvijene mehanizme koji podržavaju socijalnu odgovornost, učešće javnosti, pravo na kulturno izražavanje, zaštitu i edukaciju kao osnovne principe za kreiranje lokalnih politika. Kulturni odnosi, bilo da su rezultat procesa integracije ili segregacije, imaju svoj fizički oblik, odnosno manifestuju se u prostoru. Dakle, kulturni odnosi ujedno predstavljaju i prostorni fenomen. U tom smislu, usmerenost na izgradnju prostora koji reflektuju interkulturnu dinamiku mora počivati na politici razvoja interkulturnog dijaloga. To podrazumeva razvoj institucija usmerenih na praćenje integracionih procesa, stvaranje balansa između integracije i segregacije i davanje smernica za izgradnju odgovarajućih prostornih struktura. Da bi podržale ciljeve kulturne raznolikosti, lokalne politike, iskazane kroz strateške planove i projekte, bi trebalo da budu kreirane u participativnom procesu uz učešće zainteresovanih aktera. Smatra se da u izgradnji politika mnogo veći efekat proizvode inicijative koje kreću sa lokalnog nivoa, kroz saradnju civilnog, privatnog i vladinog sektora. Značajno je da se ravnoteža između raznolikih javnih i privatnih interesa ostvaruje kroz otvaranje prostora za otvoreni dijalog između različitih kulturnih grupa, ekonomskog interesa i predstavnika vlasti. Na taj način se stvara arena u kojoj se prekomernoj institucionalizaciji i dominaciji tržišta suprotstavljaju pojedinačne i grupne lokalne inicijative kao nosioci kulturnih posebnosti. Osnovni principi upravljanja kulturnim razvojem uključuju transparentnost informacija, strateški pristup i učešće javnosti u kreiranju koncepcija kulturnih politika, kao i učešće u procesima odlučivanja o programima i projektima.

sector partnership have proven much more effective in policy creation. Importantly, the balance between diverse public and private interest is achieved through creating space for open dialogue between different cultural groups, economic interests and representatives of authority. In this public arena excessive institutionalisation and market domination are countered by individual and group local initiatives as main proponents of cultural distinctiveness. Basic principles of cultural development management include information transparency, strategic approach and participation of public in design of cultural policies, as well as participation in decision-making on programs and projects.

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3.1

Ideological position of urban design
The changed context of urban design
Sustainable urban development Practical importance of cultural diversity for urban design and sustainable development is still insufficiently clear. So the question is where the debate on the culture could be placed in relation to the three pillars of sustainability: economic viability, social equity and environmental protection? Until recently, culture has been naturally associated with the social equity framework, but is gradually emerging from this realm and being recognized as having a special role in integrating all other aspects of life, i.e. as a special, important, fourth, pillar of sustainability (Hawkes, 2001). Regardless of whether the broad area of culture as a form of social order is recognized as a separate fourth pillar or integrated in all the others, it is important that, understood more broadly, as a way of life, values and interests, traditions and memories, it provides a new approach to the assessment of all other (economic, social, environmental) initiatives in cities and communities. Culture is past and future, something we inherit, change and pass on. The built environment has the important role, which confronts architects and planners with complex tasks of cultural competence (Academy for Sustainable Communities, 2006). Appreciating culture as the basis of sustainability implies identifying strategic requirements, laying out policies and action plans and verifying project proposals by means of special equality criteria: understanding of local needs, access to activities, improved cultural, recreational and educational facilities in the local area, more equal access to community public facilities, in short, creation of strong, diverse neighbourhoods.

Ideološka pozicija urbanog dizajna
Promenjen kontekst urbanog dizajna
Održiv urbani razvoj Praktični značaj kulturne raznolikosti za urbani dizajn i održiv razvoj je još uvek nedovoljno jasno definisan. Postavlja se pitanje gde bi se mogla smestiti debata o kulturi u odnosu na tri osnovna stuba održivosti: ekonomsku vitalnost, socijalnu jednakost i zaštitu životne sredine? Do nedavno, oblast kulture je prirodno locirana u okvir socijalne jednakosti da bi se zatim razmišljanja kretala u pravcu definisanja njene posebne uloge u povezivanju svih ostalih aspekata života, odnosno izdvajanju kulture, kao posebnog, značajnog, četvrtog‚ stuba održivosti. (Hawkes, 2001) Nezavisno od toga da li se široka oblast kulture kao oblika društvenog reda smešta u izdvojen četvrti stub ili je integrisana u sve ostale, značajno je da, shvaćena u širem smislu, kao način života, vrednosti i interesi, tradicija i sećanja, obezbeđuje nov pristup proceni svih ostalih (ekonomskih, socijalnih, ekoloških) inicijativa u gradovima i zajednicama. Kultura predstavlja prošlost i budućnost, nešto što nasleđujemo, menjamo i prenosimo dalje. Veliku ulogu u tome ima izgrađeno okruženje što pred arhitekte i urbaniste postavlja složene zadatke kulturne kompetentnosti. (Academy for Sustainable Communities, 2006) Uvažavanje kulture kao osnove održivosti podrazumeva definisanje strateških zahteva, politika i akcionih planova i proveru predloga u projektima kroz posebne kriterijume jednakosti: razumevanje lokalnih potreba, pristup aktivnostima, poboljšanje kulturnih, edukativnih i rekreativnih sadržaja u lokalnom području, poboljšanje ravnopravnosti u pristupu javnim sadržajima u lokalnoj zajednici, ukratko, kreiranje jakih, raznolikih susedstava.

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New forms of professional practice Processes in contemporary world include, among other, changes in culture, communication, human rights and life styles and create new challenges in managing urban development instruments. The starting assumption is that culture and economy are constantly changing, development of democracy and pluralism brings new problems and calls for new approaches. However, policies and professional inputs in the field of design do not seem to keep pace. Design of urban spaces and in particular public places has unique importance for the quality of life in cities. The complexity of problems and severity and durability of consequences of professional activities support the argument that urban designers have to step out from narrowly perceived discipline that lacks the defined view on the physical and social environment as well as interrelationship between them. On the one side, they need to be equipped with broader knowledge in the fields of political sciences, economics, culture, sociology, anthropology, psychology, etc. deepening our understanding of how the real world functions. On the other, it is important to determine the values structuring urban designers’ work based on the awareness of their professional role in creative realization of positive changes in a specific society. In his letter to W. Sounders, Unger calls for greater transformative ambition of professionals (the letter is based on conversations, prompted by the lecture, with Rem Koolhaas and Frank Gehry). He makes two important points that can serve as a sound starting point for a new approach to the process of designing urban space. The first is a request for more creativity in conceptualizing new ideas. As Unger stated:
We need a richer system of modular prototypes: ideas, designs, methods, materials, and building parts. Such prototypes enable us to explore spatial analogies and recombination, to re-imagine more, as benefits a practical artist and reformer, by seeing more. They also help

Novi oblici stručnog rada Procesi u savremenom svetu uključuju između ostalog promene u kulturi, komunikacijama, ljudskim pravima i stilovima života i stvaraju nove izazove u upravljanju instrumentima urbanog razvoja. Polazna pretpostavka je da se kultura i ekonomija konstantno menjaju, da razvoj demokratije i pluralizma donosi nove probleme i zahteva nove pristupe, a da politike i profesonalni doprinosi u oblasti dizajna ne napreduju istim tempom. Oblikovanje gradskih prostora, posebno javnih prostora ima veliki značaj za način života u gradovima. Kompleksnost problema i ozbiljnost i trajnost posledica profesionalnog rada upućuje na stav da urbani dizajneri nužno moraju izaći iz okvira usko uspostavljene discipline u kojoj nedostaje definisani stav u odnosu na fizičko i društveno okruženje kao i na njihovu povezanost. Sa jedne strane, potrebna su im znanja iz oblasti politike, ekonomije, kulture, sociologije, psihologije, antropologije itd. koja omogućavaju razumevanje funkcionisanja realnog sveta. Sa druge, neophodno je određivanje vrednosti koje strukturiraju profesionalni rad zasnovane na svesti o ulozi koju imaju u kreativnom ostvarivanju pozitivnih promena u konkretnom društvu. U svom pismu V.Saunders-u (W. Sounders) Anger apeluje na veću transformativnu ambiciju profesionalaca (pismo je zasnovano na razgovorima podstaknutim predavanjem sa Rem Kolhasom i Frenkom Gerijem). On ističe dva značajna stava koji mogu predstavljati polaznu osnovu u novom pristupu procesu oblikovanja gradskog prostora. Prvi izražava zahtev za većom kreativnošću u konceptualizaciji novih ideja. Kao što Anger navodi:
Potreban nam je bogatiji sistem modularnih prototipova: ideja, projekata, metoda, materijala i segmenata izgradnje. Takvi prototipovi nam omogućavaju da istražimo prostorne analogije i njihove nove kombinacije, da više maštamo i vidimo više, kao što to čine umetnici i reformatori. Oni bi nam takođe pomogli da

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draw the client group, into the work of co-creating, with the architect and urban planner, its own space (Unger, 1995, 6).

privučemo grupu klijenata da, u saradnji sa arhitektama i planerima, oblikuju sopstveni prostor. (Unger, 1995, 6)

The other statement points out the importance of adapting the professional tools and approaches to each new situation:
We also need ways of practicing business of architecture and city planning that give the architect and planner an intimate, sympathetic connection with the problems of particular groups: professional practice with an insider’s rather than an arms’-length connection to their actual or potential clients. No formula can govern the development of such connections; the strategies must be as diverse as the circumstances. We must nevertheless struggle to achieve these ties if we are to democratize, in the interests of truly social architecture, the traditional models of professional success: the famous artist-businessman selling an aura to the rich and powerful or the uncommitted team of specialists parachuting into an alien social world on which they will never again lay eyes (Unger, 1995, 3).

Drugi stav ukazuje na važnost prilagođavanja profesionalnih alata i pristupa svakoj novoj situaciji:
Takođe su nam potrebni načini vežbanja u delatnosti arhitekture i urbanog planiranja koji omogućavaju arhitektama i planerima ostvarenje bliske veze i razumevanja problema određenih grupa: stručna praksa insajdera a ne distance u odnosu na stvarne ili potencijalne klijente. Nema formule koja može upravljati razvojem takve veze; strategije moraju biti raznolike kao što su i okolnosti. Mi se ipak moramo boriti za uspostavljanje ovih veza, ukoliko želimo da se demokratizujemo, u interesu prave socijalne arhitekture, boriti se protiv tradicionalnih modela profesionalnog uspeha: čuveni umetnik–biznismen prodaje svoju veličinu bogatima i moćnima, ili nezainteresovani tim specijalista pada s neba u nepoznato socijalno okruženje koje neće nikada više videti. (Unger, 1995, 3)

Creativity is inherent to design and a prerequisite for innovations. However, creativity does not mean marvellous ideas with no connection to concrete problems. Creativity means relating concepts to a particular body of knowledge. The complex knowledge and insight into specific urban situations are as essential as new ideas for shaping new forms of professional practice. Culturally responsive urban design In search for new adapted urban design ideology four important issues come to the fore. Firstly, how globalization affects new forms of cultural diversity and intercultural cooperation, and how cities in global competition can benefit from it. New awareness and competence are required to understand different cultures in making that bring about innovations in life styles and influence different place-related urban identities. The second issue is the need for a dif47

Kreativnost je inherentna dizajnu i preduslov za inovacije. Međutim, kreativnost ne znači sjajne ideje ne povezane sa konkretnim problemima. Kreativnost znači povezivanje koncepata sa određenim korpusom znanja. Kompleksno znanje i uvid u konkretne urbane situacije su isto tako značajni kao i ideje za definisanje novih oblika profesionalnog rada. Kulturno odgovorni urbani dizajn U potrazi za novom, prilagođenom ideologijom urbanog dizajna nameću se četiri važne teme. Prva je kako globalizacija utiče na nove oblike kulturne raznolikosti i interkulturne saradnje, i kako gradovi u globalnoj konkurenciji mogu imati koristi od toga. Potrebna je nova svest i stručnost za razumevanje različitih kultura u nastajanju koje uvode inovacije u životne stilove i utiču na različite urbane identitete. Druga tema je potreba za drugačijom definicijom kulture. Pojam ‘kultura’ može se definisati u uskom elitističkom smislu kao umetnost i kulturna baština.

ferent definition of culture. The term ‘culture’ can be defined in a narrow elitist sense as art and cultural heritage. The challenge is to understand culture in the broad meaning, encompassing aspects of different social groups’ cultural traditions as well as the emergence of new intercultural dynamics. Thirdly, it is important to find out how this cultural diversity can be explored as an asset to city development and shape a new meaning of urban design. Urban designers face the challenge on how to incorporate understanding of distinct cultural environments into an ideology which could lay the foundation for new professional techniques and methods. Finally, the fourth issue is linked to education. The change of ideological position is guided by professional education that should involve learning about the new socio-economic and cultural world and unleash creativity that could give best professional input to urban interventions. This argument is backed both by professional organizations and research findings in various space related disciplines. According to the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) Policy Statement on Initial Planning Education spatial planners (and strategic designers) should
appreciate and respect diversity of cultures, views and ideologies, and understand how that respect can be applied in planning systems through the pursuit of equal opportunity, social inclusion and non-discrimination (on the grounds of wealth, gender, age, race, disability, religion and culture) (RTPI, 2004).

Izazov je razumeti kulturu u širem smislu, uključiti aspekte kulturnih tradicija različitih društvenih grupa kao i pojavu nove interkulturne dinamike. Treće, vrlo je važno saznati kako se ova kulturna raznolikost može istražiti kao resurs u razvoju grada i uticati na novo značenje urbanog dizajna. Urbani dizajneri se suočavaju sa izazovom kako da uključe razumevanje različitih kulturnih sredina u ideologiju koja bi mogla biti osnova za nove profesionalne tehnike i metode. Konačno, četvrta tema je vezana za obrazovanje. Promena ideološke pozicije je određena profesionalnom edukacijom koja bi trebalo da uključi saznanja o novom društveno-ekonomskom i kulturnom svetu i oslobodi kreativnost sposobnu za davanje najboljeg stručnog doprinosa urbanim intervencijama. Podrška za ova razmatranja dolazi od profesionalnih organizacija kao i od istraživanja u okviru različitih disciplina koje se bave prostorom. Prema Načelima osnovnog obrazovanja urbanih planera Kraljevskog Instituta Urbanih Planera (Royal Town Planning Institute, RTPI), prostorni planeri (i strateški dizajneri) treba da
cene i poštuju raznolikost kultura, pristupa i ideologija i razumeju kako se takvi stavovi mogu primeniti na na sistem planiranja kroz implementaciju jednakih mogućnosti, socijalne uključenosti i nediskriminacije (na osnovu bogatstva, pola, dobi, rase, nesposobnosti, religije i kulture). (RTPI, 2004)

In an inspiring article in Town Planning Review Klaus Kunzmann also emphasizes the role of culture in the shaping of new ideology. He states that, “In the beginning of the twenty-first century culture and creativity have become key concepts on the agenda of city managers, development agents and planners, who are desperately searching for new foundations in city development with dwindling city budgets” (Kunzmann, 2004, 384). Although our understand48

U inspirativnom članku u Town Planning Review (Pregled urbanog planiranja) Klaus Kanzman takođe ističe ulogu kulture u oblikovanju nove ideologije. On navodi da: „Na početku dvadeset prvog veka kultura i kreativnost postaju ključni koncepti koji su na dnevnom redu gradskih menadžera, konsultanata za razvoj i planera, koji očajnički tragaju za novim osnovama razvoja grada u okviru smanjenog gradskog budžeta.” (Kunzmann, 2004, 384) Iako se naše razumevanje kulture razlikuje od Kanzmanovog „pozicionirana oko umetnosti, filma i muzike, arhitekture i dizajna – kultura koja je ukorenjena i oblikovana

3.2

ing of culture is different than Kunzmann’s “centred around arts, film and music, architecture and design – a culture which is rooted in and shaped by the history and identity of places” (Kunzmann, 385), we agree that urban design approach to development proposals for local communities should start with understanding of specific culture, deciphering its unique qualities and exploring creative options. The effort to propose creative and culturally responsive spatial arrangements is the never ending research of the relationship between culture, urban design and creativity. New professional paradigm does not start from reducing complex reality to simple parameters. It rather includes into analysis different values, meanings and symbols of an urban space conditioned by culture, as seen by different actors in the process, residents and users, not only professionals. Local specific stratification and interconnection of cultures present the starting point for development of ‘bottom-up’ approach, based on reinforcing development processes and potentials. Main goal of urban designers is to offer the frame for adequate spatial arrangements and physical form for a specific community, to identify distinct features of the place, based on research and assessment of life styles and values developed in intercultural exchange. It implies combining of planning approach, analytic and abstract, and design approach, imaginative and form oriented. This new professional paradigm supports contemporary approach to cultural identity that sociologist Zukin recognized as change in understanding of its character: “from local to global pictures, from public to private institutions, from ethnically and racially homogenous to diverse communities” (Zukin, 1995, 24). Faced with the acknowledgment of diversity, difference, and cultural fragmentation, urban designers need to modify the assumptions, methods, and procedures that have sustained modernist planning in order to better understand and plan for communi50

kroz istoriju i identitet mesta” (Kunzmann, 385), slažemo se da urbani dizajn koji daje predloge za razvoj lokalne zajednice mora početi od razumevanja specifične kulture, spoznaje njenih jedinstvenih kvaliteta i istraživanja kreativnih mogućnosti. Napor u predlaganju kreativnih i kulturno odgovornih prostornih aranžmana predstavlja neprekidno istraživanje odnosa između kulture, urbanog dizajna i kreativnosti. Nova profesionalna ideologija ne polazi od redukovanja složene stvarnosti na jednostavne parametre. Ona podrazumeva da se u analizu uključuju različite vrednosti, značenja i simboli prostora uslovljeni kulturom, ali definisani onako kako ih vide stanovnici i korisnici, ne samo profesionalci. Lokalna karakteristična slojevitost i povezanost kultura predstavljaju polaznu tačku za izgradnju pristupa ‘odozdo-na-gore’ baziranog na osnaživanju razvojnih procesa i potencijala. Glavni cilj urbanih dizajnera je da ponude okvir za adekvatne prostorne aranžmane i fizičku formu za konkretnu zajednicu, da definišu posebne karakteristike mesta, zasnivajući ih na istraživanju i proceni životnih stilova i vrednosti razvijenih u interkulturnoj razmeni. To podrazumeva kombinovanje planerskog, analitičnog i apstraktnog i projektantskog, imaginativnog i na formu orjentisanog pristupa. Ovom novom stručnom paradigmom podržava se savremeni pristup kulturnom identitetu koji sociolog Zukin prepoznaje kroz izmenu u shvatanju njegovog karaktera: „od lokalnih ka globalnim predstavama, od javnih ka privatnim institucijama, od etnički i rasno homogenih ka raznovrsnim zajednicama.”(Zukin, 1995, 24) Suočeni sa prihvatanjem raznolikosti, različitosti i kulturne raslojenosti, urbani dizajneri, pri intervenciji u urbanoj strukturi modifikuju pretpostavke, metode i procedure koje su u prošlosti bile glavno uporište modernog planiranja, sa ciljem da bolje razumeju i planiraju za konkretne zajednice dvadeset prvog veka. (Burayidi, 2000) Transformacija znanja i veština takođe uključuje razvoj vrednosti, ideološke i filozofske pozicije. (Salama, 1999)

ties of the twenty-first century (Burayidi, 2000). The transformation of knowledge and skills involves also development of values, ideologies and philosophical position (Salama, 1999).

Strateški urbani dizajn
Profesionalno bavljenje proizvodnjom prostora je suočeno sa kontinualnim traganjem, učenjem novih načina razumevanja rastućih izazova i kreiranjem metoda i tehnika koje su u stanju da generišu održiva rešenja za prostore angažovanjem unutar specifičnih društvenih, ekonomskih i institucionalnih okolnosti. Potrebna je nova perspektiva, zasnovana na analizi i dubokom razumevanju specifičnog identiteta mesta, koja promoviše komunikaciju i dijalog među identitetima i kulturama. Strateški urbani dizajn naglašava kreativnu ulogu dizajna, kombinujući ga sa društveno svesnijim i politički odgovornijim pristupom u cilju razvoja efikasnijih tehnika za suočavanje sa teškim urbanim problemima. Na mnogo različitih načina on deluje u samom centru često sukobljenih snaga koje deluju unutar urbane zajednice što zahteva promenu stava prema profesiji planera i dizajnera u susret izazovima urbanih i regionalnih transformacija koje su u toku. U razvoju novih integracija između planiranja i dizajna postoji potreba, kako Harvi (Harvey) ističe, za razmatranjem različitih pozicija koje počinju od lokalno specifičnih projekata i njihove integracije u šire strategije. Harvi poziva u potragu za novom ideologijom koja bi mogla biti osnova za razvoj profesionalnih tehnika i metoda koje bi trebalo da budu izvan stroge podele između planiranja i dizajna i koje bi stavile naglasak na dugoročni idealizam pristupa zasnovanog na vrednostima. (Harvey, 1990) Novo profesionalno područje, razvijeno iz ovakvog pristupa, bi moglo biti definisano kao strateški urbani dizajn. Ovaj sveobuhvatni, vrednosno utemeljen, procesno i proizvodno orijentisan dizajn bi mogao da bude bolje opremljen za kreativno prevođenje javnih politika koje se odnose na kulturne karakteristike i utiču na kvalitet izgrađene forme i karakterističan identitet mesta. Strateški urbani dizajn kao integralni pristup ima zadatak da istraži veze između pristupa racional51

Strategic urban design
Professional involvement in place making is confronted with continual searching, learning new ways of understanding the emerging challenges and creating methods and techniques capable of generating sustainable solutions to the place making endeavours within specific social, economic and institutional circumstances. A new perspective is needed, based on analysis and deeper understanding of place-specific identity, promoting communication and dialogue among identities and cultures. Strategic urban design enhances creative role of design, combining it with more socially conscious and politically responsive approach with a view to developing effective techniques for addressing difficult urban issues. In many different ways, it operates at the very centre of the often-conflicting forces within urban society. This calls for a changed attitude toward planning and design professions to cope with challenges of ongoing urban and regional transformations. In developing new integration between planning and design there is a need, as Harvey points out, to consider different positions, starting with local specific projects and integrating them into broader strategies. Harvey urges for the search for a new ideology which could be the basis for development of professional techniques and methods bypassing strict separation between planning and design and stressing long term idealism of value based approach (Harvey, 1990). A new professional area emerging from this approach could be defined as strategic urban design. This comprehensive, valuebased, process and product oriented design would be better equipped for creative translation of public

policy inputs relating to cultural characteristics and affecting the quality of built form and the distinctive place identity. The strategic urban design as integrated approach aims to find coherence between rational comprehensive planning view of different subject areas necessary to uncover relationships that are insufficiently recognized (Alonso, 1971) and project oriented urban design that emphasizes the importance of microscale features in an individual’s and group use and experience of neighbourhood environment. In order to better explore the possibilities of local development and to communicate results to local population and different economic interests the ways are sought to integrate tenets of urban design with strategic goal-oriented urban planning. Urban planning has had a strong design base since its beginning, but it drifted away from this base when social sciences entered the profession in l960s. Design inheritance can strengthen the independent thinking of planners and enable them to find out new solutions. Design approach to urban interventions can bring into the process a well-developed understanding of urban places and the interdependent fabric of buildings, landscapes, and public spaces, as well as the social interactions that shape them. Change of view about spatial interventions emerged from the awareness of limitations of the linear hierarchical process which starts with master planning as a long term, ‘top-down’ managerial intervention, and design as implementation of plans positioned at the end of the process, focused on visual aspects of built environment. Considering a new form of urban design, we are investigating its broad meaning as Kevin Lynch addresses it: “I think of what I call city design as skills in creating proposals for the form and management of the extended spatial and temporal environment, judging it particularly for its effects in the everyday lives of its inhabitants, and seeking to enhance their daily experience and their development as persons” (Lynch, 1979, 61).
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nog sveobuhvatnog planiranja različitim oblastima neophodnim za otkrivanje nedovoljno prepoznatih međuodnosa (Alonso, 1971) i projektno orijentisanog urbanog dizajna koji naglašava važnost karakteristika na mikro nivou i iskustava u odnosu na neposredno okruženje, individualnih i grupnih. Kako bi bolje istražili mogućnosti lokalnog razvoja i razmenili rezultate sa lokalnim stanovništvom i različitim ekonomskim interesima traže se načini za integraciju načela urbanog dizajna i strateški ciljno orijentisanog urbanog planiranja. Urbano planiranje je od samog početka imalo jaku osnovu u dizajnu, ali ju je napustilo kada su 60-tih godina dvadesetog veka društvene nauke ušle u profesiju. Dizajnersko nasleđe može ojačati nezavisno razmišljanje planera i omogućiti im otkrivanje novih rešenja. Dizajnerski pristup urbanim intervencijama može uneti u proces dobro razvijeno razumevanje konkretnih urbanih mesta i sa njima povezanih struktura objekata, krajolika, javnih prostora, kao i socijalnih interakcija koje ih oblikuju. Promena gledišta u odnosu na prostorne intervencije se zasniva na prihvatanju ograničenja linearnog hijerarhijskog procesa koji počinje sa generalnim planiranjem, kao dugoročnim intervencijama kojima se upravlja ‘odozgo na dole’, i dizajnom kao implementacijom planova, pozicioniranog na kraju procesa i usmerenog na vizuelne aspekte izgrađenog okruženja. S obzirom na novi oblik urbanog dizajna, istražujemo njegovo šire značenje koje mu daje Kevin Linč (Kevin Lynch): „Mislim da je ono što ja nazivam dizajn grada veština izrade predloga za formu i upravljanje proširenim prostornim i vremenskim okruženjem, koje se posebno procenjuje na osnovu efekata koje ima na svakodnevni život građana, nastojeći pri tome na unapređenju njihovog svakodnevnog iskustva i razvoja kao ličnosti.”(Lynch, 1979, 61) Znanje koje urbani dizajneri upotrebljavaju nije neutralno. Ono se ne može svesti na primenu određenih prostornih obrazaca koji su prihvatljivi samo zato

The knowledge that urban designers use is not value free. It cannot be reduced to application of certain spatial patterns just because they are tailored to consumer tastes, just like any other goods, or because they are highly priced within profession. Lang emphasized the importance of clarifying the role of values in shaping urban design quoting R. Mongomery: “Urban designers must turn their attention to ways in which values are constructed and the specific role of the designers themselves in this social process” (Lang, 1994, 427). Urban design that starts from respect for cultural diversity as a social value includes learning, from complex understanding of problem (manner in which culture shapes people’s lives and people shape culture) to developing a multicultural outlook and incorporating it into the process and product of professional activity. Design generally means problem solving that includes representing different interests, projecting, inventing new solutions, deciding, prescribing, and communicating courses of action in order to achieve intended outcomes. Speaking of culturally responsive design there are few important questions that demand an answer. How to include different cultures into consideration and what are the effective ways of resolving conflicts that follow from it? How to tailor both the process and product of urban design? How to divide focus between the problem and solution? How to build the strategy of knowledge and structure it in a way that facilitates search for solutions? What needs to be understood, learned and clarified? How to communicate and present the acquired knowledge about problems in order to achieve effective dialogue with stakeholders in the process? What form of process outcomes would support optimal project implementation? In order to find acceptable answers, it is evident that critical assessment of all phases in the design
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što su oblikovani prema ukusu potrošača, kao svaka druga roba, ili zato što su visoko cenjeni u okviru profesije. Leng (Lang) naglašava važnost razjašnjenja uloge vrednosti u određivanju urbanog dizajna citirajući R. Mongomerija (R. Mongomery): ”Urbani dizajneri moraju obratiti pažnju na način kreiranja vrednosti i na posebnu ulogu koju oni sami imaju u društvenom procesu.” (Lang 1994, 427) Urbani dizajn, čije je polazište uvažavanje kulturne raznolikosti kao društvene vrednosti, uključuje učenje, od razumevanja problema (načina na koji kultura oblikuje ljudske živote i kako ljudi oblikuju kulturu) do razvijanja multikulturnog stava i njegovog ugrađivanja u proces i proizvod profesionalne aktivnosti. Dizajn generalno podrazumeva rešavanje problema što uključuje zastupanje različitih interesa, predviđanje, pronalaženje novih rešenja, odlučivanje, propisivanje i komuniciranje predloga akcija u cilju ostvarenja željenih rezultata. Ukoliko govorimo o kulturno odgovornom dizajnu otvara se nekoliko važnih pitanja koja traže odgovor. Kako uključiti različite kulture u razmatranje i kakvi su mogući oblici razrešavanja konflikta koji iz toga proizilaze? Kako prilagođavati i proces i proizvod urbanog dizajna? U kojoj meri se fokusirati na problem a u kojoj na rešenje? Kako izgraditi strategiju saznanja i strukturirati ga i učiniti upotrebljivim za osmišljavanje rešenja? Šta je sve potrebno razumeti, saznati, razjasniti? Kako komunicirati, saopštavati stečena saznanja o problemu u cilju ostvarenja efektivnog dijaloga sa akterima uključenim u proces? Koja je forma rezultata procesa koja će podržati ostvarenje projekta na najprikladniji način? Da bi se došlo do prihvatljivih odgovora evidentno je da je potrebno kritički preispitivati sve faze u procesu dizajna, od analize problema, do predloga i procene rešenja. Takođe, čini se da je važno i promeniti naglasak od isključivog usmerenja na rešenje ka ravnopravnom bavljenju problemom. Na taj način

process is needed, from problem analysis, to solution proposals and evaluation. Shift in focus from solution oriented to problem oriented approach is of great importance. In that manner urban design becomes a tool for analysis as well as an instrument for action, spatial intervention strategy. That is especially important in the approaches that are based on cultural equality, where it is essential to explore not just alternative solutions, but the problem itself which needs to be constantly restructured in order to be understood.

urbani dizajn postaje u isto vreme i sredstvo analize i instrument akcije, strategije prostorne intervencije. To je od posebnog značaja u projektima koji su zasnovani na principima ravnopravnosti kultura, gde je neophodno istraživati ne samo u pravcu alternativnih rešenja već i fokusiranjem na sam problem, koji je potrebno stalno restrukturirati da bi se razumeo.

