Chapter 1 BSS Solution .................................................................................. 1.1 GSM/GPRS System ............................................................................... 1.1.1 GSM System .................................

................................................. 1.1.2 GPRS System ................................................................................ 1.2 BSS System features ............................................................................. 1.3 BSC ........................................................................................................ 1.3.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 1.3.2 Features ......................................................................................... 1.4 PCU ........................................................................................................ 1.4.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 1.4.2 Features ......................................................................................... 1.5 BTS Series ............................................................................................. 1.5.1 BTS30 ............................................................................................ 1.5.2 BTS312 .......................................................................................... 1.5.3 BTS30A.......................................................................................... 1.5.4 BTS3001C ..................................................................................... 1.6 Operation & Maintenance ....................................................................... 1.6.1 Operation & Maintenance of BTS .................................................. 1.6.2 Operation & Maintenance of BTS .................................................. 1.6.3 Traffic statistics console ................................................................. 1.6.4 Dynamic Data Configuration Management .................................... 1.6.5 LMT ................................................................................................ 1.6.6 OMC ............................................................................................... 1.6.7 Telnet terminal ............................................................................... Chapter 2 BSS Functions ................................................................................ 2.1 Basic Functions ...................................................................................... 2.1.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 2.1.2 Channel.......................................................................................... 2.1.3 System Information ........................................................................ 2.1.4 Idle Mode Behavior ........................................................................ 2.1.5 PLMN Selection ............................................................................. 2.1.6 Cell Selection and Reselection ...................................................... 2.1.7 Location updating........................................................................... 2.1.8 Access ........................................................................................... 2.1.9 Paging ............................................................................................ 2.1.10 Immediate assignment ................................................................. 2.1.11 Assignment .................................................................................. 2.1.12 Authentication .............................................................................. 2.1.13 Ciphering ......................................................................................

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-5 1-5 1-7 1-9 1-9 1-10 1-10 1-11 1-13 1-16 1-18 1-19 1-19 1-21 1-24 1-24 1-27 1-27 1-28 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-9 2-15 2-18 2-19 2-24 2-32 2-33 2-35 2-44 2-45 2-48

2.1.14 DTX .............................................................................................. 2.1.15 Frequency hopping ...................................................................... 2.2 Extended Functions ................................................................................ 2.2.1 Handover ....................................................................................... 2.2.2 Power Control ................................................................................ 2.2.3 Extended Cell................................................................................. 2.2.4 IUO ................................................................................................. 2.2.5 Satellite Transfer ............................................................................ 2.2.6 Diversity Receiving ........................................................................ 2.2.7 Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern ........................................... 2.2.8 Multiband Network ......................................................................... 2.2.9 Carrier Mutual-assistance .............................................................. 2.2.10 Cell Broadcast.............................................................................. 2.2.11 Radio Channel Allocation ............................................................. 2.2.12 Half Rate ...................................................................................... 2.2.13 E1 Ring Topology ........................................................................ 2.2.14 GSM900/GSM1800 Co-cell ......................................................... 2.2.15 Multi-MNC .................................................................................... 2.2.16 E-GSM/R-GSM ............................................................................ 2.3 GPRS Function ...................................................................................... 2.3.1 Supported Packet System Information .......................................... 2.3.2 Supported GPRS MS Modes ......................................................... 2.3.3 Supported RLC Modes .................................................................. 2.3.4 Supported Channel Coding Scheme ............................................. 2.3.5 Supported Network Control Modes ................................................ 2.3.6 Supported Network Operation Mode ............................................. 2.3.7 Supported QoS .............................................................................. 2.3.8 Supported Assignment ................................................................... 2.3.9 Supported Paging .......................................................................... 2.3.10 Timing Advance ........................................................................... 2.3.11 Measurement Report ................................................................... 2.3.12 Supported Flow Control ............................................................... 2.3.13 Supported Dynamic Handover between TCH and PDCH............ 2.3.14 Supported Packet Access Function ............................................. Chapter 3 Interface Description ..................................................................... 3.1 A Interface .............................................................................................. 3.1.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.1.2 Protocols on the A-Interface .......................................................... 3.1.3 A-Interface Management at BSS Side ........................................... 3.2 Um Interface ...........................................................................................

2-52 2-55 2-60 2-60 2-74 2-86 2-88 2-93 2-95 2-97 2-102 2-114 2-117 2-119 2-123 2-125 2-127 2-129 2-133 2-135 2-135 2-139 2-141 2-142 2-146 2-146 2-148 2-148 2-149 2-150 2-151 2-151 2-153 2-153 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-12 3-20

3.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.2.2 Layer 1 - Physical Layer ................................................................ 3.2.3 Layer 2 - Data Link Layer............................................................... 3.2.4 L3 ................................................................................................... 3.3 Abis interface.......................................................................................... 3.3.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.3.2 Protocols on the Abis Interface ...................................................... 3.3.3 Characteristics of Abis Interface .................................................... 3.4 Gb interface ............................................................................................ 3.4.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.4.2 Protocols on the Gb Interface ........................................................ 3.4.3 Characteristics of Gb Interface ...................................................... 3.5 G-Abis Interface ..................................................................................... 3.5.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.5.2 Interface Features .......................................................................... 3.5.3 Physical Layer/Transmission Media .............................................. 3.5.4 G-TRAU Frame Structure .............................................................. 3.5.5 G-Abis Characteristics ................................................................... 3.6 Pb Interface ............................................................................................ 3.6.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.6.2 Internal Structure of Pb Interface ................................................... 3.6.3 Pb Interface Management .............................................................. 3.6.4 Characteristics of Huawei Pb Interface .......................................... 3.7 Operation & Maintenance Interface ........................................................ 3.7.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 3.7.2 Feature ........................................................................................... Appendix A Abbreviations ..............................................................................

3-21 3-22 3-29 3-33 3-37 3-37 3-43 3-50 3-55 3-55 3-56 3-58 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-60 3-61 3-62 3-63 3-63 3-64 3-65 3-68 3-69 3-69 3-70 A-1

HUAWEI
1. BSS Solution 2. BSS Function Description 3. BSS Interfaces

M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Feature Description V300R003

M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Feature Description
Manual Version Product Version BOM T2-032115-20040720-C-7.00 V300R003 31210015

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TELESIGHT. U-SYS. TopEng are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co. HUAWEI OptiX. and recommendations in this manual do not constitute the warranty of any kind. ViewPoint. iTELLIN. but all statements. Ltd. iSite. M900/M1800. All Rights Reserved No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co. Lansway. iMUSE. Notice The information in this manual is subject to change without notice. NETENGINE.. SmartAX. Ltd. Ltd. .Copyright © 2004 Huawei Technologies Co. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this manual to ensure accuracy of the contents. Musa. information. express or implied. HUAWEI. All other trademarks mentioned in this manual are the property of their respective holders. . Quidview. Quidway. SYNLOCK. Tellwin. OpenEye. Radium. TELLIN. INtess. HONET. C&C08 iNET. C&C08. Inmedia. DOPRA. infoX. OptiX. DMC. InfoLink. Airbridge.. ETS. Trademarks . Netkey. EAST8000.. VRP.

the network element of BSS. Chapter 3 introduces all interfaces of BSS. Intended Audience The manual is intended for the following readers: Marketing staff Installation engineers & technicians Operation & maintenance personnel Conventions This document uses the following conventions: I. message input by the user via the terminal is in boldface. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction of the BSS solution that contains the networking of BSS. interfaces of BSS. Cautions. function. the characteristic of BSS. contains basic feature. Warnings. Chapter 2 introduces in detail the feature of BSS. and GPRS feature. Organization The manual consists of 3 chapters that brief the solution. General conventions Convention Arial Arial Narrow Terminal Display Description Normal paragraphs are in Arial. extended feature. Terminal Display is in Courier New. Notes and Tips are in Arial Narrow.About This Manual Release Notes The product version that corresponds to the manual is M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem V300R003. . Appendix A lists all the abbreviations.

One is selected. Alternative keywords are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. Comment. Elements in square brackets [ ] are optional. Warning.II. } Description Command arguments for which you supply values are in italics. Symbols Eye-catching symbols are also used in the manual to highlight the points worthy of special attention during the operation. Command conventions Convention italic font [] { x | y | . Note. Tip. . III. They are defined as follows: Caution.. Danger: Means reader be extremely careful during the operation. Knowhow. Thought: Means a complementary description..

.............................................................................1 Overview ....................4.........................................2 Features ...........5..... 2-19 2........................................................................ 2-2 2............................1 BTS30 ........................................1.......................................5.6.............1.................................................................................... 2-1 2................................................................................................................6.... 1-1 1................................3 BTS30A ........................................... 1-5 1..3 System Information ...........1.........................3 Traffic statistics console ......................................... 1-7 1.......... 1-21 1.......... 1-27 1.......................................................................... 2-1 2.............................................7 Location updating .........................1 GSM System ..............4 BTS3001C...................... 2-33 2........ 1-28 Chapter 2 BSS Functions .............................................................................. 1-1 1.......................................................1............... 2-1 2.... 2-9 2.................................5.. 2-44 i ...................................6 Cell Selection and Reselection .........................................5 BTS Series.......................6......................................................................................................... 1-27 1...................................................................6............................................5 LMT ................................................................................10 Immediate assignment ...................... 1-9 1.............................................................................6....................................6...................................1 Overview ............... 1-24 1....................7 Telnet terminal...........................................2 GPRS System ..............................9 Paging ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 1 BSS Solution ..............................................................1..............................................................................................1 Basic Functions...5 PLMN Selection.......................................... 1-10 1............................................................ 1-5 1.............................................1.........................................................................4 PCU ...................................................................11 Assignment.................................................................6..............................................6 Operation & Maintenance ...................................................................3........... 1-1 1......................................1 GSM/GPRS System ..... 1-11 1.. 1-19 1.............2 Channel ...................................................................................................4.....................6 OMC ............1 Operation & Maintenance of BTS .......................... 1-13 1..... 2-24 2............................4 Dynamic Data Configuration Management ..........1...........................................................1...........................................2 BTS312 .. 1-18 1...........................................................................1....................................................................................1................................................................................................................ 2-32 2.......1 Overview ............ 1-24 1............................................. 2-35 2...................................................... 2-15 2..............................................................................................................................................1........ 1-2 1................1........................................................ 1-3 1........... 1-10 1.........1.....3 BSC..................................4 Idle Mode Behavior .........................3........................................ 1-9 1............2 Features ........................ 1-19 1........ 2-18 2...................... 1-16 1......2 Operation & Maintenance of BTS ................................5...........................................................2 BSS System features..................................................................8 Access..........

..............11 Measurement Report ..................... 2-60 2...........................4 IUO ...................................................................................................1...............................................1...................................2...............................3 Extended Cell ................2................................. 2-139 2..............................................8 Multiband Network ................................................................................ 2-151 2.2...................... 2-74 2......... 2-95 2..........................3....................................................................................................................................................... 2-146 2.......................................3...2.......................................... 2-153 2.....................................8 Supported Assignment... 2-153 Chapter 3 Interface Description ......... 2-133 2............3 A-Interface Management at BSS Side ............................................................................. 2-117 2.......................... 2-146 2............................................3.................. 2-45 2.......................................1.. 2-97 2............................3............1 Overview ..................................14 GSM900/GSM1800 Co-cell....3.............2..................2.................................................1........................................................2..................3....................................... 3-3 3.........................................13 Ciphering ...2.................................1 A Interface........................................................2 Um Interface ..........2 Power Control........................................... 2-123 2............................................................ 2-127 2...... 2-88 2.....................7 Supported QoS.........................3........................12 Authentication.....................................2..........................6 Supported Network Operation Mode ............... 2-148 2....9 Carrier Mutual-assistance .... 3-20 ii ........................................1...................................5 Supported Network Control Modes ............................................................................................................1............ 2-55 2.......2....... 2-102 2........................3 Supported RLC Modes.3..............14 Supported Packet Access Function . 2-142 2.............................. 2-52 2.....................................2 Protocols on the A-Interface.....................................................................................................2.............................9 Supported Paging ....................................13 E1 Ring Topology....10 Cell Broadcast ..................................................15 Frequency hopping .................................... 3-2 3... 2-149 2.....................11 Radio Channel Allocation.. 2-148 2.............................................................. 2-125 2.......... 3-2 3....................... 2-135 2.....2 Extended Functions ........................................ 2-135 2.2.................................................. 2-150 2.15 Multi-MNC ...2...................................................................................................3..................3.....................................................................2.....10 Timing Advance .....................................................................................3 GPRS Function ............................5 Satellite Transfer .......................... 2-151 2.. 2-129 2.........................................3............ 2-119 2...............13 Supported Dynamic Handover between TCH and PDCH ................................................12 Half Rate ......................................................................................................................................................2.............................................3.... 2-141 2.............................6 Diversity Receiving..............................................7 Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern ............................1 Handover................................12 Supported Flow Control ..............................4 Supported Channel Coding Scheme ................................................................ 3-12 3..........................Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Table of Contents 2....14 DTX ....................... 2-86 2.....................................1 Supported Packet System Information ....2.........................................................................................2 Supported GPRS MS Modes ..... 2-60 2................1.............................................. 2-114 2.............................16 E-GSM/R-GSM...................................................................................................................... 2-48 2..........................3....................................... 2-93 2.................................................... 3-1 3........................3........................................

. 3-63 3............................ 3-60 3...........4 Characteristics of Huawei Pb Interface.....................3 Abis interface ......A-1 iii .................................... 3-21 3................... 3-55 3......4 Gb interface ........................ 3-43 3....... 3-59 3.................................................... 3-69 3..........7..........Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Table of Contents 3............................................... 3-59 3..............3.......................1 Overview ......................................1 Overview ....... 3-65 3.............................................2 Feature ........6.5..............................1 Overview ...................... 3-63 3......5...1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-50 3......................................6..............................2 Protocols on the Gb Interface .......................................................5..2........................Physical Layer.....................................................................................2 Internal Structure of Pb Interface ...................3 Characteristics of Abis Interface .....................................2 Protocols on the Abis Interface .....6 Pb Interface..................................... 3-56 3...........................................................1 Overview .......................3 Characteristics of Gb Interface....................................................................................................................... 3-59 3.....................2....................................... 3-70 Appendix A Abbreviations ........................ 3-37 3............. 3-62 3............................................4 G-TRAU Frame Structure .6.............5 G-Abis Characteristics ........................................................... 3-69 3..................... 3-22 3............................................................................3.........................................3................................................3 Physical Layer/Transmission Media........................................................................... 3-64 3...................................................................................................2..............7 Operation & Maintenance Interface ...................................... 3-68 3........................................................5.................6......................4.........4 L3 ................................... 3-61 3........................................... 3-55 3................ 3-58 3........7......2.......... 3-29 3............................................................................................................................................................5....................................................................................................................................................................................3 Layer 2 ................1 Overview .................................................................. 3-33 3.3 Pb Interface Management................................4.2 Interface Features .....Data Link Layer................................... 3-37 3...............................................2 Layer 1 .....................................................................5 G-Abis Interface ....4.................................

VLR is integrated in MSC as a built-in device. OMC 1-1 .1. The comprehensive mobile communication solution includes the network construction at service layer. etc. capacity. TMSC and SMC. mobile Base Station System (BSC and BTS).1 GSM System M900/M1800 GSM serial products include the Mobile Switching System (MSC/VLR and HLR/AUC/EIR). Um R/S GSM/GPRS BSS GSM NSS MSC BTS BSC LMT LMT PCU GPRS NSS SGSN LAN/WAN R OMC Server OMC W S OMC WS GSM/GPRS OMC GSM/GPRS OMS Telnet Terminal Figure 1-1 Huawei GSM/GPRS network 1. transport layer and supporting layer. operation and maintenance center (OMC). GMSC. Huawei provides the best sustainable network solution and integrated system solution adaptable to different wireless environment according to the size. GSM/GPRS network is illustrated in Figure 1-1. satisfying the carriers' different requirements on products and services.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Chapter 1 BSS Solution 1. coverage and investment scope of the mobile network. HLR is the equipment with functions of AUC and EIR integrated.1 GSM/GPRS System Huawei's GSM/GPRS mobile communication series cover all products in the network (except for MS).

Call Deflection (CD) and Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. It includes indoor/outdoor macro BTS and integrated mini BTS. upgrading the mobile communication network with advanced technologies. flight. which to the best extent protects the investment. data service and various supplementary services to satisfy the basic needs of mobile subscribers. charging gateway.1. group management.) and services base on group-call (e. e-bank. supporting the service and function defined in Phase 1. Explicit Call Transfer (ECT). General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides high-speed packet data service for the user. BTS. GSN Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC-G).g. PCU.2 kbit/s. Its open system structure supports smooth capacity expansion. M900/M1800 GSM system is in complete conformity with ETSI GSM standard. and supports QoS feature and the dynamic allocation of radio resources.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution implements centralized management and unified maintenance for the entire network via LAN or WAN. The SMC introduced here is integrated with Voice Mailbox (VM). Phase 2 and Phase 2+. which is desirable for the high-speed mobile data service access. BSC. border gateway. make up the new profit maker for the carriers. DNS and fire wall. etc.). the flexible networking and configuration function can save a great amount of initial investment of GPRS system for the carriers. Support Optimized Route (SOR). hotel.All equipment support the two bands of GSM900/1800 M900/M1800 GSM provides services including: Voice. theater. such as Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers (CCBS).2 GPRS System Huawei GPRS is realized by adding GPRS Supporting Node and Packet Control Unit as well as the corresponding software to the GSM network. M900/M1800 GPRS is able to provide various packet services such as mobile internet access.The major NEs include Service GPRS Supporting Node (SGSN). Other new services. etc. etc. 1. e-business (e. 1-2 . CAMEL Phase 2 mobile intelligent service combines the technologies of GSM and intelligent network. In addition. It also supports different antenna feeder systems such as dual band and dual polarization antenna and spaced antenna. It is an important step for the smooth upgrading from GSM to 3G. etc. remote control/test. Besides Huawei also provides Short Message Center (SMC). e-currency. Gateway GPRS Supporting Node (GGSN). The theoretical maximum access speed of GPRS is 171. The standardized interface guarantees the equipment capacity. stock information broadcasting). service reservation system (e.g.g. G3 fax.

SDH BSC MS MSC MS PCU SGSN MS Integrated mini BTS Indoor BTS BSS Outdoor BTS Figure 1-2 Huawei BSS solution Supporting M900 BTS and M1800 BTS as well as M900/M1800 integrated BTS and dual-band MS access. serial BTSs and O&M system. 1-3 .and Gb interfaces respectively. BSS also shares part of mobility management such as handover management. Huawei GPRS supports the smooth upgrading to 3G system. PCU.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution The high-speed mobile packet data service of GPRS effectively prolongs the life cycle of GSM improves the utilization of radio resources and paves the way for the emergence of 3G mobile communication. On the other side BSS communicates with MSC and SGSN through A. BSS includes BSC.2 BSS System features BSS is designed mainly to connect the Mobile Station (MS) to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) of the GSM network or the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). BSS is the subsystem in GSM/GPRS related to the concepts of radio cells. Figure 1-2 illustrates Huawei BSS solution. which is important in protecting the investment of the carriers 1. BSS communicates with MS through Um interface and handles radio link management and connection through it.

tree networking and hybrid networking. data services and fax services of various kinds in addition to common voice services. to macro cell supporting 12 TRXs. the selection ranges from the integrated small BTS supporting one TRX. these services can be both based on circuit switching and on packet switching (GPRS). The SMUX interface provides 4:1 link multiplexing (one 64kbit/s TS transmits 4 information channels) and the Abis interface provides a variety of multiplexing modes like 10:1. Multiple services supported A variety of services is provided: point-to-point short message service. III. Supporting 900MHz. As regards usage environment. there is the indoor macro cell BTS. HDSL. 12:1 and 15:1 (TRX: E1) and increases the transmission link utilization. Flexible networking There are multiple transmission modes supported between BTS and BSC: E1. 1800MHz and mixed 900MHz/1800MHz GSM frequency bands. I. providing a comprehensive and completely compatible solution. outdoor macro cell BTS. Easy upgrading from GSM to GPRS network. 1-4 . integrated small BTS and the mobilized BTS applicable to movable site. SDH. cell broadcast short message service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Currently. chain networking. Huawei M900/M1800 BSS provides complete GSM/GPRS solution with following salient features. microwave and satellite. SDH. There are multiple transmission networking modes between BTS and BSC: star networking. microwave transmission. II. etc. simply update the software of the original BTS and BSC and then add PCU. Serial BTSs which support seamless coverage A complete range of BSS products offers flexible networking and easy installation with seamless coverage supported. Huawei BSS employs the layered cellular architecture to boost the coverage and service quality of the system. HDSL. but also satellite transmission. Huawei GSM supports not only PDH. As regards capacity. PON. The tree networking between PCU and BSC is supported. Except for the voice services. To deliver GPRS services based on the M900/M1800 BSS.

V. 1-5 . 1. Huawei M900/M1800 BSC drives the mobile communication network to evolve towards digitalization.1 Overview With the use of switching. All entities support downloading software. Powerful and easy maintenance function: The operation & maintenance of the BSS is performed through centralized OMC system and a consistent operation & maintenance interface. Stable and reliable performance Huawei BSS reduces the power consumption by supporting uplink power control.3. it integrates an array of cutting-edge technologies in switching. power control. Supporting 120 km extended cell. The system supports dynamic data configuration. transmission and radio management. traffic statistics. handover control.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution IV. which simplifies the upgrading. It plays a pivotal role in radio access and network optimization. Self-check and switchover features enhances the system performance. DRX (paging discontinuous reception) technology and VAD/DTX (voice activity detection/discontinuous transmission) technology. Development-oriented architecture is adopted. High reliability: key components (e. The leading-edge handover. switching network and BS interface equipment) operate in 1+1 hot backup and common parts runs with N+1 protection. online data modification and online capacity expansion.g. power control and channel allocation algorithms make the system performance outstanding. micro-electronic. integration. and supports all the services delivered by GSM900 and GSM1800. photoelectric.3 BSC 1. main processor. which makes operation and maintenance easier and simpler. The OMC provides friendly user interface for easier operation. BTS management. etc. High availability of the system is ensured by using the excellent overload / congestion control algorithm and fault recovery strategy. baseband frequency hopping & carrier frequency mutual-assistance and LAPD link mutual-assistance empower the system with a fault-prevention capability. BCCH carrier frequency mutual-assistance. Based on an open network platform. intelligence and personalization. computer and radio technologies. M900/M1800 BSC mainly performs radio resources management.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution The M900/M1800 BSC. III. etc. is comprised of the following five modules: I. Administration Module/ Communication Module AM/CM is a centre for speech channel switching and information exchange in the BSC. supports the broadcast short message service. and circuit maintenance. The latter performs the operation & maintenance of the BSC via OMC. signaling processing. V. 1-6 . Back Administration Module (BAM) The BAM frame is a bridge between BSC and OMC. TransCoder & Sub-Multiplexer TCSM implements the transcending / rate adaptation and sub-multiplexing functions. II. radio link management. Basic Module This module is mainly responsible for call processing. It implements the communication between various BMs. Cell Broadcast Database (CDB) CDB is a traffic-processing centre. whose system structure is shown in Figure 1-3. IV. radio resources management.

Each BM can provide 8 A-sub interfaces or Pb interfaces. and compatible with the specifications of GSM Phase 1 and GSM Phase 2.08. Huawei Pb interface protocol.2 Features The performance and features of the M900/M1800 BSC are: Standard A-interface ensures the interconnection and interworking with the equipment of other manufacturers. Abis interface and Pb interface. A-interface is a standard open interface.CBC interface (LAN/WAN/X.58. GMEM GMCCM GMCCS . Complying respectively with ETSI GSM 08. 1.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution BM BTS Abisinterface BIE AM/CM GOPT GFBI GMEM CDB GNET BIE GLAP /LPN7 Ater-interface E3M PCU Pb-interface BITS OMC interface (LAN/WAN) GCTN GCKS GMPU GNOD GALM GMC2 TCSM OMC-R BAM GSNT ext.3. . the three interfaces provide GSM Phase 2 + functions like GPRS. M900/M1800 BSC offers three external interfaces: A-interface. 1-7 . GMEM GALM Figure 1-3 BSC structure To communicate with BTS.25) GMEM CDB . Pb and Abis interfaces are self developed interfaces. 64 Abis interfaces. MSC and PCU in the GSM/GPRS system.CBC ext. 8 SS7 signaling ports and 192 LAPD ports at the most. M900/M1800 BSC can be expanded smoothly from 1 BM to 8 BMs.08 & ETSI GSM 08. ETSI GSM 04.

and Abis interfaces. Resource verification and TRX cooperation mechanism: auto-fault clearing and auto-protection. 1-8 . Supporting GSM900 BTS and GSM1800 BTS as well as M900/M1800 integrated BTS and dual-band MS access. the switching matrix is 4K × 4K. BHCA: 800K Strong system processing capability. Supporting a maximum traffic of 6400Erl Max. Multi-level traffic control mechanisms are provided on A. Handover function supports synchronous. and traffic statistics. and provides detail interface tracing. Powerful processing capability and support of high traffic load. Each SMUX enables the 4:1 line multiplexing. LAPD uses the N+1 backup mode. Priority queuing function: The queuing of multiple priority levels for paging and channel allocation satisfies the requirements of different subscribers. SMUX uses the N+1 backup mode. which is intended for system normal operation. Base station Interface Equipment (BIE) enables the 15:1 line multiplexing. radio resources configuration. SMUX (sub-multiplexer) enables the multiplexing of terrestrial lines between MSC and BSC. satellite. GMPU load <25%. Reasonable and flexible allocation of functions among modules based on a multi-level distributed and group-CPU control. asynchronous and dual-band handovers. where N is the total number of SMUX cards in the system. microwave or optical fiber. Transmission on the Abis interface can be implemented through terrestrial. At most 1024 Cell or 1024 TRX can be managed. and saves the investments on terrestrial lines.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution One BM can control 128 TRXs (transceiver) at the most. Centralized OMC: Centralized network management is responsible for real-time management and control of the BSC & BTS. The processing capacity for future services is reserved. In full configuration and normal traffic model. High reliability GMPUs in hot backup mode. The switching network and BIE use the 1+1 backup mode. chain and tree networking topologies of BTS. Supporting star. Traffic adjustment: Optimized channel allocation mode enables the adaptive adjustment of the network according to the changes of cell traffic loads and radio environment. Synchronization mode uses active/standby synchronization mode.

The hardware structure of PCU is quite simple.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution High integration. baseband FH radio carrier mutual assistance and LAPD link mutual assistance ensure reliable system running. BCCH radio carrier mutual assistance.4 PCU 1.e. It is responsible for Packet radio resource management functions. Low power consumption.4. M900/M1800 PCU is made up of several superimposed PCU frames. Providing Gb. less room space is occupied. Packet call control function. 1. which delivers all the traffic handling functions of PCU and supports operation & maintenance. responsible for the operation & maintenance of the whole PCU frame. HSC (Hot Swappable Control) module. superb engineering and high reliability using state-of-the-art large scale integrated circuits (ASIC/EPLD/FPGA). Transmission of data packet on Um interface and Gb interface. M900/M1800 PCU is fully designed according to GPRS standard protocols. only 3300W are required for maximum configuration. online data modification and system expansion. The system supports dynamic data configuration. RPPU (Radio Packet Processing Unit) module. It consists of three modules: POMU (Packet O&M Unit) module. Based on a modular structure. as shown in Figure 1-4. a pure hardware module used for the hot backup function. i. Light & compact architecture. Supporting GPRS packet services. G-Abis and Pb interfaces. 1-9 .1 Overview Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a device introduced by BSS to support the GPRS.

5 BTS Series The BTS is the radio equipment serving one cell. Uplink power control. . RPPU RPPU .2 Features M900/M1800 PCU owns the following performance and features: Modularized structure and smooth expansion of the network.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution 1+1 1+1 BSC RPPU RPPU SGSN BSC RPPU . which will be distributed over the whole radio service area. . .4. Flexible networking modes. CS (Coding Scheme) dynamic adjustment algorithm. Preprocessing of measurement. 1-10 . Excellent G-Abis interface solution. Based on customer’s current and future requirements. Large capacity and strong processing capability. Dynamic conversion of PDCH (Packet Data Channel). RPPU POMU HSC SGSN BSC RPPU SGSN WS LAN Switch OMC Server PCU Figure 1-4 PCU hardware architecture 1. Huawei has developed a series of BTS products including indoor and outdoor products so that network deployment and coverage become very easy. Support of CS-3 and CS-4 upgrading. . supports Um port synchronization. 1.

power amplifier and power supply) that take care of one carrier are integrated in one plug-in TRX module. maintenance and expansion. and BTS3001C is the integrated small BTS.1 BTS30 BTS30 adopts modular structure. 1. Build-in power supply system. which facilitates installation. i. One cabinet provides up to 8 E1 interfaces. chain and mixed topologies. 15 TRXs share one E1 for transmission on the Abis interface (15:1) Supporting large capacity flexible configurations: Omni cell: 1~18 TRXs. Supporting various networking modes. power consumption of a cabinet is 1200W) and light weight (a cabinet in full configuration weighs about 180kg).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Huawei BTS series include BTS30. including star. PON.e. BTS312. Among them. and distributed supply to various modules. Build-in transmission equipment (supporting E1. Features and functions BTS30 is capable of the following features and functions. SDH. with dimensions 1600 mm % 600 mm % 450 mm (H % W % D). Centralized power supply to cabinets.5. 220VAC/-48VDC/24VDC power supplies available. This greatly simplifies system configuration and facilitates installation.) saves carriers’ investment in transmission equipment. 1-11 . 1) Performance characteristics. BTS30A and BTS3001C. tree. BTS30 and BTS312 are the indoor BTS. I. 2) Functions Supporting both 900MHz and 1800MHz dual-band systems Supporting Phase 1 / Phase 2 / Phase 2+ compatible LAPDm protocol. 3-sectors: 1/1/1~18/18/18 TRXs. Modular structure. The maximum output power of 900MHz and 1900MHz amplifiers is 40W. 2-sectors: 1/1~18/18 TRXs. Supporting GSM900 and GSM1800 TRXs in the same cabinet. etc. Low power consumption (max. maintenance and capacity expansion. etc. while BTS30A is the outdoor BTS. all circuits (including baseband processing part. which enhances system reliability. Supporting Phase 1 / Phase 2 / Phase 2+ compatible system messages and resources indication. RF part. as well as introduction of new hardware. BTS30 cabinet is a 19-inch standard cabinet based on IEC297 standards.

Supporting baseband hopping and RF hopping. -48V DC: -40~-60VDC. and free-run clock modes. Supporting GPRS: routing area/location area update. 24 V DC: 19~29 V DC. asynchronous and pre-synchronous handovers. Supporting dynamic configuration of basic data. Supporting detection of random access collision. uplink/down link TBF. Supporting data services specified in Phase 2. Supporting A5 encryption/decryption. Supporting diversity receiving and soft decision demodulation functions. Supporting cell layering. Supporting immediate assignment and paging combination to increase the radio channels utilization. Use of triplex tower-top amplifier improves the receiving sensitivity. holdover. Supporting 120km extended cell. reducing antennas in a cell. concentric cell and microcell applications. Internal bus technique facilitates future expansion. fast pull-in. Supporting preprocessing of measurement report. Providing both power supply and battery management functions. BTS room environment monitoring function achieves unattended operation.05 specifications. Supporting dynamic resources management. Operational temperature (normal): -5ÿC~+45ÿC Operational humidity: 5%~85% 1-12 . Supporting static and dynamic power control of the base station.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Providing basic service functions required by the system. Supporting bipolarization antennas. Calculation of timing advance. MTC and MOC. Supporting the CS-1/CS-2/CS-3/CS-4 radio channel coding schemes. Technical indices Dimension H % W % D = 1600 mm % 600 mm % 450 mm Power supply 220V AC: 150~280 V AC / 45~65Hz. RF indices conform to GSM 05. Supporting locked. Supporting paging queuing. II. Supporting omni and sector cells. Supporting short message cell broadcast and point-to-point short message broadcast. Supporting synchronous. including location update.

1-13 . 2) Large capacity & low power consumption BTS312 supports 24/24/24 configuration. It is designed as a typical all-in-one BTS by taking full consideration of capacity. The BTS312 is an indoor macro BTS. This saves tremendously the transmission leasing expenses. power supply. it effectively improves the signaling density.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Weight (fully configured): 180kg Bearing requirement: 250kg/m2 Power consumption / cabinet Max load: 1200W Receiving sensitivity: -110 dBm (GSM900). This technique saves up to 50% transmission links compared to the normal 10:1 or 12:1 multiplexing. Performance characteristics. as a result. 50% floor space needed comparing the regular 6-TRX BTS. configuration. the requirements for power supply and air conditioners are reduced. -109 dBm (GSM1800) Tx Power: 40W (46 dBm) 1.2 BTS312 I. consuming 2400W in total. BTS312 features: 1) Mature technology and reliable RF performance Large-scale application of Huawei radio base station equipment spawns on the maturity and stability of the RF technology. and services requirements. massive productivity. 3) The 15 TRXs on Abis interface share one E1 interface for transmission (15:1) For example The BTS whose configuration is S(5/5/5) occupies only one E1 at the Abis interface. A single rack supports up to 12 TRXs. With a low power consumption design. high integration. Supporting both RF hopping and base band hopping with excellent performance in application. The integrated transmission equipment supports multiple transmission modes. transmission. Single rack can support up to 12 TRXs (radio carriers). The use of advanced flow control algorithm can accomplish the statistical multiplexing of the Abis signaling. on average each TRX consumes only 200W. and reliability of the product. and low power consumption. featured by large capacity. installation. thus greatly saving the equipment room space. Advanced digital RF technology improves the consistency. saving the investment on transmission equipment.5.

Modular structure: RF components are integrated in the CDU. Installation and maintenance also becomes easy. accomplishing the broadband wireless access at one swoop. SDH. In the expansion from S(1/1/1) to S(8/8/8) of broadband combining. centralized management and distributed power supply improve the system’s security and reliability. When the antenna incurs different losses. It supports satellite. etc. this unit is powered off remotely so as to make a LNA bypass and ensure the normal working of the system. E-Abis technology includes the following aspects: The high precision and unique software phase lock technology can solve problems such as SDH clock phase jitter and satellite transmission clock signals out-of-sync. which reduces the line connections and improves system reliability. 6) Integrated RF components This technique protects the existing investment and ensures 100% usage of the old equipment during capacity expansion. that is. synchronization performance and anti-delay capability. Protection against long transmission delay on the Abis. it can tolerate transmission interruption of less than 2s. much higher than the conventional BER requirements. xDSL and satellite. E1/T1 and microwave transmission modes. so it is suitable for the unstable transmission modes like microwave. the gain of the divider unit can be adjusted remotely so as to ensure the sensitivity of the receiving system. each sector needs only one bipolarization antenna. SCU. which makes it suitable for unstable transmission.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution 4) The E-Abis provides powerful anti-error code performance. completely meeting the requirement of future development 1-14 . -48DC and 220V AC). It tolerates a transmission BER of up to 10-4. Intelligent CDU: in case of fault with the LNA (Low Noise Amplifier). PON equipment to provide "FTTB (Fiber To The Base station)". The existing antenna system including the CDU. Hot standby. tower-top amplifier power supply alarm. Powerful maintenance functions: including the 2-level standing wave ratio alarm. antenna. tower-top amplifier alarm. 7) Reliable power supply system BTS 312 supports three kinds of input voltages (+24DC. 5) Integrated optical transmission equipment Huawei is the first one in the telecom industry to integrate the SDH. 8) Supporting S (24/24/24) synchronous BTS configuration. feeder and tower-top amplifier (optional) need not be replaced during expansion. It allows transmission flash interruption. low-noise amplifier divider alarm.

Supporting diversity receiving and soft decision demodulation functions. This facilitates BTS testing and cutover. Functions Supporting both 900MHz and 1800MHz dual-band systems Supporting Phase 1/Phase 2 compatible LAPDm protocol. system can reload itself automatically without any delay. Synchronous inter-cell handover can be achieved even in the case of S (10/10/10) configuration or higher. MTC and MOC. In case of any fault or failure. Supporting A5 encryption/decryption. and the maximum networking capability is S (24/24/24) (synchronous site). Supporting DTX which minimizes interference. including location update. 9) Quick 1-minute startup and easy maintenance. routing area or location area update.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution A cell can hold 24 synchronous TRXs. Supporting data services specified in Phase 2. Software loading does not interrupt services. and uplink/downlink TBF. Supporting dynamic configuration of basic data. Supporting basic services and functions of GPRS. asynchronous. Supporting EFR voice coding scheme. 10) Supporting GPRS II. Supporting baseband hopping and RF hopping. shortening the call-drop rate and improving the operation index of the entire network. Supporting the CS-1/CS-2/CS-3/CS-4 radio channel coding schemes. Supporting short message cell broadcast and point-to-point short message broadcast. After power failure BTS can automatically resume working quickly when power supply returns normal. Supporting dynamic resources management. pseudo-synchronous and pre-synchronous handovers. Providing basic service functions required by the system. thus shortening the handover time consumption. Supporting paging queuing. 1-15 . which ensures a better voice quality. so there is no need to load it again from BSC. Supporting Phase 1/Phase 2 compatible system messages and resources indication. Supporting preprocessing of measurement report. All software has been pre-installed before shipment from the factory. Supporting detection of random access collision. Calculation of timing advance. Supporting synchronous.

3 BTS30A I.05 specifications. fast pull-in. RF indices conform to GSM 05. rain. Supporting omni and sector cells. The outdoor/indoor BTS and integrated small BTS make up the comprehensive solution for the construction of seamless wireless coverage. System overview BTS30A is an outdoor BTS of Huawei GSM product series. Use of triplex tower-top amplifier improves the receiving sensitivity. sunshine and burglary. Technical indices Dimension H % W % D = 1880 mm % 650 mm % 500 mm Power supply 220V AC: 150~280VAC/45~65Hz. Supporting static and dynamic power control of the base station.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Supporting immediate assignment and paging combination to increase the radio channels utilization. Internal bus technique facilitates expansion. As outdoor equipment. -48V DC: -40~-60VDC. reducing antennas in a cell. III. 24V DC: 19~29VDC. 1-16 . BTS room environment monitoring function achieves unattended operation. It has minimum requirements for environment. Supporting locked holdover. Operational temperature (normal): -5ÿC~+45ÿC Operational humidity: 15%~85% Weight: Single cabinet full configuration 330kg Bearing requirement: 400kg/m2 Power consumption / cabinet Max load: 2400W Receiving sensitivity: -110dBm (GSM900). it is characterized by excellent protection against wind. Supporting bipolarization antennas. and free-run clock modes. -109dBm (GSM1800) Tx Power: 40W (46dBm) 1.5. Providing both power supply and battery management functions. sands.

which enhances system reliability. Providing basic service functions required by the system. tree. maintenance and capacity expansion. chain and mixed topologies. Supporting GSM900 and GSM1800 modules in the same cabinet. Supporting Phase 1/Phase 2/ Phase 2+ compatible system messages and resources indication. 15 TRXs share one E1 for transmission on the Abis interface (15:1) Embedded power supply system. Performance characteristics.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution II. Functions Supporting both 900MHz and 1800MHz dual-band systems Supporting Phase 1 / Phase 2 / Phase 2+ compatible LAPDm protocol. Supporting synchronous. PON. Powerful temperature regulation increases the system’s adaptability to environment. 220VAC applied. and distributed supply to various modules. Supporting short message cell broadcast and point-to-point short message broadcast. Calculation of timing advance. Centralized power supply to cabinets. including location update. One cabinet provides up to 8 E1 interfaces. Supporting various networking modes. etc. Supporting diversity receiving and soft decision demodulation functions. Supporting dynamic resources management. Supporting data services specified in Phase 2. 1-17 . Build-in transmission equipment (supporting E1. Supporting baseband hopping and RF hopping. asynchronous. SDH. Supporting dynamic configuration of basic data. pseudo-synchronous and pre-synchronous handovers. which facilitates installation. Modular structure. Supporting paging queuing. III. Supporting GPRS.) saves network operators’ investment in transmission equipment. The maximum output power of 900MHz and 1900MHz amplifiers is 40W. MTC and MOC. including star. Supporting detection of random access collision. Perfect environment monitoring system enables remote operation & maintenance. Supporting A5 encryption/decryption. Supporting preprocessing of measurement report.

Receiving sensitivity: -110 dBm (GSM900). Weight (fully configured): 550 kg. Providing both power supply and battery management functions. and free-run clock modes. 3200W.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution Supporting immediate assignment and paging combination to increase the radio channels utilization. Power consumption / cabinet: max. RF indices conform to GSM 05. IV. the microcell base stations can be installed to improve the network coverage and quality of service. Provides BTS room environment monitoring function. Use of triplex tower-top amplifier improves the receiving sensitivity. Supporting locked holdover. Supporting cell layering.5. Operational humidity: 5%~100%.4 BTS3001C I. Supporting omni and sector cells. fast pull-in. It features flexible addressing and easy installation. In places where the macrocells cannot cover. Supporting static and dynamic power control of the base station. Conforming to IP55 outdoor equipment protection standard. 1-18 . -109 dBm (GSM1800) Tx Power: 40 W (46dBm) 1. Technical indices Dimension -H % W % D = 1800 mm % 1200 mm % 800 mm -Internal available space = 1075 mm % 1001 mm % 725 mm Power supply -220V AC: 150~280 V AC / 45~65 Hz. Unattended operation. Internal bus technique facilitates future expansion. It is mainly used to improve the network capacity and to eliminate the blind spot of the macro cell coverage. thus realizing the continuity of the coverage and lower the cost on coverage. reducing antennas in a cell. Operational temperature: -33 ÿC~+55 ÿC (Environmental requirement). concentric cell and microcell applications.05 specifications. Supporting bipolarization antennas. Overview iSite BTS3001C is highly adaptable to complicated climate and electro-magnetic environment.

Features BTS3001C features: Star networking and chain networking supported. It is possible to load all software at OMC. Multiple software can be loaded at one time. All parts are fixed and little noise will be generated. which are distributed widely with no personnel on their duty. The input voltage range is 150~300 V AC. Supporting GPRS. 1-19 . In chain networking. The operation cavity at the lower part of the integrated small BTS provides the maintenance interface and the indicators showing the working condition of the inner container. stable and reliable operations of BTSs. pillars or towers. subscribers can guarantee the highly efficient. 1.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution II. In high temperature environment.6 Operation & Maintenance 1. Through these operations. Flexible antenna configuration. BTS22C can be installed on the walls. such as the mountaintop. Some of them are even located at the areas with poor transportation. Closed structure in full compliance with IP55 outdoor equipment protection standard. thus realizing the convenient upgrading of the BTS software. Internal directional antenna and external omni / directional antennas are supported. which makes adaptable to the areas with highly fluctuating voltage. All operations cannot be done until the locked operation cavity is opened. In low temperature environment. the cooling fins on the inner container will radiate the heat.1 Operation & Maintenance of BTS The BTS maintenance module of BSC provides rich BTS maintenance functions. internal heating device will be started to ensure a suitable working temperature. There it is very complicated to replace the BTS board software at the location. the maximum serial connection levels are 5 levels.6. BTS software loading management Normally a BSC controls multiple BTSs. BSC supports the function of remote loading BTS software. I. Wide working temperature (-33ÿC ~+55ÿC). As a solution to this problem. The operation costs will be reduced and communication service quality will be improved.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution II. During normal running. BTS equipment operation management The BTS management module of M900/M1800 BSC helps the subscribers to check the status of BTS equipment and objects. BTS data configuration management The BTS will be initialized once the data configuration is finished to ensure the normal operation of the BTS. and boards. It also provides necessary maintenance measures. On the other hand. channels. The alarm sent to the maintenance and operation terminal will be displayed on the terminal and also stored in the hard disk to be queried. The functions of online configuration and modification are supported. BTS boards will instantly report and inform the fault-handling program to handle it. BT (Baseband Transceiver). cells. In addition. BTS alarm management BTS alarm management of M900/M1800 BSC is another function of BTS maintenance management. If any abnormality or fault occurs during BTS running. test tasks can be initiated from the BTS maintenance console. The BTS maintenance module in BSC enables the BTS data configuration process and configures such information as BTS parameters cell parameters. III. M900/M1800 BSC provides powerful test and diagnosis function for BTS maintenance. BTS maintenance is object-oriented. During normal running. These objects include BTS. BTS maintenance module of BSC provides powerful test and diagnosis function. the use of testing and diagnosis functions are necessary for the maintenance of the whole system. 1-20 . BSC needs to configure the BTS network structure data to ensure the BTS functioning in different network topologies. RC (TRX). the alarm processing module shall send the fault message reported from BTS to the maintenance and operation terminal. BTS boards execute self-check instantly. BTS test management To enable the long-term. Whenever the alarm is generated. channel parameters alarm threshold and BTS software & hardware configurations. and generate the alarms automatically or perform switchover in case of serious fault or abnormality. operation parameters are issued by BSC to BTS. The alarm will also be sent to the alarm box through the alarm box interface board. frequency parameter. Alarm box generates the sound and light indications to inform the maintenance personnel about the alarm. continuous and stable operation of the system. various alarm messages and signals will be generated in the alarm system. IV. V. At the same time.