Strategija i oblikovanje
Kompleksni zahvati u kulturno osetljivoj urbanoj intervenciji zahtevaju razvijanje isto tako kompleksne metodologije. Potrebno je u isto vreme graditi viziju budućnosti koja usmerava akcije kao i neophodne procedure i upravljačke instrumente da bi se ona ostvarila. U okviru strateškog urbanog dizajna moguće je preispitati normativne politike i ciljeve, koji se odnose na pr. kulturnu raznolikost, i povezati ih sa mnogim drugim, održivim razvojem, identitetom, smanjenjem siromaštva itd., na različitim nivoima odlučivanja i u različitim sektorima, razmotriti uticaje na šira područja i međusobno povezati generalne politike u različitim oblastima sa interesima različitih aktera u konkretnom prostoru. Uvid u projekte zasnovane na principima Agende 21 (usvojenoj na konferenciji UN o životnoj sredini i razvoju 1992, Rio de Ženeiro) pokazuje kontinualno traganje za inovativnim sredstvima kojima bi se na održiv način usmeravao razvoj gradova. U prilogu Projekat za projekte objavljenom u publikaciji Urbani trijalozi, de Melder, Leks, i Šenon (Meulder de, Loeckx & Shannon) iznose predlog inovativnog oblika koji povezuje izazovne vizije i strateške urbane projekte. Inspirisani iskustvom u radu na strateškom urbanom planiranju i urbanim projektima oni predlažu metod koji povezuje dve vrste pristupa. Sa jedne strane on uključuje formulaciju vizije kao atraktivnog, fleksibilnog, dugoročnog okvira koji definiše ciljeve i vrednosti (u ovom slučaju na nivou grada kao celine). Sa druge, apstraktna vizija se razrađuje kroz strateške akcije i projekte koji proveravaju i konkretizuju njene delove. (Meulder de, Loeckx and Shannon, 2004)
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Strategy and design
Complex urban interventions in culturally sensitive projects call for development of equally complex methodologies. It is necessary to build at the same time a guiding vision of the future, as well as essential procedures and operational tools for achieving that vision. Within strategic urban design normative policy objectives and goals, such as cultural diversity, can be examined and integrated with many others, such as sustainable development, identity of place, poverty reduction, etc. on different decisionmaking levels and across a variety of sectors. It also enables the assessment of impacts across wider areas and matching of general policies from a range of sectors with different stakeholder interests in the specific area. The insight into projects inspired by Agenda 21 principles (endorsed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992 in Rio de Janeiro) testifies about an ongoing search for innovative tools guiding sustainable development of cities. In the contribution A Project of Projects, published in the book Urban Trialogues, de Meulder, Loeckx and Shannon reveal their innovative proposal matching appealing visions and strategic urban projects. Inspired by the experience in strategic urban planning and urban projects, they propose a method combining these two approaches. On the one side it includes vision formulation as an appealing, flexible,

long-term framework that defines goals and values (in this case on the level of a city as a whole). On the other, abstract vision is elaborated through strategic actions and projects that test and realize parts of the vision (Meulder de, Loeckx &Shannon, 2004). If strategic urban design concerned only the key, large projects in the city, and relied on a previously defined overall vision, its place would remain tightly defined in a linear, hierarchical order. It seems, however, that it should be given a much more active role in exploring the possibilities for more adequate change management in the city. In a model where principle of diversity is embraced and applied to urban situations, as well as visions, a comprehensive city-wide vision serves only as a rough framework (consisting of nonnegotiable, consensually agreed-upon principles) for creation of a host of local specific visions capable of integrating various local actors and groups on the level of each specific urban project. The idea of concrete and ongoing review of development options is thus supported, effective participation of local stakeholders achieved and, also, the idea of city composed of multitude of different parts materialized. Finally, if we accept the assumption that the vision could crystalize through design research and development of alternative solutions, than it is worth experimenting with harmonization of vision and design process within strategic urban projects. For its 43rd congress held in Antwerp in 2007 the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP) has chosen the theme ‘strategic urban projects’ in a complex, multicultural and diverse context both in developed and developing countries. The congress focus was on exploring cases and theories about ‘trialogue’ between visioning as a way to frame concrete actions, urban projects as a way of sustainable and qualitative actions in achieving urban change and co-production that involves all actors in policy making and implementation. Integration of private sector methods of strategic
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Ukoliko bi se strateški urbani dizajn odnosio samo na ključne, velike projekte u gradu i oslanjao na prethodno definisanu sveukupnu viziju, njegovo mesto bi ostalo čvrsto definisano u linearnom, hijerahiskom poretku. Čini se ipak da je potrebno omogućiti mu aktivniju ulogu u istraživanju mogućnosti adekvatnijeg sistema upravljanja promenama u gradu. Ukoliko se prihvati princip raznolikosti, u smislu urbanih situacija, ali i vizija, onda bi se mogao razmatrati model u kome generalna, sveukobuhvatna vizija na nivou grada ima samo značaj okvira (koje sadrži zajednički dogovorene principe o kojima se ne pregovara) za kreaciju mnogih drugih vizija, lokalno specifičnih, koje bi mogle integrisati različite lokalne aktere i grupe na nivou svakog pojedinog urbanog projekta. Time bi se podržala ideja konkretnog i kontinualnog preispitivanja mogućnosti razvoja, obezbedilo efektivno učešće lokalnih aktera, i ostvarila ideja grada sastavljenog od mnoštva raznolikih delova. Na kraju, ukoliko prihvatimo pretpostavku da jasnoća vizije može biti ostvarena putem istraživanja kroz dizajn i razvijanja alternativnih rešenja, onda vredi eksperimentisati sa usklađivanjem i vizije i procesa dizajna u okviru strateških urbanih projekata. Za svoj 43 kongres održanom u Antverpenu 2007 godine Internacionalno udruženje urbanih i regionalnih planera (ISOCARP) je za temu izabralo ‘strateške urbane projekte’ u kompleksnom, multikulturnom i raznolikom kontekstu u razvijenim zemljama i zemljama u razvoju. Fokus kongresa je bio na istraživanju slučajeva i teorija koji se odnose na ‘trijalog’ između vizija kao sredstva usmeravanja konkretnih akcija, urbanih projekata kao načina održivog i kvalitetnog delovanja na promenu stanja i saradnje koja obuhvata sve učesnike u formulisanju politika i njihovoj realizaciji. Integrisanje metoda strateškog upravljanja u privatnom sektoru u sferu javnog odlučivanja uvodi formulisanje vizije kao okvir za razvijanje konkretnih intervencija u gradu. Proces formulisanja vizije razvoja postaje sredstvo za određivanje pravaca ur-

management in public decision making introduces visioning as a framework for development of specific urban interventions. The process of vision formulation becomes the tools for setting the directions of urban development, the framework in which the quality of concrete projects can be evaluated as well as the forum for stakeholder communication. Visioning has become a common planning technique for community goal setting. Visions speak of alternative futures of a community. Development of visions involves collaboration among citizens in different local areas, government and business leaders. Grant emphasizes multiple functions of the visioning process
Communities articulate visions that reflect their aspirations for better future. These visions then offer directions for plans, policies, and projects... Process of creating and disputing visions of the future in one community may start discussion about how future visions may affect the nature and outcomes of democratic practices in planning. While the participatory process offers a way to change conceptions of community futures in decisions on specific projects, community visioning exercises may provide a route by which professional values set the planning agenda. Moreover, some visions of the future may influence the rhetoric of local democratic decision making and affect the distribution of powers (Grant, 2007, 39).

banog razvoja, okvir u kome se preispituje kvalitet konkretnih projekata kao i prostor za komunikaciju među akterima. Vizije su postale uobičajena tehnika planiranja za postavljanje društvenih ciljeva. One govore o mogućim budućnostima zajednice. Razvijanje vizija podrazumeva saradnju između građana u različitim lokalnim područjima, uprave i poslovnih lidera. Grent (Grant) naglašava višestruku funkciju procesa formulisanja vizije:
Zajednice stvaraju vizije koje odražavaju njihove težnje ka boljoj budućnosti. Ove vizije zatim nude smernice za planove, politike i projekte... Proces stvaranja i osporavanja vizija budućnosti u jednoj zajednici može da podstakne diskusiju o njihovom uticaju na prirodu i rezultate demokratske prakse u planiranju. Dok participativni proces nudi način za promenu zamisli budućnosti kroz odluke o pojedinim projektima, proces izgradnje vizija može da odredi put kojim će profesionalne vrednosti odrediti sadržaj planiranja. Osim toga, pojedine vizije budućnosti mogu da utiču na retoriku lokalnog demokratskog odlučivanja i na preraspodelu moći. (Grant, 2007,39)

Visions of local development are often associated with important issues, such as improvement of living standards, better environmental conditions, safety in a city, etc. However, citizens in the local community are also interested in traditional values, such as preserving the distinct features of their environment, legibility and meanings, retaining of spatial order, as well as enabling social contacts, and diverse street life. Participation of different cultural groups in contextual visioning, vision of local development, sets a framework for professional design of specific inter56

Vizije lokalnog razvoja su često povezane sa velikim temama, kao što su unapređenje standarda života, bolji ekološki uslovi, bezbednost u gradu itd. Međutim, građani u lokalnoj zajednici su takođe zainteresovani i za tradicionalne vrednosti kao što su očuvanje karakteristika svog okruženja, čitljivosti i značenja, zadržavanje prostornog reda kao i omogućavanje društvenih kontakata i raznolikog života na ulicama. Učešćem različitih kulturnih grupa u definisanju kontekstualne vizije, vizije lokalnog razvoja, stvara se okvir za stručno oblikovanje konkretnih zahvata, projekata i regulative, mera za podršku projektima koji će omogućiti razvoj specifičnog identiteta. Strateški urbani dizajn pokušava da integriše planiranje, upravljanje i dizajn i prevaziđe ‘bolno odva-

ventions, projects and regulations, measures that support projects building distinctive identity. Strategic urban design is about integrating planning, management and design that could overcome ‘painful divorce’ (Kunzmann, 2004) between architecture and planning. It means focusing on relationships between people, behaviour, buildings, place and city. Transformation of design oriented approach and interconnection with more abstract planning methods enables translation of public policies and goals that can only be possible through changed and better informed design.

janje’ (Kanzman, 2004) između arhitekture i planiranja. To podrazumeva fokusiranje na veze između ljudi, ponašanja, objekata, mesta i grada. Transformacija pristupa orijentisanog na oblikovanje i povezivanje sa apstraktnijim metodama planiranja omogućava prevođenje javnih politika i ciljeva, koje se jedino mogu ostvariti kroz izmenjen pristup dizajnu zasnovan na boljem informisanju.

Dizajn kroz istraživanje
Nova ideologija je ukorenjena u kulturnoj dimenziji urbanog okruženja i zahteva za razvijanjem adekvatnih sredstava za razjašnjavanje, definiciju, konkretizaciju i simboličko predstavljanje različitih oblika načina života. Praveći razliku između ‘percepcije prostora’ stručnjaka i ‘prostornih iskustava’ i ‘predstava prostora’ sa simboličkim značenjima kod običnih ljudi (Lefevr, 1991) ova ideologija usmerava na nove oblike učenja koji polaze od izgradnje sposobnosti razumevanja onoga što čini urbana mesta posebnim i značajnim za ljude koji ih koriste. Dok se istraživanja u okviru društvenih nauka, sociologije, psihologije i posebno antropologije itd. bave kompleksnim temama života kulturnih grupa u gradu, aktuelna praksa urbanog dizajna je i dalje često uprošćena i standardizovana. Usmerena na eliminisanje složenih, višestrukih, kompleksnih situacija i naracija ona ih u praksi rutinski svodi na uobičajene probleme koje profesionalci umeju da reše. Cilj je, pre svega, ovladavanje urbanim prostorom i stvaranje mogućnosti za akciju, odnosno, novu izgradnju. Profesionalni rad kontroliše (uključuje) mali broj aspekata koji ulaze u analitičko razmatranje. Izdvajaju se samo neki parametri koji se kontrolišu i za koje se smatra da odražavaju karakter mesta. (Beauregard, 2005) U najboljem slučaju urbana intervencija počiva samo na redukovanoj tipologiji kulturnih manifestacija u funkciji ekonomskog razvoja (najčešće fizičkih elemenata - na primer, banalno prenošenje elemenata fasada u uslove za izgradnju novih objekata). Pri
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Design by research
The new ideology is rooted in the cultural dimension of urban environment and calls for development of proper tools for clarification, definition, concretization and symbolic interpretation of different life styles. Drawing a distinction between the experts’ ‘perception of space’, and ordinary people’s ‘spatial experience’ and ‘representation of space’ with symbolic meanings (Lefevbre, 1991), this ideology aims towards new ways of learning, starting with building understanding of what makes urban places specific and meaningful for the people that use them. While social science research in sociology, psychology, and especially anthropology, etc. deal with complex issues of cultural groups’ life in the city, current urban design practice is still often simplified and standardised. Focused on elimination of layered, multiple, complex situations and narrations, it reduces them to common, recognizable problems that professionals are able to handle. Above all, the goal is to manage urban space and to create possibilities for action, i.e. new construction. Professional work controls (includes) a small number of aspects that are examined in analysis. Only few parameters are singled out and controlled and it is assumed that they reflect the character of the place (Beauregard, 2005). At best, urban intervention relies only on reduced

typology of cultural manifestations in the function of economic development (mostly physical elements, for example, banal translation of elements of facades into conditions for constructing new buildings). In the process, quality of culture, cultural diversity and social dynamic are completely neglected. Professional urban design practice, especially in large cities with dynamic urban development, needs to continually reexamine its position and understanding of new phenomena and create adequate methodologies. On the one hand this means seeking new systemic solutions and modifying legal framework, and on the other, challenging the character and form of professional work. Strategic urban design approach combines process and product management and is more integrative, focused on comprehending both the distinct environment, stakeholder’ interaction and values embedded in the space and issues surrounding policy formulation and project programming. There are at least two problems in defining dynamic interculturalism as a new value framework for strategic urban design. Firstly, in the light of globalization as a way of cultural homogenization, urban design is expected to provide an adequate response contributing to preservation of unique cultural identities. However, the most common answer is protection of local cultures that are regarded as a static phenomenon, and placing their protection into domain of public interest, expecting support from ever decreasing public means (from the budget). For example, there are proposals seeking to preserve, above all, ethnic cultural diversity. They provide territories for particular ethnic-cultural groups, where certain historic urban forms are maintained. Many examples of this approach can be found in modern multicultural cities. If we observe culture as a dynamic process of constant changes and building of new forms and linkages in time and space, this ghettoisation and frozen development do
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tome se u potpunosti zanemaruje kvalitet kulture, kulturna raznolikost i socijalna dinamika. Praksa urbanog dizajna naročito u velikim gradovima sa dinamičnim razvojem, suočena je sa neophodnošću kontinualnog preispitivanja svoje pozicije, razumevanja novih pojava i kreiranja adekvatnih metodologija. To znači, sa jedne strane razmišljanje o novim sistemskim rešenjima, modifikovanju zakonskog i normativnog okvira, a sa druge, preispitivanje karaktera i oblika stručnog rada. Strateški urbani dizajn kombinuje upravljanje procesom i proizvodom, u većoj meri je integrativan, fokusiran na razumevanje kako posebnog okruženja i interakcije aktera i vrednosti povezanih sa prostorom, tako i problema u domenu definisanja politika i programa. Uočavamo najmanje dva problema u usvajanju dinamičnog interkulturalizma kao novog vrednosnog okvira za strateški urbani dizajn. Prvo, u svetlu globalizacije kao kulturne homogenizacije, od urbanog dizajna se očekuje da da adekvatne odgovore koji će ići u prilog očuvanju posebnih kulturnih identiteta. Međutim, odgovor koji se najčešće dobija je zaštita lokalnih kultura koje se posmatraju kao statičan fenomen, i smeštanje njihove zaštite u domen javnog interesa za koji se očekuje da bude podržana sve manjim javnim sredstvima (iz budžeta). Tako se, na primer, proizvode predlozi koji imaju za cilj očuvanje pre svega etničkih kulturnih raznolikosti. One obezbeđuju teritorije za određene etničko-kulturne grupe u kojima se zadržavaju odgovarajuće istorijske urbane forme. Mnogi primeri ovog pristupa se mogu naći u modernim multikulturnim gradovima. Ako posmatramo kulturu kao dinamičan proces stalnih promena i izgradnje novih oblika i veza u vremenu i prostoru, ova getoizacija i zaustavljanje razvoja stvaraju istorijske eksponate, gradove – muzeje koji, osim izuzetno, ne predstavljaju rešenje kojim možemo biti zadovoljni. Različite kulture ne mogu da žive i razvijaju se u uslovima izolacije i veštačke zaštite. Kulture su u stalnoj interakciji, uti-

nothing else but create historic exhibits, cities-museums that, other than exceptionally, do not present a satisfactory solution. Different cultures can not live and evolve in conditions of isolation and artificial protection. Cultures are constantly interacting, influencing each other, mixing and evolving. Secondly, as urban designers traditionally do not have background in cultural and behavioural studies, in search for theoretical basis they non-selectively turn to findings of traditional disciplines that are involved in research of different aspects of culture. In doing so they are confronted with two major challenges. Firstly, conservative cultural geography, ethno-geography, sociology and anthropology are focused on culture, multiculturality and intercultural relations as static, historic categories. Studied from anthropologist standpoint, the stability of cultural system is stressed, which is in contrast with cultural dynamics to be found in contemporary urban life. And secondly, even where theoretical approach embraces the complexity and reveals the character of cultural dynamics and interaction between innovation and tradition in the society and its surrounding (like in some sociological and psychological research, see: Kim, Y.Y., 1979, 1994) it still needs, as Foley captured it, ‘translation’ from non-spatial approach containing values, symbols, meanings, to concrete spatial arrangements that are important for professional work (Foley, 1964).

ču jedna na drugu, mešaju se i razvijaju. Drugo, kako urbani dizajneri obično nemaju iskustva sa kulturološkim studijama i studijama ponašanja, oni se u traganju za teorijskom osnovom neselektivno okreću nalazima tradicionalnih disciplina uključenih u istraživanje različitih aspekata kulture. Tu se suočavaju sa dva krupna problema. Kao prvo, tradicionalna kulturna geografija, etno-geografija, sociologija i antropologija su uglavnom usmereni na kulturu, fenomen multikulturalnosti i interkulturalne odnose kao statične, istorijske kategorije. Posmatrano sa antropološkog stanovišta, naglašava se postojanost kulturnog sistema. To je u suprotnosti sa dinamikom kulture koja se prepoznaje u urbanom životu danas. Kao drugo, ukoliko se prepozna teoretski pristup koji obuhvata kompleksnost i otkriva karakter kulturne dinamike i interakciju između inovacija i tradicije u odnosu društva i njegovog okruženja (kao u nekim sociološkim i psihološkim istraživanjima, vidi: Kim, Y.Y. 1979, 1994) i dalje je potrebno, kako to Foli beleži, prevodjenje sa neprostornog pristupa koji obuhvata vrednosti, simbole, značenja, na konkretno uređenje prostora koje čini osnovu profesionalnog rada. (Foley, 1964)

Strategija razvoja lokalne raznolikosti
U transformaciji urbanog okruženja u pluralističkom demokratskom društvu naglasak je na pristupu koji polazi od lokalnog. Ma koliko on bio još uvek nesavršen, razvijanje njegovih mogućnosti je izazov za planere, arhitekte i dizajnere širom sveta. To je arena za eksperimentisanje sa različitim pristupima koji imaju za cilj razjašnjenje uloga aktera u ostvarivanju dogovora. Različiti interesi zahtevaju različite ishode i alternativne opcije. Zato je potrebna nova vrsta ponude, predlozi mogućih struktura i konkretnih oblika regulacije izgradnje o kojima se dogovor postiže kroz dijalog. Podržavajući urbanu intervenciju koja odgovara na kulturnu raznolikost, Baraidi (Burayidi) definiše pla59

Local diversity development strategy
In the transformation of urban environment within pluralistic democratic society the emphasis is on the approach that starts from the local. However imperfect, the possibilities of bottom up approach are the challenge for planners, architects and designers worldwide. It is an arena for experimenting with different approaches aimed at clarifying stakeholder roles and reaching an agreement. Different interests demand different outcomes and alternative options.

3.3

Therefore, a new type of offer is needed, proposals on possible structures and specific forms of construction regulations negotiated through dialogue. Arguing for urban intervention that is responsive to cultural diversity Burayidi defines planning (which can also apply to strategic design) as a multicultural canon sensitive toward class, race, sex and culture, and proposes appreciative model, based on flexibility, rather than rigid, rational and routine planning approach. The ambition is to create contexts where professionals and different stakeholder groups can continuously learn and experiment, think systematically, engage in meaningful dialogues, and create visions that encourage actions and inclusion into the process of transformation of urban environment (Burayidi, 2000). Reading manifestations of culture as a specific system of customs, beliefs, behavioural patterns, activities, and similar, is the best way for understanding distinctive identity of local groups and presents the starting point for developing new creative ideas, goals and models of organization of space. Integral approach to local communities’ strategy development starts with understanding specific cultural structures, through deciphering their unique qualities and exploring creative possibilities for influencing their development. Development of adequate patterns of spatial arrangements presents interaction between intercultural dynamic and professional approach. Urban designers learn about urban communities and their specific needs and goals, conjointly they examine cultural patterns and their spatial manifestations, and design new forms of plans and projects that are verified through communicative practice. Strategic urban design method represents a form of feasible, practical response, synthesis between new, detailed comprehensive planning analysis which embraces design insights, creative contextual visioning and design approach in concrete actions and projects. It includes critical assessment of dif61

niranje (a to se odnosi i na strateški dizajn) kao multikulturalni kanon koji prepoznaje klasu, rasu, pol i kulturu, i predlaže model zasnovan na razumevanju, model koji uključuje fleksibilnost umesto krutog, racionalnog i rutinskog pristupa. Ambicija je da se stvori kontekst u kojem profesionalci i različite grupe aktera mogu u kontinuitetu da uče i eksperimentišu, sistematski razmišljaju, ulaze u značajne dijaloge i stvaraju vizije koje podstiču na akciju i uključivanje u proces transformacije urbanog okruženja. (Burayidi, 2000) Čitanje manifestacija kulture kao specifičnog sistema običaja, verovanja, obrazaca ponašanja, aktivnosti, itd, je najbolji način za razumevanja posebnog identiteta lokalnih grupa i predstavlja polaznu tačku za razvijanje kreativnih novih ideja, ciljeva i modela organizacije prostora. Integralni pristup razvijanju strategija lokalnih zajednica počinje razumevanjem specifičnih kulturnih sklopova, tumačenjem njihovih jedinstvenih kvaliteta i istraživanjem kreativnih mogućnosti uticaja na njihov razvoj. Razvijanje adekvatnih obrazaca uređenja prostora predstavlja interakciju između interkulturne dinamike i profesionalnog pristupa. Urbani dizajneri upoznaju urbane zajednice koje imaju specifične potrebe i ciljeve, zajedno sa njima preispituju kulturne obrasce i njihove prostorne manifestacije i koncipiraju nove oblike planova i projekata koje proveravaju kroz komunikativnu praksu. Metod strateškog urbanog dizajna predstavlja varijantu realnog, praktičnog odgovora, sintezu između nove, detaljne i složene planerske analize koja uključuje i oblikovne uvide, razvijanje kreativne kontekstualne vizije i dizajnerskog pristupa u formulisanju konkretnih akcija i projekata. On uključuje kritičku procenu različitih politika, na primer, politika povezanih sa kulturnom raznolikošću, razvijanje mera i indikatora kao i uspostavljanje veza sa lokalnim urbanim planiranjem i razvojem. Usmeravanje na lokalnu kulturnu raznolikost, ne podrazumeva samo pasivno posmatranje i prepoznavanje vrednosti, običaja, životnih stilova određenih kulturnih grupa već i aktivan dijalog i pomoć zajednicama u prepoznavanju potre-

ferent policies, for example policies which concern cultural diversity, development of measures and indicators, and liaising with local urban planning and development. In dealing with local cultural diversity, the method does not assume only passive observation and recognition of values, practices, lifestyles of diverse cultural groups, but also active dialogue and assisting local communities in identifying needs, problems, deficiencies, prejudices and suggesting changes and modifications. By linking culture and other aspects of economic and social life, strategic urban design, although focused on limited territories, can be instrumental in creating development opportunities for the whole of urban community.

ba, problema, nedostataka, predrasuda i predlaganje promena i modifikacija. Povezivanjem kulture sa drugim aspektima ekonomskog i društvenog života, strateški urbani dizajn iako usmeren na ograničene teritorije, može postati sredstvo unapređenja razvoja celokupne urbane zajednice.

Kreiranje prepoznatljivih urbanih prostora
Kako profesionalno delovanje urbanih dizajnera ima veoma važnu ulogu u oblikovanju naselja, potrebno je razmotriti sam proces rada koji će, kroz jačanje lokalnog identiteta, povećavati vrednost urbanog područja i na taj način doprineti njegovom ekonomskom razvoju. Ovaj pristup istražuje mogućnosti uticaja profesije na formiranje prepoznatljivih javnih urbanih prostora kroz razradu različitih mehanizama kontrole i podsticanja razvoja. Umesto rutinske birokratske procedure profesionalnog rada otvara se prostor za nove ideje i maštovita, inovativna rešenja, ne samo u prostornim obrascima i objektima, kao proizvodima, već i u samoj organizaciji stručnog delovanja. U procesu rada na konkretnim projektima traga se za načinima zamene hijerarhijske strukture zakonski definisanih dokumenata, strategija, planova i projekata, ‘odozgo na dole’ u pravcu većih sloboda delovanja na lokalnom nivou. Izbegavanje unifikacije koju donosi globalizacija ne znači i pasivno posmatranje vrednosti, običaja, životnih stilova određenih kulturnih grupa već i aktivni dijalog i pomoć zajednicama u prepoznavanju potreba, problema, nedostataka, predrasuda. Ne veštačko održavanje svih istorijskih kulturnih posebnosti koje pripadaju drugim vremenima i drugim odnosima, već kritičko procenjivanje kvaliteta koji oni imaju za savremene procese razvoja gradova. Uloga urbanih dizajnera je njihovo definisanje i pronalaženje instrumenata za njihovu promociju. Razvijanjem adekvatnih načina analize i instrumenata urbane intervencije, stvaraju se uslovi za bolje
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Creation of recognizable urban spaces
Given that professional actions of urban designers play very important role in shaping of human settlements, it is necessary to take into consideration the process of work that will, through strengthening of local identity, enhance the value of urban area and in that way contribute to its economic development. This approach explores the possibilities of profession’s influence on creation of recognizable urban public places through elaboration of different control mechanisms and development incentives. Instead of routine bureaucratic procedure of professional work, room is created for new ideas and imaginative, innovative solutions, not only product-wise, in spatial patterns and buildings, but also in organization of professional work itself. In the process of working on concrete projects, one searches for ways to replace ‘top-down’ hierarchic structure of legally mandated documents, strategies, plans and projects and to enhance freedom of action at the local level. Avoiding unification associated with globalization does not mean passive observation of values, customs, lifestyles of certain cultural groups, but an active dialogue and support to communities in recognizing needs, problems, shortcomings and

3.4

prejudices. Rather than artificial preservation of all historic cultural particularities that belong to previous periods and past relations, this entails critical assessment of qualities they bring to contemporary processes of city development. The role of urban designers is to identify them and find tools for their promotion. Through developing adequate forms of analysis and urban intervention tools, conditions are created for better interdisciplinary understanding of cultural dynamics and for developing appropriate urban structure proposals for the changing communities. Connecting urban design and strategic planning in an integral approach, means on the one hand, planning enriched with concrete images and projects through which planners’ suggestions on purpose of land are verified. On the other, social and economic dimension that is frequently missing is added to design. Urban areas are thus equipped to enter a global competition that demands good design solutions, and social, economic and environmental sustainability that is of crucial importance for urban life. Based on the integral approach, strategic design develops ideas in the field of functional organization of an area, incorporates its social and economic development within a wider community, and creates room for verifying solutions through different forms of measures and policies on the level of specific projects. It is associated with contemporary concept of participatory decision making, which means establishing dialogue between all relevant stakeholders, local government, investors, habitants, with a view to creating development policies aimed at preservation of cultural diversity (New Charter of Athens, 2003). However, while cultural policies are mainly sectororiented, strategic urban design has territorial approach. The point is to identify local manifestations of culture in the broadest sense as a way of life, such
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interdisciplinarno razumevanje kulturne dinamike kao i razvijanje odgovarajućih predloga urbane strukture za zajednice koje se menjaju. Povezivanje urbanog dizajna i strateškog planiranja u integralnom pristupu podrazumeva, sa jedne strane, obogaćivanje planiranja konkretnim predstavama i projektima kroz koje se proveravaju planerski predlozi o nameni zemljišta. Sa druge strane projektovanju se dodaje socijalna i ekonomska dimenzija koja mu često nedostaje. To omogućava uključivanje urbanih područja u globalnu utakmicu koja zahteva dobra projektantska rešenja, i socijalnu, ekonomsku i ekološku održivost, koja je od suštinskog značaja za urbani život. Integralnim pristupom strateški dizajn razvija ideje u oblasti funkcionalne organizacije područja, inkorporira njegov socijalni i ekonomski razvoj u okvir šire zajednice i otvara prostor za proveru adekvatnosti rešenja kroz različite oblike mera i politika na nivou konkretnih projekata. On se povezuje sa savremenim konceptom participacije u odlučivanju koji podrazumeva uspostavljanje dijaloga između svih relevantnih aktera, lokalne uprave, investitora, stanovnika sa ciljem kreiranja razvojnih politika usmerenih na očuvanje kulturne raznolikosti. (New Charter of Athens, 2003) Međutim, za razliku od kulturnih politika koje su uglavnom sektorski orjentisane, strateški urbani dizajn ima teritorijalno usmerenje. Suština je u identifikovanju lokalnih manifestacija kulture u najširem smislu kao načina života, kao „tradicija, dijalekata, festivala i rituala; različitosti i kvaliteta dokolice: kulture jela i pića i prostora zabave: kulture mladih, etničkih manjina i interesnih grupa, i repertoar domaćih proizvoda i zanatskih veština, proizvodnih i uslužnih delatnosti.”(Ghilardi, 2000, 6) Povezujući na strateški način različite aspekte kulture sa ekonomskim i društvenim razvojem, moguće je uspostaviti opšti okvir koji može voditi ka različitim dizajnerskim predlozima i time usmeravati razvoj oblasti na kulturno osetljiv način.

as “traditions, dialects, festivals and rituals; the diversity and quality of leisure; cultural, drinking and eating and entertainment facilities; the cultures of youth, ethnic minorities and communities of interest; and the repertoire of local products and skills in the crafts, manufacturing and service sectors” (Ghilardi, 2000, 6). By strategic linking of different aspects of culture with economic and social development, a general framework can be established that would inform different design proposals, thus steering area development in culturally responsive way. Strategic urban design which is based on appreciation of cultural diversity includes specific requirements: mastering concepts in the field of human environment interaction, understanding of varieties that specific cultures manifest in relation to environment, accepting the need to formulate vision which provides work guidance and progress assessment criteria, being able to communicate in different cultural situations, as well as being aware of the need for continual review of underlying values of professional proposals and anticipating their impact on different cultural groups.

Strateški urbani dizajn koji je zasnovan na uvažavanju kulturne raznolikosti podrazumeva određene zahteve: ovladavanje konceptima u oblasti odnosa ljudi i okruženja, razumevanje brojnih, razlika, varijacija koji pojedine kulture imaju u odnosu na okruženje, prihvatanje neophodnosti formulisanja vizije koja usmerava rad i određuje kriterijume za procenu napretka, sposobnost komuniciranja u različitim kulturnim situacijama kao i potrebu stalnog preispitivanja vrednosti na kojima profesionalni predlozi počivaju i sagledavanja posledica koje će oni imati na različite kulturne grupe.

Razvijanje jezika komunikacije
Interes za kulturu i posebno raznolikost kulturnih fenomena se razvija paralelno sa značajnim mogućnostima za nove interdisciplinarne uvide i pristupe razumevanju kulturne dinamike kao i promocije prilagođenijih fizičkih rešenja za zajednice koje se menjaju. U modernim demokratijama se očekuje snažan doprinos lokalnih zajednica i različitih aktera što podrazumeva ostvarivanje efikasne komunikacije. Kako se ceo proces odlučivanja dešava u saradnji sa brojnim akterima, prilagođavanje jezika komunikacije utiče i na promene u profesionalnom metodu rada u pravcu produkovanja konkretnih, svima razumljivih predstava i omogućavanja njihove kontinualne modifikacije i unapređenja. Mogućnosti koje nude nove informacione tehnologije i interaktivni dijalog preko interneta, od suštinskog su značaja za savremenu praksu. (Al-Kodmany, 2002, Kaliski, 2006) Razvijanje vizuelnih metoda i alata u profesionalnom delovanju je preduslov za uspešnost komunikativnog procesa strateškog urbanog dizajna u koji profesionalci unoce svoju ekspertizu, ali zapravo zajednica odlučuje kakvi će biti krajnji rezultati. Vizuelne predstave omogućavaju trenutni pristup informacijama i prevazilaze rasne, socijalne i jezičke barijere. (Feldman et al. 1989, cit. u Al-Kodmany, 2002) Svi ljudi, profesionalci i laici vrlo lako
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Developing language of communication
Interest in culture and, specifically, diverse cultural phenomena runs in parallel with significant opportunities for new perspectives and approaches for better cross-disciplinary understanding of cultural dynamics, and promotion of more suitable physical solutions for changing communities. In modern democracies strong inputs from local communities and different stakeholders is expected, which means that effective communication has to be achieved. Given that the whole decision making process takes place in cooperation with numerous stakeholders, adjustments to the language of communication also lead to changes in professional work methods in terms of producing concrete, widely understandable representations and enabling their continual modi-

fication and upgrading. Possibilities offered by new information technologies and interactive dialogue over the Internet are of key importance for contemporary practice (Al-Kodmany, 2002, Kaliski, 2006). Development of visual methods and tools in professional work is a prerequisite for successful communication process in strategic urban design where professionals contribute by their expertise, but in fact, the community decides on the final results. Visual representations enable instant access to information and overcome race, social and language barriers (Feldman et al., 1989, qtd. in Al-Kodmany, 2002). All people, professionals and laymen easily understand the language of images. Computer simulations, 3D modelling, virtual reality, all show how abstract goals, policies, regulations are realized through spaces, facilities and details. Since these techniques recreate real life experiences, the community understands offered urban scenes and buildings without any technical background necessary for reading plans and projects. Good simulations are mostly interactive, and instead of passive observation they encourage active participation. New interactive multimedia that include video maps, text, graphic, statistical data, integrate spatial, economic and a host of other information in digital form. These techniques help the community to visualize a possible image of their area, to create alternative solutions and choose a desirable one, or discard unwanted qualities. Connecting individual and group evaluations of area characteristics into the synthesis of qualities accepted by the majority signals to investors what the community does or does not accept. Through consensus building participants choose changes that suit them best and create common priorities. Process of cooperation, supported by visualization that can verify translation of values (non spatial categories) into the project of physical structure (spatial category) serves as a tool for understanding and
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razumeju jezik slika. Kompjuterske simulacije, 3-D modelovanje, virtuelna realnost, pokazuju kako se apstraktni ciljevi, politike, regulativa realizuju kroz prostore, objekte, detalje. Kako ove tehnike podržavaju iskustva iz realnog života, zajednica razume ponuđene urbane scene i objekte, bez ikakvog tehničkog predznanja koje je potrebno za čitanje planova i projekata. Dobre simulacije su u velikoj meri interaktivne te umesto pasivnog posmatranja podstiču na aktivno učešće. Novi interaktivni multimediji koji uključuju video mape, tekstove, grafiku, statističke podatke povezuju prostorne, ekonomske i druge brojne informacije u digitalnoj formi. Ove tehnike pomažu zajednici da vizuelizuje kako bi njihovo područje moglo da izgleda, da kreiraju alternativna rešenja i da odaberu poželjne, a odbace nepoželjne kvalitete. Povezivanje individualnih i grupnih ocena karakteristika područja u sintezu kvaliteta koji su prihvaćeni od većine pokazuje investitorima šta zajednica prihvata, a šta ne. Kroz izgradnju koncenzusa učesnici biraju promene koje im odgovaraju i formiraju zajedničke prioritete. Proces saradnje, potpomognut vizuelizacijom kroz koju se može proveriti prevođenje vrednosti (neprostorne kategorije) u projekat fizičke strukture (prostorna kategorija), služi kao instrument za razumevanje i učenje o faktorima relevantnim za konkretnu zajednicu. Ove inovacije u dizajnu menjaju metod profesionalnog rada. Ne nudi se jedan predlog koji odgovara profesionalim vrednostima, već brojna alternativna rešenja, lepeza mogućih uređenja prostora prikazanih kroz razumljive predstave koje se modifikuju kroz dijalog različitih učesnika. U procesu rada i profesionalci i različite grupe aktera se uzajamno informišu o značajnim aspektima strateškog projekta, unapređuju svoje saznanje i donose odluke. Kompjutersko modelovanje, omogućava identifikovanje postojećih problema i brzu procenu mogućih rešenja uz uključivanje zajednice. Istraživanja pokazuju da se ne može upotrebiti jedan metod za istraživanje problema, njegovo rešavanje i definisanje

learning about factors relevant for a specific community. These innovations in the design process change the method of professional work. Instead of a single proposal matching professional values, numerous alternative solutions are offered, a wide range of possible spatial arrangements presented in the form of understandable representations modified through dialogue between different participants. During the work process, professionals and different stakeholder groups mutually inform each other on the relevant aspects of the strategic project, upgrade their knowledge and make decisions. Computer modelling enables identification of existing problems and quick assessment of possible solutions with community involvement. Researches show that one method is insufficient in problem research and solving and project development. Different methods are appropriate for different phases of strategic urban design process. Al Kodmany points out that a careful professional analysis and assessment of combination of new and traditional visualisation tools is a necessary support to complex decision making process (Al-Kodmany, 2002). New role identifies urban designer as an initiator of a dialogue and central person who, using understandable language, animates the arena where communication takes place. He/she is expected to be inventive and contribute by informal inputs to decision making process that will enable agreement between different stakeholders about the future they wish for themselves, as well as to identify tools that will steer development in the chosen direction.

projekata. Različiti metodi su primereni različitim fazama procesa strateškog urbanog dizajna. El Kodmani skreće pažnju da je potrebna pažljiva stručna analiza i procena kombinacije novih i tradicionalnih alata vizuelizacije kao podrška kompleksnom procesu odlučivanja. (Al-Kodmany, 2002) Nova uloga identifikuje urbanog dizajnera kao pokretača dijaloga i centralnu ličnost koja razumljivim jezikom animira arenu u kojoj se događa komunikacija. Od njega se očekuje inventivnost i ubacivanje neformalnih inputa u proces odlučivanja, koji će omogućiti dogovor sa različitim akterima o poželjnoj budućnosti a zatim pronalaženje instrumenata koji će upravljati razvojem u tom pravcu.

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4.1

Urban spatial and cultural processes
Understanding culture and cultural diversity in urban design
The concept of strategic urban design with its shift towards social accountability starts with understanding of spatial manifestations of different cultures, identifying the gap between the current and the desirable condition, and developing principles and physical patterns that will conform to cultural innovations and contribute to intercultural cooperation. The goal is to investigate possibilities for widening of narrow approaches in spatial analysis in urban design focusing on specific local activity bundles, a mixture of lifestyles of diverse cultural identities in the urban area. The emphasis is on detailed familiarization with a location, place where different groups, cultures communicate and create a specific identity of intercultural dynamics. The initial assumption in this approach is that experts, urban designers will be much more considerate in their decisions if they are directly confronted with real people and their environment, instead of confining themselves to observing urban phenomena through spatial and physical features and using standard procedures. Specific local relations between different groups of people are the starting point in the exploration of development potentials in a democratic society which acknowledges global processes but starts from local situations. This innovative approach in urban design involves research and understanding of the world of concrete, localized person-environment relations and intercultural transformations in order to create effective design solutions. The basic task includes review and defining of an integral approach, research and creative, that will lead to spatial propositions beyond simple determining of land use and design of specific physical objects. It assumes focusing on the problem of social space
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Urbani prostorni i kulturni procesi
Razumevanje kulture i kulturne raznolikosti u urbanom dizajnu
Koncept strateškog urbanog dizajna, pomeranjem ka društvenoj odgovornosti, polazi od otkrivanja i razumevanja prostorne manifestacije različitih kultura, utvrđivanja jaza između postojećeg i poželjnog i razvijanja principa i fizičkih obrazaca koji će pratiti kulturne inovacije i doprinositi interkulturnoj saradnji. Cilj je istraživanje mogućnosti proširivanja uskih pristupa u prostornoj analizi u urbanom dizajnu usmeravanjem pažnje na karakteristične spojeve lokalnih aktivnosti, mešavine životnih stilova različitih kulturnih identiteta u urbanom području. Naglasak je na detaljnom upoznavanju lokacije, mesta, u kome komuniciraju različite grupe, kulture stvarajući karakterističan identitet interkulturne dinamike. Pretpostavka od koje se u ovom pristupu polazi je da će stručnjaci, urbani dizajneri, biti daleko pažljiviji u svojim odlukama ukoliko budu direktno suočeni sa realnim ljudima i njihovim okruženjem nego kada se ograničavaju na posmatranje urbanih fenomena kroz prostorne i fizičke karakteristike i upotrebu standardnih procedura. Karakteristični lokalni odnosi između različitih grupa ljudi predstavljaju polaznu tačku u istraživanju potencijala za razvoj u demokratskom društvu koji uvažava globalne procese ali polazi od lokalnih situacija. Inovativni pristup u urbanom dizajnu podrazumeva proučavanje i razumevanje sveta konkretnih odnosa ljudi i okruženja, kao i lokalizovanih interkulturnih transformacija sa ciljem osmišljavanja efektivnih predloga oblikovanja. Osnovni cilj je preispitivanje i definisanje integralnog pristupa, istraživačkog i kreativnog, koji će dovesti do prostornih predloga i ići iznad jednostavnog određivanja upotrebe površina i konkretnog projektovanja fizičkih objekata. To podrazumeva fokusira-

definition and, translating the appreciation of different cultural and socio-economic features of an area into complex strategic projects. At the same time, it is important to learn how to recognize forces that shape development patterns, and their connection with capital flows, population growth and migration, information networking, multicultural character and internationalisation of cities in the globalizing world. Strategic urban project is, above all, an opportunity for exploring unresearched possibilities of culture as the key issue in urban design, as the foundation of new ideology based on pluralism and democracy. The basis for this approach is an adequate urban analysis that can provide insight into the social and historical context and varied personal experience and meaning, examining how urban spaces meet the needs and values of different, both majority and minority cultural groups. Another important project goal is to offer an attractive urban image, an image that includes people, not just empty physical frame, built on possibilities of enhancing the intercultural dimension of a local community. Through institutionalization, development of relevant regulations it can become an instrument for confronting global unification processes. Such an approach develops creativity in combining different ways of interpretation of use and meaning of urban spaces, and enables imagining new identity of the place in which all relevant actors participate, including those without means and power.

nje na problem definisanja socijalnog prostora i pitanje kako prevesti razumevanje različitih kulturnih i socio-ekonomskih karakteristika područja u kompleksne strateške projekte. Takođe je bitno upoznati načine kako prepoznati snage koje oblikuju obrasce razvoja, njihove veze sa kretanjem kapitala, rastom i migracijama stanovništva, informacionom povezanošću, multikulturnim karakterom i internacionalizacijom gradova u svetu koji se globalizuje. Strateški urbani projekat je, pre svega, prilika za istraživanje neistraženih mogućnosti kulture kao ključne teme u urbanom dizajnu, kao osnove nove ideologije zasnovane na pluralizmu i demokratiji. Polazište za ovako definisani pristup je adekvatna urbana analiza koja može obezbediti uvid u društveni, istorijski kontekst i raznolika lična iskustva i značenja, ispitati na koji način urbani prostori odgovaraju potrebama i vrednostima različitih kulturnih grupa, kako većinskih tako i manjinskih. Jedan od važnih ciljeva u projektu je da ponudi atraktivnu urbanu sliku, sliku koja uključuje ljude, a ne samo prazan fizički okvir, zasnovanu na prepoznavanju interkulturne dimenzije lokalne zajednice. Kroz institucionalizaciju, razvijanje adekvatne regulative, ona može postati instrument suprotstavljanja globalnim procesima ujednačavanja. Ovakav pristup razvija kreativnost u kombinovanju različitih načina interpretacije upotrebe i značenja urbanih prostora i omogućava imaginiranje novog identiteta mesta u koji su uključeni svi relevantni akteri, pa i oni koji nemaju sredstva i moć.

Cultural diversity mapping
People in communities and different urban areas develop distinct cultural features, which embrace traditional features of cultural patterns, but also, to some point, reflect integration and interchange in producing new quality. These place specific mixtures of cultures, worldviews, patterns and lifestyles can be experienced as a challenge, chance for selfrealization and enrichment of society and lead to a
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Mapiranje kulturne raznolikosti
Ljudi u zajednicama i različitim urbanim područjima razvijaju specifične kulturne karakteristike koje obuhvataju tradicionalne karakteristike kulturnih obrazaca, ali u odredjenoj meri odražavaju integraciju i razmenu u stvaranju novog kvaliteta. Ove mešavine kultura, pogleda na svet, obrazaca i životnih stilova karakterističnih za konkretno mesto se mogu

fruitful dialogue on future development options. Intercultural dynamics, seen as exchange, is based on creation of new dynamic syntheses and presents a key factor in construction of a new identity. Therefore, when shaping urban space in professional practice, urban designers are not concerned just with physical, geographic space, but also with social space. In post-modern paradigm, interaction between space and social processes is recognized it is accepted that city cannot be treated solely as a large-scale architecture. Urban processes, that we attempt to find an adequate urban form for, present dynamic, constantly changing image of a form in action (Webber, 1964). Each urban project, an intervention in a local community, is approached as a special case, and has to start with modification of research method as well as intervention method. The research comprises familiarizing with and creative interpretation of policies related to cultural diversity, but also discovering and mapping different cultural identities, including hybridized and multiple identities, images, values, unique local quality of life, memories and narratives as an important dimension of cultural interlacing of contemporary life. At the same time it means including methods such as ‘reading the city as a complex text, with multiple, layered narratives’, ‘graphical analysis of cities and discovering the syntax and vocabulary of the urban text’, ‘morphological syntheses’, classification of urban tissue and ‘discovering new urban patterns’. (Loeckx & Shannon, 2004,164) Inclusion of culture in the spatial analysis involves complex understanding of territorialisation. This means replacing the traditional spatial basis as the only matrix to locate the cultural differences, with a number of matrices, spatial and social levels, which will enable identification of changes that belonging to different cultural groups produces in space (Gupta & Ferguson, 1992).
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doživeti kao izazov, prilika za samorealizaciju i obogaćenje društva i mogu voditi ka korisnim dijalozima o mogućnostima budućeg razvoja. Interkulturalna dinamika, posmatrana kao razmena, se zasniva na kreiranju novih dinamičkih sinteza, i predstavlja značajan činilac u proizvodnji novog identiteta. Prema tome, oblikujući urbani prostor u profesionalnom delovanju, urbani dizajneri se ne bave samo fizičkim, geografskim, već i socijalnim prostorom. U postmodernoj paradigmi, interakcija izmedju prostora i društvenih procesa je prepoznata - prihvaćeno je da se grad ne može tretirati samo kao arhitektura velikih razmera. Urbani procesi za koje pokušavamo da pronađemo adekvatnu prostornu formu predstavljaju dinamičnu, stalno promenljivu sliku forme u akciji. (Webber, 1964) Svakom urbanom projektu, intervenciji u lokalnoj zajednici, prilazi se kao posebnom slučaju što podrazumeva prilagođavanje kako metoda istraživanja tako i metoda intervencije. Istraživanje obuhvata upoznavanje i kreativnu interpretaciju politika povezanih sa kulturnom raznolikošću, otkrivanje i mapiranje različitih kulturnih identiteta, uključujući i hibridne i višestruke identitete, predstava, simbola, vrednosti, posebnog lokalnog kvaliteta života, sećanja i priča, kao značajne dimenzije kulturnog preplitanja savremenog života. Takođe, to znači uključivanje metoda kao što su ‘čitanje grada kao kompleksnog teksta sa brojnim narativnim slojevima’, grafička analiza gradova i ‘otkrivanje sintakse i rečnika urbanog teksta’, ‘morfološka sinteza’, klasifikacija urbanog tkiva i ‘otkrivanje novih obrazaca’. (Loeckx & Shannon, 2004,164) Uključivanje kulture u prostornu analizu podrazumeva složenije tumačenje teritorijalizacije. To znači zamenu prostorne osnove koja tradicionalno predstavlja jedinu matricu na kojoj se lociraju kulturne razlike, brojnim matricama, prostornim i socijalnim nivoima, koje će omogućiti uočavanje promena koje