TRX mutual-assistance management 1) In case of BCCH fault in a cell. tracing & monitoring. BTS Emergency Operations In the case of power failure. this BTS will report the fault. and the conversion threshold can be set. If the original TRX can not be restored. It is also used to return the operation results to OMC. During the conversion. the property of the related channel will be issued from BSC to BTS. frequency hopping will no longer be available. BTS log report. overload management and memory operations. Message transference between PDCH and TCH. control start. 1-21 . 2) In case of fault with a certain baseband hopping TRX during the normal running process in a cell. Support of GPRS service 1) BSS supports the dynamic conversion between PDCH and TCH. the TRX can be restored by clearing the fault. Meanwhile. The dynamic conversion can be activated by BSC. 2) 3) The channel connection will be reestablished when the packet channel encoding mode is changed. VIII. alarm filtering. Other management processing Other management processes mainly include circuit/channel blocking. service provisioning will be interrupted. BTS will use the spare storage battery for power supply to maintain the normal operation of the BTS. another TRX in the cell can be started to provide service in place of the TRX where the original BCCH is located. 1. After the faulty TRX has been recovered. and resource check. it will quit service provisioning.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution VI. BSC will automatically stop the power amplifying unit to avoid damaging BTS. VII. The baseband frequency hopping TRX fault processing function will delete the faulty baseband frequency hopping TRX from the corresponding frequency hopping group so that the other frequency hopping boards can work normally. If the original TRX can not be restored. active/standby switchover of GMPU boards. If the BTS is over heated.6.2 Operation & Maintenance of BTS The operation and maintenance system of M900/M1800 BSC is mainly used to receive the OMC maintenance commands and perform routine maintenance. transfer of idle burst. IX.

BSC system reset. including interface tracing and system performance monitoring. The BSS traffic comes from MS and MSC. IV. The operations in the maintenance management of the BSC system on the memory include memory inquiry and memory dumping. When the traffic of the CPU crosses a certain level. The congestion and overload threshold can be set through the OMC terminal. the system is congested and it will generate alarms. immediate active/standby switchover. Tracing & monitoring The maintenance management part of the BSC system features powerful tracing & monitoring functions. HDLC link status. II. V. Routine maintenance The routine maintenance involves software version checking and module status viewing so as to ensure normal and smooth system running. MSC and BSC. call control. the system is 1-22 . When the CPU occupation ratio is lower than the CPU overload threshold. When overload is detected. resources check and GLAP software loading. Control startup The control startup function involves circuit control. The traffic from the MSC includes call handling. resources request/indication and the allocation function. Overload management 1) Conventional concept When the traffic are more than BSS can handle.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution I. the overload message will be sent to the BSC. the CPU may halt and system may be down if no measures are taken to reduce the traffic. which will take preventive measures automatically to reduce the calls. To avoid such occurrence. LAPD link maintenance. The traffic is monitored in BTS. Memory operations. Mobility management. When the CPU occupation ratio exceeds the CPU overload start threshold. then the system is called in Overload State. Once the overload is released. handover request. overload control mechanism is introduced so that the system can detect overload timely and take effective measures. board inquiry control. III. radio frequency management and measurement data processing are the primary traffic at the MS side. hierarchical resetting. the measures will gradually be cancelled. The overload control mechanism includes traffic detection and preventive mechanisms. 2) BSC processor overloaded The CPU of the BSC has a limited processing capability.

Phased reduction of service access. the reason being “CPU overload”. Notifying to the MSC about the overload messages and points out the cause: CCCH overload and cell flag. BSC will start the following preventive measures: All the affected paging messages of BTS will be discarded. In this case. -AGCH overloaded AGCH is a unidirectional downlink channel shared by all the mobiles in the cell. designed to request dedicated channels for MS. The start and end values of the congestion are higher than the overload start and end values. When the threshold is overstepped. 4) MSC overloaded MSC might also undergo overload. BTS monitors the load status of RACH. Since the RACH capacity is no bottleneck. CPU congestion start value 95%. BTS will notify BSC. The default values of CPU congestion and overload threshold in M900/M1800 BSC are CPU overload start value 90%. -PCH overloaded The Paging Channel (PCH) sends the messages to MS in downlink direction. BTS will notify BSC of the overload message.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution recovered to the normal state and generates recovery reports. -RACH overloaded The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink channel. If overload occurs on the AGCH. 1-23 . and BSC starts the following protection measures: The paging message to the overload cells will be discarded. the adjacent cells and this will consequently cause deterioration to the system. CPU overload end value 70%. 3) Radio interface overload The basic strategy to control radio interface overload is to cut down the traffic on the CCH until overload is released. Notifying to the MSC about the overload messages and points out the cause: CCCH overload and cell flag. After acknowledging the overload status. CPU congestion end value 80%. new calls can not be accepted and MS will probably access. This channel is used to setup the MS calls. no measures need to be taken. BSC will prohibit access by subscribers depending on the actual situation and MSC will also reduce paging and external handover (between MSCs). it sends the overload message to BSC. BTS monitors the load status of PCH. When the threshold is overstepped.

3 Traffic statistics console Traffic statistics is an important function of BSS. and CCB list. This is very important for smooth expansion of the system capacity and network planning & optimization. It regularly monitors the traffic levels of cells and system flow levels to provide appropriate controls over other application modules. The traffic statistics module receives the performance measurement tasks from the OMC traffic statistics console and dispatches them in a unified way. The traffic statistics module routinely monitors the key resources of the system including CPU. consistency. TRXs. I.6. Abis interface receive/transmit queue. which simplifies the process of dynamic data configuration and greatly improves the efficiency and security of dynamic data configuration. This function does not affect other working sites and the circuit-based and packet-based services that have been set up.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution 1. reset of BSC means interruption of BSC and its BTS services. 2) Cells addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the GSM900 and GSM1800 cells. and even the TRXs and BTS boards. The system handles data validity. This mode adopts wizard interface which realizes step by step dynamic data modification. Functions 1) Sites addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the sites in various networking modes. 1-24 . In addition. integrity.6. This function does not affect other working cells or the circuit-based and packet-based services that have been set up. it monitors the radio network quality. modifications of system configuration data and system attribute data can be done without resetting the BSC. and BTS boards. connection. 1. Operation method OMC data management console provides a dynamic data configuration mode. II. If a BSC is in operation and a user wants to modify its data. and tolerance check automatically.4 Dynamic Data Configuration Management Dynamic data configuration is also called online data configuration. and even the cells. and handover quality. which measures and monitors the whole system and helps to improve and stabilize the network. message queue. that is. radio resource. Dynamic data configuration facilitates the implementation of data modification and minimizes the impact on the current service. It informs corresponding module to start/stop measurement and collects the measurement results to send to the OMC traffic statistics console.

This function does not affect other working TRXs or the circuit-based or packet-based services that have been set up. 14) Modification of cell's frequency hopping attributes: The software of the BSC supports timeslot hopping and can dynamically modify the hopping parameters 1-25 . This function can modify TRX static power level. handover can be performed based on the new parameters. This function does not affect the normal working of other cells and the established circuit-based and packet-based services. It is similar to the cell addition/removal function except that the originally configured data does not need to be configured. 6) Modification of handover parameters: After the modification. Modification of cell system information: It is possible to modify the system message to be sent to the cell. it is used to modify the multi-point connection data between the sites of upper and lower level. It adds anti-collision mechanism to the fault handling function for BCCH mutual-assistance and baseband hopping TRX to ensure that there is no negative impact even if the TRXs are switched over. saturation threshold and DC offset threshold. 4) 5) BTS boards addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) most boards at the BTS side. It is possible to optimize the network by modifying the handover parameter and power control parameter to improve the session quality. as well as their cells and TRXs. 11) Modification of cell attributes: It is possible to modify the thresholds of interference band. 7) Modification of cell power control parameters: It has no effect on the established circuit service and packet service. but will affects the packet-based service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution 3) TRXs addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the GSM900 and GSM1800 TRXs. 12) Modification of cell alarm threshold: This function does not affect the normal working of the cell and the established circuit-based and packet based services. saturation threshold and DC bias voltage threshold. and corresponding BTS boards. This will not affect the normal working of this cell or the established circuit-based and packet-based services. 13) Modification of carrier frequencies: This function can modify the frequencies of the GSM900 and GSM1800 TRXs. 8) Configure the BIE data at site side: When adding/deleting the cascading sites. This function does not affect the normal working of the cell and the established circuit-based and packet based services. Modifying the TRX frequencies of non-active BCCH of non-baseband hopping cell will not affect the calls already set up. 10) Modification of cell state: Through this function a user can change the cell state from equipped to unequipped state and vice versa. 9) Modification of BS color code and network color code: This function does not affect the normal working of other cells and the established circuit-based and packet-based services.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution of various channels in the cell. 20) Configure the cell BCCH cooperation. The dynamic data configuration to the BSC interface Phase 1dentifier is supported. this will affect the packet-based service. 16) Modification of channel types: It is possible to convert any non-BCCH into TCH. It has no effect on the established circuit service. 29) Configure channel management data. TSC. The value range of visibility of BIE is Visible/Invisible. This function does not affect the normal working of other cells and the established circuit-based and packet-based services. the function can modify the frequency values involved and change the cell from a hopping cell to non-hopping one and vice versa. BSC interface Phase 1dentifier includes A interface Phase 1dentifier. 18) Modify the encryption algorithm setting: It is used to dynamically modify the encryption algorithm of the cell. After BIE has changed from "Invisible" to "Visible". it is possible to add more sites to the BIE. including MA table. 22) Open/close EFR function. If the modification of channel type involves the PDCH before and afterwards. MAIO. SDCCH into PDCH. this function can modify the number of frequencies involved in hopping. saturation threshold and DC bias voltage threshold of the TRX. 17) Configuration of the antenna feeder uplink TTA and the power attenuation factor: It is used to dynamically configure the antenna feeder uplink TTA and the power attenuation factor. 26) Modify the visibility of the BIE. 23) Configure call control data. The value range of GLAP includes Visible/Invisible. The modification to the visibility of GLAP is supported. saturation threshold and DC bias voltage threshold. 28) Configure cell's effective frequency. 24) Modify the cell broadcast DRX property. This function can modify TRX static power level. 21) Screen/de-screen BSC alarm. The modification to the visibility of the BIE is supported. Adding/deleting the effective frequency allocated to cells are supported. Abis interface Phase 1dentifier and Um interface Phase 1dentifier. As for the RF hopping cell. 27) Modify BSC interface Phase 1dentifier. After GLAP has 1-26 . 30) Modify the visibility of GLAP. It is used to modify the channel management parameter of the cells. It is used to dynamically modify the call control parameter of the cell. 19) Configure the base band frequency hopping TRX switchover on failure. It is used to modify the voice version data. and HSN. 15) Modification of TRX attributes: This function can modify the static power level. Dynamic modification to the DRX property of a cell is supported. For the baseband hopping cell. 25) Modify CGI. Dynamic modification to CGI is supported.

which will affect the working quality of the system. III. Network planning tools interact with OMC to acquire the network resources 1-27 . while the OMC and Telnet terminal are mainly used to perform remote maintenance on the BSS. 1. PCU runs Telnet or the Hyper Terminal simulator program while the local maintenance program on the BSC and BTS is the one with a graphic interface offered by Huawei. PCU and BTS are identical and run the WINDOWS 95 or WINDOWS 98.6 OMC I. it is possible to allocate more LAPD link on GLAP. At this time.5 LMT LMT is a desktop or portable PC providing local maintenance operations. added response. In case of BTS maintenance link fault. 1.6. which manage respectively BSS and NSS. the BTSM will periodically re-send dynamic data commands to the BTS and send alarms to the OMC LMT can perform local maintenance on BSC. this will cause inconsistency between the data at the site and that in the BSC. the dynamic data configuration commands to the BTS can not be sent. Operational function OMC conducts the operation & maintenance of the GSM network and effective management of network capacity and coverage area expansion. The LMTs for BSC. They can be provided either separately or along with BSS and NSS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution changed from "Invisible" to "Visible". only a suite of OMC is required. a user can expand the channel capacity and adjusts the initial coverage range based on the actual needs. When Huawei BSS and NSS are used at the same time. Dynamic data configuration reliability In addition to the reliability check mechanisms provided by the OMC the BTSM provides such mechanisms as timed retransmission.6. Network planning plays a pivotal role in the construction and development of the network. OMC connects to BSS via the LAN or WAN. The only difference is the application software for operation and maintenance. For instance. BTS or PCU. OMC can optimize the utilization of the resources based on the network resources data acquired and decide whether to carry out capacity expansion. 31) Modify external cell description data. and alarming so that data can be configured correctly and completely in the BTS. Huawei OMC includes OMC-R and OMC-S.

system hardware and the number of connected subscribers. OMC platform Huawei OMC includes OMC Sever and WS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 1 BSS Solution information via OMC. 1-28 . OMC Sever connects to the WS through LAN and the OMC system communicates with BSS through LAN or WAN. The capacity of OMC depends on the number of connected network elements. Both OMC Server and WS can be upgraded based on the requirements. 1. It involves network configuration data management and network real-time feedback data management. OMC Server runs on Unix operating system and the WS runs on Windows. The former is the prerequisite for ensuring the normal operation of the network and the latter contains some measurement results for network planning and optimization.6. The implementation of this revised plan or expansion can be implemented through OMC easily. make analysis of these data.7 Telnet terminal A Telnet terminal is a command line terminal mainly used for the operation and maintenance of PCU. and revise the network plan. A user can send commands and view the responses through WS. II.

1 Basic Functions 2. The functions of RR sub-layer that include the 2-1 . Layer1 RR BTSM RR BTSM LAPD Sign. BSS system functions can be divided into basic functions. Mobile Switching Centre MTP: Message Transfer Part (MTP) SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part LAPD: Link Access Procedure on the D channel MM: Mobility Management LAPDm: Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel CM: Connection Management BSSMAP: Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part BTSM: Base Transceiver Station Site Management Figure 2-1 GSM protocol stack According to GSM 04. It is responsible for the communication of MS. Layer1 B BSSMAP SCCP MTP BTS BSC MSC CM MM BSSMAP SCCP MTP LAPDm LAPD Sign.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Chapter 2 BSS Functions BSS is a bridge between MS and NSS. MS CM MM L3 L2 L1 RR LAPDm Sign. the functions of BSS on layer 3 and related sub-layers on the radio interface (Um) are classified into: 1) 2) 3) RR: Radio Resource Management MM: Mobility Management CM: Communication Management Where the functions on the MM and CM sub-layers are supported by the DTAP between A.1 Overview Figure 2-1 illustrates the GSM Protocol. extended functions and GPRS functions. Sign. Layer1 Layer1 Um Abis A MS: Mobile Station BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller RR: Radio Resource Management MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre.07. 2.1. which performs mainly the management of radio links and conversion of radio links and wire links.and Um interfaces.

A traffic channel s further divided into Speech Traffic Channel. Common Control Channel and Dedicated Control Channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions maintenance and release of radio resources are mainly carried out by BSS. which are Traffic Channel and Control Channel. The functions (RR) that BSS involves are mainly as follows: Radio channel management Channel coding/decoding Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Full-rate & half-rate coding of speech and enhanced full-rate coding Encryption/Decryption Frequency hopping Antenna Diversity RF Power control and handover management 2. There are corresponding communication management protocol for A interface and Abis interface to realize the air interface between GSM network and MS. Types of Radio Channels According to GSM/GPRS specifications. the radio channels fall into two major categories.1. Circuit Data Traffic Channel and Packet Data Traffic Channel. Logical channel CCH DCCH BCCH CCCH TCH SDCCH Downlink Uplink ACCH SCH FCCH BCCH (BCCH1) (BCCH2) (BCCH3) PCH AGCH RACH SACCH FACCH Downlink Downlink/Uplink Figure 2-2 GSM/GPRS channel classification 2-2 .2 Channel I. while the Control Channel is subdivided into Broadcast Channel. The other functions of BSS are also essential for establishing communication between the GSM network and MS.

TCH/F2.4: full rate traffic channel for 14. TCH/AHS: adaptive half rate traffic channel for speech.8 kbit/s.4. 3) Packet Data Traffic Channel There are two rates for the PDTCH: PDTCH: full-rate PDTCH. TCH/F4. while PDTCH with an 8PSK modulation system can carry packet data whose momentary rates are 0~59. for MS terminated packet transmission. the speech traffic channels are divided into: TCH/FS: full rate traffic channel for speech.8 kbit/s user data. With GMSK modulation it can carry packet data whose momentary rates are 0~22. E-TCH/F32. TCH/H4.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-2 illustrates the logical channels.2: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 43.8: full rate traffic channel for 4.0 kbit/s user data. TCH/HS: half rate traffic channel for speech.6 kbit/s user data.6.4 kbit/s user data.4: half rate traffic channel for 2. 4 kbit/s user data. TCH/H2.6 kbit/s. Huawei BSS currently supports two types of traffic channels for speech: TCH/FS and TCH/EFS. 02.02. PDTCH is a one-way channel and categorized by the direction as: PDTCH/D: downlink PDTCH.4. for MS originated packet transmission. II.8 kbit/s user data.4 kbit/s user data. TCH/F9.8: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 28.8 kbit/s user data. 2) Circuit data traffic channel In the most updated GSM 05.4: full rate traffic channel for 2. Below is the introduction.2 kbit/s user data. E-TCH/F28. TCH/F14. TCH/F4. 2-3 .8 and TCH/F2.8: half rate traffic channel for 4.6: full rate traffic channel for 9. TCH/EFS: enhanced full rate traffic channel for speech. Traffic Channel 1) Speech traffic channels In the latest GSM 05. E-TCH/F43. TCH/AFS: adaptive full rate traffic channel for speech. Huawei BSS currently supports TCH/F14. the circuit data traffic channels are divided into: TCH/F9.0: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 32. PDTCH/U: uplink PDTCH.

MS tunes to and receives the information from this channel to check for any call from MSC at regular intervals. 2-4 . Access Grant Channel (AGCH): Through which the network notifies the MS about the allocation of the dedicated channel. BCCH carrier frequency of the adjacent cells. cell maximum allowable output power. Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH): This channel is used for the cell broadcast short message services. The channels introduced above are downlink channels. 2) SCH (Synchronization Channel): This channel is responsible for transmission of the frame synchronization number (TDMA frame number) and the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) to the MS. IV. Random Access Channel (RACH): Uplink channel. 4) 5) PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel): This channel transfers the messages related to packet services. It uses the same physical channels as SDCCH. NCH (Notification Channel): Downlink channel used for Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) and Voice Broadcast Service (VBS). such as Location Area Identity (LAI). It includes the following logical channels: 1) FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): This channel is responsible for transferring the frequency correction signals to the MS so that the MS can be adjusted to the corresponding frequency. The network notifies the MS of the allocation of the packet data traffic channels via the PAGCH channel. Broadcast Channel (BCH) BCH is used to transmit broadcast messages to the MS in down link direction. Common Control Channel (CCCH) CCCH are classified into the following four channels: 1) 2) 3) 4) Paging Channel (PCH): Downlink channel. through which an MS accesses the network and requests for allocating SDCCH. and packet service system parameters. PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel): Uplink packet random access channel. Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) PCCH includes the following four channels: 1) 2) 3) PPCH (Packet Paging Channel): Downlink packet paging channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel): Downlink channel. V. MS requests to access the network via the PRACH channel. 3) BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): This channel transmits the information common to all cells. MS tunes to the PPCH channel at a regular interval to check if there is any call from SGSN.

SACCH/C4: SACCH associated with SDCCH/4. prior to the call setup. designed for point-to-multipoint multicast call. Packet Dedicated Control Channel 1) PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel): Downlink channel serving to transmit the signaling. PACCH shares the resource with the PDTCH currently allocated to MS. SACCH/TH: SACCH associated with TCH/H. mostly for transmitting handover command. SACCH/M: SACCH associated with TCH/F for multi-TS configuration. 2-5 . power adjustment and timing advance. FACCH/H: FACCH associated with TCH/H. SGSN can page the MS via PACCH to initiate CS service. PACCH can also transmit the resources allocation and re-allocation messages. VI. etc. 2) FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): FACCH implements transmission by occupying a part on TCH. FACCH can be further divided into: FACCH/F: FACCH associated with TCH/F. SACCH/C8: SACCH associated with SDCCH/8. 3) SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel): it serves to transmit the signaling such as short message information. to the MS. When MS is in transmission mode. location updating information. between the MS and the network. 3) PTCCH/D (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Downlink): PTCCH/D is designed to send transmission timing advance to several MSs. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) DCCH consists of the following channels: 1) SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): Associated with the SDCCH or TCH. including response messages and power control messages. 2) PTCCH/U (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Uplink): PTCCH/U sends the timing advance by way of random access burst when the MS operates in a transmission mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 4) PNCH (Packet Notification Channel): Downlink channel. PRACH and PAGCH. and meanwhile receives the system information including transmission power. Huawei BSS supports PPCH. This channel is designed for MS to send received signal quality and signal intensity of adjacent BTSs to the network. One PTCCH/D corresponds to several PTCCH/Us. SDCCH/8SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4SDCCH/4 VII. SACCH can be further divided into: SACCH/TF: SACCH associated with TCH/F.