4.2

Cultural identity mapping is a challenge because it includes definitions of terms, determines how various kinds of activities, relationships between people, organizations and institutions in the city are observed and evaluated. It should be stressed that in practice, many obstacles are encountered. Data are difficult to standardize, they are often limited to physical inventory, and are rarely collected in any systematized way. Data collection process is also driven by the development of new techniques and software tools. Spatial patterns of different life styles Built urban environment, to a greater or lesser extent, reflects human values (primarily economic, but also others), standards, goals and particular level of technology. Contemporary cities contain numerous layers developed as a result of interventions of individuals and groups in different periods of time. Built-in values and choices reflect characteristics of specific cultures that they originate from. At the same time, the built environment, in its turn, can influence the way in which people organize their private and social lives. Cultural spatial pattern is understood as a social group’s way of functioning and relation to space, which is distinguished by a specific, unique set of values, customs and behaviours. And also specific experiences which, as anthropological research shows, are not just common but inevitable. Cultural patterns, therefore, reflect interconnections between space, experience and meanings within a specific culture. Research of cultural diversity (‘culture within a culture’, subcultures) at the local level can be initiated by an observation, visual diagnosis of spatial manifestations of different cultural patterns within an urban area, and their connections that go beyond the area boundaries. Visual environment has a bearing on spatial experience, which has biological and
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pripadnost različitim kulturnim grupama proizvodi u prostoru. (Gupta & Ferguson, 1992) Mapiranje kulturnog identiteta predstavlja poseban izazov pošto uključuje definicije pojmova, određuje kako će se različite vrste aktivnosti, veze između ljudi, organizacija i institucija u gradu posmatrati i procenjivati. Treba naglasiti da se u praksi susrećemo sa brojnim preprekama. Podatke je teško standardizovati, oni se često ograničavaju na fizičko inventarisanje, retko se prikupljaju na sistematičan način. Proces njihovog prikupljanja je povezan i sa razvijanjem novih tehnika i softverskih alata. Prostorni obrasci različitih životnih stilova Izgrađeno urbano okruženje u većoj ili manjoj meri odražava ljudske vrednosti (pre svega ekonomske ali i mnoge druge), norme, ciljeve i određeni nivo tehnologije. Savremeni gradovi u sebi sadrže mnogobrojne slojeve nastale kao rezultat intervencija brojnih pojedinaca i grupa u različitim vremenima. Ugrađene vrednosti i izbori odražavaju karakteristike specifičnih kultura u kojima su nastali. U isto vreme izgrađeno okruženje, sa svoje strane utiče na način na koji ljudi organizuju svoj privatni i društveni život. Pod kulturnim prostornim obrascem se podrazumeva način funkcionisanja i odnosa prema prostoru određene društvene grupe koju karakteriše jedinstven skup vrednosti, običaja i ponašanja. Ali isto tako i posebna iskustva koja, kako antropološka istraživanja pokazuju, nisu samo uobičajena već i neizbežna. Kulturni obrasci, odražavaju međupovezanost prostora, iskustva i značenja u okviru jedne kulture. Istraživanje kulturne raznolikosti (‘kulture u kulturi’, potkulture, subkulture) na lokalnom nivou, može započeti uočavanjem, vizuelnom dijagnozom prostornih manifestacija različitih kulturnih obrazaca unutar urbanog područja kao i njihovih veza koje idu van granica područja. Vizuelno okruženje utiče na prostorno iskustvo koje ima svoje biološke i sociokulturne aspekte određene ličnim karakteristikama

socio-cultural aspects determined by personal characteristics of an individual and belonging to certain cultural groups. Within the observed spatial environment particular ways of life can be recognized as distinct lifestyles, but it is also important to notice the meanings and interpretation assigned to them. Cultural differences are spatially manifested through patterns of use, consumption or non-consumption of space, perception, meanings, evaluation, as well as through distinct actions in space, construction, maintenance, etc. Research into relationship between human behaviour and environment in the framework of spatial disciplines begun early in the 20th century with the development of environmental psychology (Ittelson, W.H., 1973, Canter, D., 1977, Lazarević Bajec, 1987). Although the research and consequently developed models had played an important role in explaining the influence of the environment on human behaviour, formation of spatial experience and cognition, mechanisms of spatial representation (images) and knowledge development, behavioural conditioning by previous experience and concepts, they were stressing functional relationship and neglecting socially constructed meanings of spatial arrangements and methods for revealing them. Cultural differences can be perceived in urban space through forms of built space, particular designed details that can have symbolic meaning, way of maintenance and use, technology used in the processes. Distinct features can be observed in the interaction of people in the space observed, customs that are cherished, ‘networks of meanings’ through sources such as documents, plans, statistical data, fiction, daily press, etc. Through study which employs methods of spatial and economic analysis, behaviour observation, more detailed information and explanation of activity patterns can be obtained. Surveys and interviews reveal the ability of people to understand the complexity of
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pojedinca i pripadnošću određenim kulturnim grupama. U okviru posmatranog prostornog okruženja mogu se prepoznati specifični oblici načina života kao svojevrsni životni stilovi, ali je potrebno uočiti i značenja i interpretacije koje im daju oni koji ih produkuju. Kulturne razlike se prostorno manifestuju kroz načine upotrebe, korišćenje ili ne korišćenje prostora, percepciju, značenja, vrednovanje kao i kroz konkretne akcije u prostoru, u izgradnji, održavanju itd. Proučavanje odnosa ponašanja ljudi i okruženja je u okviru disciplina koje se bave prostorom započelo u dvadesetom veku razvojem psihologije okruženja. (Ittelson, W.H., 1973, Canter, D. 1977, Lazarević Bajec, 1987) Iako su istraživanja i iz njih razvijeni modeli odigrali značajnu ulogu u objašnjenju uticaja životne sredine na ljudsko ponašanje, formiranje prostornog iskustva, mehanizama stvaranja prostornih predstava i saznanja, uslovljenosti ponašanja prethodnim iskustvima i predstavama, u njima je naglašavana funkcionalna veza uz nedovoljno prepoznavanje društveno izgrađenih značenja prostornih aranžmana i metoda za njihovo otkrivanje. Kulturne razlike se uočavaju u prostoru kroz način izgradnje prostora, posebne oblikovne detalje koji mogu imati i simboličko značenje, način održavanja i korišćenja prostora, tehnologiju koja se pri tome upotrebljava. Specifične karakteristike se mogu čitati i u interakciji ljudi u datom prostoru, običajima koje u tom prostoru neguju, ‘mrežama značenja’, kroz izvore kao što su dokumenti, planovi, statistički podaci, beletristika, dnevna štampa, itd. Istraživanjem koje uključuje metode prostorne i ekonomske analize, posmatranje ponašanja, mogu se dobiti detaljnije informacije i objašnjenja obrazaca aktivnosti i njihovog značenja. Intervjui i ankete otkrivaju sposobnost ljudi da razumeju kompleksnost okruženja i da izvuku značenja koja im omogućavaju snalaženje u prostoru. To je posebno važno u uslovi-

the environment and to extract meanings enabling orientation in space. This is particularly important in environments influenced by globalization in which the number and diversity of visual information from the environment increases, which makes the identification with living space more difficult. The analysis of spatial characteristics of different cultural patterns involves recognition of basic peculiarities of an area, those that define it in cultural terms: location and differentiation relative to an immediate and wider surroundings, characteristic patterns of land use, physical form, characteristics of partition of space, relation between public and private, built and unbuilt space, type and quality of buildings and open spaces, etc. Each of these aspects should also be considered in the context of socio-historic processes that occasioned the occurrence of certain spatial structure and contemporary development trends that affect current transformations. Spatial characteristics of an urban area Spatial analysis is focussed on the recognition of an urban area as a distinct cultural entity, identifying features that make it unique and differentiate it from the neighbouring places. However, it also concerns networks of relationships and processes that tie the area to other similar or different parts of the city. The parameters used for defining an urban project area in conventional practice are its spatial components: size, type of boundaries, barriers that separate it, distances from important city points or entities, important roads, immediate surrounding. These main characteristics generate a spatial image that enables easy recognizing and describing, most often on a map or plan (Lynch, 1960). However, if we are concerned with culturally sensitive urban project, the area definition differs from common determination of boundaries in design
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ma globalizacije u kojima se broj i raznovrsnost vizuelnih informacija iz okruženja povećava što otežava identifikovanje sa životnim prostorom. Analiza prostornih karakteristika različitih kulturnih obrazaca počinje prepoznavanjem osnovnih osobenosti područja koje ga definišu u kulturnom smislu: lokacija i diferenciranje u odnosu na bliže i šire okruženje, specifični načini upotrebe prostora, fizička forma, karakteristike prostornih podela, odnos između javnog i privatnog, izgrađenog i neizgrađenog prostora, vrsta i kvalitet objekata i otvorenih prostora, itd. Svaki od ovih aspekata treba posmatrati i u kontekstu društveno-istorijskih procesa koji su uslovili pojavu određene prostorne strukture, odnosno savremenih razvojnih trendova koji utiču na aktuelne transformacije.

Prostorne karakteristike urbanog područja Prostorna analiza se fokusira na prepoznavanje urbane celine, kao specifičnog kulturnog sklopa, ono što ga čini jedinstvenim i odvaja od drugih područja, ali isto tako i na mreže odnosa i procese koji povezuju područje sa drugim sličnim ili različitim područjima, značajnim gradskim delovima. Parametri koji definišu područje urbanog projekta u uobičajenoj praksi su njegove prostorne komponente: veličina, vrsta granica, barijere koje ga izdvajaju, distance u odnosu na važne gradske repere ili celine, značajne saobraćajne tokove, neposredno okruženje. Ove osnovne karakteristike proizvode prostornu sliku koja omogućava lako prepoznavanje i opisivanje, najčešće na karti, planu. (Lynch, 1960) Međutim, ukoliko smo suočeni sa kulturno osetljivim urbanim projektom, definisanje područja se razlikuje od uobičajenog određivanja granica u praksi urbanog dizajna. Kao što Markuze naglašava,

practice. As Marcuse argues, it is necessary to distinguish a study area from an area of concern. The study area is defined in geographical sense as a neighbourhood, block or public space, street or square, while the area of concern is related to a set of problems that a project intends to address (Marcuse 2005). If the main focus of the project is to promote cultural diversity, than the definition of area of concern is not just technical issue but it also becomes a normative one: in what way is the project to approach the central issue? In that case, a priory determination of the study area cannot be accepted, it is desirable to consider the interests of the community to which the project applies. In that sense, according to Marcuse, “The initial step for professional action is the definition of the relevant areas of concerns, which should then be translated into one or more study areas only for methodological convenience” (Marcuse, 2005, 250). Spatial position of an area, location in the city, is more or less changeable, just like its economic value. Characteristics and values of a location, in the context of a city as a whole, can be simply read through the price of land. However, the price of land is an indicator not necessarily connected to cultural particularities of an area. Beside numerous other factors, price of land is influenced by possibility of use and possibility of upgrading defined through standards. If a special cultural composition of an area is recognized as a market value, it may push the price up, in expectation of special profits that could be achieved based on the specific character, identity of space. Price of land and the possibility of upgrading its quality affects defining of its future use, but also vice versa. Urban intervention, replacement of one land use by another more profitable can increase the price of land. Insecurity concerning the future land use is an obstacle for its use for less intense activities and leads to the decay of large city areas. The task of
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neophodno je razlikovati područje rada od područja interesa. Područje rada je definisano u geografskom smislu, kao susedstvo, blok ili javni prostor, ulica ili trg, dok je područje interesa povezano sa skupom problema kojima projekat namerava da se bavi. (Marcuse, 2005) Ukoliko je osnovni fokus projekta unapređenje kulturne raznolikosti, onda određivanje područja interesa ne može biti samo tehničko pitanje, već ono postaje normativno: na koji način se projekat bavi centralnom temom? U tom slučaju a priori određivanje područja rada se ne može prihvatiti, već je poželjno razmotriti interese zajednice na koju se projekat odnosi. U tom smislu, prema Markuzeu, „Prvi korak u profesionalnom pristupu je definisanje područja interesa koje se zatim prevodi u jedno ili više područja rada samo iz metodoloških razloga.” (Marcuse, 2005, 250) Prostorna pozicija područja, lokacija u gradu, je manje ili više promenljiva, kao što je promenljiva i njegova ekonomska vrednost. Karakteristike i vrednosti lokacije u kontekstu grada kao celine se mogu jednostavno čitati kroz cenu zemljišta. Međutim, cena zemljišta je indikator koji nije nužno povezan sa kulturnim posebnostima područja. Pored mnogobrojnih faktora, na cenu zemljišta utiče mogućnost korišćenja zemljišta i njegovog unapređenja definisana kroz normativne dokumente. Ukoliko se poseban kulturni sklop na području prepozna kao tržišna vrednost, moguće je da to doprinese podizanju cene uočavanjem posebnih profita koji se mogu dobiti upravo na temelju specifičnosti, identiteta područja. Cena zemljišta, odnosno mogućnost unapređenja utiče na definisanje buduće namene, ali i obrnuto. Urbana intervencija, zamena jedne namene drugom profitabilnijom može povećati cenu zemljišta. Nesigurnost u odnosu na buduću upotrebu zemljišta predstavlja prepreku korišćenju zemljišta za manje intenzivne aktivnosti i dovodi do propadanja velikih gradskih područja. Zadatak urbanih dizajnera je up-

urban designers, architects and urban planners is in fact to recognize potentials of different city areas, not only as exotic preserved tourist and historic attractions, but also as spaces that, owing to their specific features, can be integrated into economic development in numerous innovative ways. Patterns of use of urban space The use of urban space offers information on the nature of activities in an area, its development dynamics, history, present state and future development trends. The analysis of time activity maps, based on observations made daily, weekly, at different times of day and night, at different weather conditions, sun, rain, snow, as well as exploring of documents and photographs, can complete the picture of specific features of urban life and different attitudes that people develop towards environment. Professional observation can be expanded by interviews that give insight into the interpretation of people and meanings, which can significantly differ from professional insights. Many activities do not take place in buildings designed specifically for that purpose, or space may be used for purposes different from those it was originally conceived for: streets are used for recreation, semi public open spaces are used for commercial activities, apartments are used for services, etc. Use of space often cannot be detected directly, but through indirect cues that enable us to make assumptions on people’s actions. Size and type of stores suggests the type of products and number of people buying there; supply and price of goods at the market indicates the economic position of buyers; landscaping of private gardens indicates the regional origin of the owner. Intensity of use of space can also be guessed based on numerous indicators (number and size of garbage containers, number or deficit of parking places, number and size of food stores, number of mailboxes, etc).
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ravo prepoznavanje potencijala različitih gradskih područja i to ne samo kao egzotičnih konzerviranih turističkih ili istorijskih atrakcija, već i kao prostora koji svojim karakteristikama mogu biti integrisani u ekonomski razvoj na brojne inovativne načine. Obrasci upotrebe urbanog prostora Upotreba prostora govori o prirodi aktivnosti na nekom području, dinamici razvoja, istoriji, sadašnjem stanju i budućim trendovima razvoja urbanog područja. Uočavanjem aktivnosti u prostoru, dnevnih, nedeljnih, u različito vreme dana i noći, pri različitim vremenskim prilikama, sunce, kiša, sneg, analizom dokumenata i fotografija, može se stvoriti slika o specifičnim oblicima urbanog života i razlikama u odnosu ljudi i okruženja. Profesionalno opažanje može biti prošireno razgovorima i intervjuima koji pružaju uvid u interpretacije ljudi i značenja, koja se mogu znatno razlikovati od profesionalnog uvida. Mnoge aktivnosti se ne dešavaju u posebno prilagođenim objektima, ili se korišćenje prostora znatno razlikuje od namene koja je određena, prostori se upotrebljavaju za namene koje se razlikuju od onih za koje su bili predviđeni: rekreativne aktivnosti na ulicama, trgovina u polujavnim otvorenim prostorima, usluge u stambenim objektima, itd. Upotreba prostora se često ne može uočiti direktno, već preko posrednih ključeva koji nam omogućavaju da pretpostavimo šta ljudi rade. Vrsta i veličina radnji sugeriše šta i koliki broj ljudi u njima kupuje; ponuda i cena robe na pijacama pokazuje ekonomski položaj kupaca; uređenje privatnih vrtova ukazuje na regionalno poreklo vlasnika; intenzitet upotrebe prostora se takođe može videti preko brojnih indikatora (broj i veličina kontejnera za smeće, broj parking mesta odnosno njihov nedostatak, broj i veličina prodavnica prehrambenih proizvoda, broj poštanskih sandučića, itd.)

4.3

Changes in use of space are indicators of current processes and can be registered through new shops, renovated facades, arranged public spaces, signage, style of décor, etc. The fashion of land use is closely related to the type of property. The relation toward the type of activity on the land may vary significantly, depending on whether the land is in private or public ownership. In different societies use of private and public land is regulated differently, by accepted rules. Development of activities on a privately-owned land is directed by bans (zoning, regulations) or incentives (e.g. tax exemptions). Interests of private and public sectors are differently manifested in space, in determining dominant purpose, concomitant purposes, spaces for communications, accesses and parking, defining lots, size of green areas, public spaces, etc. Information on changes in use of space can be acquired from daily newspapers or real estate agencies. Ads show the situation on the real estate market and trends in modifying use of space within existing physical buildings and permitted uses. Dominant culture in a society establishes general values and regulates urban life through formulation of goals and manners to achieve them. However, different special cultures have their different visible and invisible values, meanings and symbols that influence the creation of different subsystems of spatial patterns. Distinctive attitude toward space, the way it is used and organized, carries meanings connected with specific culture. Sets of values underlying behavioural patterns of individual cultures actually define the position of different values, including the relation to private and public property. Physical form Specific ways in which space is used, defined and built, types of physical form of buildings and plots, types of communication channels, present perma79

Promene u upotrebi prostora su indikatori aktuelnih procesa i mogu se registrovati opažanjem novih radnji, obnovljenih fasada, uređenih javnih površina, znakova, stila dekoracije, itd. Način korišćenja zemljišta je usko vezan za oblik vlasništva. Vlasništvo zemljišta u privatnoj ili javnoj svojini značajno menja odnos prema vrsti aktivnosti na tom zemljištu. U različitim društvima upotreba privatnog i javnog zemljišta se normativno različito definiše pravilima oko kojih je postignut konsenzus. Razvoj aktivnosti na zemljištu u privatnoj svojini se usmerava zabranama (zoniranjem, regulativom) ili stimulacijama (na pr. oslobađanjem od poreza). Interesi privatnog ili javnog sektora se različito manifestuju u prostoru, prilikom određivanja dominantne namene, pratećih namena, prostora za komunikaciju, pristupe i parkiranje, načina parcelacije, veličine zelenih površina, javnih prostora itd. O promenama u upotrebi prostora se možemo informisati iz dnevnih novina ili u agencijama za trgovinu nekretninama. Oglasi nam pokazuju šta se dešava sa tržištem nekretnina i kakvi su trendovi modifikacije upotrebe prostora u okviru postojećih fizičkih objekata i dozvoljenih upotreba. Dominantna kultura u društvu uspostavlja generalne vrednosti i normativno uređuje urbani život kroz formulisanje ciljeva i određivanje načina kako da se oni postignu. Međutim, različite posebne kulture imaju svoje različite vidljive i nevidljive vrednosti, značenja, simbole, što uslovljava stvaranje različitih podsistema prostornih obrazaca. Specifičan odnos prema prostoru, način korišćenja i uređenja nose značenja povezana sa određenom kulturom. Skup vrednosti koji stoji iza obrazaca ponašanja pojedinih kultura, ustvari, definiše poziciju različitih vrednosti, pa i odnos prema privatnoj, odnosno, javnoj svojini. Fizička forma Određeni načini angažovanja i određivanja prostora, izgradnje prostora, tip fizičke forme objekata i tip

nent or temporary structures where activities take place and reflect construction customs of certain cultures. As inherited patterns, they can carry traces of the ways in which space and buildings were produced, of the relation with natural settings, use of materials, ways of shaping forms and details, use of different technologies, possibilities and limitations of the time period of their origin. Besides, habitual matrices of different cultures dictate modalities of organization of buildings, their grouping or separation, orientation to public and private space, relation to neighbours, volume of buildings, size and number of housing units, balance of built and unbuilt space, change of use, etc. However, in contemporary cities various, often contradictory principles are applied that testify to the difficulties in reconciliation of different values. Complex contemporary sustainability requirements are often narrowed down only to a few selected principles that are implemented in construction on trial an error basis. Extensive regulation, which relies on objective, general values makes its difficult to single out cultural values and prevents easy understanding of layers of urban forms created during other times, under different regulatory regimes. Buildings and their quality are the most accessible indicators used to make the conclusions on the nature of an urban area. They help us to answer questions about the past and present condition of an area and intervening changes: whom it was originally meant for, who uses it today and what are the possibilities for transformation in the future. It is more important to focus observation on groups of buildings, rather than individual isolated examples. The size of buildings and units inside them are the clue for understanding history of construction in the area, values of the community and its way of life, economic structure, as well as normative framework, i.e. local construction regulations.

parcele, vrsta komunikacionih kanala, predstavljaju trajne ili privremene strukture u kojima se aktivnosti odvijaju i odražavaju graditeljske običaje pojedinih kultura. Kao nasleđeni obrasci oni mogu nositi u sebi tragove načina proizvodnje prostora i objekata, odnos prema prirodi, upotrebe materijala, načine oblikovanja formi i detalja, upotrebe različitih tehnologija, mogućnosti i ograničenja vremena u kojem su nastajale. Osim toga, običajene matrice različitih kultura diktiraju načine organizacije objekata, njihovo grupisanje ili razdvajanje, orijentaciju ka javnom odnosno privatnom prostoru, odnos ka susedima, veličinu objekata, veličinu i broj stambenih jedinica, odnos izgrađenog i neizgrađenog prostora, promenu namene, itd. Međutim, u savremenim gradovima susrećemo se sa često vrlo kontradiktornim principima koji svedoče o teškoćama usaglašavanja različitih vre-dnosti. Kompleksni savremeni zahtevi održivosti se najčešće svode samo na neke, izabrane principe, koji se po sistemu probe i greške primenjuju u izgradnji. Obimna regulativa koja se oslanja na objektivizovane, generalne vrednosti otežava izdvajanje kulturnih vrednosti i onemogućava jednostavno razumevanje slojevitosti urbane forme nastale u drugim vremenima, sa drugačijim regulativnim pravilima. Fizički objekti i njihov kvalitet spadaju u najpristupačnije indikatore pomoću kojih do-nosimo zaključke o prirodi urbanog područja. Oni nam pomažu da odgovorimo na pitanja o prošlosti, promenama i sadašnjem stanju područja: kome je područje bilo originalno namenjeno, ko ga danas upotrebljava i kakve su mogućnosti transformacije u budućnosti. Pri tome je značajnije usmeriti se na posmatranje grupa objekata, pre nego na pojedinačne izolovane primere. Veličina objekata i jedinica koje se u njemu nalaze su ključ za razumevanje istorije izgradnje područja,

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4.4

4.5

Irrespective of (changeable) economic power of a community or individuals, quality of buildings and open spaces can reflect values of a certain culture in the long term. Attitude toward living space and its’ immediate surroundings is read through physical arrangements, maintenance of public and common spaces, equipment of privates spaces, individual investments in common spaces, aesthetic qualities, choice of details, street furniture, etc. Indicators, cues for reading quality of buildings are diverse: appearance of facades, condition of alleys, passages, yards, greenery, personalization, etc. Space generation takes place in a concrete urban space and is therefore largely conditioned with all that already exists there. Physical patterns of space and their quality are the limitation to future patterns of activities and functional organisation of a community (Foley, 1964).

vrednosti zajednice i njenog načina života, ekonomske strukture, kao i normativnog okvira, lokalnih pravila izgradnje. Nezavisno od (promenljive) ekonomske moći određene zajednice ili pojedinaca, kvalitet objekata i otvorenih prostora može dugoročno odražavati vrednosti određene kulture. Odnos prema životnom prostoru i njegovom neposrednom okruženju se čita kroz fizičko uređenje, održavanje privatnih i zajedničkih prostora, opremljenost privatnih prostora, individualno ulaganje u zajedničke prostore, estetske kvalitete, izbor detalja, ulični mobilijar, itd. Indikatori, ključevi za čitanje kvaliteta objekata su raznovrsni: kako izgledaju fasade, kakvo je stanje prolaza, pasaža, dvorišta, odnos prema zelenilu, personalizacija, itd. Zahvati u proizvodnji prostora se dešavaju u konkretnom urbanom prostoru, te su zato u velikoj meri uslovljeni onim što u njemu već postoji. Fizički obrasci prostora i njihov kvalitet predstavljaju ograničenje budućih obrazaca aktivnosti i funkcionalne organizacije zajednice. (Foley, 1964) Analiza lokalnih aktivnosti Profesionalno delovanje urbanih dizajnera je tradicionalno usmereno na fizički grad kao proizvod, odnosno, smeštanje aktivnosti u njemu po odgovarajućim, standardnim obrascima. Kako taj napor podrazumeva ambiciju da se unaprede određeni aspekti ponašanja u zajednici, neophodno je modifikovati pristup i pre svega, razumeti kulturno uslovljeni sistem dinamičkih veza između individua i grupa i način na koji se ove veze prilagođavaju lokalnim obrascima. (Webber, 1964) Urbana vizija i oblikovanje koji podržavaju kulturnu raznolikost su utemeljeni u skupu specifičnih lokalnih aktivnosti i njihovoj dinamici. One su manifestacija specifičnosti životnih stilova lokalnih aktera,
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Analysis of local activities Professional efforts of urban designers have traditionally been focused on physical city as a product, i.e. situating activities in the city according to suitable, standard patterns. Since such efforts aspire to upgrade certain aspects of behaviour in the community, it is necessary to modify the approach and, above all, understand culturally conditioned system of dynamic connections between individuals and groups, and also the ways in which these connections adjust to local patterns (Webber, 1964). Urban vision and design that support cultural diversity have to be established on the set of particular local activities and their dynamics. They are the manifestation of specific lifestyles of local ac-

tors; they are carriers of local identity of space and present the potential for development of new cultural compositions. This approach implies perception, understanding, detailed analysis and accurate classification of diverse types of activities. It has to be kept in mind that by simple reading of activity patterns one can not directly make conclusions about the cultural frame and values that it contains. Researches warn of cultural gap, i.e. the fact that functional organization, activity patterns (especially under the influence of technology) change more quickly than cultural frame (Foley, 1964). In the routine regulatory practice we can often find definition of land use oriented to a single, dominant activity. However, in reality we notice that many activities coexist at the same space, parcel or building. Their intensity and meaning can be very high (especially in cultural sense) contrary to small spatial demands. In such situations interaction between users of different activities and creation of specific mixtures are inevitable. Also, one should understand that assigned purposes are not necessarily the most important ones in the experience of users: cafes and restaurants are not just for consumption of food and beverages, shopping malls for trading goods, green markets for selling fruit and vegetable. Those places are not just functional but also social phenomena. They are at the same time places for encounters and entertainment, places of communication in which identities are created and confirmed. Observing the way an area functions and zoning of uses makes possible the temporal analysis of activities that occur in the area at different times of day and on different days with diverse patterns and participants. Activity analysis is focused on identification of the following aspects: type of activity, intensity (volume) of activity and level (quality) of activity.
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one su nosioci lokalnog identiteta prostora i predstavljaju potencijal za razvoj novih kulturnih sklopova. Ovakav pristup zahteva uočavanje, razumevanje, temeljnu analizu i pažljivu klasifikaciju raznovrsnih oblika aktivnosti. Pri tome treba imati u vidu da se samo čitanjem obrazaca aktivnosti ne može direktno zaključivati o kulturnom okviru i vrednostima koje su u njemu sadržane. Istraživači upozoravaju na kulturni jaz, odnosno na činjenicu da se funkcionalna organizacija, obrasci aktivnosti (posebno pod uticajem tehnologije) brže menjaju od kulturnog okvira. (Foley, 1964) U rutinskoj regulativnoj praksi često susrećemo određivanje upotrebe zemljišta u odnosu na samo jednu, dominantnu aktivnost. Međutim, u stvarnosti uočavamo da mnoge aktivnosti koegzistiraju u istom prostoru, odnosno, na parceli, u objektu. Njihov intenzitet i značaj može biti veoma velik (posebno u kulturnom smislu) nasuprot malim prostornim zahtevima. U ovakvim situacijama neminovno dolazi do interakcije između korisnika različitih aktivnosti i stvaranja specifičnih mešavina. Takođe, treba razumeti da definisane namene nisu nužno i najvažnije u iskustvu korisnika: kafei i restorani ne služe samo za konzumiranje hrane i pića, tržni centri za prodaju različite robe, pijace za prodaju voća i povrća. Ova mesta nisu samo funksionalni već i socijalni fenomeni. To su u isto vreme mesta susreta i zabave, mesta komunikacije u kojima se stvaraju i potvrđuju identiteti. Uočavanje načina funkcionisanja područja, zoniranja upotrebe, omogućava vemensku analizu aktivnosti koje se u prostoru dešavaju u različito doba dana, različitim danima, sa raznolikim obrascima i učesnicima. Analiza aktivnosti je usmerena na prepoznavanje sledećih aspekata: vrsta aktivnosti, intenzitet (obim) aktivnosti i nivo (kvalitet) aktivnosti.