Dedicated control channel management BSS manages all the available dedicated control channels. After MS has sends a random access request via RACH or PRACH. Terrestrial channel management The management of terrestrial channels between BSS and MSC is to keep the terrestrial circuit states at BSS and MSC consistent so that an idle circuit can be 2-6 . XI. Radio channel combination As per the logical channel types as listed above.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions VIII. channel code and other parameters regarding the call to BSS. IX. Broadcast channel and common control channel management The management of the available broadcast channels and common control channels by the BSS involves DRX management. XII. modification and release. XIII. maintenance. BSS also assumes the task for the measurement and release of these traffic channels. BSS is also responsible for monitoring and releasing the link of DCCH. paging message dispatching. and BCCH message broadcast. Radio channel management Radio channel management involves the management of diverse radio channels in the GSM/GPRS. which chooses a traffic channel based on the messages. Besides. BSS will allocate a DCCH for the MS. a user can configure the following channel combinations in the M900/M1800 BSS. AGCH and PAGCH control. RACH and PRACH control. TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8 FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/C4 BCCH+CCCH BCCH+CBCH SDCCH+CBCH PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH X. Traffic channel management BSS is in charge of all the configured traffic channels. MSC sends the channel type. When a call is established. This process occurs in the phase of connection setup.

at a rate of 64 kbit/s whereas in GSM. For circuits blocked on the maintenance console at MSC side. data and signaling). While resetting circuit can be initiated either by MSC or BSC. A detailed description of the conversions on the interfaces is given in the related GSM specifications. RPE-LTP or CELP coding with much lower rate (16 kbit/s) is used due to the limitation of radio channel resources. 03. please refer to the specifications GSM 05. If a PSTN subscriber wants to call an MS. When adopting EFR.6 kbit/s and 6 kbit/s data rates on the Um interface are arranged for the 8 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s channel (for transmission either on the full-rate channel or the half-rate channel). the compression algorithm for the MS and Transcoder & Rate Adaptor Unit (TRAU) must be modified. XV. The conventional voice-coding mode is PCM with a rate of 64 kbit/s. Channel Coding & Decoding The messages are encoded/decoded before being transmitted on the radio channel to avoid radio channel interference. It is widely applied to PSTN. To further improve the voice quality. rate adaptation must be performed for the voice. Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Transcoding (TC) and Rate Adaptation provides an interface between the standard 64 kbit/s transmission at NSS side and the lower rate transmission at BSS side. The TRAU is introduced to complete this function. This is to ensure the success for the call and the handover. Generally. Circuit Group Block/Unblock. MSC can only block or unblock its circuits without affecting the circuits at the BSS side. For a detailed description of the coding methods for various channels. while the 12 kbit/s rate is for the 16 kbit/s channel. these conversions will be especially important. Unequipped Circuit. 2-7 . Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is used for normal speech in PLMN. and Reset Circuit. newly designed algorithms are used but it does not affect the coding rate on the Um interface. The BSS can not change the circuit state that has been changed at the local end of the MSC. To implement EFR. General principles of the circuit control includes: Circuit management message is normally initiated by BSC. There are various coding and interleaving methods for different logical channels (speech. XIV.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions available when MSC makes a call (“assign circuit”) and when MS performs handover (“assign terrestrial circuit”). the BSS has no authority to unblock or reset the circuit. When the BTS and the TRAU are physically detached. EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) is introduced. Procedures included in the A-interface circuit resource management are Circuit Block/Unblock. 3.

i.e. If these conditions are not satisfied. In general. the TRAU coding / encoding can be omitted. Table 2-1 introduces the full-rate coding/decoding process and enhanced full-rate coding/decoding process. making up 1280 bit. After TRAU receives the TRAU frames sent from the BSC. Decoding is a reverse process of coding. making up the 320 bit TRAU frame together with the synchronous header and control parameter. i. both to FR or EFR service). There should be no other equipment that is capable of changing the PCM signal on the PCM link between the FTCs of the MSs. e. FTC will perform the normal coding/decoding. 2-8 . TFO features: Realized in the occasion of MS-MS session. it is a waste if one channel is used to carry one 16 kbit/s GSM channel. The output parameters after encoding are 244 bit. sub-multiplexer (SMUX) is used between MSC and BSC to multiplex 4 % 16 kbit/s channels to transmit four speech channels over one terrestrial channel. After TRAU receives the TRAU frames sent Decoding from the BSC. The output parameters after encoding are 260 bit. The FTCs seized by the two MSs should support TFO function. Table 2-1 Voice coding comparison FR (Full Rate) Algorithm RPE-LTP algorithm (regular impulse excitation-long term prediction) TRAU converts the voice signal received from MSC into frames in the format of 20 ms/fr.. it restores them into speech Process data by applying decoding algorithm before sending them to MSC. the following should be realized: Both parties of the session should subscribe to the same service (i. making up the 320 bit TRAU frame together with the synchronous header and control parameter. To save terrestrial line resources. TFO is implemented by FTC via in-band signaling to reduce the primary coding/decoding during MS-MS session and improve the voice quality. TRAU and SMUX are integrated in one unit called TCSM.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Since the rate of each channel of existing terrestrial lines is 64 kbit/s. In the occasion of MS-MS session.e. making up 1280 bit. A frame of voice data contains 160 PCM sampling points. A frame of voice data contains 160 PCM sampling points. it is possible to improve the voice quality by removing TRAU coding/decoding with Tandem Free Operation (TFO).. it handles both rate conversion and multiplexing. As the coding / encoding process will degrade the voice quality. because TFO message and frame are transmitted with the low bit of the PCM sampling value. it restores them into speech data by applying decoding algorithm before sending them to MSC. it should be a direct link. To set up TFO status. Coding Process Decoding is a reverse process of coding. EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) ACELP algorithm (arithmetic code book excitation linear prediction) TRAU converts the voice signal received from MSC into frames in the format of 20 ms/fr.

5ter. 8 and 9 are broadcast information transmitted via BCCH under idle mode.5 points (totally 5 points). Types and content of system information There are totally 13 types: 1. 5bis. 6. MS can be properly accessed and perform network selection so that it can make full use of the services and cooperate with network. The network sends system information to MS so that MS knows its current position and the service type available. while the broadcast system information affects all MSs in idle mode. 2ter. especially the former with the MOS can be improved by 0. 2bis. II. because the channel associated message has the effect on only one MS. Some parameters can also control the cell reselection of MS. 4. 5bis. MS communicates with the network via the broadcasting of system information. 5ter and 6 are channel associated information transmitted via SACCH in active mode. 5. Network equipment sends some contents in the channel-associated message to MS so as to control the behaviors such as transmission. Among them. 2ter. In idle mode.1. the communication between network equipment is realized with the channel associated system information. There are two modes for the transmission of system information: broadcast message and channel associated message. including BCCH frequencies and FH frequency to provide the frequency reference for MS Frequency Hopping (FH). The content in the broadcast system information can overlap with that in the channel associated message.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions TFO can improve the voice quality of both FR and EFR. 2bis. 8 and 9. 7. 2. 2. 3. 2-9 . power control and handover of MS. 7. While the content in the channel associated message can be inconsistent with that in the broadcast system information. By receiving system information. When MS is establishing calls. 3. system control parameter and network function parameter. The broadcast system information is closely related to the channel-associated message. 2. cell selection parameter. 5.3 System Information I. Overview System information contains the major wireless network parameter on the air interface. Type 1: Cell channel description + RACH control information (optional) Cell channel description: all frequencies used by this cell. including network identifier parameter. 4. 1.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RACH control information: parameters such as maximum times of retransmission (MAX RETRANS). These parameters are used to control the behavior of MS in the initial access. Attach-Detach Allowed). Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description 2: describes the extended frequency allocation table of the adjacent cell (part of BA1 table). The frequency contained in this information is located at the different frequency segment as the current cell. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). 2-10 . Therefore. Type 2: Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description + Network color code allowed + RACH control information (mandatory) Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the BCCH frequency used by the adjacent cell. number of blocks reserved for AGCH (BS AG BLKS RES). Restricted user level. The single-band GSM 900 of GSM 1800 MS will skip this information. Type 3:Cell ID + LAI + control channel description + cell option + cell selection parameter + RACH control information (mandatory) Cell ID: identifier of the current cell. bit allowed for emergency call (EC) and access restricted user level (AC). number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). Type 2ter: Attached multi-frequency information + extended cell BCCH frequency description 2 (optional) Attached multi-frequency information: Number of the multi-frame measurement needed. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). Control channel description: contains the MS attach/detach allowed indication (ATT. Cell Bar Access. only the multiband MS can read this information. LAI: location area identifier of the current cell. therefore system information type 2bis contains the information of other frequencies in BA1 which are in the same frequency segment as system information type 2. Network color code allowed: NCC allowed for the MS test on the BCCH carrier in the cell. Type 2bis: Adjacent extended cell BCCH frequencies description + RACH control information (optional) Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the number of frequencies described in the frequency allocation table in system information type 2 is limited. Cell Bar Access. number of transmission timeslots (TX Integer).

Cell selection parameter: includes the cell reselection hysteresis value. bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). Cell Bar Access. number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). the difference is that MS can get the frequencies described in system information type 5 in active mode. mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). (ARFCN). FH serial No. Restricted user level. Restricted user level. maximum Tx power level allowed for MS access to the cell (MS TXPWR MAX CCH) and minimum access level allowed for MS to access system (RXLEV Access MIN). Comparing with system information type 2. maximum Tx power level allowed for MS access to the cell (MS TXPWR MAX CCH) and minimum access level allowed for MS to access system (RxLEV Access MIN). FH channel indication (H). Cell Bar Access. CBCH mobile allocation information: the relation between the sequence of frequencies used for FH and cell channel description. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). System information type 3 rest bytes: cell reselection parameter information and type 3 MS control information. Cell selection parameter: includes the cell reselection hysteresis value. Cell option: includes the power control indication (PWRC). Type 5: Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description (mandatory) Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the BCCH frequency used by the adjacent cell. training sequence code (TSC). (HSN) and absolute RF channel No. RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. Type 4: LAI + cell selection parameter + RACH control information + CBCH description + CBCH dynamic allocation information (mandatory) LAI: the location area identifier of the current cell. RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). number of 51 TDMA multi-frames reserved for the same paging group in the paging information (BA PA MFRMS) and the interval of periodic location update. (TN). CBCH description: includes the channel type and TDMA offset (which type of dedicated channel combination). and report the related information of the adjacent cell in the measurement report as the reference of 2-11 . System information types 4 rest bytes: cell reselection parameter.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions common control channel configuration (CCCH CONF). discontinuous transmission (DTX) and radio link timeout value (Radio Link Timeout). timeslot No.

Broadcast channel parameter 2-12 . Cell Bar Access. only the multiband MS can read this information. Type 9: RACH control information + broadcast channel parameter RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). The single-band GSM 900 of GSM 1800 MS will skip this information. Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ). therefore system information 5bis contains the information of other frequencies in BA2 which are in the same frequency segment as system information 5. bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. the GSM900 MS in Phase 1 recognizes only the adjacent cell frequencies described in system information type 5 and ignore those contained in 5bis and 5ter. Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description 2: describes the extended frequency allocation table of the adjacent cell (part of BA2 table). Type 7: Cell reselection parameter Cell reselection parameter: includes cell reselection indication (PI). Temporary Offset (TO) and Penalty Time (PT). Restricted user level. Type 8: Cell reselection parameter Cell reselection parameter: includes cell reselection indication (PI). Therefore. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). Type 5bis: Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description (optional) Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the number of frequencies described in the frequency allocation table in system information type 5 is limited. Type 6: Cell ID + LAI + cell option (mandatory) Cell ID: identifier of the current cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions handover. LAI: the location area identifier of the current cell. Temporary Offset (TO) and Penalty Time (PT). Similarly. discontinuous transmission (DTX) and radio link timeout value (Radio Link Timeout). number of retransmission timeslot (Tx Integer). Type 5ter: Attached multi-frequency information + extended cell BCCH frequency description 2 (optional) Attached multi-frequency information: Number of the multi-frame measurement needed. Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ). Cell Reselect Offset (CRO). The frequency contained in this information is located at the different frequency segment as the current cell. Cell Reselect Offset (CRO). Cell option: includes the power control indication (PWRC).

CGI consists of LAI and CI. is allocated by the country in unified way. CCCH CONF decides the integration mode of the CCCH in the cell. It is transmitted in the control channel description in the system information type 3. LAC and CI. IMSI attach and detach allowed (ATT) is used to notify MS whether the local cell allows IMSI attach/detach process. consisting of three decimal digits. LAI is composed of MCC. Therefore. In GSM system.4 and 6 include all or part of CGI information. It serves to keep contact between MS and BTS. see Table 2-2. MS differentiates two cells' same frequency with their BSICs. 2) System control parameter System control parameter is transmitted to MS with system information via air interface by BTS. these parameters have the direct effect on the service bearing and signaling flow of various part of system. For details. while 0X0000 and 0XFFFF are reserved. System information type 3.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. ATT has 1 bit. BSIC identifies the local color code of each BTS in the GSM system. both consisting of 2 bytes. consisting of two decimal digits. CCCH CONF is a 3 bit code. reasonable setting of these parameters is important in maintaining of the normal operation of GSM system. "0" stands for IMSI attach/detach process not allowed. Note that the TSC described in system information type 4 is the BCC of the current cell. MNC. MS decodes the system information to get the CGI. MS decides whether to connect to the network in this cell according to the MCC and MNC indicated by CGI. is allocated worldwide in unified way. 2-13 . Note that the value range of CI is 0X0001~0XFFFE. Besides. It is also used to check whether the current location area has changed so as to initialize the location updating process. are arranged by GSM carrier in unified way. MCC. it is necessary to guarantee the uniqueness of BSICs of the cells using the same BCCH carrier frequency. It consists of NCC (3 bits) and BCC (3 bits). Meaning and function of wireless network parameter 1) Network identification parameters Network identification parameters include CGI and BSIC. BSIC is transmitted on the SCH of each cell. and "1" stands for the process allowed. Therefore. MNC and LAC. It is transmitted in control channel description in the system information type 3. frequencies are multiplexed to different extents according to the different requirements in network plan.

It is decided by the traffic module of the cell. respectively meaning that the number of multi-frame of a paging group cycled on the PCH is 2~9. CCCH uses three basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. It is transmitted in the control channel description in system information type 3. Reserved Number of CCCH information blocks in BCCH multiframe 9 3 18 27 36 Note: The CCCH CONF setting of a cell should be in line with the actual setting of the cell's CCCH. 2-14 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-2 CCCH code meaning CCCH CONF 000 001 010 100 110 Others Meaning CCCH uses a basic physical channel which is not shared with SDCCH. It is an 8-bit code. BS PA MFRAMS is transmitted in the control channel description in system information type 3. It is possible to adjust this parameter to achieve the bearing balance between AGCH and PCH. Note that the maximum number of channels configured in cell channel description is 64. The value range is 0~7. BS AG BLKS RES is transmitted in the control channel of system information type 3. Cell Channel Description. CCCH uses two basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. transmitted in system information type 1. This parameter actually decides how many sub-channels the PCH of a cell will be deviled into. BS AG BLKS RES will be used to arrange the occupancy ratio between AGCH and PCH on CCCH. CCCH uses a basic physical channel which is shared with SDCCH. Periodic location updating timer (T3212) decides the frequency of periodic location updating. BS PA MFRAMS is a 3 bit code. It decides how many multiframes making up a cycle of a page sub-channel. of the local cell. and 0 means no location updating. describes the RF channel No. After setting CCCH CONF. CCCH uses four basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. The value range is 0~255. each unit of which is the duration of six minutes. It is used together with CCCH CONF to decide the number of information blocks in each BCCH of the current cell. It is used in frequency hopping.

5. indicates whether there are still extended adjacent cells to be transmitted in system information type 2bis and 5bis. it immediately attempts to make contact with a GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). Moreover. Extension Indication. Overview A powered on mobile station (MS) that does not have a dedicated channel allocated is defined as being in idle mode. The idle mode behavior is managed by the MS.4 Idle Mode Behavior I. BA Indication transmitted in system information type 2 and 5. transmitted in system information type 2. When the MS is powered on but neither making nor receiving any calls (idle mode) there has to be a mechanism that always selects the best cell on which to camp. if the adjacent cell relation of the current cell and the BA2 table is changed during a session. Huawei BSS supports at most 32 adjacent cells. transmitted in system information type 2 and 5. describes the absolute channel No. to be able to access the system from anywhere in the network. The details are listed below. In another word. 5bis and 5ter. It is a 1-bit code. used for MS to select the data in BA 2 before or after modification. indicating MS to report adjacent cell information on multiple frequency bands.1. The particular PLMN contacted may be selected either automatically or manually. This selecting is known as “camping” on a cell. it has to be able to select a 2-15 . It is applicable to multiband MS only.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Neighbor Cells Discretion. and "1" means that type 2 and 5 contains part of BA table. The purpose of the tasks performed in the idle mode is to be able to access the system and be reached by the system from any location in the network. When a mobile is powered on. It will then tune to the control channel of the cell to receive information about the available services provided by the PLMN. 2ter. the BA Indication in system information type 5 will be 1 instead of stead of 0. "0" means that system information type 2 and 5 contains the complete BA table. It is a 1-bit code. All the main controlling parameters for idle mode behavior are transmitted on the BCCH carrier in each cell. transmitted in system information type 2ter and 5ter. This indicate that MS perform decoding in the adjacent cell indicated in the system information type 5 again. of the BCCH TRX of the cell adjacent to the current cell. regardless of where the MS was powered off. The MS will look for and select a suitable cell of the chosen PLMN. Multiband Reporting (MBR). It is a 2-bit code. It can be controlled by parameters which the MS receives from the base station on the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). When an MS is in idle mode it will always try to camp on the best cell according to a signal level based criterion. 2bis. 2.

will make the MS to camp on the cell that would have been chosen if the MS had been in active mode. When the system receives an incoming call it knows in which location area it should page the MS. 2-16 . the cell selection and reselection algorithms in addition to the location updating procedure are the core of the idle mode behavior. This is achieved by means of the idle mode cell selection and reselection algorithms. and does not need to page it throughout the whole MSC service area. This makes it possible for the operator to achieve similar behavior for MSs in idle mode as in active mode. periodically and when powered on or off. based on signal level. tune to its frequency and listen to the system message informations transmitted in that cell. If the MS does not respond to the first paging information. make a specific cell more or less attractive to camp on for the MS. Camping on the most suitable cell provides the MS with a high probability of good communication with the system. Thus. This prevents the network from doing unnecessary paging of MSs that have been powered off or left the coverage area. on a per cell basis. II. This reduces the load on the system. Using these parameters an operator can. It must also be able to register its current location to the network so that the network knows where to route incoming calls. The PLMN selection mechanism. 2) Control of the paging load In idle mode the MS will notify the network whenever it changes location area by the location updating procedure. The cell selection and reselection algorithms are governed by parameter settings. These algorithms will enable the MS to choose the most suitable cell to camp on. The MS can also. A cell is suitable if certain criteria are satisfied.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions specific GSM base station. then the network can send a second paging information. Well-designed parameter settings for cell selection and reselection in idle mode. 3) Low idle mode power consumption In idle mode. the network will be kept updated concerning which location area the MS is presently in. The purpose is to always ensure that the mobile is camped on the cell where it has the highest probability of successful communication. Usage 1) High signal level when accessing the system The MS will at all times try to obtain the highest possible signal level when accessing the system. This would otherwise cause unnecessary load on the system. the MS only occasionally monitors the system information being transmitted in the current cell or does measurements on neighboring cells to see if a cell change should be initiated. notify the network of its present status by the location updating procedure.

the power consumption during idle mode will be low.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions However. if necessary. 2-17 . This is also referred to as discontinuous reception (DRX). The idle mode task can be subdivided into four processes: PLMN selection Cell selection Cell reselection Location updating. It will also. The relationship between these processes is illustrated in Figure 2-3. Technical description While the MS is in idle mode it will continuously make measurements on the BCCH-carriers of serving and neighboring cells to decide on which cell to camp on. The purpose of camping on a cell is threefold: 1) 2) 3) It enables the MS to receive system information from the PLMN The MS can initiate a call by accessing the network on the Random Access Channel (RACH) of the cell on which it is camped. register its presence in the location area of the chosen cell by performing a location updating. The PLMN will know the location area of the cell in which the MS is camped (unless the MS has entered a limited service state) and can therefore page the MS when an incoming call is received. Hence. III. most of the time it will be in “sleep mode”.

the MS loses coverage.5 PLMN Selection I.1. It will first try to select and register on the registered PLMN if one exists. Registration has to be successful in order for the MS to be able to access that network. the MS will then do periodical attempts to return to its home PLMN. for example. If registration on a PLMN is successful. This is controlled by a timer. However. Overview The MS will select a PLMN when it is powered on or upon recovery from a lack of coverage. the MS will try to select another PLMN either automatically or manually depending on its operating mode. However. it does not need to perform location updating if it is in the same location area belonging to the same PLMN as it was before it entered the inactive state. The MS can select and register on another PLMN of its home country than its home PLMN if national roaming or international roaming is permitted. or if the registered PLMN is unavailable. If there is no registered PLMN. However.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Service indication to User Automatic/Manual Mode Selection User Selection of PLMN Indication to User PLMN Selection PLMN Selection Cell Selection New Location Area PLMN Available Initial Cell Selected Cell Reselectin Cell & Location Area Changes Periodic Registration Location Updating Responses Location Updating Figure 2-3 Overall idle mode processes 2. another PLMN may be selected if. 2-18 . The MS normally operates on its home PLMN. the MS indicates this PLMN (the “registered PLMN”) and is capable of making and receiving calls on it. The MS will register on a PLMN if the MS finds a suitable cell to camp on and if a location-updating request is accepted.

1. III. Only the service provider is able to set the timer value for return to home PLMN. If the selected PLMN is not allowable. II. Once MS has selected a cell as its serving cell. There are two modes for PLMN selection. Overview The purpose of cell selection and reselection is to enable MS to find a most suitable cell on which MS can reliably decipher the downlink data and maintain a high communication rate on uplink (so as to realize various telecom services). Manual mode In manual mode. the MS will first try to select the registered PLMN or home PLMN (if no registered PLMN exist). The automatic mode utilizes a list of PLMNs in an order of priority whereas the manual mode leaves the decision to the user and only indicates which PLMNs that are available. The user can at any time request the MS to initiate reselection and registration onto an alternative available PLMN. in the following order if no registered PLMN exists or is available: Home PLMN 1) Each PLMN that has been stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) in priority order 2) 3) Other PLMNs with received signal level above -85 dBm in random order All other PLMNs in order of decreasing signal level. depending on the mode selected by the user. Automatic mode In automatic mode. If this registration fails or if the user has initiated a PLMN reselection the MS will indicate to the user all available PLMNs. automatic and manual. MS will tune to the BCCH to receive the paging message and the system information broadcast on BCCH and use the RACH to send access request after it has selected this cell.6 Cell Selection and Reselection I. its communication with the network becomes possible on this cell. 2. This is done either using automatic or manual mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The interval between attempts is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). an indication to the user to select another PLMN will be made. 2-19 . The user can then select a desired PLMN which causes the MS to initiate a registration on this PLMN. the MS will select PLMN if available and allowable.

One is transmitted in the system information via BCCH. and compares the signal level on the channels to calculate the average level. After finding this carrier. MS will still camp on it. Case 1: If the access level of the MS is barred at the cell. MS can camp on this cell. There are two BA tables in GSM network. In this occasion. MS will attempt to decode SCH to obtain the BCCH system broadcast information synchronous with this carrier. at least five sampling points will be extracted from different RF channels. Cell selection procedure in the case of BCCH information already stored in MS 2-20 . during which.. MS will camp on this cell without considering its PLMN ID. If the MS can properly decode BCCH data. only emergency call can be implemented. and this cell has no access barring. The entire measurement procedure lasts 3~5 s. MS obtains the information of adjacent cell BCCH frequency through BA (BCCH). it will first judge which one is the BCCH carrier (by searching FCCH burst). If no suitable cells are found after searching 30 RF channels with the highest level. It includes the BCCH carrier used in a certain physical area for the MS in idle mode to implement cell selection and reselection. After MS has tuned to the maximum carriers of the receiving level. Otherwise. MS searches 374 GSM 1800 RF channels). Cell selection procedure When MS is powered on and move from blind spot of coverage to the serving area.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MS implements cell reselection according to the message in BA table in the system broadcast information from the serving cell. parameter C1>0. It is used to indicate the MS in active mode about the BCCH carrier for handover monitoring. it will search for all available frequencies in the PLMN and select the suitable cell to camp on. the cell selection algorithm will not be affected. The process will not stop until MS receives the first BA (SACCH) information. and make sure that this cell belongs to the selected PLMN. e. This is the procedure of "cell selection". II. Cell selection procedure in the case of no BCCH information in MS MS first searches the 124 RF channels of GSM 900(if the MS is a multiband one. when the cell satisfies the criterion. but access is barred (parameter CBA is set as "bar") or algorithm C1<0. The other one is transmitted in the system information via SACCH. In active mode. MS will use the BA table obtained from this cell to search for these BCCH carriers. i. If so. Case 2: If the cell selected by MS belongs to PLMN. MS will monitor the level of all channels and search for the BCCH of C>0 and no access barring. MS will keep tuning to the next highest carriers until it reaches the available cell.

it will camp on this selected cell and continue the monitoring on all BCCH carriers configured in the adjacent cell frequency configuration table indicated in the BCCH system information of the serving cell if the conditions are not changed greatly. MS will check the BA table of this cell. C1 is the path loss criterion as the reference of cell selection and reselection. If MS can decode the BCCH data of the cell. MS will select Cell 1 as the main serving cell to if the priorities are the same. MS will first search the stored BCCH carrier.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the BCCH carrier information has been stored in MS during the last powering off. The selected cell is the main serving cell Figure 2-4. but cannot camp on it. 2-21 . III. C1 of the serving cell should be larger than 0. Cell reselection procedure After MS has selected a serving cell. Cell1 Cell2 C1=15 C1=8 Figure 2-4 Cell selection MS select the suitable cell to camp on according to the priority and C1. The formula is as follows: C1 = RxLEV − RxLEV _ Access _ MIN − MAX ((MS _ TxPWR _ MAX _ CCH − P ). If no suitable cells found after all BCCH carriers have been searched. Table 2-3 Name of powers Name RxLEV RxLEV Access MIN MS TxPWR MAX CCH P Meaning (Unit d Bm) Average level MS received Maximum receiving level allowed for MS to access Maximum transmitting power level allowed for MS to access the system Maximum output power of MS C1 algorithm is used during cell selection procedure. the previous procedure will be implemented. as shown in Figure 2-4.0 ) See Table 2-3 for formula explanation.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

When monitoring these BCCH carriers, the measurement of their receiving level should base on at least the average of 5 sampling points, and the number of measured sampling points extracted from all BCCHs should be the same. The sampling points allocated to each carrier should be as even as possible in each measurement period. The six strongest BCCH carriers should be refreshed at least once per minute. To lower the power consumption of MS, MS should measure the receiving level of each carrier in BA table when performing decoding page group. It is possible to obtain some BCCH frequencies and sample values of receiving level on the BCCH frequency of the serving cell during the appearance of MS page group. The MS routine measurement program also includes the measurement of the BCCH carrier of the current serving cell. MS should attempt to decode all system informations broadcast on BCCH of the serving cell at least every 30 s. MS should implement decoding of BCCH data block to the BCCH carriers of the six strongest non-serving cells at least every 5 min. This data block contains the parameter concerning cell reselection. After MS has found a new BCCH carrier as one of the strongest carriers, it will decode the BCCH data of the new carrier within at least 30 sums. MS should check the BSIC of one of the six strongest carriers within at least 30s to verify that the monitored objective is the same cell. If BSIC is changed, MS will regard the carrier as a new one, and decode the BCCH data again. During the process above, MS tries not to interrupt the monitoring to PCH. Under the following occasions, the procedure of cell reselection will be initiated. (If C2 algorithm has not been activated, C2 = C1). MS finds that the C2 value of a cell (in the same location area as the serving cell) has been larger than that of the serving cell for 5 seconds. MS finds that the C1 value of a cell (not in the current location area) has been larger than the sum of the C2 value of the serving cell and the cell selection hysteresis for five seconds. The current cell barred. MS finds the downlink failure: the criterion of downlink signaling failure is based on the downlink signaling failure counter DSC. If MS has selected a cell, DSC is set as [90/BS PA MFRMS] round number. BS PA MFRMS is the number of multiframes of the 51 TDMA frame for the BTS transmission paging information for the MSs of the same paging level. Therefore, when MS is decoding on the PCH, if succeeded, add 1 to DSC; if failed, subtract 4 from DSC. When DSC = 0, there is downlink signaling failure. The value of C1 has been smaller than 0 for 5 s. During random access, MS fails to register at the retry after maximum retransmission.

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Note that after MS reselection and camping on the cell, MS should decode all of the BCCH data of the new cell to check whether the parameter concerning cell reselection has changed. If it is changed, MS will decide whether this change satisfies the criterion of cell reselection. If the criterion is satisfied, MS will camp on this cell. If MS finds that LAI has changed, it will initialize location updating. C2 algorithm is used in cell reselection, as shown in Figure 2-5
Cell1 Cell2

C2=4

C2=18

Figure 2-5 Cell Reselection MS selects the cell to camp on according to the priority and C1 value. The camped-on cell becomes the main serving cell. See Figure 2-5. With the same priority, MS will select Cell 2 as the main serving cell if reselection hysteresis and the reselection time are both satisfied.

IV. The impact of the network to the MS in idle mode
Network side is responsible for completing system informations broadcast and paging task for idle MSs in downlink. System information type 2~4 and the optional type 1, 2bis, 7 and 8 are broadcast periodically from the network via BCCH. The MSs in idle mode decides whether and how to access the network according to these information. MS of GSM 900 supports the band of GSM 900 only. It regards the EXT IND bit described in adjacent cell in system information type 2 as the standby bit. If the information sent from the multiband network is received, MS will regard that the information unit in system information type 2 contains the complete BA table and will ignore the system information type 2bis.

V. Definition of discontinuous receiving mode (DRX) and PCH
If MS in idle mode has selected its serving cell, it is ready to monitor the paging information from this cell. To lower the power consumption of MS, the GSM specification adopts the discontinuous receiving mechanism, i. e., each subscriber (IMSI) corresponds to a dedicated paging group. Each group corresponds to a paging

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sub-channel of the cell. MS recognizes its paging group and the corresponding paging sub-channel according to the last three digits of the IMSI. MS in idle mode uses its own paging sub-channel to receive the paging information (or to monitor the receiving level of the BCCH carrier of the non-serving cell). MS ignores the information from other paging sub-channel or even shuts down the power of some hardware to lower its power consumption during the broadcasting of other paging sub-channels. But MS must measure the network information task periodically. The number of the paging sub-channels can be calculated according to the configuration type and BS AG BLKS RES (how many AGCH blocks for 51 multiframes), BS PA MFRMS (how many 51 multiframes to make up a cycle of the paging sub-channel). Common Control Channel (CCCH) includes AGCH and PCH. It is used to transmit the immediate assign information and paging information. CCCH can be bearded by a physical channel or shared by multiple physical channels. CCCH can share the same physical channel with SDCCH. The combination mode of CCCH is decided by the parameter CCCH CONF. The configuration of CCCH CONF should be consistent with that of CCCH. For the cell with one TRX, the recommended CCCH configuration is sharing one physical channel with SDCCH (3 CCCH information blocks in this case). For some location area with very heavy paging traffic, only one physical timeslot is insufficient to transmit the paging information. Therefore, the GSM specification allows configuring extra CCCHs on the TS0, TS2, TS4 and TS6 of the carrier.

2.1.7 Location updating
Location updating is an important task of Mobile Management (MM).

I. Location Area
To locate MS, each GSM PLMN domain is divided into locations areas covering one or more cells. The location area of each MS is recorded by the network as the location reference for paging this MS. With the introduction of the concept of location area, the paging MS can be implemented with a location area instead of all cells controlled by MSC, thus lowering the paging load. Each location area is assigned with a Location Area Code (LAC), which is broadcast with the system information via BCCH. The size of a location area has a great effect on the system. The design of location area is very important in network planning. If the coverage of a location area is too small, the location updating of MS will trigger frequently, which will increase the signaling flow of system. On the other hand, if the coverage of a location area is too large, the load of PCH and the signaling flow on Abis interface will increase since one single paging information will be broadcast in all cells of this location area.

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Therefore, optimization of location area is a very important task in network planning. When designing the location areas, it is necessary to lessen the frequency of location updating on the basis of no overweigh paging load, so as to avoid waste of network resource.

II. Location updating
When MS roams from one location area to another, it is to be registered in the new location area. In other words, once driven by certain needs or finding that the LAI stored is different from that of the current cell, MS will notify the network to change the stored location area. The procedure is called location updating. If the MS in idle mode triggers cell reselection when moving within the same location area, MS will not notify the network about this change although the serving cell has changed. If the two cells before and after reselection are not in the same location area, MS will notify the network about this change. This is "forced register". According to the labels of location updating in the network, there are three types of location updating: generic location updating (i.e. inter-location area location updating), periodic location updating (T3212 timeout) and IMSI attach (MS powered on). Their specific differences are whether only one VLR is involved in the location updating process and whether IMSI is used in the process.

III. Generic location updating
Generic location updating is for the purpose of updating the actual MS's location registered in the network. The information unit of type of location updating in "location updating" should be indicated as generic location updating. If the network indicates that the status of MS in VLR is unknown, the generic location updating will also be initiated as a response to the request of MM connection setup. 1) Intra-VLR location updating

This is the simplest location updating process, in which, MS does not need to provide its IMSI. It is implemented within the current VLR, and HLR will not be notified about the process. During the initialization process, the access cause indicated in the initialization information contained in SABM frame sent from MS to the network is Location updating Request. This information also contains MSTMSI and LAI noted as for generic location updating. After receiving this information, MSC will send MAP Update Location Area to VLR. VLR, after receiving this information, will implement the location updating. It will update the location information of the MS and store the new LAI and then allocate a new TMSI for MS if necessary (TMSI can also be absent in the TMSI reallocation command. In this case, MS uses the former TMSI). After receiving TMSI Reallocation

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Complete from MS, VLR sends Location updating Accept to MS, and then release the channel to end the process.

IV. Inter-VLR location updating
If MS roams to a cell whose LAI is different from the current one, it will send the old LAI and stored TMSI via MSC to VLR in the process of location updating If TMSI cannot be identified, MS can also be identified with its IMSI. See Figure 2-6.
D A MS Location Update Request MAP Update Location Area MAP Update Location MAPCancel Location MAPCancel Location ACK MSC B VLR PVLR D HLR

MAP Insert Subscriber Data MAP Insert Subscriber Data ACK MAP Update Location ACK MAP Update Location Area ACK Location Update Accept

Figure 2-6 Interfaces and process of inter-VLR location updating 1) Update with TMSI

If VLR finds that the TMSI is unknown after receiving MAP Update Location Area from MSC, it will label the "VLR Location Information Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged" for the subsequent updating in HLR. If the subscriber has not registered in that VLR, "HLR Location Information Acknowledge" will be labeled as "Unacknowledged". And then, according to the address of the previous VLR (PVLR) indicated in TMSI and LAI, VLR will send MAP Send Identification to PVLR to request for IMSI and authentication parameter, and as a response PVLR will return the IMSI and authentication parameter to the new VLR. If the new VLR fails to get the IMSI, it will then sends Identity Request to MS to request for its IMSI. After receiving IMSI, VLR will send the information of location updating of MS to HLR. This information contains the identification of MS and other related information for HLR the query the data and set up the path. If the new
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and the latter one is marked as access denied. Authentication is needed in these two cases. HLR will send Location updating Ark to that VLR. and sends MAP Cancel Location ACK to HLR. ciphering and TMSI reallocation. it still considers the MS in the status of IMSI attach. V. IMSI attach and detach is an option of system. If MS finds that the stored LAI is the same as the current LAI when powered on. 2-27 . it will label "HLR Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged". MS sends Location Updating Request to the network. VI. i. After receiving this information. including authentication information. HLR sends MAP Insert Subscriber Data to VLR to provide the subscriber information needed.. it will be labeled the "HLR Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged". If not. network will lose contact with MS: A powered on MS roams to the area beyond network coverage (blind spot). If the cell where MS is powered on supports this function. The new VLR continues to handle the processes of authentication. In the following cases. PVLR will delete all information related to this MS. The only difference is that the type of location updating marked in Location Updating Request is IMSI attach. VLR will check whether the previous LAI provided in the information from MSC belongs to this VLR. If so. If the IMSI is a known one. When the network receives this indication. and then initialize HLR updating. it will initialized the process of IMSI attach.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MSC/VLR has the normal service authority. VLR will check whether this subscriber is unknown. Since the network is not notified about the current status of MS. IMSI attach and detach process IMSI attach and detach means to attach a binary mark to the subscriber record in MSC/VLR. The former one is marked as access granted. After receiving the response from VLR. HLR will store the new VLR No. Periodic location updating Periodic location updating is used to periodically notify the network about the accessibility of MS. and then initializes HLR updating. sending the information of "IMSI Attach" to notify the network about the change of its current status. it will note down the subscriber status in the system data so as to initialize the paging process when there is an paging information of this MS. in which the information unit of the type of location updating is periodic location updating. e. When these processes are done. and sends MAP Cancel Location to HLR. 2) Update with IMSI If the identification of the subscriber is IMSI. it will notify its power-on status to the network. The process is almost the same as INTRA VLR Location Updating.

2) In the case of MS power failure. After cell selection or cell reselection. MS responds to its paging. or MM connection being established. MS cannot notify the network about its current status. and then activate this timer and store it in SIM. If the above cases happen and the MS is paged. the corresponding measure is taken in GSM system to make the MS automatically reports its current location information to the network periodically. the network can have the timely information of the current location status of MS. whenever T3212 times out. This process is called periodic location updating. Increase of MS power consumption which will shorten the standby time of the MSs served by this system. Therefore. resulting in the loss of contact with the network. so that MS will automatically initialized location updating request to the network when the timer times out. it receives the first correct L3 message (excluding RR message). In the following cases. Ciphering mode complete when receiving the first MM message. Periodic location updating is an important measure to keep the contact between the network and MSs. N this way. MS will read T3212 from the system information of the serving cell. the more frequent periodic location updating is. the network may not be able to decode this information. BSS sends the period of periodic location updating (T3212) to all subscribers in the cell with system broadcast system via the cell's BCCH. and system resources are wasted. the network will periodically query the subscribers marked as IMSI attach in its VLR to mark those without any contact with it witting this period as implicit power-off in order to avoid paging these MSs and wasting system resources. 2-28 . therefore. To tackle this problem. This paging will sure end up with paging timeout.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 1) When MS is transmitting "IMSI Detach". and after which. T3212 will be reset to 0: When receiving "Location Updating Request" or "Location Updating Refuse". However. the setting of T3212 should be based on the actual situation. MS will automatically initialize location updating. T3212 timed out. This means that system still regards this MS in the IMSI attach status. if there is interference to the radio uplink path. After that. At NSS side. the better overall performance of network can be achieved. frequent periodic location updating has two drawbacks: Increase of signaling flow which may lower the processing power of MSC/BSC/BTS and the utilization of radio resources if the situation is serious. MS deactivated (equipment powered off or SIM removed). system will still sends the paging information to the location area where the subscriber registered.

Generic location updating (specification) MS initialize location updating If there is no RR connection available when initializing location updating. If BCCH information indicates periodic location updating not applied. or it is necessary to change T3212 value. The attempt counter will be reset in the following cases: MS powered on. The information unit of location updating type in this message will indicate the type of this location updating. If the network cannot obtain the IMSI according to TMSI and LAI. the network can initialize the type querying procedure (e. the counter will add one. may find that the T3212 of the new cell is different from the previous one (sharing the same LAC) or the broadcast T3212 of the current cell is manually changed). the timer of MS will be restarted with the value of t mod t1. to get the ciphering capability of MS). MS will initialize periodic location updating. If T3212 times out when MS is in the status of "no available cell".Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When T3212 times out. In the status of "no available cell". T3212 timeout value is broadcast in the CCH description in "system information type 3". MS will delay location updating will be delayed until these status changed. and start T3210. VII. and the timer is not running. or "service restricted" or "searching for PLMN. It is used to count the number of consecutive unsuccessful location updating. the network will initialize the authentication process. If it is necessary to reallocate TMSI. MM sub-layer of MS will request RR sub-layer to establish RR connection. The signaling flow of periodic location updating is the same as that of generic location updating. the network can initialize the identification process. after cell reselection. After receiving "Location Updating Request" from MS. In this case. "service restricted" and "searching PLMN". When a location updating failure occurs. this process will not be activated. On this occasion. assumed that "t1" is the new T3212 timeout value and "t" is the current value of T3212. 1) Attempt counter To restrict the frequency of location updating attempt. 2-29 . the network will initiate the process of ciphering mode setting. then the new timer will be started with a random number whose value range is 0~t1 ("t1" is new T3212 timeout value. g. If MS is in the activated status. the attempt counter is recommended in the specification. T3212 cannot be changed. MS sends "Location Updating Request" to the network. MS.

TMSI reallocation is a part of location updating process. When authenticating the validity of security. invalid ME. MS will store it in the SIM and send "TMSI Reallocation Complete" to the network. and the service statuses switch from Attempting to Update. enter location denied status and wait for the network to trigger RR connection release. location area not allow. MS will delete the corresponding TMSI stored in SIM. Location update initiated by CM sub-layer. terminates T3210. reset the attempt counter. MS will delete any LAI. If neither of them can be received. invalid MS. TMSI and ciphering serial key.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions SIM inserted. If what contained in the message is IMSI. the network will send "Location Updating Denied" to MS. Location update successfully completed. MS will use "Continue" to direct it action. stored LAI and ciphering SN and regard the SIM as an invalid one until MS powered off or SIM removed. 3) Location update denied by the network If location updating is denied. and set the update status as "Roaming not Allowed". After receiving this message. MS will delete the original TMSI stored in SIM. MS will set the location updating status as Roaming not Allowed. After receiving "Location Updating Accept". T3212 timeout. Delete TMSI. a) If the reject cause is IMSI unknown to HLR. MS stores LAI. Attempt counter is used to decide whether to implement another attempt after T3212 timeout. "Location Updating Accept" contains the TMSI allocated for MS and the current LAI. 2) Location update accepted by the network If the network accept location updating. and MS has the underway CM service request. international roaming not allowed in this location area. MS will terminate T3210. all of original input will be deleted. the network will attach "Continue" to "Location Updating Accept" and initiate T3255. store the reject cause. restarts the attempt counter. After that. and store it in SIM. b) If the reject cause is : PLMN not allow. MS roaming into a new location updating area. If the message contains TMSI.g. If the LAI or PLMN identifier in "Location Updating Accept" is one of "Barred series". activate T3240. it will send "Location Updating Accept" to MS. If MS receives "domestic roaming not 2-30 . In this case the network will initialize T3250. and sets the status in SIM as Updated. If the network needs to prolong the RR connection so that MS can initialize MM connection (e. MS sends a request subsequent to "Location Updating Request"). it will send "CM Service Request" to the network. If this unit exists.

No matter RR connection is released by MS or the network. b) If the update status is not "Updated". If the 2-31 . c) Random access failed: activate T3213. e) T3210 timeout: terminate location updating process and RR connection. and enter MM idle sub-status "Attempt update". initialize location updating before T3122 timeout. unable to initiate location updating. MS will reinitiate location-updating process (adopting the stored type). The action afterwards is decided by LAI and the record of the attempt counter: a) The update status is "Updated". MS camps on the current serving cell. it will return to MM Idle and then implement PLMN selection instead of cell selection. If MS cannot receive RR connection release command from the network within a period of time (controlled by T3240). or the stored LAI is different from the one received from BCCH. ciphering SN in SIM. Try to initiate before denial status ends or cell changed. MS stores the type of location updating. MS stays in the selected cell and initializes normal cell selection. Other situations will be treated as abnormal ones. MS will terminate T3210. g) Location update denied caused by other reasons: MS waits for RR connection release. 5) Abnormality at MS side a) Access denial controlled by access level. b) Random access delayed (after receiving Immediate Allocation Denied): unable to initiate location updating. T3211 will be activated. enter "wait for network command phase" and wait for the release of RR connection. 4) RR connection release after location updating After location updating. the stored LAI equals to the one received from the previous cell. The MM idle status after RR connection release is "Normal Service". MS will maintain the "Updated" status. set the update status as "Not updated". When changing. MS will set T3240. After T3211 timeout. and attempt counter adds 1. f) RR released before normal termination: terminate location-updating process. and the record of attempt counter is four. TMSI. and implements normal cell reselection. Activate location updating after it times out. MS will delete LAI. When T3210 times out. MS will enter "idle status". d) RR connection failure: terminate location-updating process. After RR connection release. For (d) ~ (g) and random access occurring for many times.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions allowed in this location area". or the record in the attempt counter is larger than 4. it will terminate RR connection. RR connection will be canceled. After RR connection release.

Circuit service access An MS can be either in "active" state or in "idle" state. MS is not allowed to implement any transmission. otherwise the stored T3212 will be initiated.8 Access I.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions record in attempt counter is smaller than four. the MS can make effective transmission to the network through an allocated channel. The reject cause is Mandatory information unit incorrect Information unit not exist or unable to be realized Invalid information unit content Protocol error. b) Protocol error If protocol error exits in "Location Updating Request". MS sets up a dedicated channel to the network with "Setup Indication" and enters active mode. After the channel activation via Abis interface. and encryption information. including the processing of MS class mark. T3211 stored in MS will be initiated during RR connection release. the location updating process should be terminated. If there is no available channel during channel allocation. In idle mode. the network will initialize the process of channel release. If the network cannot select the suitable channel type with limited cause analysis. 6) Abnormality at NSS side a) RR connection failure If the RR connection failure occurs successively when there is a common program. the network should return "Location Updating Denied". not regulated When these errors occurs. After receiving "Immediate Assign".1. and gets the channel for access after channel allocation. the network will notify the MS to implement access attempt after a period of time with the command "Immediate Assign Denied". 2. Then BSC transmits the setup indication reported by the MS to MSC. 2-32 . In idle mode. After receiving the setup indication reported by the MS. If RR connection failure occurs successively and there is no common program. BSC analyzes the contents of the setup indication. it will allocate an SDCCH by default. MS gives the access cause and analysis of the cause in the 8-bit information during access request. the network should implement according to the common program description. the network sends "Immediate Assign" to MS. power control record. In the "dedicated/active" mode.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

II. Packet service access
When no PCCCH is configured in the serving cell, packet service is accessed on the CCCH. The BSC transfers the packet paging messages coming from the PCU to the MS on the PCH of the CCCH. The channel request message issued from the MS is transferred to the BTS via the RACH of the CCCH and then reported via the BTS to the BSC. If the channel request message is for packet access (corresponding to the MOC), the BSC will not process it and will transfer it to the PCU. At the same time, the BSC receives the packet immediate allocation message from the PCU, transfers it to the MS and completes the packet call access. If mobile channel request message is for Paging Response (corresponding to the MTC), the BSC will first allocate the DCCH and enter the active mode. On the reception of EST_IND of RR_INITIALITION_REQ message, the BSC will transfer it to the PCU. And it will receive the PDCH message of the PCU, and transfer it to the MS, completing packet call access. If the MS accesses packet service via the PCCCH, then the packet call process is transparent to the BSC. After receiving packet paging message, MS will initialize the process of uplink Temporary Block Flow setup, and then sends the paging response packet in data form to PCU via the air interface. PCU forwards the packet to SGSN. After receiving the paging response, SGSN is ready to transmit downlink data.

2.1.9 Paging
Paging means that when a call is routed to the destination office, GSM/GPRS network initializes the call at the current location area or routing area of the called MS. Packet paging is mainly implemented at routing area, but location area is available. This is decided by SGSN. There are two types of paging, i.e. packet paging and circuit paging, which will be examined respectively below.