Types of activities Contrary to the routine practice of reading land use based on widely defined activity categories, such as housing, recreation, industry, commerce, traffic, etc, contemporary researches are focused on establishing clearer links among more precisely defined activities that better reflect the real life. The structure of activities thus recognized is more complex and an effort to define it presupposes understanding the way in which people in the city organize their spatial and temporal patterns. Alongside the elementary classification of activities that is common in formal planning, it is possible to make more detailed typologies. Instead of, for example, defining housing as luxurious, affordable and social, the classification can be broadened with different forms of housing that reflect the existing character of the area and cultural groups present in it: housing for young, old, new immigrants, or ethnic groups, Roma, Chinese, etc. Instead of food retail, shops with luxurious goods, wholesale, green market, etc, different types of culturally specific forms of commercial establishments can be recognized: family shops, ethnic shops, street stalls, trade organized in bazaars etc. There is no final classification of activities, it depends on actual situation in space and can be modified according to the observed features in real life. While observing activities in an urban space, we must take into account that use of land is threedimensional. Usually we concentrate on the activity that is on the surface, neglecting the ones on floors or under ground. Different activities in the same space are not independent; they can support or be in conflict with each other. Their distribution in the same site can be a result of different socio-economic processes. It is common that activities of special user groups that are not defined in binding plans or projects, position themselves above or beyond legally assigned ones (in lofts or cellars). Classification of activities should respect the dynamic of their formal and informal emergence and progress.
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Vrsta aktivnosti Nasuprot rutinskoj praksi čitanja namene zemljišta u odnosu na široko definisane kategorije aktivnosti kao što je stanovanje, rekreacija, industrija, poslovanje, saobraćaj itd., savremena istraživanja idu u pravcu uspostavljanja jasnijih veza među preciznije definisanim aktivnostima koje bolje odgovaraju realnom životu. Struktura tako prepoznatih aktivnosti je kompleksnija i njeno definisanje podrazumeva razumevanje načina na koje ljudi u gradu organizuju svoje prostorne i vremenske obrasce. Pored osnovne klasifikacije aktivnosti koja je uobičajena u formalnom planiranju, moguće je izvršiti mnogo detaljnije podele. Umesto definisanje stanovanja kao luksuznog, dostupnog, socijalnog, klasifikacija se može proširiti različitim oblicima stanovanja koja odražava karakter područja i kulturnih grupa koje se u njemu nalaze: stanovanje mladih, starih, novih imigranata, ili etničkih grupa, Roma, Kineza, itd. Umesto trgovine svakodnevnim prehrambenim potrebama, trgovina luksuznom robom, trgovina velikog formata pijačne trgovine, moguće je uvesti različite oblike kulturno specifične trgovine: porodične radnje, etničke, ulična trgovina, trgovina organizovana u sklopovima tipa čaršija ili bazara, itd. Ne postoji definitivna podela aktivnosti već ona zavisi od stvarne situacije u prostoru i može se modifikovati prema uočenim karakteristikama u realnom životu. Kada posmatramo aktivnosti u nekom urbanom prostoru, moramo uzeti u obzir da korišćenje zemljišta ima tri dimenzije. Obično se koncentrišemo na aktivnost koja se nalazi na površini zanemarujući druge slojeve, one koje se nalaze na spratovima ili ispod zemlje. Različite aktivnosti na istom prostoru nisu nezavisne jedne od drugih, one se mogu podržavati ili biti u konfliktu. Njihov razmeštaj na istoj lokaciji može biti posledica delovanja različitih društveno-ekonomskih procesa. Karakteristično je da se aktivnosti posebnih grupa korisnika koje nisu predviđene regulativom odvijaju iznad, ili ispod legalno definisanih namena (u potkrovljima ili u po-

Intensity of activity Intensity, density of activity defines the level of use of space and can be presented differently: as the number of inhabitants per area unit (ha), by volume of turnover or achieved profit, by number of users during the day, week, etc. Intensity of activities, expressed only in total, as the number of people, users, the exchange of goods, or financial effects, does not give insight into the distinct character of activity, its important features, which may not concern the intensity, but the meaning it has for the people in the area. The number of chess players in the local park may not be big, nor is it recognized as the important recreational activity. However, this activity could be significant for identification of the group of people with the area. It could also be considered as a mode of cultural interaction and represent the basis when contemplating the future of the place. Level of activity The level, i.e. quality of an activity can be measured by different parameters, such as size of the space where the activity is taking place, price per m2 of space in the market, the number of users per area unit (m2 or ha), equipment of space, etc. Level of activity is often related to standards; however, it is clear that standards can range from minimal – obligatory, through optimal – recommended, to extremely comfortable. Through assessment of the level of activity, with the involvement of users, it is possible to come to the conclusion on their status, i.e. their habits and life styles. Unique level of activity in a space usually means segregation of users and generation of isolated communities. Therefore, the analysis of possibilities of connecting different level activities is of essential importance for creating socio-cultural diversity.
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drumima). Potrebno bi bilo da klasifikacija aktivnosti uvažava dinamiku njihovog formalnog i neformalnog pojavljivanja i odvijanja. Intenzitet aktivnosti Intenzitet, gustina aktivnosti označava stepen upotrebe prostora i može se različito iskazivati: brojem stanovnika po jedinici površine (ha), obimom prometa ili ostvarenim prihodom, brojem korisnika tokom dana, nedeljno, itd. Intenzitet aktivnosti, iskazan samo ukupno, brojem ljudi, korisnika, prometom roba, finansijskim efektima, ne pruža uvid u posebnosti aktivnosti, njene važne karakteristike koje možda nisu u intenzitetu već u značaju za ljude u određenom području. Broj ljudi koji u lokalnom parku igraju šah možda nije velik, niti se prepoznaje kao značajna aktivnost rekreacije. Međutim, ova aktivnost može biti vrlo značajna za identifikaciju određenih grupa ljudi sa područjem, može predstavljati način kulturne interakcije i predstavljati oslonac u razmišljanju o budućnosti mesta. Nivo aktivnosti Nivo, odnosno kvalitet neke aktivnosti se može meriti različitim parametrima kao što je veličina prostora u kojem se aktivnost odvija, tržišna cena po m2 prostora, broj korisnika na jedinici površine (m2, ili ha), opremljenost prostora itd. Nivo aktivnosti se često vezuje za standarde, međutim jasno je da se standardi mogu kretati od minimalnih - obaveznih, preko optimalnih - preporučenih do krajnje komfornih. Putem procene nivoa aktivnosti uz uključenje korisnika moguće je doći do zaključaka o njihovom statusu, odnosno njihovim navikama i životnim stilovima. Jedinstven nivo aktivnosti u nekom prostoru najčešće podrazumeva segregaciju korisnika i stvaranje izolovanih zajednica. Stoga je analiza mogućnosti povezivanja aktivnosti različitih nivoa od suštinske važnosti za kreiranje socio-kulturne raznolikosti.

Characteristics of cultural groups Respect for differences among inhabitants in a community, observed through relation to space, means valorisation of potentials, the role of individuals and groups in place definition. Their specific actions present a set of individual contributions and a frame for creating cultural identity. Their lifestyles, reflected in particular relations to space, are the starting point in professional intervention, shaping of regulations and in defining new physical structure. The starting point in culturally sensitive projects that support local mixture of cultures is to transform anonymous actors into stakeholders who have the responsibility for the project and take the risk to ensure its success. While the project can have a wide influence onto many, local participants in the project should have the moral claim to the project as their style of life depends on the project results. Local authorities are also stakeholders, as well as investors, that have demands and expectations, ownership and rights, and as such are participants in the creation of a new value. All potential stakeholders are investing some sort of capital, human or financial, and some sort of value into the project. Although it is vital to clearly determine the stakeholders which are to be involved in the project, the parameters defining the importance of stakeholders are connected with stakeholders’ attributes that are variable, socially constructed, not objective reality, and they present power relations so they are not easily recognized. However, the analysis of patterns of use of space by different groups of users includes at least two aspects. On the one hand, characteristics of groups affect adjustment of space to their needs and values, while on the other hand the space itself presents a strong and stable factor that influences modifications of behaviour a social group aims to achieve. Situation is even more complex if cultural patterns
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Karakteristike kulturnih grupa Uvažavanje različitosti među stanovnicima neke zajednice, koja se posmatra kroz odnos prema prostoru, podrazumeva valorizaciju potencijala, uloge pojedinaca ili grupa u definisanju mesta. Njihove specifične akcije predstavljaju skup pojedinačnih doprinosa i okvir za izgradnju kulturnog identiteta. Njihovi životni stilovi, koji se očituju kroz specifične odnose prema prostoru, čine polazište za stručnu intervenciju, određivanje regulative i definisanje nove fizičke strukture. Kulturno osetljivi projekti, koji podržavaju lokalnu mešavinu kultura, stanovnike i korisnike prostora od anonimnih aktera pretvaraju u deoničare u projektu (stejkeholderi) koji imaju odgovornost za projekat i snose rizik njegovog uspeha. Mada projekat može imati široki uticaj na mnoge, lokalni učesnici imaju moralno pravo na projekat pošto njihov stil života zavisi od rezultata projekta. Stejkholderi su i lokalne vlasti kao i investitori, koji imaju zahteve i očekivanja, vlasništvo, prava, i kao takvi su učesnici u stvaranju nove vrednosti. Svi potencijalni stejkholderi investiraju neki oblik kapitala, ljudskog ili finansijskog, neku vrstu vrednosti u projekat. Iako je vrlo važno jasno odrediti stejkholdere koji su uključeni u projekat, parametri koji definišu značaj stejkeholdera povezani su sa osobinama stejkholdera koje su promenljive, one su društveno izgrađene, nisu objektivna realnost i predstavljaju odnose moći te ih nije lako prepoznati. Međutim, analiza obrazaca upotrebe prostora od strane različitih grupa korisnika uključuje najmanje dva aspekta. Sa jedne strane specifičnosti grupa utiču na prilagođavanje prostora njihovim potrebama i vrednostima, dok sa druge sam prostor predstavlja dovoljno jak i stabilan činilac koji utiče na modifikacije ponašanja koja određena grupa teži da ostvari. Situacija je još složenija ako kulturne obrasce aktivnosti posmatramo kao dinamičnu, promenljivu kate-

4.6

of activities are observed as a dynamic, changeable category susceptible to influences of wider socioeconomic context and local intercultural exchange. User profiles End users, inhabitants, employees, passers by, buyers, visitors, etc. are recognized as major identity carriers. Although numerous participants from private and public sector take place in building of the city, end users are the dominant holders of intercultural dynamic. But, in order to create the space that will support them and to coordinate various interests and goals, it is necessary to maintain a high level of cooperation between stakeholders, those who have public goals and responsibilities, and private stakeholders, whose goals are mainly commercial. Differences among users are determined based on their relation toward activities and physical surroundings, lifestyle, behavioural modes and values, reaction to environment. These differences arise from the set of values respected by certain individuals or groups, according to which they take actions in space. User profiles can be also defined based on traditional socio-cultural characteristics, such as: geographic origin, ethnic origin, language, belonging to certain socio-economic groups, type and level of education, religion, different ideological standpoints, gender, age, sexual orientation, etc. There is a special interest in indicators of exchange and alteration of cultural features, such as length of residence, generational status, proficiency in language or dialect of dominant cultural group, social interaction, the degree of acquisition of cultural values and norms. Who are the users of certain spaces, rich, poor, ethnic groups, professional groups, we can discern in different ways – from noticing different languages and accents in the street, to observing fashion styles or collecting information from real estate agencies on apartment and office space buyers, or from newspaper articles on undesirable behavior of
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goriju, koja je podložna kako uticajima šireg društveno ekonomskog konteksta, tako i lokalnoj interkulturnoj razmeni. Profili korisnika Krajnji korisnici, stanovnici, zaposleni, prolaznici, kupci, posetioci itd. se prepoznaju kao glavni nosioci identiteta područja. Iako u procesu izradnje grada učestvuju mnogobrojni učesnici iz privatne i javne sfere, svakako da su krajnji korisnici prostora dominantni nosioci interkulturne dinamike. Međutim, da bi se prostor koji ih podržava stvorio, a različiti interesi i ciljevi uskladili, potrebno je ostvariti visok stepen saradnje između stejkeholdera, onih koji imaju javne ciljeve i nadležnosti, i privatnih, čiji su ciljevi dominantno komercijalni. Razlike među korisnicima se utvrđuju na osnovu njihovog odnosa prema aktivnostima i fizičkoj sredini, stilu života, oblicima ponašanja i vrednostima, reakcijom na prostorno okruženje. Te razlike proističu iz skupa vrednosti koje određeni pojedinci ili grupe uvažavaju i na osnovu kojih preduzimaju akcije u prostoru. Profili korisnika se mogu odrediti i na osnovu tradicionalnih socio-kulturnih karakteristika u koje spadaju: geografsko poreklo, etničko poreklo, jezik, pripadnost određenim socio-ekonomskim grupama, vrsta i nivo edukacije, vera, različita ideološka uverenja, rod, starosna grupa, seksualna orjentacija, itd. Od posebnog interesa su i pokazatelji akulturacije, razmene i približavanja kultura, dužina boravka, generacijski status, ovladavanje jezikom ili dijalektom većinske kulturne grupe, društvena interakcija, stepen usvajanje kulturnih vrednosti i normi. Ko su korisnici određenih prostora, bogati, siromašni, etničke grupe, profesionalne grupe, možemo uočavati na različite načine, od registrovanja različitih jezika, akcenata na ulici, do posmatranja stila oblačenja ili pribavljanja informacija iz agencija za nekretnine o kupcima stanova i poslovnih prostora ili novinskih članaka o nepoželjnim ponašanjima određenih

certain groups in an urban area. Although experts point to the fact that we cannot conclude on people only upon observation, this information can be valuable. Spatial networks Each individual in a city uses space in his/her unique way. His/hers routes of motion in space, contents used, spaces that he/she spends time in, create a particular spatial network. Each of these networks also has its time dimension that specifies the moment and duration of stay in a space. In total, network of spaces where an individual performs particular activities in certain time periods reflects a particular life style. In the process the individual develops a whole scale of relations towards his/hers own network. In that sense, in some of the points of spatial network he/ she is just a passive passer by or a consumer, while in some other points of the same network he/she is an active participant who by his own investment (physical or material) changes and shapes the surrounding. The level of engagement of an individual in a specific environment depends also on a normative framework defined by laws, statutes, rules and standards.

grupa u urbanom području. Stručnjaci skreću pažnju da o ljudima ne možemo zaključivati samo na osnovu posmatranja, međutim i ove informacije mogu biti dragocene. Prostorne mreže Svaki pojedinac u gradu koristi prostor na poseban način. Njegova/njena trasa kretanja u prostoru i sadržaji koje koristi, prostori u kojima se zadržava, formiraju specifičnu prostornu mrežu. Svaka od tih mreža ima i svoju vremensku dimeziju koja precizira trenutak i dužinu boravka u nekom prostoru. U ukupnom zbiru, mreža prostora u kojima neki pojedinac obavlja specifične aktivnosti u određenim vremenskim periodima odražava specifičan životni stil. Pri tome pojedinac razvija čitavu skalu odnosa prema sopstvenoj mreži. Tako je u pojedinim tačkama prostorne mreže samo pasivni prolaznik ili konzument, dok je u drugim tačkama iste mreže aktivni učesnik koji sopstvenim ulaganjem (fizičkim ili materijalnim) menja i oblikuje okruženje. Stepen angažovanja pojedinaca u određenom prostornom okruženju zavisi i od mogućnosti koje pruža normativni okvir definisanih zakonima, statutima, pravilima, standardima.

Values research
Values are one of the most important characteristics of cultural identity. Through value preferences individuals and collectives define their place in the world, belonging to the community, as well as the way how they differ from the others. “The way in which individuals adopt social values (forced or selective) greatly affects the way in which they integrate in the community (type of cultural identity), and at the same time, how they see themselves (personal identity)” (Golubovic, 1999, 36). Through everyday experience in urban space use, with the inclusion of values and social and cultural
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Istraživanje vrednosti
Vrednosti su svakako jedno od najvažnijih obeležja kulturnog identiteta. Kroz vrednosna opredeljenja individue ili kolektivi definišu svoje mesto u svetu, pripadnost zajednici, odnosno različitost u odnosu na druge. „Način na koji individue usvajaju društvene vrednosti (prisilno ili selektivno) umnogome utiče na to kako će se one uključivati u svoju zajednicu (tip kulturnog identiteta), ali i kako će se odnositi prema sebi (personalni identitet).”(Golubović, 1999, 36) Kroz svakodnevno iskustvo u upotrebi urbanog prostora, uključivanjem vrednosti i socijalnih i kultur-

meanings, the geometric, physical space is transformed into cultural space. It is necessary to bear in mind that there is a difference between facts and values. Values arise outside the world of facts. A clear position on the value basis of professional action is essential for urban design. There are two types of values: values that are created by life, that exist even if there is no awareness of them, objective values, and values that are created by a human mind, on the basis of previous solutions, in an attempt to solve the problems that are possible to understand better or worse (Popper, 1991). Urban design as a professional activity is not a valueneutral process only looking for technical solutions within the given value framework. Regardless of the general set of values around which in there is a consensus in every society, every choice, a decision in the process of proposing ideas that favour one solution at the expense of another, one social group at the expense of other, is based on the priority that is in the given case, assigned to a certain value. What will be the value depends primarily of the balance of power in very specific circumstances, professional ideology and local knowledge and experience. When strategic urban design is concerned, the key issue is whether the values are built into the praxis of urban designers from the outside, through legislation, standards and policies, or are those issues open to debate? If legislation defines the orientation of society to the set of values, for example, justice, equality, sustainable development, whether in any particular task there is a place for ethical decisionmaking, in the sense of value choice? A large number of rules in the form of laws, regulations and policies, creates the impression that professional work is defined, framed, and that all these rules that are imposed from outside leave experts without the responsibility for promoting or choosing values. However, if the urban space is a social product based on values and social production of meaning (Lefebvre,
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nih značenja, geometrijski, fizički prostor se pretvara u kulturni prostor. Pri tome je potrebno imati na umu da postoji razlika između činjenica i vrednosti. Vrednosti nastaju spolja izvan sveta činjenica. Jasan stav o vrednosnoj osnovi profesionalnog delovanja je od suštinske važnosti za urbani dizajn. Postoje dve vrste vrednosti: vrednosti koje je stvorio život, koje postoje i ako ne postoji svest o njima, objektivne vrednosti, i vrednosti koje je stvorio čovekov um, na osnovu ranijih rešenja, u pokušaju da reše problemi koje je moguće bolje ili lošije razumeti. (Popper,1991) Urbani dizajn, kao profesionalno delovanje nije vrednosno neutralan proces, kroz koji se samo traže tehnička rešenja u okviru zadatih vrednosti. Bez obzira na generalni skup vrednosti oko koga u svakom društvu postoji koncenzus, svaki izbor, odluka u okviru samog procesa predlaganja ideja koje favorizuju jedno rešenje na račun drugog, jednu društvenu grupu na račun druge, je zasnovan na prioritetu koji se u datom slučaju, daje nekoj vrednosti. Koja će to vrednost biti zavisi pre svega od odnosa moći u sasvim konkretnim uslovima, profesionalne ideologije i lokalnih znanja i iskustava. Kad je reč o strateškom urbanom dizajnu ključno pitanje je da li se vrednosti ugrađuju u praksu urbanih dizajnera spolja kroz legislativu, norme i politike, ili su to pitanja koja su otvorena za debatu? Ako legislative definiše orjentaciju društva na određeni skup vrednosti, na primer: pravičnost, jednakost, održiv razvoj, da li tu na svakom konkretnom zadatku ima mesta odlučivanju u etičkom, vrednosnom smislu? Veliki broj pravila u formi zakona, regulative i politika, stvara utisak da je profesionalni rad definisan, uokviren i da sve ove norme koje su nametnute spolja ostavljaju stručnjake bez odgovornosti za promovisanje ili izbor vrednosti. Međutim, ako je urbani prostor društveni proizvod zasnovan na vrednostima i društvenoj proizvodnji značenja (Lefebvre, 1991), onda iz toga proizilazi da stalno promenljive dru-

1991), it follows that ever changing social structures require that we understand them and search for adequate approach to spatial interventions. Strategic urban design has the ambition to include a review and more detailed determination of values in each particular case of shaping the urban areas. The role of values that will be supported (selected) is primarily seen in the definition of problems on which professional work is focused. If the existence of urban slums is not considered a problem, or if it is treated as a necessity in the development of a city, then solving the housing problems of vulnerable social groups will not be a priority, and urban designers will focus on other topics. Or, if the disappearance of the local community landmarks, such as cafes, green markets, parks, is considered a normal market process, than the modalities of their preservation would not be searched for. The issue of rules and regulations value basis in the intercultural environment is particularly important. Sole reliance on general rules would imply acceptance of problem priorities to be addressed in design. As in this context the specific problem is a delicate balance between economic and social values, it is clear that it can not be established by rules. The determination of position in relation to the different value requirements should be achieved through the debate which precedes the design of urban space (Upton, 2002). Culturally specific values Besides their particularities, individual differences, members of certain cultural groups share common values that are created under the influence of environment and cultural heritage. This specific mixture of values, in fact, defines ways of interaction, i.e. forms of behaviour of each specific culture inside its environment. Culturally adjusted environment is created as a frame of life of specific people, members of group and culture; it suits them and distinguishes
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štvene strukture stvaraju potrebu za razumevanjem i traženjem adekvatnog pristupa prostornim intervencijama. Strateški urbani dizajn ima ambiciju da uključi preispitivanje i detaljnije određivanje vrednosti u svakom konkretnom slučaju oblikovanja urbanih područja. Uloga vrednosti koje će biti podržane (izabrane) se pre svega vidi u definisanju problema na koje se stručni rad usmerava. Ako se postojanje slamova ne smatra problemom, odnosno, ako se ono tretira kao nužnost u razvoju grada, onda rešavanje problema stanovanja ugroženih socijalnih grupa neće biti prioritet, te će se urbani dizajneri koncentrisati na druge teme. Ili, ako se nestajanje repera karakterističnih za lokalne zajednice, kao što su kafane, pijace, parkovi, smatra normalnim tržišnim procesima, onda se neće tragati za načinima njihovog očuvanja. Pitanje vrednosne osnove pravila i regulative je posebno važno u interkulturnom okruženju. Isključivo oslanjanje na generalna pravila bi značilo i usvajanje uspostavljenih prioriteta problema kojima se dizajn bavi. Kako se u tom kontekstu radi o specifičnom, osetljivom balansu između ekonomskih i socijalnih vrednosti, jasno je da on ne može biti uspostavljen pravilima. Do određivanja stava u odnosu na različite vrednosne zahteve, treba doći kroz debatu koja prethodi oblikovanju urbanih prostora. (Upton, 2002) Kulturno specifične vrednosti Pored svojih posebnosti, individualnih razlika, pripadnici određene kulturne grupe dele zajedničke vrednosti koje se formiraju pod uticajem okruženja i kulturnog nasleđa. Ova posebna mešavina vrednosti, ustvari, definiše načine interakcije, odnosno oblike ponašanja svake pojedinačne kulture unutar svog okruženja. Kulturno prilagođena sredina je nastala kao okvir života određenih ljudi, pripadnika grupe i kulture, odgovara im i odvaja ih od drugih grupa. Ona ih definiše i predstavlja način saopštavanja te definicije drugima.

4.7

them from others groups. It is the form by which people define themselves and communicate this definition to others. It is considered that many behaviours in everyday life, that we can also call lifestyles, are based on cultural norms. Culture is a way of life that defines a group, system of symbols, meanings and cognitive patterns and a series of forms of accommodating to the environment. People see use of space in different ways, and they are more or less capable to articulate it. According to the subjective estimate, they can determine their priorities, as for example: healthy environment or a location near to the centre, safe residential area or mix of different contents, integration or segregation, easy access or isolation, privacy or publicity, monofunctional or polyfunctional urban areas, etc. It is possible to conduct research of values using several methods, such as market analysis, public opinion surveys, observation of existing behavioural patterns, anthropological research, stakeholder interviews, urban policy research etc. Beside identification, values can be presented in more detail by indicators which measure the quality of urban life. Characteristic of cultural values, which belong to the set of primary values, is that they change slowly. However, in the present time of global processes, values that are not deeply ingrained are subject to rapid changes. In that sense, individuals and groups without a consistent system of values, or those whose values are in collision with the demands of modern urban life, accept changes easier, unlike those with stable and organized system of values. Starting from general value attitudes and norms, it is possible to define deviations that are specific for particular cultural groups. They are manifested in the domain of basic values, such as health, security, stability, etc, functional, related to everyday activities, or for example aesthetic. However, values
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Smatra se da se mnoga ponašanja ljudi u svakodnevnom životu, koje možemo zvati životnim stilovima, temelje na kulturnim normama. Kultura je način života koji određuje neku grupu, sistem simbola, značenja i saznajnih obrazaca i niza oblika prilagođavanja sredini. Ljudi na različite načine vide upotrebu prostora, koje su u stanju u manjoj ili većoj meri da artikulišu. Prema subjektivnoj proceni, oni mogu odrediti šta im je važnije, kao na primer: zdravo životno okruženje ili blizina centra, bezbedno stambeno okruženje ili mešavina različitih sadržaja, segregacija ili integracija, pristupačnost ili izolovanost, privatnost ili javnost, monofunkcionalna ili polifunkcionalna urbana područja, itd. Istraživanje vrednosti je moguće vršiti pomoću nekoliko metoda kao što su analiza tržišta, istraživanje javnog mnjenja, posmatranje postojećih obrazaca ponašanja, antropološka istraživanja, intervjui sa ključnim akterima, istraživanje gradskih odluka itd. Pored identifikacije, vrednosti se mogu preciznije iskazati i putem indikatora za merenje kvaliteta urbanog života. Za kulturne vrednosti, koje spadaju u skup osnovnih vrednosti, karakteristično je da se sporo menjaju. Međutim, u današnjem vremenu globalnih procesa, vrednosti koje nisu duboko ukorenjene su podložne brzim promenama. U tom smislu, pojedinci i grupe koji nemaju konzistentan sistem vrednosti, odnosno, čije vrednosti su u koliziji sa zahtevima savremenog urbanog života, lakše primaju nove, za razliku od onih koji imaju stabilan i uređen sistem vrednosti. Polazeći od generalnih vrednosnih stavova i normi, moguće je definisati odstupanja karakteristična za pojedine kulturne grupe. Ona se manifestuju u domenu egzistencijalnih vrednosti, kao što su zdravlje, bezbednost, stabilnost, itd., funkcionalnih, vezanih za svakodnevne aktivnosti, ili na pr. estetskih. Medjutim, vrednosti u odnosu na prostor su često konfliktne te se stalno modifikuju. Stručno razmatranje

in relation to space are often conflicting and therefore are constantly modified. Professional review of the quality of spatial patterns is conditioned, on one side, by public values of the broader community, and on the other, by individual values of different interest or cultural groups. The final balance of conflicting values is basically resolved at the level of local politics.

kvaliteta prostornih obrazaca je uslovljeno sa jedne strane javnim, vrednostima šire zajednice, a sa druge strane individualnim vrednostima interesnih ili kulturnih grupa. Konačni odnos sukobljenih vrednosti se, u suštini, razrešava na nivou lokalne politike.