I. Packet service paging
When there are downlink data that shall be sent to the MS, SGSN needs to initiate a packet paging call. The paging request message originated by the SGSN is sent through Gb interface to PCU, which converts it into the packet paging request of the air interface (Um interface) before sending. If the PCCCH channel is configured for the BSS system, the message will be sent on the PPCH directly. If PCCCH is not configured for the system, PCU will send the message via the Pb interface to the BSC, which sends it on the PCH. On receipt of the packet paging message, MS starts access procedure.

II. Circuit service paging
1) Overview

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When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located, the MSC sends a paging message to all cells in that location area according to the registered location area of MS. In the GSM network, the concept of Location Area (LA) is introduced to reduce waste of resources. A LA contains a small group of cells. An MS belongs to a LA at specific time. The LA information is stored in VLR from which MSC can query them. A paging process is completed jointly by MSC, BSC and BTS as follows: When a call is routed to the serving MSC of the called MS, MSC first figures out the location area of MS, and then sends the paging message to all BSCs in this location area. The paging message contains the information that can be used to identify the subscriber (IMSI or TMSI). BSC determines which BTS to page according to the LA, and determines the paging channel of the MS according to the IMSI, and sends them to the BTS. BTS will transmit the paging message of the MS on the specified PCH. The configuration of the PCH can be changed as the traffic increases or decreases. The PCH configuration information of each cell must be notified to each MS in the cell. When the configuration changes, BSC must modify the broadcast messages accordingly so that the MS in the cell can wait on the specified PCH sub-channel to answer the paging message. To enhance the signaling efficiency, a group of paging request combinations, called paging group, can be sent together. A page is generally sent three times. When flow control is allowed, the BSC can automatically adjust the configuration of PAGCH. If the GPRS/GSM system runs in network operation mode 1 and there exists a Gs interface, the circuit paging of the GSM service can be sent on the GPRS channel. In other words, if an MS is GPRS-attached, its circuit paging shall go from MSC to SGSN and then to PCU through the Gs and Gb interfaces, and PCU will determine on which channel to transmit the paging. If the system is configured with PCCCH, the paging message of the circuit will be sent directly by PCU on the PPCH or PACCH channel. If the MS is already allocated to PDCH, it shall be sent by priority on the PCCH. If the MS is not allocated to the PDCH, it shall be sent on the PPCH. If the system is not configured with PCCCH, PCU transfers the paging message to BSC through Pb interface, which then transmit the paging message on the PCH. After receiving the circuit-paging message, MS accesses the RACH and starts the circuit connection setup process. MS will initiate the GPRS SUSPEND process to suspend the GPRS services and will not recover the GPRS service till the circuit is released.

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2)

Paging mode

The GSM network defines three commonly used paging modes: “Ordinary” paging mode: The paging messages are only transmitted on the channel defined by PCH configuration and IMSI. “Complete” paging mode: When a notice is given to an MS group in this mode, it indicates that the paging messages of this subscriber group might be transmitted on any PCH at the same time slot. When the PCH configuration is modified dynamically, this mode can be used to avoid the loss of paging messages. “Spaced” paging mode: BSS attaches a group of paging messages to another paging channel for transmission. This is to avoid temporary overload. In other words, the MS that receives an “ordinary” paging on the paging channel N can receive the paging message on the paging channel N+2. M900/M1800 BSS supports all the three paging modes: "ordinary" paging mode, "complete" paging mode and “spaced” paging mode. Therefore, in PAGCH channel adjustment due to traffic flow, subscribers in the serving cell will not lose the paging message. Once a paging message is received by MS, the access allocation and allocation initialization process is started. If an MS is GPRS-attached in network operation mode 1, circuit paging to this MS will go through Gs interface, Gb interface, and Pb interface, and reach the BSC by way of MSC-SGSN-PCU. Then, there are three possibilities that the paging message will be transmitted to the MS, which are described according to their priorities. If the MS has been allocated with a PDCH, the message is transmitted on the PACCH. If the serving cell has been allocated with a PCCCH, the message is transmitted on the PPCH. If the serving cell is not configured with the PCCCH, the message is transmitted on the PCH.

2.1.10 Immediate assignment
I. Overview
Immediate assignment is for the purpose of establishing the wireless connection, i. e. RR connection with MS at Um interface. When MS needs to set up a connection, the immediate assignment process will allocate a channel necessary for the signaling interaction of establishing this connection. This channel can be either a SDCCH or a TCH. Huawei BSC supports the immediate assignment of SDCCH and immediate assignment of TCH at the level of cell.

II. Technology description
1) Channel request
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The process of initialization is actually the process of random access. Whenever MS needs to set up connection with the network, it has to send a message to the network via RACH to request for a signaling channel. The network will decide the type of the channel to be allocated according to the channel request. This message sent via RACH is called Channel Request. In this message, there is only 8 bits of meaningful signaling message. In which, 3 bits are used to the minimum indication of the access cause (in Phase 1, the cause occupies only 3 bits; in Phase 2, due to concept of half rate, the bit occupied by the cause is not a fixed, and the maximum one can be 6 bit). Such as emergency call, location updating, response to paging or caller request, etc. In the case of network congestion, system can implement different processing (which type of call will be accepted or denied) to the channel request of different access purposes according to this rough indication, and allocate the most suitable channels for them. In this indication, due to the capacity limit of the channel, it is impossible to transmit all information to be transmitted, such as the specific cause of channel request, subscriber identity and the feature of mobile equipment (all transmitted in SABM) to the network. The other 5 bits is the identification code selected by MS at random (for Phase 1 standard). It is not used to notify the network about the MS's location but to enable the network to identify the request initialized by different MSs. After that, the network will send "Immediate Assign Command" (includes the information of the allocated channel) to MS. The identification code will be returned to MS in this message. MS judges whether the information is for it by comparing the identification code it sent and the one returned from the network. But it has only 5 bits, which can be used to differentiate 32 MSs simultaneously. Two MSs initializing calls simultaneously do not necessarily have the random identification codes different from each other. To further differentiate MSs initializing calls simultaneously, the response messages on Um interface are used as another reference. The channel request message is processed only within BSS. All MSs with SIMs belong to a level among Level 0~9. The access level is stored in SIM. MS can also belong to one of the 5 special access levels (Level 11~15). Such level is also stored in SIM. In BCCH system information, the information, such as the access levels and special access levels allowed by the network, and whether all MS or only those of special levels is allowed to initiate emergency calls, will be broadcast. If the setup cause requested by MM is not emergency call, then only when MS belongs to the access level or special access level, can its access be grated. If the setup cause requested by MM is emergency call, then only when all MSs in the cell are allowed to initialize emergency call, or belongs to the allowed special access level, can their access be grated. Since the network cannot control the access time of MS, the event of two MSs contending for the same RACH timeslot will inevitably happen in the areas with heavy traffic. This is called the collision. The collision leads to two results: the network will

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receive a burst level from this timeslot obviously higher than the other. In this case, the network will process the random access request with higher level. The other one is that the network can receive neither of them due to their mutual interference. With the increase of traffic, the possibility of loss of message due to collision will become higher. This will become the major problem of network capacity. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the mechanism of retranslating channel request. MS figures out that it allowed to transmit "Channel Request" via RACH for at most M + 1 times with the following methods: The timeslot No. Between the assign process and a "Channel Request" (not including the timeslot containing the information itself) is selected at random from {0, 1 MAC (T, 8)-} with the same probability. The timeslot No. between the two consecutive "Information Request" of MS is selected at random from {S, S + 1, , S + T – 1} with the same probability. T is the parameter "Tx integer" broadcast on BCCH; M is "Max Retrans"; the value of S depends of the configuration of CCCH. See Table 2-4. Table 2-4 Value of Parameter S Tx 3, 8, 14, 50 4, 9, 6 5, 10, 20 6, 11, 25 7, 12, 32 Non-combined CCCH 55 76 109 163 217 Combined CCCH/SDCCH 41 52 58 86 115

If the immediate assign command is not received even after Max Retrans, MS will return to idle mode. After transmitting initial channel request, MS will activate T3120 and stay on the entire downlink CCCH (to receive answer) and BCCH. When T3120 times out while RACH retransmission times has not exceeded "Max Retrans", MS will retransmit the channel request message containing a new random reference, and activate T3120 with a new value. When T3120 times out, and the Max Retrans is reached, MS will activate T3126, and then wait for a period of time and allow network to give up. If no network response received after T3126 timeout, MS will give up request attempt and perform cell reselection. 2) The allocation of the initial channel

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including channel type. a) Immediate assignment After BSC receive Channel Active ACK from BTS. g. This message contains important attachment information and the estimation to TA that is important to activating timer advance control. short message at non-session status and services only supported by SDCCH. and BSC allocates a SDCCH for this call. Immediate Assignment contains the assignment information of only one MS. The allocated channel type (TCH or SDCCH. Normally. the availability of the allocated channel and the related terrestrial resources is to be acknowledged with the response from BT. will send Immediate Assignment or Extended Immediate Assignment to allocate dedicated signaling channel for MS in the non-acknowledge mode. IMSI detach. while Extended Immediate Assignment contains the assignment information of two MSs. via the CCCH for MS receiving Channel Request. However. physical feature and initial lead. BTS will send Channel Required to BSC via Abis interface. if there is an idle SDCCH available that can satisfy the access request. This message indicates all properties needed in activating the channel. BTS will return "Channel Active ACK" as a response to BSC. supplementary service. channel mode is set as signaling) is decided by the carrier. Therefore it is necessary for MS to monitor all information block on CCCH. 2-38 . transmission circuit). The signaling interaction necessary for call establishment is implemented on that channel. The process of requesting for SDCCH connection includes location updating. After receiving this message. BSC will allocate SDCCH. MS initializes access request. The signaling flow of SDCCH immediate assignment is illustrated in Figure 2-7. working mode. This process is realized by sending "Channel Active" from BSC to BTS to query the availability of corresponding terrestrial resources (e. BTS can send Immediate Assignment or Extended Immediate Assignment on any message block of downlink CCCH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions After correctly decoding the Channel Request of MS. This channel seizes 1/8 sub-timeslots of a timeslot. BSC will select a corresponding idle channel for MS according to the judgement to the existing radio resources. When the corresponding resources are ready.

Signaling flow of TCH immediate assignment is illustrated in Figure 2-8.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MS Channel Request BTS Channel Required Channel Active Channel Active ACK Immediate Assignment Immediate Assignment SDCCH: SABM SDCCH: UA BSC MSC Establishment Indication Complete Layer3 Informaiton SDCCH: Authentication Request SDCCH: Authentication Response SDCCH: Ciphering Mode Command SDCCH: Ciphering Mode Complete SDCCH: Setup SDCCH: Call Proceed Channel Active Channel ACK Assignment Command Encryption Command Ciphering Mode Command Assignment Request SDCCH: Assignment Command TCH: SABM TCH: UA TCH: Assignment Complete TCH: Alert TCH: Connect TCH: Connect ACK Assignment Complete Figure 2-7 Immediate assignment If TCH has been allocated before immediate assignment. there is no need to reallocate TCH during the process of assignment. 2-39 . Mode conversion process can be used to change the function of TCH from signaling transfer to voice transmission.

They are used to reduce the conflict of request among MSs. The random reference and abbreviated frame No. Start time indication (optional). is a frame No. After receiving immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment.) Initial lead. are directly related to the MS channel request. can be used to indicate the frequency change in the process. containing the start time and description of possible alternative channel. received by BTS during channel request. Immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment message. of the received channel request frame (abbreviated frame No. MS figures out the next initial lead for transmitting according to TA. sets the channel modes as signaling only and sends the SABM with information field via the allocated channel to establish the main signaling link. with narrow value range calculated from the TDMA frame No. Information field of channel request and abbreviated frame No.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem MS Channel Request BTS Channel Required Channel Active Channel Active ACK Immediate Assignment TCH: SABM TCH: UA TCH: Authentication Request TCH: Authentication Response TCH: Ciphering Mode Command TCH: Ciphering Mode Complete TCH: Setup TCH: Call Proceed Mode Modify Mode Modify ACK Channel Mode Modify Channel Mode Modify ACK Encryption Command Immediate Assignment Establishment Indication BSC Chapter 2 BSS Functions MSC Complete Layer3 Informaiton Ciphering Mode Command Assignment Request TCH: TCH: TCH: Alert TCH: Connect TCH: Connect ACK Assignment Complete Figure 2-8 Immediate assignment Messages of immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment contain: Description of assigned channel. 2-40 . TA is the initial lead calculated from equalizing the channel request information received by BTS on RACH. MS switches to the channel assigned by the network.

radio resources shortage. The reject cause can be MSC traffic closed. i. But system does not specify the part on downlink CCCH for immediate assignment denied transmission. immediate assignment process will be terminated. MS will access the channel after receiving the message. MS is not allowed to initialize another call attempt except for emergency calls until T3122 timeout. e. MAIO and HSN). If MS has already sent the channel requests for maximum allowed times RR entity will start T3126. the network can send the immediate assignment denied message in non-acknowledge mode to MS via CCCH. and switch to the one after the indication time when the time comes (new frequency series. MS starts to monitor the system message on BCCH as well as the CCCH timeslot corresponding to its paging group. After sending the first channel request message. decode the messages of the entire paging sub-channel for response from the network. If MS is ready after the specified time it will access the channel after the indication time. b) Immediate assignment denied If there is no available channel for BSC to allocate. channel activation no response and BSC traffic overload. MS will access to the channel during the time waiting for start. MS terminates T3120. If it misses the time. Emergency call attempt can be established in the same cell before T3122 timeout as long as no "Immediate Assignment Denied" of RR emergency attempt received. as the response to one of the last three channel requests. If MS is ready for access to the channel upon the indicated time. CA refers to all the frequencies used in the cell (including FH frequencies). immediate assignment command may appear in any CCCH message block in 51 multiframe. MS will first access to the channel used before the indication time. 2-41 . The message of immediate assignment denied contains request reference and waiting indication. MS will decode MA with the CA got from BCCH system message. If the network adopts FH. After receiving Immediate Assignment Denied. After T3126 timeout. MA refers to all FH frequencies used in the cell. i. system indicates failure of random access to MM. MS will immediately switch to this channel after receiving the message. Therefore it is necessary for MS to monitor the entire CCCH block after sending channel request. e. activates T3122 with the specified value and returns CCCH idle mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the received immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment message contains only the description of the channel used after start time. If the random access program is initiated by MM. TA value exceeding limit. If the message contains the description of the channel used after indication time as well as that before the indication time. MS cannot start RR connection attempt until T3122 timeout.

In this case. According to the specification. MS will not respond to paging but sends "Channel Request" instead till MS receives "Paging Request". This is called allocation overlapping. The value of the wait indication information unit (T3122) depends on the cell receiving this message. the cell will send a UA frame (no No. BSS will repines to one of them only. e. MS should receive the last three network response messages to the channel request. system do not know whether a channel request message is a retransmitted one. c) Signaling channel assignment overlap The system may have a slow response to the channel request of MS. initialization message. verification) with the content completely the same as that of SABM frame after the cell has received the SABM frame. While these two MSs can both be allocated with the same dedicated channel. To settle this problem. which results in request retransmission. SABM has a signaling message. the access will proceed. 3) Initialization message After receiving immediate assignment command. Otherwise. MS will decode this message. MS will use the channel in the first assignment message it decoded. This message contains the L3 service request message. so it may send the immediate assignment command to the MS for multiple times. After T3122 timeout. It is possible to cope with CCCH congestion caused by to many overlapped allocations by reducing the retransmission of MS or shorten T3101. satisfy the requirement. i. If the random identification code and the abbreviated frame No. This measure can avoid the waste of system resources.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions It corresponds to the immediate assignment extension. If two MSs send the channel requests with the same message content at the same (possible in the case of high load). SABM frame is a message requesting for the establishment of a multiframe response operation mode on LAPDm. The first task for MS on the allocated SDCCH/TCH is to send a SABM frame to establish asynchronous balance mode (service access point type: SAPI = 0) so as to establish signaling message link connection in acknowledge mode. MS compares it and the SABM information. The reason for different standards about standard HDLC is to guarantee the correctness of MS receiving. If the content is completely the same. In GSM specification. there should be a mechanism judging such contention. But according to the specification. The message of extended immediate assignment denied can contain information of rejecting at most four MSs. the format of extended immediate assignment denied is introduced. MS will tune its transceiver equipment to the specified channel and start to transmit signaling according to TA specified by BSC and maximum transmitting power (defined in the parameter "MS TxPWR MAX CCH" in BCCH system broadcast message). In order to improve AGCH efficiency. The others are regarded invalid ones. On Um interface. it will give up this channel and repeat the immediate 2-42 .

This information unit indicates whether the current channel is for voice/data or signaling. CM Service Request. location updating and short message service). To be specific. short message. such as transmission power level. the first downlink message at An interface will be contained in the CC frame at SCCP layer. It is a response to the immediate assignment message. supplementary service management). BSC will send a L3 service request message (Complete Layer3 INFO) to MSC. Upon receiving SABM frame..g. For SCCP layer. For Phase 2 MS. MSC at this phase is able to control the transmission feature of the RR management. transmitting power level. After receiving the indication message of establishment. MO call. For different calls. The access ends at this step. ciphering algorithm support. detailed access cause and Classmark of MS (used to indicate some key features of MS. the initialization messages in SABM can be divided into four types: CM service request (call establishment. this message is used to notify LAPDm that the connection has been established. If the request is permitted. 4) Phase1 and Phase2 MS BSC cannot differentiate whether a call is for voice. On Abis interface. there should still be a SCCP connection on L2 for each call. Huawei BSC supports the information unit "Channel Needed" in the paging message.g. will MS stay on the channel. ciphering key sequence No. CI. physical information of this MS (e. BSC is able to recognize the information unit "Channel Needed" in the paging message. Although the MTP connection at An interface has been established before the session. data or signaling completely according to MS establishment cause. periodic location updating. Only when the consistency is guaranteed. the same SPC may refer to different original addresses and destination addresses. cause of CM service request (e. All these messages contain the identity of MS. location updating request (generic location updating. ciphering algorithm. short message capability and frequency capability). pseudo-synchronous capability and short message capability) and the ID of MS. This establishment request message will be transmitted in the SCCP CR message via A interface. According to different request causes. the exchange between CR and CC is the exchange between original reference address and destination reference addresses. MS selects a suitable establishment cause to response according to its own capability. BSC can obtain the access request cause more detailed than that of Phase1 MS. LAC. 2-43 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions allocation process. and BSS is in the status of monitoring transmission quality and ready for handover. MSC will send the message SCCP Refused. emergency call. Paging Response and IMSI Detach. IMSI detach and paging response. The signaling link between MS and MSC has been established. BTS will send a message "Establishment Indication" to BSC. In the case of Phase 2 MS. this message is Location Updating Request. This message contains the SCCP connection request (SCCP CR). IMSI attach). If SCCP cannot be established.

this indicates that the function of immediately assigned TCH is enabled. the assignment is finished at the cell where the call is initialized. BSC will assign the MS to TCH by means of the assignment process. Huawei BSC provides two algorithms of channel selection: "Huawei Channel Algorithm I" and "Huawei Channel Algorithm II". Normally. If “Immediate Assignment of TCH” is set as “Yes”.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. II. the function of directed retry can be used to assign the MS to other cells with idle TCH and go on with the service. For other the channel access request of calls. BSC will preferentially assign TCH for them. If no idle TCH is available. SDCCH will be preferentially assigned and then TCH. All call access requests use SDCCH.11 Assignment I. The detailed configuration process. Working principle After MS initializes service request. For emergency call and call re-establishment. Overview BSS switches MS to TCH by means of assignment. BSC can select the best cell among the adjacent cells with the measurement reports as the destination cell in directed retry. it will not assign the MS to a new TCH. 2-44 . The channel allocation algorithms of Huawei guarantee that the currently allocated channel is the best one. 2. the BSC assigns SDCCH for them. this indicates that the function of immediately assigned TCH is disabled. Huawei BSC supports the function of direct retry.1. it will assign the MS to that TCH. but to the old one. Parameter Huawei BSC controls the function of immediate TCH assignment with the switch of "Immediate assign TCH. which can assign MS to other cells. If BSC figures out that there is idle TCH in the cell where MS initialized the call. If there is no idle TCH in the cell of the MS. as well as the data table and parameters involved are listed below: [Cell/Modify Cell's Call Control Parameter/Modify Cell Call Parameter/Call Control] Parameter: Immediate Assignment of TCH If “Immediate Assignment of TCH” is set as “No”. If BSC has already assigned the MS to TCH during immediate assignment.

this indicates that the cell does not enable function of directed call retry. SIM is protected with PIN. Parameter BSC decides whether to use the function of directed retry with the parameter "Directed retry permitted". AUC 2-45 . 2. If parameter “Directed Retry Perm” is set as “No”. the authentication key Ki uniquely corresponding to the IMSI is also stored in the SIM and in AUC. Together with this IMSI. After subscribing to GSM service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. The reason is "No available radio resource". Other common processes will also be mentioned in this chapter. if the current cell has no idle TCH.12 Authentication One of GSM system's advantages comparing with analog system is security system. During assignment. IMSI is protected by TMSI. In AUC. The detailed data table and parameters involved are listed below: [Cell/Modify Cell's Call Control Parameter/Modify Cell Call Control Parameter/Call Control] Parameter: Directed Retry Perm. The GSM specification also defines the algorithms of A3. each MS will be allocated with a MSISDN and IMSI. if the current cell has no idle TCH. RAND. The common processes of MM includes authentication process. SRES is generated by processing RAND and Ki with A3. I. Normally. and Kc is generated by processing RAND and Ki with A8. The triplet is generated in the Authentication Center (AUC). The authentication process is one of the common processes of Mobility Management (MM) process. TMSI reallocation process and IMSI detach process initialized by MS. there is a pseudo-random code generator used to generate a unpredictable pseudo-random code RAND (randomly selected from 0~2128-1). on radio path: communication information ciphering. A8 and A5 used in authentication and ciphering process. Authentication process 1) Authentication triplet Authentication and ciphering process is realized with the triplet allocated by the system. It has the following improvements: on access network: AUC authenticates the subscriber. the assignment failure is returned. IMSI is written to the SIM of the subscriber with SIM writer. During assignment. this indicates that the cell uses the function of directed call retry. which will be transmitted to HLR and be saved in the database of that subscriber. BSC will try to assign MS to adjacent cells. EIR identifies the mobile equipment. Kc and SRES make up the triplet. If this parameter is set as “Yes”. identification process. In AUC.1.

The calculation of Kc is illustrated in Figure 2-9. MSC/VLR uses one triplet each time. Meanwhile. paging response. Ki RAND A8 Kc Figure 2-9 Kc calculation After receiving Complete Layer3 INFO. MSC/VLR will send the message “Authentication Request” to MS to trigger the authentication process. HLR will transmit five triplets to it. CKSN = 0 means no Kc allocated. CKSN is stored in SIM as well as in MSC/VLR together with Kc and is processed by the network. it will request HLR for triplets again. MS will indicate the CKSN to the network. MSC will send "Process Access Request" to VLR for authentication and ciphering. the concept of ciphering key sequence number is introduced. g. A 32-bit SRES will be generated by processing Ki stored in SIM and this SRES with A3. and the other is to allocate a new ciphering key for MS. Below is the detailed introduction to the process of parameter transference. MS will send the message "Run GSM Algorithm" to SIM after receiving this message. In the first L3 message (e. After the establishment of RR layer between MSC and BSS. location updating. T3260 will be activated. It is called CKSN in the specification. "Authentication Request" contains a RAND and a CKSN. When there is two triplets left. If they are the same. 2) Authentication process There are two purposes for authentication: one is to check whether the identification provided by MS is effective. the network is able to decide whether to trigger the authentication process to verify the identification of the mobile subscriber. VLR will return the message of "Process Access Accepted". At the same time.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions transmits five triplets at a time to HLR. And then. To enable the ciphering in the case of initializing RR connection without authentication process. HLR can store 10 triplets. a 2-46 . Kc has to be calculated with authentication process. When MSC/VLR requests HLR for triplet. system will skip authentication and go to ciphering process with Kc stored in MS. Otherwise. RAND is 128 bit. Whether to trigger the authentication process depends on Kc at network side (stored after the previous processing of the MS service) is the same as that stored in the MS accessing currently. CM service request.

If they are the same. HLR/AUC will send RAND. 3) Unsuccessful authentication If the authentication failed. MS will sends the SRES to the network with the message Authentication Response. SRES and Kc to MSC/VLR. AUC Ki RAND RAND Ki A3 A3 SRES MS Equal Network Authentication succeeded SRES Figure 2-10 Authentication algorithm A3 and A8 can be executed either in MSC/VLR or in HLR/AUC. but simple for HLR/AUC for it stores Ki. However. the A3 and A8 will also be carried out to generate a SRES and Kc and store them in VLR. After receiving "Authentication Response". see Figure 2-10. and system will reject the access of the MS. And after that MSC proceeds ahead with the ciphering process. authentication failed. But it will be complicated for MSC/VLR. the authentication will succeed and access to network will be grated. the network can use the subscriber's identification. Furthermore. the network will terminate T3260 and check the validity of the SRES. The authentication process ends at this step. it causes the increase of signaling traffic between HLR and MSC. If RR connection exits.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 64-bit Kc is calculated by processing Ki and RAND with A8. a) MS uses TMSI 2-47 . MS will store it and CKSN to the suitable position SIM for the future activation of ciphering transmission. If they are different. it is a better way to achieve security and roaming. MS should respond to the authentication request message. System compares these two SRESs. Since Ki is stored in VLR or HLR as a subscriber data. for each authentication.

encryption process and Kc generation. The digital transmission of GSM guarantees excellent security. then "Authentication Denied" will be sent to MS. Technical description In order to achieve a general understanding of the encryption/decryption process of GSM. generated by AC and stored in the MSC/VLR. After sending this message. all MM connection in process will be released. releases all MM connection and initializes RR connection process. It is up to the radio resources management to decide whether to adopt the encryption mode or not. The encryption function deals with the security for information exchange between MS and BTS.13 Ciphering I. 4) Abnormality handling during authentication process a) RR connection failure If RR connection is detected before receiving "Authentication Response". the network will release all MM connection and terminate all running MM special process. If the TMSI does not correspond to the IMSI. the network will release RR connection. Overview The feature of wireless transmission has a negative effect on the security and interest of the subscribers. The related parameters must be sent to the encryption program. including signaling information and user information. The encryption function is implemented in the BTS to encrypt user data. the network can initiate the identification process. and regards SIM invalid until MS powered off or SIM removed. The ciphering key Kc. MS will set the status of SIM as "Roaming Denied".1. b) MS uses IMSI If MS uses IMSI or the network decides not to initiate identification program. In this case. authentication will be restarted. 2-48 . 2. The analog mobile communication has always been the victim of interception and misappropriation. and then the network will initialize the RR connection release process. After receiving "Authentication Denied".Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If MS uses TMSI. is sent to the BTS before encryption starts. and delete the existing TMSI. the network will terminate the authentication process and all ongoing MM process. II. we will examine it here from three perspectives: TMSI. b) T3260 timeout If T3260 timeout. LAI and CKSN.

The valid "Ciphering Mode Command" are as follows: "Initialize Ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Non-ciphering". After receiving the indication of "Ciphering Mode Command" and the ciphering process. and the cause value is "Error: protocol not defined". BTS and MS carry out the encryption/decryption of the radio path. 2-49 . the network will initialize the transmission in ciphering mode. Afterwards TMSI is used in place of IMSI to protect the IMSI for the sake of subscriber security. MS should initiate the Tx and Rx in ciphering mode. TMSI is valid only in a VLR area. it will send the Kc stored in SIM to the mobile equipment. b) Ciphering mode setting complete Once MS receives the valid "Ciphering Mode Command". The process of encryption and decryption is shown in Figure 2-11.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 1) TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) IMSI is the identity for mobile subscriber. Due to the importance of IMSI it is not transmitted on the radio link repeatedly. 2) Ciphering and deciphering processes a) Initializing ciphering mode setting After authentication process. MS will regard the "Ciphering Mode Command" of other type received as an incorrect one. After MS has activated the actions of "Ciphering Mode Command". then MS will include its IMEI in "RR Ciphering Mode Complete". MSC will send "Ciphering Mode Command" to BSC. If the field "Ciphering Response" in the information unit of ciphering response message "IMEI shall be included". The relation between TMSI and IMSI is not fixed. "Non-ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Non-ciphering". which type of dedicated resources are to be adopted. BSC sends Ciphering Mode Command to MS to indicate whether ciphering is necessary. It will respond with "RR Status". and if needed. This message contains Kc. it will returns "RR Ciphering Mode Complete" to the network. "Non-ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Ciphering". VLR allocates a TMSI to the subscriber during the MS registration. After receiving "Ciphering Mode Complete".

and is more detailed in the description of ciphering algorithm at MS side. the network uses the same ciphering sequence. which then performs "exclusive or" operation together with the burst 114 bit (the data not ciphered in Figure 2-11). code consists of three values (T1. the ciphering sequence will appear repetitiously. T3 and T2). the other one is for the ciphering of BTS and deciphering of MS. Its content is the same as that in the establishment indication. the network first response with the message MS PWR CTRL to describe the power range available for MS and the transmitting power of the TRX corresponding to this MS. one sequence is used for the ciphering in MS and the deciphering sequence of BTS. it calculates result is the 114-bit ciphering sequence (the data flow in Figure 2-11). The establishment indication states whether A5/1. 3) Generation of Kc 2-50 . A5/2 and A5/3 are supported. According to the system configuration. For each burst. The frame No. If the communication lasts as long as the period of hyper frame (about 3 and half hours). On uplink and downlink. MS can decide whether to report the processing power of MS after Authentication Request. while the Classmark Change further states whether A5/4~A5/7 are supported. Using the Kc consistent in MS and the network (64 bits) and the current pulse string frame number (22 bits).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Kc (TDMA( Kc (TDMA( A5 Data flow Mod 2+1 A5 Data flow Mod 2+1 TX Data not ciphered RX Data not ciphered Figure 2-11 Process of ciphering and deciphering The algorithm for generating the ciphering code is called A5. After receiving this message. The name of this message is Classmark Change.

Parameter Condition: MSC support ciphering. III. all kinds of ciphering algorithm and authentication in service access procedure. A5/1. After registering in the network. A5/2 2-51 . Huawei BSS supports both A5/1 and A5/2. a subscriber obtains the Ki. The data configuration involved is as follows: 1) BSC [BSC/Modify BSC Interface Phase Flag] A Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 Um Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 Abis Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 2) BSC [Cell/Modify Cell's system information/Modify Cell Configuration Data] Encryption Algorithm Setting: Encryption Not Support.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RAND generator Ki RAND Ki A8 Kc storing KC A8 Kc storing KC MS Figure 2-12 Generation of Kc NSS Ciphering key (Kc) is produced by A8 algorithm as shown in the Figure 2-9. Here Ki is a user authentication key. which is stored in the authentication centre and the SIM card. The MS and the network use the same Ki and random number (which is generated by the network and transmitted to the MS) so that the same Kc can be obtained.

DTX affects the transmission of TCH frame. see M900/M1800 Base Station Controller Data Configuration Manual. In addition. but also the intra-system interference will be worsened. All data configuration of BSC is realized with auto data configuration console. the transmitting channel is closed to lower the interference level and improve the system efficiency. This is because BSC software selects ciphering algorithm from the intersection of algorithms allowed in MSC data configuration. DTX will have a negative effect on the communication quality. There are two types of voice transmission in GSM system: one is normal mode. Therefore. and that of 500 bit/s (for transmitting the feature parameter of comfort noise only) in non-voice activation period. will be selected.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: This manual only introduces the related parameters. If the intersection contains multiple algorithms. When both parties of the communication are GSM subscribers. this function also saves the power consumption of MS. the one with the largest algorithm No. 3 (A5/2)… 8 (A5/7). 2 (A5/1). this function cannot be applied. algorithms allowed in BSC data configuration and algorithms supported by MS. 2-52 . To tackle the above problems. II.: 1 (No ciphering). When transferring data. The meaning of algorithm No. and the other is DTX mode. 2. Overview In the process of communication.1. GSM adopts Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). For the configuration of ciphering algorithm. For details. the voice stream is encoded as 13kbit/s regardless of the MS's session status. not only the system resources are wasted. Most of the time is not engaged in the transmission of voice message. Technologies description If DTX mode is adopted. When there is no session. the voice coding of 13 kbit/s will be used in voice activation period.14 DTX I. If all information during the non-session period is sent to the network. only 40% of time of the mobile subscriber is engaged in session. it is recommended select ciphering option not selected for BSC. Only one mode can be selected in one session. DTX mode is not allowed on the occasion.

If the background noise is too loud. This judgement is based on the principle of the energy of noise being lower than that of voice. The encoded noise block will also become a block of 260 bits like the voice block. This is a Silence Descriptor (SID). To enable the peer end to differentiate the voice frame and SID frame. A complete SACCH message block on TCH has four 26-multiframe (480 ms). SID frame is applied to channel encoding. This algorithm judges whether voice or noise is contained in the output frame by comparing the filter signal and the configured threshold. VAD algorithm and voice coding/decoding algorithm is closely related. each 20 ms will be encoded as a noise block. When DTX is activated. it will be transmitted as the voice signal. ciphering and modulating like voice frame to become a field containing noise message and be transmitted in the 8 consecutive bursts. 2) Silence descriptor The noise coding process is similar to that of voice coding process: after sampling and quantization. Other frames (excluding SACCH) within the same period will not be used to transmit any message. interleaving. these 8 consecutive bursts are fixedly arranged at the beginning of the third multiframe. VAD generates a group of threshold values in each voice block of 20 ms for judging whether the next voice block of 20 ms is voice or noise. it is used to detect whether voice or noise is transmitted. 2-53 . It also indicates whether the auxiliary bit of this frame is transmitted.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions IRAU VAD MSC Voice coding SID VAD: Voice Activity Detection TAF: Time Adjust Flag MS Information DTX Processing SP Information BTS BFI SID TAF DTX Processing Voice frame replacing Voice decoding CN CN: Comfort Noise SP: Speech Flag SID: Silence Indicator BFI: Bad Frame Indication Figure 2-13 Principle of DTX 1) Voice Activity Detection Voice Activity Detection (VAD) indicated the time to use DTX.

involves the operations of MS and TRAU. The first SID frame completes the interleaving together with the voice frame before it and the SID frame after it. To ensure the consistency. which is applicable for voice and non-transparent data transmission. independent in the direction of uplink/downlink and based on the control unit of a cell. the uplink and downlink will proceed with global and partial measurement. Parameter [Cell/Modify Cell's System Message/Modify Cell System Message/Bsic Data] Parameter: Discontinuous Transmission Indication 2-54 . idle frame not included) Partial measurement: average the levels and quality of 12 timeslots. BSC can select whether to use global measurement or partial measurement to judge according to according to the measurement report. There measurement methods in GSM system: Global measurement: average the levels and quality of the 100 timeslots within the entire period (totally 4 TCHs of 26-multiframe. the decision-maker is MSC and the executor is BSC. No matter whether DTX is used or not.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Caution The SID frame generated from 20 ms noise block completes the process of interleaving together with the SID frames before and after it. III. and are activated by system parameters respectively. BTS and MS should both complete these two types of measurement. The uplink and downlink DTXs are two processes independent to each other. Note: No matter whether DTX is used. The DTX functions are optional. Since each SACCH measurement report of BTS and MS indicates whether DTX is used. DTX. including 8 consecutive TCH bursts and 4 SACCH bursts containing measurement report. no matter whether the uplink or downlink activates DTX.

The frequency occupied by channel in the Um interface of GSM system is changed regularly. The FH can avoid the attenuation caused by multi-path transmission and same frequency interference. In the mode. each carrier can be regarded as a channel. Channels on different timeslots (TN) can use the same HSN. This sequence is called frequency-hopping sequence (HSN). FH mode can be divided into and into RF FH and base band FH by carrier realization mode. Different channels on the same timeslot in the same cell should use different MAIOs. FH mode can be divided into frame FH and timeslot FH by the concept of time-domain. 5 dB. Timeslot FH: Frequency changes for each timeslot of each TDMA frame. But currently it is realized only on the occasion of base band FH. RH FH: Both Tx and Rx can be both used in FH. FH can also improve the security of communication. Frame FH: Frequency changes for each TDMA frame. It involves frequency diversity and interference diversity technologies. The frequency of changing frequency is about 217 times per second. The TCH of the TRX which bears BCCH can be used for FH. Adopting FH can improve the transmission quality of the slowly moving MS by 6. the FH in GSM system belongs to slow FH. II.15 Frequency hopping I. and improve the average C/I of the interference restriction system (especially in cities). Therefore. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) and Frame No. An HSN is an array of all frequencies in a frequency set uniquely defined with HSN. In a cell. The TCH of the TRX which bears BCCH cannot be used for FH while other different TRXs should have their own MAIO. the number of FH frequencies engaged in FH can be larger than the number of TRX.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. Besides. Technology description 1) FH modes FH means that the carrier containing meaningful information hops under the control of a sequence. it is required that the frequency should remain unchanged within a burst period. 2-55 . (FN) by using certain algorithms. Fast FH means that the change rate of frequency is faster than modulation rate of signal. Overview The purpose of frequency hopping (FH) is for obtaining better security and anti-interference capability. In GSM system. strengthening the capability of high-density multiplexing and increasing the system capacity. There are fast FH and slow FH.1. This is the expiation of timeslot FH. thus greatly improving the quality of session.

Dynamic loop band width technologies: local oscillation signal is mainly decided by reference clock (phase discrimination frequency). and has a fixed ID. If the TRX IDs are the same. The transmitting FH is realized by switching the base band signal. Base band FH has a very high requirement on the real-time identification of the ID of TRX. When a TRX is faulty. There are two advantages for this implementation: first. A switch is in charge of selecting between these two oscillators. i. e. the speed requirements are easier to implement. Ping-Pong handover: Two identical oscillators are designed on the circuit. The coder transmits the data packet periodically (sub-timeslot). the system can skip it when implementing FH. 2-56 . If the TRX ID is different from the local TRX. All FH indices satisfy the requirements in GSM protocols. If the system is not in the working status. the other one locks on the next frequency quickly. loop bandwidth changes back to best bandwidth. Tx is not involved in FH. The phase noise of local oscillation within the loop bandwidth is decided by reference clock. When one oscillator is working. Huawei BTS adopts dynamic loop bandwidth and Ping-Pong handover to solve the inconsistency between fast FH and signal quality. it will accept the data packet. which implement FH on the basis of timeslot exchange. and adds the attached information related to power control to generate a special data packet. loop bandwidth needs to be dynamically adjusted along with the needs of system. Huawei base band FH technology realizes fast and reliable TRX ID identification on the basis of the ASIC. This avoids the instant performance worsening at the beginning and end of the timeslot. etc.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The RF FH of the M900/M1800 BTS is enabled through real-time switchover between two frequency synthesizers. lower speed requirements of the frequency synthesizer can be practical. The coder of transmitter encodes the downlink signal to convert the data to burst format. TRX) to be modulated for the burst according to FH algorithm. Modulator checks the TRX ID of the data packet from each sub-timeslot. Switching to another oscillator is realized with a switch between two timeslots. second. It calculates the channel (i. Rx is involved in FH. one of the two frequency synthesizers serves as the standby when there is no FH to enhance system reliability. so that the output signal can be the best. Base band FH: Each transmitter works on a fixed frequency. and that beyond loop bandwidth is decided by collage controlled oscillator. Each transmitter is tuned to a fixed frequency. During the operation of Huawei BTS. Huawei BTS adopts the technology of (FH_BUS). and the best performance of the system can be guaranteed. voltage controlled oscillator and loop bandwidth. Therefore the number of FH frequencies in a cell cannot be larger than number of the TRXs of the cell. and delay for a timeslot and then transmitted to the air interface. it will receive that from the next sub-timeslot. e. and realize the unrestricted FH in GSM 900 bandwidth of 25 MHz and DCS 1800 bandwidth of 75 MHz.

2-57 . a subset of CA. (generator) (0~63). the radio frequency ID adopted on air interface is an element in MA. broadcast on the synchronous channel.. RF FH at timeslot level. 0~N-1): indicating an element in MA. and if HSN ≠ 0. it will be random FH. Its purpose is avoid multiple channels contends the same carrier. MAIO is an initial offset of MAI. MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset (0~N-1). The process of calculating the actual working frequency on each FH timeslot is as shown in Figure 2-14. 1 ≤ N ≤ 64. i. the frequency actually used is decided by MAI.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Huawei BSS realizes the base band FH at timeslot level. HSN: FH serial No. MAI (Mobile Allocation Index. 2) FH algorithm Parameters involved: CA: Cell allocation table. e. it will be cycle FH. During communication. M contains N frequency Ids. FN: TDMA frame No. In other words. BTS and MS achieve synchronous with FN (0~2715647). the collection of frequency ID used in the cells. base band FH at frame level and RF FH at frame level. If HSN = 0. MA: the radio frequency ID collection for MS FH.

2-58 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem MAI (m0~mN-1) MAIO (0~N-1) NBIN bit FN T3(0~50) 6bit HSN (0~63) 6bit FN T1(0~2047) 11bit T1R= T1 MOD 64 6bit Exclusive OR 6bit Addition 7bit Look-up table 7bit Addition 8bit T=T3 mod 2^NBIN NBIN bit N M'<N M'=M mod 2^NBIN NBIN bit Chapter 2 BSS Functions FN T2(0~25) 5bit Represent in 7 bit 7bit Y S=(M'+T) mod N NBIN bit MAI=(S+MAIO) mod N S=M' NBIN bit RFCN=MA(MAI) Figure 2-14 FH algorithm In the figure above: MAI = (S + MAIO) MOD N (S is the result after calculating the frame No.) RFCHN = MA (MAI) mod: MOD ^: power NBIN: INTEGER(log2N + 1) Table: see Table 2-5.

Parameter: FH Sequence No. f2. In synchronous cell.↑. since the FNs of all TRXs are completely the same. 2-59 . it is possible for different FH groups to use the same HSN.fN}. III. HSN. Adjust MAIO to avoid the collision between cells and the adjacent frequencies of the same cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-5 "Table" meaning table Address Content 000~009 010~019 020~029 030~039 040~049 050~059 060~069 070~079 080~089 090~099 100~109 110~113 48 0 101 80 55 87 82 77 117 16 91 129 98 64 47 34 111 19 58 108 114 49 15 99 63 25 118 127 75 3 40 122 4 7 21 17 1 81 85 13 38 68 107 37 90 79 24 123 36 76 18 6 109 110 32 60 43 119 46 95 59 56 89 71 26 5 66 52 61 39 78 124 96 57 112 33 106 121 53 22 93 102 23 86 103 29 31 92 42 113 84 105 94 104 54 12 11 8 62 51 120 9 65 73 100 2 74 88 45 67 126 72 97 70 3) Concept synchronous cell The concept of synchronous cell plays an important role in planning FH strategy and lowering intra-network interference. BTS and MS achieve synchronization through their agreement on FN. MAIO. [Cell/Modify Cell's FH Property/Modify Cell FH] Parameter: FH Mode Parameter: FH Group Assignment Table [Cell/Modify Cell's FH Property/Modify Cell FH /Configure MA Group] Parameter: MA Frequencies Assigned Parameter: Current MA Group No. Parameter FH data configuration sequence: CAξMAξHSNξMAIO Four parameters of FH algorithm: MA = {f1. FN The data tables and parameters involved in configuration are detailed below.

The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal level of interference on its idle traffic channels. With M principle and K principle. Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal levels received from surrounding cells. Overview Handover is a very important function in a cellular mobile communication network.P.2 Extended Functions 2. (TSC) 2. the serving cell and all adjacent cells are sequenced according to their levels to obtain the standby cell list on the basis of levels. M principle: check whether the downlink receiving level of the adjacent cell is higher than the minimum receiving level while taking uplink and downlink balance compensation. In that formula Pa = MS TxPWR MAX . Initial assessment of the measurements in conjunction with defined thresholds and handover strategy may be performed in the BSS. These measurements are send to the BSS for assessment. Only the cell with receiving level lower than the minimum receiving cell. Pa). Assessment requiring measurement results from other BTS or other information resident in the MSC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Parameter: Training Sequence No. Technology description Huawei handover algorithm includes cell sequencing and handover judgements. handover decision algorithm is the most important part because it determines the service quality and frequency efficiency. Handover enables the continuous session of subscribers while moving around different cells. Besides. 1) Cell sequencing The cell sequencing can be divided into two parts: basic sequencing and network feature adjustment. II. 2-60 . may be performed in the MSC. is made in the MS. RxLEV > MS Rx MIN + MAX (0. thus optimizing the overall performance.1 Handover I.2. BSS and MSC. In the above handover process. Huawei handover algorithm adopts the M principle and K principle based on level comparison in stead of L principle based on path loss. a) Basic cell sorting. e. handover can also adjust the traffic of the cell. The overall handover process is implemented in the MS. i. can enter the standby cell list.