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5.1

Managing development potentials of urban areas
Development processes analysis
Strategic urban design takes into account the fact that city development is of piecemeal nature and that measures and regulations constantly need to adjust to changed conditions. Understanding the logic of actions within an urban space assumes a good understanding of its socio-economic, particularly, cultural environment. If main agents of change in an urban space, such as changes in number or type of activities, inhabitants, consumers, investments, employees, degree or form of involvement in broader cultural networks, as well as local modifications of cultural patterns, etc, are not interpreted in a right way, culturally sensitive interventions that would lead to accomplishing desired community goals can not be proposed. Strategic projects of urban intervention follow the perceived changes in the city and its parts. The goal is to anticipate further development, through careful analysis of trends, their intensity and dynamics in order to better control the resulting consequences either by supporting or diverting them. Strategic approach to development of urban areas involves understanding and coordination of specific interests and goals of different stakeholders, more often than not conflicting. In face of complex problems the increasingly active population groups organize themselves in order to protect their values and local interests. The likely conclusion is the need to re-examine the role of traditional management instruments, above all, technical comprehensive master plans (Kort de, Bult-Spiering, & Dewulf, 2005). The current research investigates the possibilities of more effective interconnection of policies and implementation, that is, determining the form of
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Upravljanje razvojnim potencijalima urbanih područja
Analiza razvojnih procesa
Strateški urbani dizajn uvažava činjenicu da se izgradnja u gradovima odvija postepeno, da je potrebno stalno prilagođavanje mera i regulative izmenjenim uslovima. Razumevanje logike akcija u prostoru podrazumeva razumevanje društveno - ekonomskog, posebno kulturnog okruženja. Ukoliko se na pravi način ne interpretiraju osnovni pokretači promena aktivnosti u prostoru, promene broja ili vrste delatnosti, stanovnika, korisnika, investicija, zaposlenih, stepen i oblik uključenosti u šire kulturne mreže kao i lokalne modifikacije kulturnih obrazaca, ne mogu se predlagati kulturno osetljive intervencije koje će dovesti do ostvarenja željenih ciljeva zajednice. Strateški projekti urbane intervencije prate uočene promene u gradu i njegovim delovima. Cilj je anticipiranje tokova daljeg razvoja, kroz pažljivu analizu trendova, njihovog intenziteta i dinamke da bi se posledice po lokalno područje kontrolisale – podržale ili preusmerile. Strateški pristup razvoju urbanih područja podrazumeva razumevanje i koordinaciju specifičnih interesa i ciljeva, vrlo često konfliktnih, različitih aktera/ stejkholdera. U odnosu na kompleksne probleme, sve aktivnije grupe građana se organizuju i brane svoje vrednosti i lokalne interese. Zaključak koji se nameće je potreba preispitivanja uloge tradicionalnih instrumenata upravljanja, pre svega, tehničkih sveobuhvatnih generalnih planova. (Kort, de, BultSpiering, & Dewulf, 2005) Savremena istraživanja ispituju mogućnosti efektivnijeg povezivanja politika sa implementacijom, odnosno, definisanja forme intervencije koja uključuje različite aktere (stejkholdere) u proces, od razvijanja strateških ideja do konkretnih akcija. (Healey et al., 1997)

intervention that involves different stakeholders in the process, from development of strategic ideas to determining concrete actions (Healey et al., 1997). Given the multifaceted nature of the issue of cultural diversity, it is obvious that it is not possible to formulate a single policy that will cover all its dimensions. Inevitably, policies will foster some aspects and neglect the others. Urban intervention needs to be linked with the empirical research focused on the assessment of diversity development. Firstly, in terms of anticipated influence of policies, measures, projects and then, monitoring their impact in the course of implementation so they can be improved or abandoned. Strategic urban design is based on the fact that the market alone is not able to ensure the achievement of various social and cultural goals of the community, and to establish priorities among the conflicting goals. However, it is clear that the construction is going on in the market, and that it is necessary to define adequate mechanisms that will not distort to any great extent the logic of the market. That is where we confront the sensitive area of relations with the long-term spatial planning of cities, which is based on the generally defined public interest and traditionally opposed to the market. Planning undoubtedly has primacy in defining major cities development in the area of infrastructure and servicing the land. However, the comprehensiveness of plans produces conflicts within local areas with specific narrow interests (public and private), and causes unreasonable and overly ambitious demands in relation to investors, preventing or slowing construction. A precondition for introduction of strategic urban design is a transformation, reduction of the scope of planning, limiting it to precisely defined interventions and leaving room for local adaptation to dynamic processes. Correlation and mutual dependence between the market and urban intervention is the starting point
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Kako tema kulturne raznolikosti ima više dimenzija to je jasno da nije moguće formulisati jednu jedinstvenu politiku koja će pokriti sve njene dimenzije. Neminovno je da će politike podržavati određene aspekte a zanemarivati druge. Urbane intervencije je potrebno povezati sa empirijskim istraživanjima koja će biti usmerena na procenu razvoja raznolikosti. Prvo, u odnosu na anticipirani uticaj politika, mera, projekata, a zatim kroz praćenje tokom implementacije u cilju njihovog poboljšanja ili napuštanja. Strateški urbani dizajn polazi od činjenice da samo tržište nije u stanju da obezbedi ostvarenje raznolikih socijalnih i kulturnih ciljeva zajednice, odnosno da uspostavi prioritete među konfliktnim ciljevima. Međutim, jasno je da se izgradnja dešava na tržištu, te da je potrebno definisati adekvatne mehanizme koji neće u većoj meri narušavati logiku tržišta. Tu nailazimo na osetljivo područje relacija sa dugoročnim prostornim planiranjem gradova, koje je zasnovano na generalno definisanom javnom interesu i tradicionalno suprotstavljeno tržištu. Planiranje nesumnjivo ima primat u definisanju razvoja velikih gradova u domenu infrastrukture i opremanja zemljišta. Međutim, sveobuhvatnost planova u lokalnim područjima proizvodi sukobe sa prisutnim užim interesima (javnim i privatnim) i uslovljava neopravdane i preterano ambiciozne zahteve u odnosu na investitore, onemogućavajući ili usporavajući izgradnju. Preduslov za uvođenje strateškog urbanog dizajna je svakako transformacija, smanjenje obuhvata planiranja, ograničavanje na precizno definisane intervencije i ostavljanje prostora za lokalna prilagođavanja dinamičkim procesima. Povezanost i međusobna uslovljenost tržišta i urbane intervencije je polazište strateškog dizajna. Ukoliko profesionalni predlozi treba da utiču na razvoj, neophodno je prilagođavanje logici tržišta. To je radikalna promena i podrazumeva poznavanje sistema tržišta građevinskog zemljišta, komunikaciju sa različitim učesnicima na tržištu, istraživanje va-

of strategic design. If professional proposals are to influence the development, their adaptation to the logic of the market is necessary. It is a radical change, and implies knowledge of the market system of building sites, communication with various market participants, the study of variations of locational opportunities for distinct activities, careful corrections of the market dynamics and focusing on the assessment of possibilities to achieve social goals through dialogue with the planners and creators of public policy (Moor, 1983).

rijanti lokacionih mogućnosti za posebne aktivnosti, pažljive korekcije dinamike tržišta i usmeravanje na ispitivanje mogućnosti ostvarenja socijalnih ciljeva kroz dijalog sa planerima i kreatorima javnih politika. (Moor, 1983)

Urbani život i proizvodnja prostora
Za razliku od uobičajene usmerenosti isključivo na namenu površina u području, urbane intervencije koje prate kulturne pojave i procese polaze od objektivne analize aktivnosti ljudi. Analiza se odnosi na aktivnosti pojedinaca, grupa, preduzeća i institucija. Kroz intervjue reprezentativnih predstavnika aktera moguće je prepoznati i definisati raznolike podgrupe, razumeti njihove vrednosti i stavove. (Godschalk& Mills,1966) Aktivnosti u prostoru imaju svoj kvantitet i kvalitet, obim, intenzitet, ali i značaj koji može biti lokalni, regionalni, nacionalni, internacionalni ili globalni. Značaj aktivnosti je povezan i sa nivoom na kome se o njima odlučuje. Nije realno očekivati da se o svim karakteristikama raznovrsnih aktivnosti odlučuje na lokalnom nivou. Nije isto ako posmatramo poslovanje, na pr. velikih međunarodnih korporacija i aktivnost kupovine u lokalnoj bakalnici. Različiti nivoi normativnog usmeravanja razmeštaja aktivnosti i njihovog prostornog okvira ne moraju biti u potpunosti međusobno usaglašeni, što razumevanje prirode i oblika profesionalnog delovanja urbanih dizajnera čini mnogo složenijim. Logika prostorne distribucije obrazaca aktivnosti je promenljiva. Iako aktivnosti imaju svoje generalne lokacione zahteve i često precizno definisan razmeštaj u prostoru, postoje razlike uslovljene kulturnom orijentacijom različitih korisnika. Izbor načina života, oblika kupovine, rekreacije, zabave, itd. Iako „teži statičnom i institucionalizovanom redu zasnovanom na statusu, posmatranom kroz prihode, mesto stanovanja, profesiju, edukaciju” u lokalnom okruženju se diferenciraju „kroz širenje na brojne so99

Urban life and space production
Rather than directing attention only to land use in urban areas, culturally appreciative urban interventions start with objective analysis of human activities. Analysis is concerned with activities of individuals, groups, firms and institutions. Through interviews of representative actors it is possible to recognize and define diverse subgroups, understand their values and attitudes (Godschalk& Mills1966). Activities in urban space have their quantity and quality, range, intensity, as well as significance that can be local, regional, national, international or global. The significance of activity is connected with the decision making level. It is unrealistic to believe that all features of different activities can be determined on the local level. It is not the same if we’ve been observing commercial activities of, for example, large international corporations or shopping activity in the local grocery store. Different levels of normative regulations directing distribution of activities and their spatial frame do not have to be completely synchronized, which makes understanding of nature and form of professional actions of urban designers much more complex. The logic of spatial distribution of activity patterns is changeable. Although activities have their general location demands and often precisely defined distribution in space, there are differences conditioned

by cultural orientation of different users. Choice of lifestyle, patterns of shopping, recreation, entertainment, etc., although “inclined towards static and institutionalized order based on status, measured by such things as income, residence, occupation, education” in local environment become differentiated “through diffusion over numerous social groups with diverse objectives” (Godschalk& Mills, 91). In general, particular form of activity is also shaped by interests of investors driven by profit. Market logic of land use causes emersion of certain types of activities at certain places that satisfy demands for optimal realization and adequate economic effects. It is inevitable that, in the process, certain types of activities that are not profitable are abolished, i.e. relocated to other, more appropriate places (more accessible locations, larger lots, neighbourhoods with similar activities, etc). Since particular economic interests of investors can not guarantee successful cities, professional engagement and respect for mutual dependence of designers and developers is of crucial significance. By identifying consequences of market developments and adapting draft regulations it is possible to arrive at solutions that are desirable both for investors and local communities and city as a whole.

cijalne grupe sa raznolikim ciljevima”. (Godschalk& Mills, 91) Generalno, određena forma aktivnosti je oblikovana interesima investitora koje pokreće profit. Tržišna logika upotrebe zemljišta utiče na pojavu određenih tipova aktivnosti na posebnim mestima koja zadovoljavaju zahteve za optimalnim odvijanjem i adekvatnim ekonomskim efektima. U tom procesu neminovno dolazi do gašenja određenih tipova aktivnosti koje nisu tržišno isplative, odnosno njihovo izmeštanje na druga, pogodnija mesta (pristupačnije lokacije, veće parcele, susedstvo sličnih aktivnosti, itd). Kako pojedinačni ekonomski interes investitora nije garancija da ćemo dobiti uspešne gradove, to je stručno angažovanje i uvažavanje povezanosti dizajnera i investitora, od presudnog značaja. Kroz sagledavanje konkretnih posledica promena koje se na tržištu dešavaju i prilagođavanje predloga regulative moguće je proizvesti poželjna rešenja – i za investitore i za lokalne zajednice i za gradove kao celine.

Ekonomski kriterijumi
Globalizacija simultano uslovljava uključivanje i isključivanje putem mreža kojima upravljaju ekonomski kriterijumi. Harvi naglašava da ekonomija podržava brze promene, lokalne i globalne veze, potencira novu izgradnju, bavi se novim problemima koji svakodnevno pojavljuju, traga za novim kreativnim odgovorima, otvara prostor za nove politike i oblikovna rešenja. Ona podržava uniformnost, ali u isto vreme zahteva raznolikost i identitet, kako bi se povezala sa marketinškim predstavama. U tom pogledu od velikog je značaja stvoriti uslove za nastanak raznolikih urbanih područja. Sa druge strane, lokalne zajednice prepoznaju vezu između prostora i društvenog identiteta i zahtevaju rešenja koja će biti u suprotnosti sa univerzalnim funkcionalizmom u prostoru koji je stvorio modernizam. (Harvey, 1990) Promena obima i vrste aktivnosti se u prostoru če100

Economic criteria
Globalization simultaneously causes inclusion and exclusion through networks that are governed by economic criteria. Harvey stresses that economy supports quick changes, local and global connections, puts pressure on new developments, addresses new issues that emerge every day, searches for new creative answers, and creates space for new policies and design solutions. It supports uniformity, but at the same time, calls for diversity and identity, in order to link itself with marketable image. In this respect it is of great importance to enable the production of distinguishable places. On the other side,

5.2

communities recognize the connection between place and social identity, and demand solutions that run against unification of universal functionalism in space brought by modernism (Harvey, 1990). Change of range and type of activities in space often happens independently from changes in physical structure. Activities are adjustable and can be organized in various spatial frames. In central parts of cities, owners of apartments become interested in renting their property as commercial, more profitable, instead of residential, manufacturing in industrial buildings is replaced with entertainment, cinemas, exhibitions; restaurants are developed in religious buildings. Once built buildings have their lasting period, and can be quickly replaced only exceptionally, in conditions of extreme land prices and supportive urban policies. Accordingly, new activities adjust, to a certain extent, to the existing physical frame or, when it is not possible, move to other locations. In the past, for example, shopping activities were mostly connected with the city centre or main street of the city, and today is carried out in mega shopping malls close to highways and by-passes that enable easy access and variety of goods. Interventions that follow adjustment of physical structures to new activities in built environment range from minor ones, such as modification of some elements of buildings or technical upgrade, to major interventions, such as extensions, enlargements, demolition and replacement of parts or entire buildings. Level of intervention is directly dictated by the level of new activity, i.e. its expected quality, and also by the harmonization with the local community’s goals and priorities. Scope of investment in individual interventions depends on the interest of investors and goals that they want to achieve in space. Investments in adjusting existing buildings to new activities are often bigger than the price of new construction. However, public interest of preserving identity of the city or place
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sto dešava nezavisno od promena fizičke strukture. Aktivnosti su prilagodljive i mogu se organizovati u raznim prostornim okvirima. U centralnim delovima gradova, vlasnici stanova su zainteresovani za promenu namene, stanovanje se zamenjuje komercijalnim, profitabilnijim aktivnostima, u industrijskim postrojenjima se proizvodnja zamenjuje zabavom, bioskopima, izložbama; u religijskim objektima se razvijaju ugostiteljske aktivnosti. Jednom izgrađeni fizički objekti imaju svoj vek trajanja te se brzo zamenjuju samo izuzetno u uslovima ekstremnih cena zemljišta i urbanih politika koje te procese podržavaju. Shodno tome, nove aktivnosti se do izvesne mere prilagođavaju postojećem fizičkom okviru ili, kada to nije moguće, sele na druge lokacije. Nekada je, na primer, kupovina bila povezana sa gradskim centrom ili glavnom gradskom ulicom, a danas se obavlja u mega tržnim centrima uz autoputeve i obilaznice koji omogućavaju lakši pristup i obezbeđuju raznovrsnost robe. Intervencije koje prate prilagođavanje fizičkih struktura novim aktivnostima u izgrađenom okruženju se kreću od mera koje regulišu male promene, kao što su promena pojedinih elemenata na objektu ili tehničkog unapređenja, sve do regulisanja većih zahvata kao što su dogradnja, nadgradnja ili zamena delova ili celih objekta. Nivo intervencije je direktno uslovljen nivom nove aktivnosti, odnosno njenim očekivanim kvalitetom, ali i usklađivanjem sa ciljevima i prioritetima lokalne zajednice. Obim ulaganja u pojedinačne intervencije zavisi od interesa konkretnih investitora i ciljeva koje žele da ostvare u prostoru. Ulaganja u prilagođavanje postojećih objekata novim aktivnostima su često veća od cene nove izgradnje. Međutim javni interes očuvanja identiteta grada ili mesta se obično zasniva na zadržavanju fizičke forme. To je razlog što nadležne uprave više insistiraju na zaštiti objekata i propisuju preciznu regulativu koja usmerava adaptacije, dok manje pažnje posvećuju zaštiti ljudi i njihovih specifičnih mreža aktivnosti koje se u tim objektima odvi-

is usually based on retaining physical form. That is the reason why responsible administrations insist more on preserving buildings and legislate precise guidance governing adaptations, while they pay less attention to protection of people and their specific networks of activities that take place in those buildings. The result is a preserved image of historic places, but not the life in them. Public interventions (as well as investments, particularly on the part of local government) that start from quality and significance of the location, i.e. its market value, should also be linked to the role that the site has in the context of local or wider community culture. Public and private stakeholders in urban intervention are in complex and dynamic relationship. De Kort et al. stress that
Public stakeholders are increasingly dependent on private actors due to financial reasons, private land ownership and lack of technical, financial and market knowledge. On the other hand, private stakeholders are dependent on public stakeholders because of their authority and their knowledge of production schemes and procurement. In the context of spatial planning interdependence means a stakeholder does not have all the resources needed to develop an area, and therefore depends on other stakeholders who do have those resources. The stakeholder is not able to achieve his goals without interaction with other stakeholders (Kort, de, Bult-Spiering, & Dewulf, 2005).

jaju. Kao rezultat dobijamo očuvanu sliku istorijskih mesta, ali ne i života u njima. Javne intervencije u prostoru (kao i investicije, pre svega od strane lokalne uprave) koji polaze od kvaliteta i značaja lokacije, odnosno njene tržišne vrednosti, bi trebalo povezati i sa ulogom koju ona ima za kulturu lokalne ili šire zajednice. Javni i privatni akteri u urbanoj intervenciji su u kompleksnoj i dinamičnoj vezi. De Kort et al. naglašavaju da:
Javni akteri u velikoj meri zavise od privatnih aktera iz razloga finansija, privatnog vlasništva i nedostataka tehničkog, finansijskog i tržišnog znanja. Sa druge strane, privatni stakeholderi zavise od javnih pošto ovi imaju autoritet vlasti i znanje o procedurama i administriranju. U kontekstu prostornog planiranja međupovezanost znači da pojedini stakeholder nema sva sredstva neophodna za izgradnju područja te zavisi od drugih stakeholdera koji ta sredstva imaju. Ni jedan stakeholder ne može ostvariti svoje ciljeve bez saradnje sa drugima. (Kort, de, Bult-Spiering, & Dewulf, 2005)

The overall aim of the urban strategic design is social, to include the cultural diversity and area identity in the broader context of community development. However, it means that it is necessary to examine interdependency of interested actors (stakeholders), mainly in the field of basic resources: authority, finances, information, land ownership and political commitment. Their economic role is, by all means, of utmost importance, but it is essential to take into account wider social concerns. Proposed project or regulation feasibility assessment
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Centralni cilj urbanog strateškog dizajna je socijalni, uključivanje kulturne raznolikosti i identiteta područja u širi kontekst razvoja zajednice. Međutim, to znači da je neophodno preispitivati međupovezanost zainteresovanih aktera (stejkholdera), pre svega u domenu osnovnih resursa: autoriteta, finansija, informacija, vlasništva nad zemljištem i političke podrške. Svakako da je od najvećeg značaja njihova ekonomska uloga ali je nužno sagledavati je u kontekstu širih društvenih posledica. Ispitivanje realnosti predloženog projekta ili regulative je od ključnog značaja u smislu omogućavanja njihove implementacije. Ona pre svega uključuje ekonomske faktore, mada obuhvata i procenu tehničkih, socijalnih, kulturnih i političkih, uticaja, kao i faktora koji utiču na način na koji zajednica prihvata projekat. Ekonomska procena prevodi različite aspekte projek-

5.3

is of key importance in order to facilitate their implementation. It mainly involves the feasibility to generate economic benefits, but also an assessment of technical, social, cultural, and political impact, as well as some of the factors that will determine how a project is perceived by the public. Economic assessment translates different aspects of the project into economic categories and enables an insight into benefits and costs for each investor. Different methods and determining factors for urban renewal projects feasibility assessment have been developed. In order to make an overall evaluation in culturally sensible intervention, social acceptability is an important factor. It provides the support of direct users which is essential for successful implementation. Urban marketing Cultural diversity has attracted more and more interest in the last twenty years with the efforts aimed at city renewal and economic development. It is the backbone in the definition of urban identity and city marketing. Cities try to gain advantage in a global competition and to attract money and capital by promoting their specific features, primarily through cultural tourism, entertainment industry, etc. which entails a chain of design consequences, innovative products, special types of spatial arrangements, organization of different events, programs and projects. As a politically attractive idea, cultural diversity is connected with economic benefits. It is argued that the extent to which cities can offer an open, tolerant and diverse milieu influence the decision of mobile wealth creators to invest in them. That is the reason for the replacement of the monocultural approach to city development by a more profitable multicultural that offers more options and different possibilities for adapting to constantly changing demands of the global market.
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ta u ekonomske kategorije i omogućava sagledavanje dobiti i troškova za svakog učesnika u investiranju. Postoje različiti metodi i faktori koji određuju izvodljivost projekata u urbanoj intervenciji. Da bi se realnost intervencije celovito procenila u odnosu na kulturno osetljive projekte socijalna prihvatljivost je značajan faktor. Ona obezbeđuje podršku direktnih korisnika prostora neophodnu za uspešnu implementaciju. Urbani marketing Kulturna raznolikost postaje zanimljiva tema poslednjih dvadesetak godina u okviru napora usmerenih na obnovu gradova i unapređenja ekonomije. Ona predstavlja oslonac u definisanju urbanog identiteta i marketingu. Gradovi pokušavaju da se nametnu u svetskoj utakmici kroz privlačenja novca i kapitala svojim posebnostima, pre svega kroz kulturni turizam, industriju zabave, i sl. što povlači za sobom lanac posledica na dizajn, inovativne proizvode, posebne oblike prostornih aranžmana, organizaciju različitih događaja, brojne programe i projekte. Kao politički privlačna ideja kulturna raznolikost se povezuje sa ekonomskim dobicima. Zastupa se stav da su odluke mobilnog kapitala da investira u neki grad povezane sa nivoom otvorenosti, raznolikosti i tolerancije. To je razlog za zamenu monokulturnog pristupa razvoju grada profitabilnijim multikulturnim koji nudi više opcija, različite mogućnosti prilagođavanja stalno promenljivim zahtevima globalnog tržišta. Takođe, kulturna raznolikost se može razmatrati kao značajan stimulans za razvoj kulturnog preduzetništva koje otvara nova tržišta i u ekonomskim tokovima se sve više ističe kao novi oblik produktivne razmene. Osnovu za razvoj inovativnosti i uspostavljanje održivosti kreativnog društva znanja čine različiti ljudi, njihove veštine, proizvodi i ukusi. Iako su ovi argumenti razvijeni u teoriji manadžementa u korporativnom svetu, oni se sve više prenose i na

Also, cultural diversity can be viewed as an important incentive for development of cultural entrepreneurship that opens new markets and gains more and more weight in economic flows as a new form of productive exchange. The basis for development of innovation and sustainability of creative knowledge-based society is in different people, their skills, products and tastes. Although these arguments have been developed in the theory of management in a corporate world, they are being increasingly endorsed in wider social and economic thinking and recognized by public sector and local authorities. During the last decades, entertainment industry, creative industry and cultural tourism have been in great expansion. Accepting the idea of culture as a foundation of the city system of production, Sharon Zukin notices that: “cultural institutions establish a competitive advantage over other cities for attracting new businesses and corporate elites. Culture suggests the coherence and consistency of a brand name product. Like any commodity, ‘cultural’ landscape has the possibility of generating other commodities” (Zukin, 1995,12). Interest in cultural diversity affects planning and building, approach to regeneration of cities. Municipal budgets are adjusted, strategies and policies change. Changes in priorities are noticed, culture becomes an integrative factor in urban politics, a new field of cultural planning, planning for culture is introduced. However, in emphasizing the need to address the culture of cities as a resource, culture is often understood as an elite culture, high art. It includes cultural events, performances, concerts, exhibitions or presentation of historical heritage, valuable architectural buildings and areas that are supposed to promote the value of cities and to attract visitors. It is about the culture in the cities, planning of cultural infrastructure, management of cultural programs. Specific forms of cultural urban planning are propa106

šira društveno ekonomska razmišljanja i prepoznaju u okviru javnog sektora i lokalnih uprava. Poslednjih decenija su industrija razonode, kreativna industrija i kulturni turizam u velikoj ekspanziji. Prihvatajući ideju kulture kao osnove gradskog sistema produkcije sociolog Šaron Zukin primećuje da: „institucije kulture uspostavljaju konkurentnu prednost u odnosu na druge gradove kako bi privukli nove poslove i korporativne elite. Kultura sugeriše koherentnost i konzistentnost brendiranog proizvoda. Kao svaki proizvod, ‘kulturni’ pejzaž ima sposobnost stvaranja novih proizvoda.” (Zukin, 1995,12) Interes za kulturne raznolikosti utiče na planiranje i građenje, pristup regeneraciji gradova. Gradski budžeti se prilagođavaju, strategije i politike menjaju. Uočavaju se promene u prioritetima, kultura postaje integrativni faktor u gradskim politikama, uvodi se nova oblast kulturno planiranje, planiranje za kulturu. Međutim, kada se naglašava potreba da se gradovi pozabave kulturom kao resursom, kultura se često tretira kao elitna kultura, visoka umetnost. Ona uključuje kulturne događaje, predstave, koncerte, izložbe ili prezentaciju istorijskog nasleđa, vrednih arhitektonskih objekata i celina koje treba da promovišu vrednost gradova i da privuku posetioce. Govori se o kulturi u gradovima, planiranju kulturne infrastrukture, upravljanju kulturnim programima. Propagiraju se posebni oblici kulturnog urbanog planiranja, koje povezuje široku definiciju kulture kao načina života, sa potenciranjem uloge umetnosti i njenim uključivanjem u svakodnevni urbani život. U tom smislu kulturno planiranje ne podrazumeva jednostavno dodavanje kulture kao još jednog u nizu aspekata u planiranju, već formulisanje strategije koja upotrebljava potencijal umetnosti i kulturnih aktivnosti u smislu davanja značaja životima ljudi i u tom smislu, kao doprinos društvenom i ekonomskom razvoju. Podržavanje kulturnog identiteta u kontekstu mar-

gated, forms that include a very broad definition of culture as a way of life with the emphasis on the role of arts and its inclusion into urban daily life. In that sense, cultural planning does not mean simple adding of culture to the list, as another aspect in planning, but formulation of a strategy that exploits the potential of arts and cultural activity in order to give meaning to people’s lives and in this sense, contribute to social and economic development. The support for cultural identity in the context of city marketing also hides certain dangers. It becomes more important in what way the city is special and interesting, different looking from the outside, than to what extent it really reflects and supports a variety of cultural groups and styles of life that are developed in it (e.g. promoting the identity of Berlin, Barcelona, Vienna through city marketing). Emphasizing cultural identity through city marketing usually has a clear purpose. It is not meant to really support the distinctive features of a city, but to find ways to promote and sell in the market something that is defined as distinct. Cities, through very generalized strategies, design images about themselves, their imaginary identities, and communicate them to others (Neill & Schwedler, 2001). In this framework, cultural diversity is primarily interpreted as the culture of the dominant group that is trying to promote its differences in relation to other nations, countries and cities. Typically, the stereotype about the characteristics of dominant group is emphasized and the ways sought to represent it. In the global economy, local governments are expected to be actively engaged in providing recognisability for the community and creating its image. In that sense, the concept of intercultural community presents a new economic value and potential for development of a recognizable urban image that can take an important place at the global scene. City governments have become coordinators in the process of managing local development in which a wide
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ketinga grada krije i određenu opasnost. Postaje važnije koliko je grad poseban i zanimljiv, drugačiji na spolja, nego koliko on stvarno odražava i podržava raznovrsnost grupa, stilova života koji se u njemu razvijaju (npr. promovisanje identiteta Berlina, Barselone, Beča kroz marketing grada.) Naglašavanje kulturnog identiteta kroz marketing grada najčešće ima jasnu svrhu. Ona nije u tome da se zaista podrži ono što je u gradu posebno, već da se nađu načini da se nešto što je definisano kao posebnost proda, valorizuje na tržištu. Gradovi kroz svoje vrlo generalizovane strategije projektuju slike o sebi, svoje imaginarne identitete i komuniciraju ih drugima. (Neill & Schwedler, 2001) U takvom okviru, kulturna raznolikost, pre svega, podrazumeva kulturu dominantne grupe koja pokušava da promoviše svoju različitost u odnosu na druge nacije, zemlje, gradove. Naglašava se najčešće stereotip o karakteristikama dominantne grupe i traže načini kako da se on reprezentuje. U globalnoj ekonomiji od lokalne uprave se očekuje da aktivno radi na osiguravanju prepoznatljivosti zajednice i stvaranju njenog imidža. U tom smislu, pojam interkulturne zajednice predstavlja novu ekonomsku vrednost i potencijal za razvoj prepoznatljive urbane slike koja može zauzeti značajno mesto na globalnoj sceni. Gradske uprave postaju koordinatori u procesu upravljanja lokalnim razvojem u koji je uključen veliki broj relevantnih aktera, uspostavljajući partnerstvo između javnog i privatnog sektora. Socijalno održiva rešenja su povezana sa prepoznavanjem specifičnih zahteva što podrazumeva i obezbeđivanje aktivnog učešća raznolikih kulturnih grupa u njihovom kreiranju. Akteri i interesi Izgrađen prostor je proizvod mnogih individualnih ili grupnih akcija u zauzimanju i unapređenju zemljišta koje su motivisane određenim potrebama i interesima. Pored direktnih korisnika prostora, stanovnika,

range of relevant actors is included, through a public-private sector partnership. Socially sustainable solutions are associated with recognizing specific requirements which also implies active participation of various cultural groups in their creation. Actors and interests The built environment is the product of numerous individual or group actions in occupying and upgrading land that are motivated by specific needs and interests. Besides direct users of space, residents, passers by, employees, who are relatively easy to detect, other actors, such as investors, contractors, local or international, public sector, city or local government, international organizations, etc. are also interested in urban space development. It is common that their logic and interests develop certain types of activities that do not support plurality of cultures in a community, nor create a desirable mixture of activities, but produce segregations and stereotypical environment. The main goal of private sector investors, as key participants in production of space, is profit generation. Their assessment of sites boils down to the possibility of making money, while the quality of urban surroundings, history and identity of buildings and areas, distinctive character of the local community are recognized merely to the extent that they overlap with particular interests of the investments. Interest for realization of profit through investment into real estate demands locations with fewer limitations for building, possibility of flexible attitude to the land, possibility of partition and merging of plots, efficiency in obtaining building permits, but also certainty regarding development of space in the future, predominantly having in mind future preservation and increase of value of the investment. Dominant interests, expressed by groups with influence and power, such as developers and politicians, can be confronted by civil public, first indirectly,
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prolaznika, zaposlenih, koje je relativno lako otkriti, za izgradnju prostora su zainteresovani i drugi akteri, investitori, preduzimači, lokalni ili internacionalni, javni sektor, gradske ili lokalne uprave, međunarodne organizacije itd. Čest je slučaj da njihova logika i interesi razvijaju određene vrste aktivnosti koje ne podržavaju pluralitet kultura zajednice, ne stvaraju poželjnu mešavinu aktivnosti, već proizvode segregaciju i stereotipno okruženje. Privatnim investitorma, kao glavnim nosiocima proizvodnje prostora osnovni cilj je ostvarenje profita. Njihovo vrednovanje lokacija se svodi na mogućnost zarade, sa uvažavanjem kvaliteta urbanog okruženja, istorije i identiteta objekata i područja, karaktera lokalne zajednice, samo u meri u kojoj se to poklapa sa partikularnim interesima investicija. Interes za ostvarenjem profita putem ulaganja u nekretnine zahteva lokacije sa manjim ograničenjima za izgradnju, mogućnost fleksibilnog odnosa prema zemljištu, ukrupnjavanja ili deljenja parcela, efikasnost prilikom dobijanja dozvola za izgradnju, ali i izvesnost u pogledu razvoja prostora u budućnosti, pre svega zbog očuvanja i povećanja vrednosti investicije. Dominantnim interesima, koje iskazuju uticajne i moćne grupe aktera kao što su investitori i političari, može se suprotstaviti građanska javnost pre svega posredno, kroz svoje predstavnike u gradskoj ili lokalnoj upravi, ili neposredno, konkretnim akcijama u okviru različitih formalnih i neformalnih građanskih udruženja i grupa. Brojni su primeri građanske inicijative u zaštiti lokalnog života i objekata koji predstavljaju oslonac identiteta zajednice: borba, protest protiv rušenja lokalnog tržnog centra, tradicionalnih kafana, ili za očuvanje lokalnih parkova i otvorenih prostora. Način organizacije države i izabrane politike, određuju nadležnosti vlasti na određenom nivou i obim regulative u usmeravanju process izgradnje. U zavisnosti od političkog sistema i nivoa decentralizaci-

5.4

through representatives in city and local government, or directly, by concrete actions within diverse formal and informal civil organizations and groups. Examples of civil initiative in protecting local life and buildings that support the identity of local community are numerous: campaign, protest against demolition of a local trade centre, traditional restaurants, or for preservation of local parks and open spaces. Organization of the state and political system define jurisdictions of government at a certain level and scope of regulations in governing the development process. Depending on the political system and level of decentralisation, development is governed mostly by city or local governments. It is possible that municipality and city authorities carry out different policies, which is reflected in different relation to the space that is managed, so that cities present a set of distinct entities.

je razvojem upravljaju pretežno gradske ili lokalne vlasti. Dešava se da opštinske i gradske vlasti vode različite politike što se odražava kroz različit odnos prema prostoru kojim se upravlja tako da gradovi predstavljaju skup celina posebnog karaktera.

Lokalne razvojne politike
Za razvoj mehanizama upravljanja koji će omogućavati ostvarenje ne samo ekonomskih već i drugih ciljeva potrebno je mnogo kreativnog rada. Mogućnosti korekcije spekulacija sa nekretninama u tržišnom društvu su velike i u tome profesija arhitekture i urbanizma može imati značajnu ulogu. U rukama lokalne uprave su brojni mehanizmi upravljanja, u većoj ili manjoj meri razvijeni i efikasni u zaštiti i promociji specifičnih vrednosti: urbanistički planovi i projekti, zoniranje i regulativa, subvencije, selektivna politika oporezivanja, itd. Lokalne vlasti razvijaju metode pregovaranja putem kojih pokušavaju da pronađu rešenja koja će generalno zadovoljiti i privatni i javni interes kao i posebne interese lokalnih grupa. Kao podršku u tom procesu potrebno je razviti oblike planiranja i projektovanja koji će obezbediti ravnotežu ciljeva, precizirati konkretne prostorne elemente od kojih se ne može odustati, ukoliko se na primer žele podržati kulturne karakteristike područja i druge o kojima svaki investitor ima slobodu da odlučuje. Tako na pr. regulativom u oblasti urbanog dizajna se mogu definisati dozvoljena prekoračenja u visini i zapremini objekata, kao kompenzaciju investitorima, ukoliko oni svojom gradnjom obezbede neke kvalitete koji predstavljaju odgovor na javne vrednosti. Moguće je i dodeliti određeni bonus investitorima ukoliko obezbede sredstva za namene koje ne mogu opstati na tržištu (prostori za kulturne aktivnosti, edukaciju, rekreaciju, mesta okupljanja posebnih društvenih grupa, itd.). Lokalna vlast usmerava prostorni razvoj putem razvojnih politika i odluka uz podršku sredstava u lo110

Local development policies
Development of mechanisms of governance that will enable accomplishing not only economic, but also other goals requires a lot of creative work. Possibilities for correction of speculations with real estates in market-oriented society are great, and architecture and urban planning professions can have a significant role in it. In the hands of local governments are numerous mechanisms of governance, more or less developed and efficient in preservation and promotion of specific values: urban plans and projects, zoning and regulations, subsidies, selective taxation policies, etc. Local governments develop methods of negotiation, in an attempt to find solutions that are generally satisfactory both for private and public interests, as well as the interests of local groups. As a support in the process, it is necessary to develop forms of planning and design that will balance the goals and

define concrete spatial elements that can not be easily abandoned if one wants, for example, to support cultural characteristics of an area, and others that a developer has the freedom to decide on. Through urban design regulations, for example, overrides in heights or volumes of buildings can be permitted, as a compensation to developers if they provide some amenities that are considered as public values. Certain bonuses for developers can be allowed if they provide resources for uses which cannot survive in the market (places for cultural activities, education, recreation, gathering places for special social groups, etc). Local authorities manage spatial development through development policies and decisions, with the support of funding from local, city or even national budget. Decisions are made based on the assessment of development possibilities of an area, i.e. its development potentials. Beside the primary obligation of preserving healthy and safe environment, local government makes decisions on development priorities of specific areas. For example, decisions on replacement and upgrading of infrastructure, widening and outfitting of streets, expansion of capacities of plumbing and sewage systems are motivated by the need to preserve the basic quality of living environment as a main goal. However, the change in the quality of infrastructure of an area indirectly stimulates the process of change of physical structure, i.e. the change of range and quality of activities in the entire area. As a result of investment, the price of land and real estates goes up, which leads to moving out of the poor and moving in of the reach population, closing of small trade shops and services, local cafés and restaurants, etc, and their replacement with more profitable activities. These processes directly influence cultural diversity of an area (Jacobs, 1965). However, it should be stressed that in the process of considering different urban interventions, projects of public places, parks, pedestrian streets, etc. it is
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kalnom, gradskom ili čak i nacionalnom budžetu. Odluke se donose na osnovu procene mogućnosti razvoja nekog područja, odnosno njegovih razvojnih potencijala. Pored osnovne obaveze očuvanja zdravog i bezbednog okruženja, lokalna uprava odlučuje o razvojnim prioritetima konkretnog područja. Tako na primer, odluka o zameni i unapređenju infrastrukture, proširenju i opremanju ulica, povećanju kapaciteta vodovoda i kanalizacije, ima za primarni cilj očuvanje osnovnog kvaliteta životnog okruženja. Međutim, promena kvaliteta infrastrukture nekog područja indirektno podstiče proces promene fizičke strukture, odnosno promenu obima i kvaliteta aktivnosti u čitavom području. Posledica ulaganja je podizanje cene zemljišta i nekretnina što dovodi do iseljavanja siromašnijih stanovnika i doseljavanja imućnijih, zatvaranja malih trgovačkih i uslužnih radnji, lokalnih kafanica i restorana itd. i njihovo zamenjivanje profitabilnijim delatnostima. Ovi procesi direktno utiču na kulturnu raznovrsnost područja. (Jacobs, 1965) Međutim, treba naglasiti da u procesu razmatranja različitih urbanih intervencija, projekata javnih prostora, parkova, pešačkih ulica, itd. vrlo je važno proceniti mogućnosti (resurse) lokalnog javnog sektora u odnosu na izgradnju, ali i u odnosu na upravljanje i održavanje. U tom smislu, upravljanje se takođe može smatrati delom integralnog procesa strateškog dizajna. Okvir za projekte razvoja urbanih područja predstavljaju lokalne strategije razvoja. Ukoliko su zasnovane na ideologiji kulturne raznolikosti one određuju indikatore, mere ostvarenja ciljeva zasnovanih na kulturnim vrednostima. Time se omogućava kompetentno ispitivanje brojnih mogućih pravaca razvoja koji predstavljaju okvir za zadovoljavanje potreba, interesa, zahteva i aspiracija zajednice, kao i pouzdani izbor kvalitetnog plana. Ovaj okvir omogućava odlučivanje o akcijama koje treba preduzeti da bi se išlo u željenom pravcu a da se u isto vreme brojne opcije ostave otvorenim za budućnost.

vital to assess the capacity (resources) of local public sector not only regarding construction, but also management and maintenance. It places management firmly in the integral process of strategic design. The frameworks for urban projects are local development strategies. If they are based on the ideology of cultural diversity, it involves determining indicators, measures for achievement of goals based on cultural values. This enables the competent exploring of a range of possible development directions as a framework for fulfilment of community needs, interests and aspirations, as well as the informed choice of a single plan. Such a framework helps to make decisions about the actions that lead in a desired direction, whilst still keeping a range of options open for the future. Flexibility in strategic framework is linked with the possibility to modify policies, including monitoring procedures. These procedures are important to assess if construction is proceeding as planned, and to enable the feedback to influence policy change. Local governments today recognize that cultural freedom of individuals and communities is one of the prerequisites for democracy. In that sense, attention of local governments is focused on creating conditions for creative diversity and respecting different forms of diversity and particularities such as origin, visions, age, gender, ethnic groups and social class. Local governments focus their actions on creating suitable instruments that guarantee democratic participation of citizens in formulation, application and valorisation of public cultural policies. Instruments of local policy aimed at supporting cultural diversity imply direct investing into public programs, supporting private initiatives through suitable assistance, development of new models of micro credits, funds, tax benefits for investments oriented to cultural sustainability, etc.
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Fleksibilnost u strateškom okviru je povezana sa obezbeđenjem mogućnosti modifikacije politika, uključujući i procedure praćenja. To je važno da bi se moglo proceniti da li se izgradnja razvija onako kako je anticipirana, i da bi se omogućilo da povratne informacije utiču na promenu politika. Lokalne uprave danas prepoznaju da kulturna sloboda pojedinaca i zajednica predstavlja jedan od uslova za demokratiju. U tom smislu, pažnja lokalnih uprava je okrenuta ka stvaranju uslova za kreativnu raznolikost uz uvažavanje raznih oblika raznolikosti i posebnosti kao što je poreklo, vizije, starost, rod, etničke grupe i socijalne klase. Lokalne uprave svoje delovanje usmeravaju ka kreiranju odgovarajućih instrumenata koji garantuju demokratsko učešće građana u formulaciji, primeni i vrednovanju javnih kulturnih politika. Instrumenti lokalne politike usmerene na podršku kulturne raznolikosti podrazumevaju direktno investiranje u javne programe, podršku privatnim inicijativama putem odgovarajuće pomoći, razvoj novih modela mikro kredita, fondova, poreske olakšice za investicije namenjene kulturnoj održivosti, itd. Ciljevi i principi oblikovanja Ciljevi i konkretni zadaci u procesu strateškog dizajna se u cikličnom procesu oblikuju u varijantama projekta. Na stručnjacima je da razvijaju i ponude široki spektar mogućih urbanih budućnosti, saopšte ih razumljivim jezikom i modifikuju kroz komunikaciju sa predstavnicima zajednice. Pri tom, ciljevi nisu više definisani samo u opštem obliku, kao unapređenje zdravlja, bezbednosti, ekonomskog razvoja, već se prevode na moguće konkretizacije koje su za zajednicu važne. Na primer, ako se kao cilj predlaže integracija stanovnika, na primer dve različite etničke, socijalne grupe, potrebno je ponuditi načine kako će se to dogoditi. Da li će se to ostvariti projektima javnih prostora, na pr. parka u kojem će biti ponuđeni sadržaji prilagođeni jednoj i drugoj grupi, tako da ih

5.5

Goals and principles of design Goals and specific assignments in strategic design process are iteratively shaped through project versions. It is up to the professionals to develop and offer a wide range of alternative urban futures, present them in an easy to understand language and modify them through communication with representatives of the community. Thereby, goals are no longer defined just in a general form, as improving health, security, economic development, but are translated into specific achievements significant for the community. For example, if integration of habitants (e.g. two different ethnic, social groups) is proposed as a goal, it is necessary to offer scenarios of how it will happen. Will it be accomplished through projects of public spaces, for example a park where contents adjusted to both groups will be offered, so that they can use it mutually, or will it be a special kind of trade, a bazaar, that is in the tradition of one group, but most certainly the other will also be interested in shopping there? Or will the integration be prompted by different mixed uses of facilities and space? That is why it is necessary for urban designers at the local level to have a certain freedom to apply to an identified problem or challenge the approach and solutions tailored to specific conditions. It is contrary to common hierarchic systems of decision-making: higher ranking goals and policies are transferred vertically through the system (‘bottom-up’), while the reverse links from the lowest level (local) to the city, regional or the highest, national level, are very weak. The same holds true for the formally defined work procedure which is reduced and restrictive. Efficient urban intervention demands a multitude of concrete solutions that respond to the needs of different groups. As the agreement on primary, as well as secondary goals, should reflect citizens’ values, significance of the goal is closely related to stakeholders’ interests and possibilities for their participation in realization of the goal.
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mogu zajedno koristiti? Ili će to biti poseban oblik trgovine, bazar, koji je u tradiciji jedne grupe, ali će sigurno i druga imati interesa da u njemu kupuje? Ili različite varijante mešovitih upotreba objekata i prostora? Za to je potrebno da urbani dizajneri na lokalnom nivou imaju određenu slobodu da za uočeni problem, izazov, upotrebe pristup i rešenja koji će odgovarati specifičnim uslovima. To je u suprotnosti sa uobičajenim hijerarhijski zasnovanim sistemima usmeravanja: ciljevi i politike višeg reda prenose se vertikalno kroz sistem (‘odozgo na dole’) gde su povratne veze od najnižeg nivoa (lokalnog) ka gradskom, regionalnom i ka najvišem, nacionalnom, vrlo slabe. Isto je slučaj i sa formalno propisanom procedurom rada koja je redukovana i ograničavajuća. Efikasna urbana intervencija zahteva mnoštvo konkretnih rešenja koja odgovaraju potrebama različitih grupa. Kako dogovor oko primarnih, kao i sekundarnih ciljeva, treba da odražava vrednosti građana, važnost cilja je blisko povezana sa interesima aktera kao i njihovim mogućnostima da učestvuju u realizaciji tog cilja. Važan zadatak u okviru strateškog pristupa urbanom dizajnu je određivanje predmeta, obima i vrste intervencije kao i ulaznih parametara iz šireg okruženja. Da bi se to definisalo važno je razumeti: - kako ekonomija lokalna i globalna usmerava, određuje investicije u prostoru, - kako su interesi različitih društvenih grupa povezani sa zemljištem, vlasništvom, odnosno, kakva je priroda njihovih odnosa sa ekonomskim procesima, - kako se vlast, uprava ponaša u odnosu na različite interese, pre svega ekonomske, koji vrše pritisak? (Lazarević Bajec, 1996) S obzirom na specifičnost svakog zadatka urbana analiza stalno procenjuje kakvi su uslovi potrebni da bi se ostvarili ciljevi zajednice:

An important task within the strategic approach to urban design is determining the object, scope and type of intervention, as incoming parameters from wider surroundings. In order to define them, it is important to understand the following: - How does economy, both local and global, guide, determine investments in space? - How are the interests of different social groups connected to land and ownership, i.e. what is the nature of their relation with economic processes? - How do the authorities, government behave related to different interests, primarily economic ones, that are exerting pressure (Lazarević Bajec, 1996)? In view of the specific character of each assignment, urban analysis constantly estimates the conditions necessary to accomplish the community goals: a. what form of regulations, control of construction is necessary in the specific case; b. what are the necessary means, public or private; c. what institutional organisation, which groups and organisations will be involved in implementing the plan, different forms of partnership in construction; d. what compromises are possible on numerous conflict issues (analysis of social groups relevant for ensuring agreements, possible forms of cooperation)? Protection or support to new spatial forms or activities that are of significance for identity of an area include also the analysis of the manner in which ideas are to be implemented. The starting point are the basic principles common to most situations and more or less unchangeable, such as definition of the street, introduction of active frontages, regulating density, variety of building use and ownership, etc. Urban regulations that include defining of conforming and non-conforming land uses, as well as forms of construction, are the means for establishing a ne115

a. kakav oblik regulative, kontrole izgradnje je potreban u konkretnom slučaju; b. kolika su potrebna sredstva, javna i privatna; c. kakva institucionalna organizacija, koje grupe i organizacije će se baviti ostvarivanjem plana, različiti oblici partnerstava u izgradnji; d. kakvi kompromisi su mogući oko brojnih konfliktnih pitanja (analiza društvenih grupa relevantnih za obezbedjenje dogovora, mogući oblici saradnje)? Zaštita ili podrška novim prostornim oblicima ili aktivnostima koje su od važnosti za identitet područja obuhvata i sagledavanje načina na koji će se ideje ostvariti. Polazi se od osnovnih principa koji su zajednički svim situacijama i manje više nepromenjivi kao što su na pr. definisanje ulice, određivanje aktivne veze privatnog i javnog prostora, regulisanje gustine, raznovrsnost upotrebe objekata i vlasništva itd. Urbana regulativa koja obuhvata definisanje dozvoljenih i nedozvoljenih upotreba zemljišta kao i načina izgradnje je sredstvo za uspostavljanje okvira za pregovaranje. Kako u izgradnju uglavnom ulažu privatni investitori, lokalni, nacionalni, globalni, potrebno je kreirati prostorna rešenja koja će omogućiti ekonomski realne investicije (metod podrazumeva stalnu proveru realnosti predloga), ali i jasno formulisati one delove regulative koji će predstavljati zaštitu identiteta i biti odgovor na zahteve zajednice. Svaki segment regulative bi trebalo da ima svoju preciznu definiciju i jasno prostudiranu vezu sa ciljevima koji se žele ostvariti. Kako se susrećemo sa brojnim često suprotstavljenim zahtevima, potrebno je definisati i međuprostor u kome se pregovara i pokušava naći rešenje. Na primer, ako je za zajednicu neophodno postojanje specifičnih zajedničkih javnih prostora moguće je ograničiti gabarite objekata, a interes investitora za njihovo povećanje kroz na primer, izgradnju potkrovlja, većih volumena, usloviti odstupanjima u prizemlju, izgradnjom arkada ili trgova sa sadržajima važnim za lokalne aktivnosti; nova izgradnja u vrednim područjima se može povezati sa

gotiating frame. Given that construction is typically financed by private developers, local, national and global, it is necessary to create spatial solutions that will enable economically feasible investments (the method implies constant verification of feasibility of proposal), and also to clearly define those segments of regulations that will safeguard the identity and respond to the demands of the community. Each segment of regulations should have its precise definition and clearly studied connection to the goals to be accomplished. As we are confronted with many opposing demands, it is necessary to determine space for negotiation and attempts for finding a solution. For example, if existence of specific mutual public spaces is necessary for the community, it is possible to limit dimensions of buildings. At the same time, natural developers’ interest in enlargement through, for example, building of attics and bigger volumes can be conditioned by exceptions at ground floor, through building of arcades or squares with contents important for local activities; new building in valuable areas can be linked to the obligation of renewal of neighbouring, old buildings where current users remain. True challenge in professional work is to create conditions for profitable projects that will at the same time satisfy social goals of the community. Maintaining of appropriate mixture of activities does not imply only their protection through land use, but also detailed measures that will, with participation of private and public sector, provide for their existence. For example, survival of small family stores where direct face to face contact between owner and buyers is wanted largely depends on the number of specific users. If it is ensured that they are located between strong magnets, for example large trade shops, or around public transportation stops, i.e. if they are preserved within continual trading flows, uninterrupted by non-attractive content, their survival will be supported.
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obavezom obnove susednih, starih objekata u kojima se zadržavaju postojeći korisnici. Pravi izazov u profesionalnom radu je kreiranje uslova za profitabilne projekte koji će u isto vreme zadovoljiti i društvene ciljeve zajednice. Održavanje odgovarajuće mešavine aktivnosti ne podrazumeva samo njihovu zaštitu kroz namenu površina, već i detaljne mere kojima će se, uz učešće privatnog i javnog sektora, obezbediti njihova egzistencija. Na primer, opstanak malih porodičnih radnji u kojima je poželjan direktan kontakt vlasnika i kupaca je u velikoj meri zavisan od broja specifičnih korisnika. Ukoliko se obezbedi da se one nađu između jakih magneta, na primer velikih trgovačkih radnji, ili oko stanica javnog prevoza, odnosno, ako se zadrže u okviru kontinualnih tokova trgovine, koja neće biti prekinuta neatraktivnim sadržajima, njihov opstanak će biti podržan. U integralnom pristupu se snažno naglašava potreba kontinualne procene ekonomske realnosti predloga. Regulisanje, ograničavanje privatne inicijative ima svoje granice. Potrebno je definisati samo one elemente koji su od značaja za ostvarivanje prioritetnih ciljeva i ostaviti investitorima prostor da razvijaju svoje interese u okviru jasno postavljenih granica. Uspostavljanje pravila koja omogućavaju bolja rešenja i ostvarenje ciljeva lokalne zajednice, bez povećanja ukupnih troškova investitora, ima više šansi da se sprovede nego striktne zabrane i strogi režim zaštite. Treba napomenuti da je uloga strateškog dizajna u većoj meri u postavljanju mera učinka koje podstiču kvalitet izgrađenog okruženja, nego propisivanje pravila. Na taj način se podstiče raznovrsnost rešenja i ne ograničava kreativnost. Regulativa za urbani dizajn Ukoliko je osnovni cilj urbane intervencije očuvanje lokalnog identiteta kulturne raznolikosti, potrebno je pronaći adekvatne mere koje će omogućiti realizaciju ovog cilja. Regulativa koja će npr. ograničavati ve-

Integral approach strongly emphasises the need for continual assessment of economic feasibility of the proposal. Regulation of private initiative has its limitations. It is necessary to define only those elements that are of significance for achieving priority goals and leave space for developers to develop their own interests within clearly set boundaries. Established rules that enable better solutions and accomplishing goals of local community, without increase of total expenses of the developer, have more chance of being implemented than prohibitions and strict regime of protection. It should be noted that the role of strategic design is more to set performance targets that raise the quality of built environment, than to prescribe rules. In that way creativity is not restricted and diverse solutions are stimulated. Urban design regulations If the major goal of urban intervention is preservation of local identity of cultural diversity, it is necessary to find suitable measures that will enable the realisation of this goal. Regulatory rules that define size of shops or restaurants (insist on smaller units) or exclude possibilities of locating banks, branches, agencies at the ground level of buildings, can help to maintain traditional activities or contribute to their transformation. Careful professional design of regulatory rules for culturally delicate areas can include considering a series of measures that would secure support to local government or different groups that attempt to protect local cultural diversity. It includes a set of design rules and requirements (illustrative examples) which guide the spatial development in a desired direction: reinforcing local patterns of streets and public places, building tradition that supports successful integration of different activities, physical components such as forms, materials, details, specific features of two-dimensional as well as the three dimensional structures of place.
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ličinu radnji ili restorana (insistirati na manjim jedinicama) ili isključivati mogućnost lociranja banaka, predstavništava, agencija u prizemljima objekata, može pomoći zadržavanju tradicionalnih aktivnosti, odnosno njihovoj transformaciji. Pažljivo stručno definisanje regulative za kulturno osetljiva područja može obuhvatiti i razmatranje niza mera koje bi predstavljale podršku lokalnoj upravi ili različitim grupama koje pokušavaju da zaštite lokalnu kulturnu raznolikost. To obuhvata skup pravila i propisa (ilustrativnih primera) koji usmeravaju organizaciju prostora u željenom pravcu: podržavanje matrice ulica i javnih prostora, tradicije izgradnje koja obezbeđuje uspešnu integraciju različitih aktivnosti, fizičkih komponenti kao što su oblici, materijali, detalji, posebnih karakteristika dvodimenzionalnih i trodimenzionalnih prostornih struktura. Regulativna pravila, mere, obuhvataju stvaranje uslova (prostornih i funkcionalnih) ne samo za izgradnju i odvijanje dominantnih stalnih aktivnosti već i podršku lokalnom životu kroz stvaranje uslova za raznolikost u vremenu, organizaciju povremenih specifičnih događaja kao što su karnevali, izložbe, festivali, ulična trgovina određenim danima, manifestacije različitog karaktera kroz koje se obezbeđuje očuvanje lokalnog identiteta. Da bi kulturna raznolikost, mešavina različitih društvenih grupa i životnih stilova opstala u uslovima tržišta koje neminovno vrši segregaciju, neophodno je pažljivo stručno intervenisati. To podrazumeva poznavanje i primenu skupa mera koje će uticati na povezivanje različitih oblika mešavina: socijalne (kultura, prihodi, vlasništvo, demografija), ekonomske (oblici aktivnosti, nivoi proizvodnje i potrošnje), fizičke i prostorne (upotreba, način izgradnje, zoniranje) i vremenske (različita korišćenja prostora u vremenskim jedinicama). (Evans& Foord, 2007) Ostvarenje ovih zahteva podrazumeva razvijanje novih instrumenata koji mogu promeniti pristup urbanom dizajnu.

Regulatory rules and measures include creating conditions (spatial and functional) not only for building and realization of dominant permanent activities, but also the support to local life through providing conditions for temporal diversity, for organization of occasional specific events, such as carnivals, exhibitions, festivals, daily street trade, manifestations of different character, that provide preservation of local identity. If cultural diversity, a mixture of different social groups and life styles is to survive in market conditions, which inevitably entail segregation, it is necessary to intervene with great professional care. This includes knowledge and application of a set of measures that will affect the interconnection of different types of mixes: social (culture, income, tenure, demography), economic (types of activities, levels of production and consumption, scales), physical and spatial (use, type of buildings, zoning), and time (different use of space in time units) (Evans& Foord, 2007). In order to achieve these requirements, new instruments need to be developed that could change the approach to urban design.

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5.6

6.1

Agenda for urban practice
Redefining the approach to urban interventions
Contemporary urban intervention, i.e. the process of steering spatial development and shaping the environment, relies on the concept of dialog between different actors. In a general model it means recognizing and respecting individual interests and reconciling them in the process of searching for solutions. That way, democratic character of the process that lies in the base of the new concept, shifts the focus of planning and design to the local level where individual values and aspirations are more easily recognized and respected. Participation of actors/stakeholders in decision making, planning and design significantly changes the method of creating ideas, as well as the character of the product. The process is tailored to facilitate effective communication among numerous participants, their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the agreements. Significant change occurs also in selection of development direction, where the responsibility for adopting the regulatory framework for construction is shared with actors and assumes their ability for reasonable decision-making. The expertise in clearly defined areas and formal hierarchically defined procedures are replaced with a new concept that assumes interaction and creation of the process as well as the product and poses a challenge for professionals, administration and numerous actors. The administration is forced to approach each task open-mindedly, by allowing various adequate forms in its definition. Professionals in spatial disciplines, on the other side, are oriented towards recognition of urban dynamics, assessment and synthesis of wider interests, experiences and knowledge. It means that the scope of their work includes not just projects or urban regulations that
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Agenda za urbanu praksu
Redefinicija pristupa urbanim intervencijama
Savremena urbana intervencija, odnosno proces usmeravanja prostornog razvoja i oblikovanja okruženja, počiva na konceptu dijaloga između različitih aktera. U opštem modelu to podrazumeva prepoznavanje i uvažavanje pojedinačnih interesa i usaglašavanje u procesu traganja za rešenjima. Demokratičnost procesa, koja leži u osnovi novog koncepta, na taj način težište planiranja i kontrole prebacuje na lokalni nivo na kome se prepoznaju i poštuju konkretne vrednosti i aspiracije. Učešće aktera/stakeholdera u procesu odlučivanja, planiranja i projektovanja bitno menja način dolaska do ideja kao i karakter proizvoda. Proces se prilagođava potrebama efikasne komunikacije između mnogobrojnih učesnika, njihovom međusobnom razumevanju i spremnosti za postizanje dogovora. Bitna promena se dešava i u domenu izbora pravca razvoja, gde se odgovornost za usvajanje regulativnog okvira za izgradnju deli sa akterima i podrazumeva njihovu sposobnost za razumno odlučivanje. Zamena ekspertize u jasno definisanim područjima, uz formalno hijerarhijski uređene procedure novim konceptom koji podrazumeva interakciju i kreiranje kako samog procesa rada tako i proizvoda, predstavlja izazov za stručnjake, upravu i brojne aktere. Uprava je prinuđena da otvoreno pristupa svakom pojedinom zadatku dozvoljavajući primerene oblike njegovog definisanja. Stručnjaci za prostorne discipline su sa druge strane usmereni na prepoznavanje urbane dinamike, procenu i sintezu šireg polja interesa, iskustava i znanja. To znači da predmet njihovog rada nisu samo projekti, odnosno, urbana regulativa, koje treba oblikovati prema utvrđenim ciljevima i zadacima, već je pred njima i zadatak uobličavanja procesa koji će uključiti raznovrsnosti

are designed based on the predetermined goals and aims, but also the task of shaping the process so as to include diversities and enable exchange and interaction. Strategic design calls for knowledge and skills expansion, as well as an open-minded approach that continually adapts the context in which urban designers and different social groups learn and experiment, engage in a dialogue, redefine the system that allows action and involvement in urban interventions.

i omogućiti razmenu i interakciju. Strateški dizajn upućuje na proširivanje polja znanja i veština, kao i otvorenost pristupa koji kontinualno adaptira kontekst u kome urbani dizajneri i različite društvene grupe uče i ekserimentišu, ulaze u dijalog, redefinišu sistem koji omogućava akciju i uključivanje u urbane intervencije.

Mogućnosti i ograničenja
Kreativno istraživanje i promena ustanovljene prakse predstavlja složen izazov u zemljama u razvoju, kao što je na primer Srbija. Formalni sistem upravljanja prostornim razvojem ograničava eksperimentisanje, prostor za uključenje aktera je ograničen, onemogućen je uvid u raznolikost argumenata. Suočavamo se sa neadekvatnim informacijama, nerazvijenim procedurama i nejasnim nadležnostima koje su preduslov za unapređenje procesa. Ukoliko urbana intervencija treba da bude vrednosno i etički zasnovano traganje i delanje u odnosu na različite društvene faktore, potrebno je da obuhvati preispitivanje i konkretizovanje vrednosti i ciljeva društva. U razvijenom svetu postoji koncenzus oko vrednosti u društvu te problem profesionalne ideologije može biti usmeren na njihovo identifikovanje i uspostavljanje veza među različitim ideologijama. U Srbiji, međutim, sistem vrednosti i ciljeva, društvenih i grupnih, nije jasno oblikovan, te je zadatak urbanih dizajnera znatno teži. Sa jedne strane, oni ne mogu participirati ravnopravno u razmeni znanja i produktivno koristiti iskustva razvijenijih zemalja pošto ona najčešće nisu primenljiva na konkretnu društvenu situaciju. Sa druge, oni su suočeni sa nedovoljno jasno formulisanim i stalno promenljivim stavovima aktera koji su uključeni u proces donošenja odluka, bilo kao investitori, uprava ili građani. Stoga, urbani dizajneri u tim uslovima imaju posebne zadatke koji obuhvataju kako razjašnjenje društveno ekonomskih faktora i kulturne istorije, koji su uključeni u oblikovanje urbanog prostora u specifičnim okolnostima,
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Possibilities and limitations
Creative research and change of established practice present a complex challenge in developing countries, such as Serbia. The formal spatial development management system poses constraints to experimentation, leaves limited room for stakeholder involvement and disables the access to a variety of arguments. We are confronted with inadequate information, lack of procedures and unclear mandates, which are the prerequisites for the improvement of the process. If urban intervention is to be a value based and ethical inquiry and practice in relation to various social factors, it needs to review and concretize values and objectives of a society. In the developed world there is a consensus about values in a society, therefore, the issue of professional ideology could be directed towards identifying them and developing links between different ideologies. In Serbia, however, the system of values and goals, either in the society or particular groups, is vague, which makes the urban designers’ task much more complex. On the one hand, they cannot participate equally in the exchange of knowledge and productively use the experiences of developed countries as they are often not applicable to the specific social situation. On the other, they are faced with vaguely defined and rapidly changing positions of actors that are involved in the decision making process, be it developers, administration or citizens. In such circumstances, urban designers

have to perform specific tasks, such as interpreting socio economic factors and cultural history relevant for designing urban places in particular situations, harmonizing actors’ experiences with new forms of space production in the modern world, as well as determining their own role and mission. After the 2000 regime change in Serbia and a turn to democracy and market economy, local governments in Serbia, with the help of international organizations, have started to recognize cultural freedoms of individuals and communities as one of the prerequisites for democracy. In that sense, local public policies are trying to respect different forms of diversity such as ethnicity, religion, age, gender, and other distinct features. But they are just beginning to create suitable spatial management instruments that guarantee recognition of cultural differences and application of adequate public cultural policies. The instruments of local policies focused on supporting cultural diversity imply not just planning and design but also direct investment into public programs, assistance to private initiatives, allocation of funds, tax benefits for investments that ensure cultural sustainability etc. Although policies supportive of cultural diversity have been adopted in Serbia, institutions and parts of the system that need to institute fundamental changes are missing. Therefore, spatial intervention through planning and design remains as the only instrument for establishing spatial order. The next challenge is to replace the old socialist ineffective system of planning and design with the new one that will not only support the increasing pressure of development, but also take into consideration alternatives and develop a system that will enable culturally sensitive initiatives to influence the place making. Serbian society is in a process of pluralisation and is becoming more and more multicultural. It can be argued that new processes and strategies have to be conceived in such a way to assist the engagement
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usklađivanje iskustava aktera sa novim oblicima proizvodnje prostora u savremenom svetu, tako i određivanje sopstvene uloge i misije. Nakon promene režima u Srbiji 2000. godine i prelaska na demokratski sistem i tržišnu ekonomiju, lokalna uprava u Srbiji je, uz pomoć međunarodnih organizacija, počela da prepoznaje kulturne slobode pojedinaca i zajednica kao jedan od preduslova demokratije. U tom smislu lokalne javne politike pokušavaju da poštuju različite oblike raznolikosti i posebnosti kao što su etnicitet, religija, starost, rod i druge karakteristike. Međutim, one su još na početku stvaranja odgovarajućih instrumenata prostornog usmeravanja koji garantuju prepoznavanje kulturnih razlika i primenu adekvatnih kulturnih politika. Instrumenti lokalnih politika usmereni na podršku lokalne raznolikosti uključuju ne samo planiranje i dizajn već i direktno ulaganje u javne programe, podršku privatnoj inicijativi kroz odgovarajuću pomoć, određivanje fondova, poreske olakšice za ulaganja usmerena na kulturnu održivost itd. Iako su politike podrške kulturnoj raznolikosti usvojene u Srbiji, nedostaju institucije i delovi sistema koji bi doneli suštinske promene, što prostornu intervenciju kroz planiranje i dizajn ističe kao jedini instrument uspostavljanja prostornog reda. To predstavlja izazov za zamenu starog neefikasnog socijalističkog sistema planiranja i dizajna novim, koji će ne samo podržati rastući pritisak na izgradnju, već ispitati i alternative i razviti sistem koji će omogućiti uticaj kulturno osetljivih inicijativa na proizvodnju prostora. Srpsko društvo je u procesu pluralizacije i postaje sve više multikulturno. Može se podržati stav da novi procesi i strategije treba da budu tako koncipirani da pomognu uključivanje strateške urbane intervencije u razvoj multikulturnih zajednica koje će se uspešno nositi sa promenama i oblikovanjem novih kulturnih formi. Zadaci su takođe usmereni ka uspostavljanju novih oblika kooperativnog dijaloga i prakse odluči-

of strategic urban intervention in the development of multicultural communities that will successfully cope with changes and shaping of new cultural forms. The tasks are also oriented towards establishing new forms of cooperative dialogue and decision making practi-ces, as well as thinking through and modifying professional approaches. With the democratization of the society and market influences there are tendencies that shift urban intervention towards socio-economic policies on the one side, and architecture, i.e. construction, on the other. In the situation when there is a gap between general policies that are not translated into locally specific measures and solutions, when comprehensive abstract plans are gathering dust in the local government offices and when major developments are based on architectural projects initiated by developers, we support a specific integration of approaches that can be achieved within the field of urban design.

vanja koji treba da se razviju, uključujući i promišljanje i promenu profesionalnih pristupa. Sa demokratizacijom društva i uticajima tržišta javljaju se tendencije koje pomeraju urbanu intervenciju ka društveno-ekonomskim politikama sa jedne strane i arhitekturi, odnosno, građenju, sa druge. U situaciji kada postoji jaz između opštih politika koje nisu prevedene na lokalno specifične mere i rešenja, kada sveobuhvatni apstraktni planovi skupljaju prašinu u kancelarijama lokalne uprave i kada je izgradnja zasnovana na arhitektonskim projektima iniciranim od strane preduzetnika, podržavamo specifičnu integraciju pristupa koja može da se desi unutar oblasti urbanog dizajna.

Nova uloga urbanog dizajna
Lokalni nivo upravljanja u savremenim gradovima dobija značajnu ulogu. U procesu učestvuju brojni akteri/stakeholderi sa stalno promenljivim interesima i potrebama. To uslovljava potrebu koncipiranja asimetričnog sistema odlučivanja koji podrazumeva mešavinu upravljanja na različitim prostornim nivoima. Kako se konkretna izgradnja dešava na lokalnom nivou i u određenom vremenu, u pripremi svakog konkretnog urbanog projekta otvara se potreba preispitivanja politika, strategija, ciljeva definisanih na drugim nivoima kao i njihova procena. Nov koncept urbanog dizajna, dakle, podrazumeva promene procesa koji kreće od preispitivanja i modifikacije generalne strateške vizije razvoja grada u odnosu na lokalne okolnosti, i formulisanja posebnih, kulturno osetljivih oblikovnih principa i politika. Lokalna vizija nije statična već se stalno proverava i renovira, prema konkretnim, aktuelnim potencijalima i mogućnostima razvoja. To znači da se na nivou svake konkretne akcije, urbanističkog projekta, vizija proverava i adaptira koliko je to potrebno i moguće. Prihvaćene smernice odražavaju karakter zajednice, skup interesa i inicijativa usaglašenih sa realnim
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The new role of urban design
Local level governance in the modern city gets a significant role. The process involves numerous actors/ stakeholder with constantly changing interests and needs. This calls for a design of asymmetric decision-making system that includes a mixture of management at different spatial levels. As the concrete construction takes place at the local level and in the defined time frame, in the preparation of a specific urban project there is a need to review and reassess the policy, strategy and objectives defined on other levels. The new concept of urban design, therefore, entails changes in the process, starting from examining and modifying the general strategic vision of city development in view of local circumstances, to shaping of specific, culturally sensitive design principles and policies. The local vision is not static, but constantly verified and reformulated, according to specific cur-

rent potentials and development opportunities. This means that at the level of each specific action, urban project, vision is reviewed and adjusted as much as necessary and possible. The accepted guidelines reflect the character of the community, set of interests and initiatives, harmonized with real possibilities and capacities. It is considered that wide participation of individual interests guarantees legitimacy of the process and enables efficient implementation. In such a concept of steering development by a ‘bottom-up-approach’, it is necessary to secure a dynamic relationship, interconnection with the policies and plans of higher rank, as well as development of mechanisms that enable embedding of local projects into strategies and policies at higher level. Contemporary urban design concept significantly changes the role of a designer who, in the conditions of participation of large number of participants, takes on multiple important roles. Complex circumstances of participatory process demand new experts trained for communication with participants with different qualifications and abilities, in order to steer their participation towards clarifying values and formulating detailed regulations based on such values. A new urban designer is expected to provide solid technical support in terms of methodological guidance in the process of determining spatial arrangements, as well as to translate local initiatives into creative design solutions. This includes the ability of synthesis, correlating different views of urban areas, recognition of strategic ideas and development priorities.

mogućnostima i kapacitetima. Smatra se da široko učešće pojedinačnih interesa garantuje legitimnost procesa i omogućava efikasnu implementaciju. U ovakvom konceptu usmeravanja razvoja, gde se proces kreće ‘odozdo na gore’, neophodno je obezbediti dinamički odnos, međusobno usklađivanje lokalnih predloga sa politikama i planovima višeg reda, odnosno razvoj mehanizama koji obezbeđuju ugrađivanje specifičnih lokalnih projekata u planske strategije i politike na višem nivou. Savremen koncept urbanog dizajna bitno menja ulogu dizajnera koji, u uslovima participacije velikog broja učesnika, preuzima više značajnih uloga. Složene okolnosti u kojima se odvija participativni proces zahtevaju novog stručnjaka obučenog za komunikaciju sa učesnicima različlitih kvalifikacija i sposobnosti za usmeravanje njihovog učešća u pravcu razjašnjenja vrednosti i formiranja na njima zasnovane, detaljne regulative. Od novog urbanog dizajnera se očekuje pružanje čvrste tehničke pomoći u smislu metodološkog usmeravanja procesa definisanja prostornog reda, kao i delovanje u smeru prevođenja lokalnih inicijativa u kreativna oblikovna rešenja. To podrazumeva sposobnost sinteze, objedinjavanje različitih viđenja urbanog područja, prepoznavanje strtateških ideja i razvojnih prioriteta.

Dizajn i kultura
Savremene tendencije, koje odlikuju globalno društvo, kreću se u pravcu interakcije kulturnih tradicija i oblika u pravcu stvaranja interkulturnog društva. Na promene u lokalnim tradicijama umnogome utiču migratorni procesi, koji u savremenim okolnostima poprimaju nove oblike. Nove generacije migranata pokreću novi ekonomski uticaji, pre svega usmereni na razvoj znanja i kreativnog društva. Novouspostavljeni sistemi vrednosti i globalni procesi dovode do stvaranja specifičnih kulturnih mešavina koje menjaju lokalne tradicije. Dinamički procesi utiču na promene u životnim stilovima, navikama, kulturnim obrascima, razvijajući nove hibridne identitete. Kao
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Design and culture
Contemporary tendencies in the global society support the interaction of cultural traditions and forms toward creating an intercultural society. Local traditions are significantly modified by migratory processes that in contemporary circumstances take new forms. New generations of migrants are motivated

6.2

by new economic influences, most of all the ones aimed at development of knowledge and creative society. Newly established value systems and global processes lead to creation of characteristic cultural mixtures challenging local traditions. Dynamic processes affect lifestyles, habits, cultural patterns, developing new hybrid identities. As a result, people in cities develop multiple identities and form new communities that require different spatial forms, i.e. spatial solutions that correspond to new life styles. Global economy on its part views new cultural forms as a new value. Namely, standardisation and unification, as dominant characteristics of contemporary cities, provoke reactions in the direction of encouraging cultural diversity. In a multitude of uniform cities and urban environments, local governments become sensitive to local particularities accepting them as a significant potential for economic development. In contemporary world, cities are observed as training grounds for international investments and they seek to enhance their competitiveness on the global scene. New possibilities for attracting investments are searched for. In that sense, local particularities of cities, i.e. their characteristic communities, become a significant economic resource. Their recognisability on the global scene means creating an attractive urban image, i.e. recognizable urban and physical surroundings. In such circumstances, where it is necessary to identify and acknowledge local potentials, to recognize main owners of development projects, and upgrade local environment in terms of creating a recognizable image, interdisciplinary character of urban designers’ profession gains an extremely important role. The general approach to culturally sensitive urban interventions adopted in this book requires re-examination of conventional approaches to urban design. The method that is supported here explores the potentials of strategic approach to spatial develop127

posledica ljudi u gradovima razvijaju višestruke identitete, formiraju se nove zajednice koje traže drugačije prostorne oblike, odnosno prostorna rešenja koja odgovaraju novim životnim stilovima. Sa druge strane, globalna ekonomija nove kulturne forme posmatra kao novu vrednost. Naime, standardizacija i unifikacija kao dominantne karakteristike savremenih gradova, izazivaju reakcije u pravcu podsticanja kulturne raznolikosti. U mnoštvu uniformnih gradova i urbanih sredina lokalne uprave postaju osetljive na lokalne specifičnosti prihvatajući ih kao značajan potencijal za ekonomski razvoj. U savremenom svetu gradovi se posmatraju kao poligon za internacionalne investicije što uslovljava potrebu za podizanjem konkurentnosti na globalnoj sceni. Traga se za novim mogućnostima privlačenja investicija. U tom smislu, lokalne specifičnosti pojedinih gradova, odnosno njihove karakteristične zajednice, postaju značajan ekonomski resurs. Njihova prepoznatljivost na globalnoj sceni podrazumeva kreiranje atraktivne urbane slike, odnosno prepoznatljivog urbanog i fizičkog okruženja. U takvim okolnostima, gde je neophodno sagledavanje i prepoznavanje lokalnih potencijala, uočavanje glavnih nosilaca razvojnih projekata, unapređenje lokalnog okruženja do nivoa prepoznatljivog imidža, interdisciplinarni karakter profesije urbanih dizajnera dobija izuzetno važnu ulogu. Generalni pristup kulturno osetljivim urbanim intervencijama koji je iznet u ovoj knjizi nameće preispitivanje uobičajenog pristupa urbanom dizajnu. Metod rada koji se podržava podrazumeva istraživanje potencijala strateškog pristupa prostornom razvoju. Umesto postupnog razrešavanja konkretnih problema, koji često zamagljuje generalne razvojne ciljeve, daje se značaj formulisanju jasne vizije koja pomaže definisanje osnovnih principa i usmerava pojedinačne predloge za razrešenje problema ili ostvarenje ciljeva. Izmenjeni pristup urbanom dizajnu sugeriše sintezu između pristupa usmerenog na razumevanje i raz-

ment. Instead of incremental approach to concrete problems, that often blurs general development goals, the emphasis is placed on formulation of a clear vision that guides the identification of basic principles and specific problem solving and goal achievement activities. The changed approach to urban design suggests synthesis between an understanding and problemfocused strategy, that is normally adopted in research, and a solution-focused strategy common in traditional design. Great importance is assigned to research, which does not mean just collecting facts but also dealing with concepts and their translation into visual material which, on the one side lays the foundation for communication, and on the other enables the restructuring of problems and development of creative ideas. Strategic urban design implies considering the effects of proposed urban regulations, spatial order, and also the awareness of alternatives, the ways in which they are understood and evaluated. This creates the possibility of insight into the diversity of positions of major and marginal actors and allows for time dynamics. The process of building cities is continuous, the influence of actors is changeable. We must understand that urban game never ends. Definition of alternative courses of action and anticipation of their implications in the design field requires special creative talents. Once we move away, in the field of urban design, from thinking only of what is possible today, institutionalized through current laws and policies, possibilities emerge for identifying more adequate approaches, based on incorporating and supporting new values and producing more imaginative control mechanisms. The category of possible must be placed at the centre of attention, in spite of actual and future policy, technical and economic limitations.

rešavanje problema, koji je prisutan u istraživanju i pristupa usmerenog na traženje rešenja koji je uobičajen u tradicionalnom dizajnu. Veliki značaj se daje istraživanju koje ne predstavlja samo prikupljanje činjenica već pretpostavlja i manipulisanje konceptima i njihovom prevođenju u vizuelni material koji sa jedne strane gradi osnovu za komunikaciju, a sa druge omogućava prestruktuiranje problema i razvijanje kreativnih ideja. Strateški urbani dizajn podrazumeva sagledavanje efekata predložene urbane regulative, prostornog reda, ali i svest o alternativama, načinima na koje se one razumeju i procenjuju. Time se stvara mogućnost uvida u različitosti pozicija glavnih i marginalnih aktera i omogućava dinamika u vremenu. Proces izgradnje gradova je kontinualan, uticaj aktera je promenljiv. Potrebno je shvatiti da urbana igra nikada nije završena. Definisanje alternativnih pravaca akcije i odredjivanje njihovih implikacija u oblasti dizajna zahteva posebne kreativne talente. Ukoliko se u okviru urbanog dizajna odustane od razmatranja samo onoga što je danas moguće, institucionalizovano kroz zakone i politke, mogao bi se stvoriti prostor za otkrivanje adekvatnijih pristupa zasnovanih na uključivanju i podršci novih vrednosti kao i produkovanje imaginativnijih mehanizama kontrole. Kategorija mogućeg se postavlja u središte pažnje, uprkos aktuelnoj i budućoj politici, tehničkim i ekonomskim ograničenjima.

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6.3

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AUTORI FOTOGRAFIJA PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS

1.1 D.Milojkić 2009.

1.2 M.Maruna 2009.

1.3 N.Lazarević Bajec 2009.

1.4 M.Maruna 2007.

3.3 N.Lazarević Bajec 2009.

3.4 M.Milojević 2009.

4.1 D.Milojkić 2009.

4.2 M.Maruna 2007.

5.1 M. Maruna 2009.

5.2 M. Maruna 2007.

5.3 D.Milojkić 2009.

5.4 N.Lazarević Bajec 2009.

1.5 M.Maruna 2006.

2.1 M.Maruna 2008.

2.2 D.Milojkić 2009.

3.1 D.Milojkić 2009.

3.2 D.Milojkić 2009.

4.3 M.Maruna 2007.

4.4 M.Milojević 2009.

4.5 M.Maruna 2007.

4.6 D.Milojkić 2009.

4.7 D.Milojkić 2009.

5.5 (fotomontaža) M.Milojević 2009.

5.6 M.Milojević 2009.

6.1 M.Milojević 2009.

6.2 M.Milojević 2009.

6.3 M. Maruna 2009.

Каталогизација у публикацији Народна библиотека Србије, Београд 711.4.01 Лазаревић Бајец, Нада 1948 Strateški urbani dizajn i kulturna raznolikost = Strategic Urban Design and Cultural Diversity / Nada Lazarević Bajec, Marija Maruna ; prevod, translation Tamara Stanisavljević ... [et al.]. - Beograd : Arhitektonski fakultet Univerziteta = Belgrade : Faculty of Architecture, 2009 (Beograd : Colorgrafx). - 140 str. : ilustr. ; 21x21cm Uporedo engl. prevod i srp. izvornik. - Tiraž 300. - Bibliografija: str. 130-137. ISBN 978-86-7924-026-2 1. Маруна, Марија, 1968- [аутор] [преводилац] a) Урбани дизајн COBISS.SR-ID 168408844

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