The cell controlled by the same BSC or MSC has the higher priority. In this way. Implemented according to whether BSC/MSC is the same. n ) K _ BIAS (n ) = RxSUFF (n ) − (RxSUFF (o ) − KOFFSET − KHYST ) After removing KOFFSET (offset) and KHYST (Hysteresis). handover will not be easily triggered. The formula of K sequencing: K _ rank (n ) = (RxLEV (n ) − RxSUFF (n )) − (RxLEV (o ) − RxSUFF (o )) In this formula. MS Rx MIN is the minimum receiving level of MS required by the cell. (RxLEV(o) – RxSUFF(o)) shows the difference between the serving cell receiving level RxLEV(o) and serving cell minimum receiving level threshold RxSUFF(o). This causes much increase in the load to the system. The cell with less load has the higher priority. Applying hysteresis is like enlarging the coverage radius of the serving cell while shortening the coverage of the coverage radius of adjacent cell. P is the maximum transmitting power of the MS. MS TxPWR MAX is for restricting the maximum transmitting power of MS. These two differences decide the position of an adjacent cell in the standby cell list. 2-61 . Implemented according to the load of the cell. b) Adjustment according to network features Network feature adjustment uses the network information except for the power level to decide the position of each cell in the standby cell list. and the Ping-Pong handover can be eliminated. The communication may be handed over back and forth due to the unstable signal at the edge of the cells. RxSUFF(n) is adjacent cell minimum receiving level threshold RxLEV(o) is serving cell receiving level RxSUFF(o) is serving cell minimum receiving level threshold Note: The purpose of hysteresis is to avoid Ping-Pong handover. (RxLEV(n) – RxSUFF(n)) shows the difference between the adjacent cell receiving level RxLEV (n) and adjacent cell minimum receiving level threshold RxSUFF (n). K principle: K _ rank (n ) = RxLEV (n ) − RxLEV (o ) − K _ BIAS (o. thus providing the ultimate standby cell list for handover judgement.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RxLEV is the MS receiving level for this cell.

c) Layers and levels of the cell Hierarchical classification of the network can fulfill the demands of both coverage and hot spot traffic. a cell ranking first in the list is not a result of certain processing based on certain criteria. They are Umbrella. regardless of the cause that triggers handover. while the micro cell tackles the problem of hot spot traffic. the GSM 900 and GSM 1800 can be set with different priority. Macro. Besides. In the same layer. it is also possible to differentiate the priority of GSM900/GSM1800 band according to the cell's layer. The lower layer has higher property. The cell of lower layer or level has the higher priority. With basic sequencing of cell and network feature structure adjustment. the network is first considered according to the layers. Micro and Pico. The smaller priority level has the higher priority. and the major layer of GSM900 is Macro. The major layer of GSM 1800 is Micro and micro cell of GSM900/GSM1800 is Pico. the macro cell settles the problem of coverage. it is possible to have a best cell list on broad sense. In the multiband network. according to the needs of network planning. the top layer GSM 900 is usually set as Umbrella. There are 16 levels of priority at each layer. Umbrella Cell Layer 4 GSM 900 GSM 900 Macro Cell GSM 1800 GSM900 GSM900 GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM900 GSM900 GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM 1800 GSM900 Layer 2 Micro Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Pico Cell GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 Layer 1 GSM1800 Figure 2-15 Layers and levels of the cell 2) Operation types a) TA handover 2-62 . In the network planning following this mechanism. This is a mandatory function to be realized.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Implemented according to the layer and level of the cell. Normally. The basic frame of Huawei network hierarchy has four layers. In other words.

2% 3. 57% 1. 4% to 12. 8% 0. 5 m. 4% to 0. 2% to 0.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions TA can be regarded as a criterion for controlling the size of a cell. 6% 1. After a successful handover. 2% 0. it will initiate an emergent handover. The step length of each bit is 553. c) Signal level rapid dropping handover Handovers such as edge handover and PBGT adopt methods such as averaging filter and P/N judgements. BSC judges whether the TA of the current MS exceeds the maximum Timing Advanced LIMit (TALIM). 4% 6. the original cell will be punished so as to avoid this MS hands over back to it for other causes. After a successful handover. If so. The correspondence between quality level and actual BER is shown in Table 2-6. 4% 0. b) BQ handover The BER values used to define a quality band are the estimated error probabilities before channel decoding. The value range of TA is 0~63. the original cell will be punished so as to avoid this MS handover back to it for other causes. When the receiving quality in the serving cell is lower than the BQ handover threshold.810 The cause of BER increase could be signal power too low or channel interference. 6% to 3. However it is not sensitive to short term signal level rapid dropping. If the serving cell satisfies the requirement of BQ handover. FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter to original receiving signal level is used to settle this problem. 05% 18. 13% 2. 2-63 . 28% 0. 10% 14 28 57 113 226 453 905 1. 8% Greater than 12. the TA setting can compensate for a distance 35 km over 63 steps. 14% 0. Table 2-6 BER corresponding to quality level Quality level BER range Assumed value Calculated value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Less than 0. This kind of filter has a quick response to the rapid dropping slope of the original receiving signal level signal. 26% 4. If the serving cell satisfies the requirement of TA handover. BSC assesses the quality of radio link according to the quality level in the measurement report. 8% to 1. 2% to 6. BQ handover will be started so that the MS can maintain transmission quality of a certain level. 8% 0. 53% 9.

it is not easy to obtain experience point. the level of the destination cell is required to be higher than that of serving cell for at least one hysteresis value (inter-cell handover hysteresis). but they still can sustain the ongoing communication. the quality is not low enough to affect session. interference handover is started so that the MS can maintain transmission quality at the certain level. Therefore. Interference handover is illustrated in Figure 2-16. Difference between interference handover and bad quality handover: in the former case. the receiving level in the serving cell is higher.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: Since the parameter setting of level rapid dropping handover algorithm is rather complicated. this function is usually not used. There is possibility less interference on other channels in the serving cell. When the active channel quality is affected by little interference in the serving cell. and the receiving level is still high. so intra-cell handover can be carried out. At the same time. 2-64 . This to decide whether to trigger interference handover. d) Interference handover When the receiving level in the serving cell is high. The parameters of interference handover algorithm: Qual_Thr and Lev_Thr. If RxLev > Lev_Thr and RxQual > Qual_Thr. the interference handover is triggered. e) Edge handover This is a level-based handover and is rescue handover. If edge handover is to be triggered. Receiving quality (dtqu) Qual_Thr 0 Lev_Thr Receiving level Figure 2-16 Interference handover zone The shadowed part in the figure stands for zones within which interference handover occurs. but the receiving quality deteriorates to a certain extent.

PBGT(n) > PGBT_HO_Margin (n) In the inequality above. P/N criterion is that there are P satisfying the criterion during N measurements. P ) − RxLEV _ DL − PWR _ C _ D ) − (Min(MS _ TxPWR _ MAX (n ). Cell1 -97dBm Cell2 -85dBm Figure 2-17 Edge handover f) PBGT handover PBGT also belongs to better cell handover. Triggering condition of PBGT handover: The path loss of the adjacent cell is smaller than the threshold of the serving cell and the P/N criterion is satisfied within a period of measurement time. 2-65 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The criterion for triggering edge handover: When the receiving level of the serving cell is lower than the edge handover threshold. P. P ) − RxLEV _ NCELL(n )) Meanings of the parameters: MS TxPWR MAX: maximum transmitting power allowed in the serving cell MS TxPWR MAX (n): maximum transmitting power allowed in the adjacent cell n RxLEV_DL: downlink receiving power of the serving cell RxLEV_NCELL (n): downlink receiving power of the adjacent cell n PWR_C_D: difference between the maximum downlink transmitting power caused by power control and the actual downlink transmitting power of the serving cell. the edge handover will be triggered to ensure the communication quality. N and PBGT_HO_Margin (n) are configured at data configuration console. The method of calculating PBGT (n): PBGT (n ) = (Min(MS _ TxPWR _ MAX . Edge handover is illustrated in Figure 2-17. and fulfilling the P/N criterion within a certain measurement period. a handover based on path fading. Difference from other handover algorithms: the trigger condition is path loss and receiving power. PBGT handover algorithm searches for the cell with lower path loss and satisfying the system requirement on real-time basis so as to judge whether handover is needed. PBGT (n) calculates according to the control parameter and the information reported by BTS.

the traffic load handover is applied. to avoid too many handovers happening simultaneously. the traffic at the cell edge will be handed over those with less traffic. the situation of system CPU load should be taken into consideration before triggering handover. e. and the load handover algorithm needs to be activated. edge handover threshold will increase by certain step length (CLS_Ramp) and period (CLS_Period). the load handover is implemented step by step. Since the load handover mechanism is likely to trigger a good number of handovers. In addition. and is allowed to accept the traffic handed over from other heavy traffic load cells. and preventing the traffic of the adjacent cells being handed over to this cell. High traffic cell Low traffic cell Low traffic cell Heavy traffic cell Low traffic cell Low traffic cell High traffic cell Figure 2-18 Load handover The method of realizing load share: by heightening the edge handover threshold towards that of the serving cell. The basis for judging the traffic of a cell is the cell flow (i. TCH occupation rate) and the preset threshold. g) Load handover There may be cells with heavy load while their upper layer cell and the adjacent cell bears less load. Its aim is to hand over part of the traffic in the heavily loaded cell to less loaded cells. this cell is consider to have a heavy traffic load. system flow level. i. e.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions P: maximum transmitting capability of MS PBGT handover occurs only between cells of the same layer and same level. To achieve load balance between cells by sharing the load with upper layer and adjacent cell. If the cell flow of a cell is lower than the low traffic threshold (Load HO Rx Threshold). e. i. 2-66 . If the cell flow of a cell is higher than the heavy traffic load threshold (Load HO Start Threshold ). Load handover can be implemented between cells within the same BSC. it is consider having a low traffic load. Load handover is illustrated in Figure 2-18.

so as to flexibly direct its traffic and fulfill the needs of different network structure. 2-67 . Load handover is illustrated in Figure 2-19.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The increase ends when the threshold reaches the load handover bandwidth (CLS_Offset). Load HO zone Normal HO border Cell A Cell B CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Offset CONF_HO_RXLEV CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Ramp Figure 2-19 Load handover h) Hierarchical handover The GSM network is classified into layers. If MS is moving quickly with micro cell as the reference. Fast moving handover is illustrated in Figure 2-20. If a cell has a high priority and its signal level is higher than a threshold (Inter-layer HO Threshold) and satisfy the P/N criterion. i) Fast moving handover This kind of handover is carried out for fast moving MS to reduce the number of handover and hence reduced call drop rate. it will be handed over to the macro cell. The purpose of hierarchical handover is to direct the traffic to the cell with higher priority so that the traffic can be distributed more reasonably. the traffic will be handed over to this cell even if the serving cell can still provide normal services. If the fast moving MS registered in the macro cell. time penalty will be implemented to the micro cell so that the MS will stay in the macro cell.

Fast moving handover algorithm can only perform accumulation judgement to the MS within the same BM and same BSC. so that the position of this micro cell in the cell sequencing will be lowered. P/N measurement will be implemented to several cells.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Umbrella Cell Micro Cell Figure 2-20 Fast moving handover There are two principles for fast moving handover: If the MS is moving fast with the micro cell as the reference. Before the speed sensitive timer of a certain micro cell times out. If a handover fails for a 2-68 . it will be handed over to the macro cell. 3) Handover procedure Handover decision algorithm enables the preprocessing of the input MR and decides whether handover should be done and which type of handover it should be (intra-cell handover.) according to the various conditions. it is necessary to re-judge. For MS registered in macro cell. MSC and MS. outgoing BSC handover. j) Other handovers Other handovers include IUO handover. When MS moves to another BM. time penalty will be implemented to micro cell. forced handover. etc. this receiving level of this micro cell will be punished. the method of "timer + penalty" is applied. If the criterion of fast moving is satisfied. which will complete handover-signaling process together with BTS. Handover decision algorithm sends the message of decided handover result to call process module. To avoid the fast moving MS registered in macro cell enter the micro cell. this MS is considering to be moving fast with this cell as the reference. To avoid miscarriage of justice. and extended cell handover. If the duration of MS camping in a cell is lower than a certain threshold (Fast Moving Time Threshold). this MS will be handed over the macro cells. inter-cell handover in the same BSC. directed retry.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions certain reason. If SACCH is used for the transmission of other signals. Handover process is as shown in Figure 2-21. MR preprocessing Handover decision algorithm starting decision MR averaging procesing Penalty processing of cell measurement value Basic cell sorting Adjustment according to network features Handover decision Sending handover commands to the call handling module Call control Processing of handover results Figure 2-21 Handover decision process flow chart Each phase of the process is described as follows. Then MS sends these measurement results to BTS through SACCH once every 480ms. call process module will notify the handover result to the algorithm. which will decide how to further process this handover. MS measures the receiving quality (RxQual) and receiving level (RxLev) of the downlink of the serving cell as well as the downlink RxLev of the BCCH carrier frequency of adjacent cells (best six adjacent cells average). BTS combines the uplink measurement value and the downlink measurement value to form a MR message. MS sends the measurement results once every 960ms. 2-69 . BTS measures the RxQual and RxLev of the corresponding uplink. MR provides basic parameters needed in handover decision. a) MR preprocessing.

8% 0. 4% ~ 0. or filtering. 57% 0 10 20 2-70 . A simple and practical algorithm is weighted filtering. Table 2-7 Receiving level calculation assumed value RxLev number Implication Assumed value 0 1 2 … 62 63 < -110dBm -110dBm~109dBm -109dBm~-108dBm … -49dBm ~ -48dBm > -48dBm -110dBm -109dBm -108dBm … -48dBm -47dBm Table 2-8 Receiving quality calculation assumed value RxQual number BER range Assumed value Calculated value 0 1 2 < 0. The preprocessing of the MR includes the following three procedures: MR interpolation processing: When discontinuous MRs are received by BTS or BSC. or different channel types like signaling channels. This procedure is called MR interpolation. 2% 0. 4% 0. MR preprocessing process can be realized in both BTS and BSC and controlled by OMC. MR should be preprocessed so that it can have a better reflection of radio links. If the number of lost MRs exceeds a limit. Different filter lengths can be respectively defined for different types of measurement values like the receiving level.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: If messages transmitted on the uplink SACCH do not include the MR (transmitted by MS). it is necessary to perform smooth processing over the MRs. 2% ~ 0. To eliminate the uncertainty in handover decision. and Table 2-8. The receiving level (RxLev) and receiving quality (RxQual) use corresponding assumed value for calculations. 28% 0. the uplink measurement result will indicate that the MR transmitted by MS is lost. receiving quality and TA. 14% 0. lost MRs should be interpolated so as to guarantee the continuity of the whole MR processing process. previously received MRs will be regarded as invalid ones and re-collection is needed. as shown in Table 2-7. speech and data channels.

such as whether there are enough MRs. handover decision algorithm is started. c) MR averaging processing Filter MRs according to a certain algorithm. 8% 1. 26% 4. d) Penalty processing of cell measurement value Practically there is a possibility that a handover can not be successful. thus to prevent incorrect handovers due to individual interference. of Preprocessed Measurement Report]. In case the handover to the selected target cell fails. For other handovers completed within BSC. 10% 30 40 50 60 70 The MR represents the condition of radio channels in the previous measurement cycle. 8% ~ 1.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RxQual number BER range Assumed value Calculated value 3 4 5 6 7 0. when Abis interface multiplexing mode is 15:1. Accordingly. It can be realized with data configuration: in [Cell/Modify Cell's Handover parameter/Modify Handover Parameter/HO Control Data]. the target cell shall be 2-71 . 8% > 12. cancel their noise. MR processing mode requires that MR should be a preprocessed one instead of the original one. so it is of hysteresis to some extent. [Transfer Original Measurement Report] and [Report Freq. And the BSC will forward the decision. 2% 3. Therefore. 6% 1. modify [BTS Measurement Report Preprocessing]. The prediction algorithm is mainly responsible for MR values for the next cycle(s) based on the radio environment changes prediction. 05% 18. or even interruption. MR prediction is a process that can be selected by the operator. and smooth MRs. Moreover. the emergency handover due to fast level dropping is decided by BTS. which might cause invalid handover attempt or handover failure. the system might try to hand over the MS to the above-mentioned target cell again. 53% 9. 6% ~ 3. 2% ~ 6. When the multiplexing on the Abis interface is 15:1. MR reporting frequency can adopt interval reporting. MR is transmitted through RSL. 4% ~ 12. b) Handover decision algorithm starting decision Judge whether basic conditions for handover are satisfied. After the cycle of a handover decision is finished. every 4 signaling links multiplex a 64kbit/s timeslot statistically. If conditions are satisfied. the MS will stick to the original serving cell. In order to minimize signaling transmission error bit. handover decisions and processing are still carried out in the BSC. 4% 6. 13% 2.

thus the position of each cell is located. and fast-moving penalty (this is a penalty imposed on the microcell in the candidate queue in order to prevent frequent handover when the fast moving MS accesses a cell of small coverage). i) Processing of handover results After the call handling module has processed handover signaling. then the latter starts the signaling procedures for this handover. penalty to the failed cell due to ordinary handover failure. Adjacent cells that have been imposed penalty and the serving cell are sorted through a certain algorithm. Parameter 1) TA Handover “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “Filter Length for TA ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Penalty Time after TA HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] “Penalty Level after TA HO ” in [Handover\ Penalty Table] 2-72 . h) Sending handover commands to the call handling module After making the handover decision with the algorithm and deciding to execute the handover. BSC sends handover message containing the type of incoming handover to the call-handling module. This is to get ready for final handover. Confirm the candidate cell queue list. speed sensibility. III. f) Adjustment according to network features To adjust candidate queue through a certain algorithm according to hierarchical network. adjust cells adjusted in last procedure and finalize a uniform clear list of cells that are ready to be handed over. it returns the result to the handover decision module. cell priority.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions punished. the module will set a new handover interval timer to avoid frequent handovers. If the handover is successful. the handover decision module will start penalty to the cell responsible for the failure. g) Handover decision Handover decision algorithm is used to decide the time to start handover and the target cell to be handed over. and the specific network environment. which is to reduce the receiving power of the corresponding cell by a set penalty value for a period (called the penalty time). If the handover fails. Penalty types include the penalty of the forsaken cell due to TA value. penalty of the forsaken cell due to bad quality (BQ). e) Basic cell sorting.

for Interf. for Interf. for Interf. for Load HO” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] 2-73 . Thrsh ” in [Handover\ Emergency Handover Table] “Filter Length for TCH Level ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Filter Length for SD Qual ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Penalty Level after BQ HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] “Penalty Time after BQ HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] 3) Level rapid dropping handover “Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed ” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “Filter parameter A1~A8 ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “Filter parameter B ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] 4) Interference handover “UL Qual. Thrsh. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL Qual. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] 5) Edge handover “Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh ” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO DL RX_LEV Thrsh ” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO watch time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO valid time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Inter-cell HO Hysteresis” in [Handover\Adjacent Cell Relation Table] 6) PBGT handover “PBGT HO Allowed” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “PBGT HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Adjacent Cell Relation Table] “PBGT Watch Time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “PBGT Valid Time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] 7) Load handover “load HO Allowed ” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “System Flux Thrsh. Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL Qual. for Interf.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) BQ Handover “UL Qual. Thrsh. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL RX_LEV Thrsh. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “UL RX_LEV Thrsh.

2-74 . Basic rules for power control are: 1) 2) 3) When the level or signal quality is higher than the expected value.2 Power Control I. on Candiate Cell” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Bandwidth” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Step Period” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Step Level” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] 8) Layered and hierarchical handover. When the level or signal quality is lower than the expected value.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions “Load HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load Req. The level and signal quality should be both considered so as to improve the accuracy and effectiveness. power control adjusts the transmit power of MS and BTS according to the expected value configured in OMC data management system. the receiving level (including uplink and downlink) from BTS and the MR of receiving quality. Overview As an important method to control radio link. “Layer of The Cell” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Cell Priority” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Inter-layer HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Inter-layer HO hysteresis” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Layer HO watch time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Layer HO valid time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] 9) Fast Moving handover “MS Fast Moving HO Allowed” in [Handover\ Handover Control Table] “MS Fast-moving Watch cells” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “MS Fast-moving Valid cells” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “MS Fast-moving time Thrsh” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “Penalty on MS Fast Moving HO” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Penalty Time on MS Fast moving HO” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] 2. the power should be increased accordingly.2. the power should be decreased accordingly.

and Huawei I (HW_I) and Huawei II (HW_II) algorithms. Any algorithm can be selected among these three algorithms. Another benefit of effective power control is that the battery of MS is extended. These Huawei-developed algorithms are compatible nicely with the GSM900 and GSM1800 systems. The reuse distance between these channels mainly upon the subscriber density in a particular area. Technical description 1) Power control classification Power control comprises uplink and downlink power controls. The uplink power control is for MS while the downlink power control is for BTS. thus maximizing available talking time. If MS does not support this power class. Huawei BSS offers three different algorithms for the implementation of power control. When a connection is performed. the stable adjusting stage and the initial adjusting stage. However.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The nature of a cellular system requires that the output power of the BSC and MS should be set as low as possible. The MS power control is divided into two adjusting stages.e. MS is output as the nominal power of the cell where it is located (the nominal power indicates that the MS transmitting power is the MS maximum transmitting power MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH in the broadcast system messages on the BCCH channel of the cell where it is located. the greater the density the shorter the reuse distance. decrease the saturation degree of BTS multicoupler and reduce MS power consumption. easy operations and easy command. such as the maximum output power class supported by the reported MS Classmark in the establishment indication message). the supported power class that is nearest to it will be utilized. particularly co-channel. while the initial adjusting is used in the time when the call connection is initially started. the quality of other call supported by this BTS may be deteriorated due to 2-75 . effectiveness. II. the receiving signal intensity should be reduced in a new connection as quick as possible. The stable adjusting is the normal method for performing the power control algorithm. By keeping the MS and BSC at the minimum acceptable power output it reduces the chances of interference.. otherwise. With the limited resource of the RF spectrum cellular systems depend upon the reuse of the RF channels. which are executed separately. i. a) MS power control The purpose of MS power control is to adjust the MS output power in order to achieve the stable receiving signal so as to reduce the interference from subscribers of adjacent channels. which is GSM 0508 power control algorithm. HW_I and HW_II algorithms are recommended due to their flexible configurations. since BTS may simultaneously support multiple calls.

while the class 63 of the receiving level is the highest. so that the MS can be adjusted according to the stable power control algorithm. filter lengths are different. The parameters that must be selected in the power control include the receiving level threshold (lower limitation) to be performed the power control and the receivable maximum sending level threshold (upper limitation). desirable uplink receiving quality. etc. by the processing methods such as interpolation and filtering. clear the temporary nature (spiffiness). MS output power range restriction). The purpose for the interpolation and filtering of the measurement reports is to process the lost measurement report. such as the expected desirable uplink receiving level. with numbers from 0 to 63. the later is the fine adjusting based on the former. The essence of the uplink power control adjusting is to enable the actual uplink receiving level and receiving quality obtained from interpolation and filtering to progressively approach the desirable uplink receiving level and receiving quality set by O&M. The difference between power controls in initial phase and stable phase is that their expected uplink receiving levels and receiving qualities. i.. The static power level is defined in the cell attribute table of the data management console. b) BTS power control The BTS power control is an optional function. so as to ensure the stability of the power control algorithm. with the power control algorithm. the actual uplink receiving level and the receiving quality are obtained. if it is different from the current MS output power class and meets a given application restricted conditions (such as the power adjusting step length restriction. The base station power control is basically identical to the MS power control. e. The receiving level RXLEV is divided into 64 classes.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions the saturation of the BTS multi-coupler. and the call quality of other cells may be affected due to the high interference. As the dynamic power control classes are 2-76 . the class 6 is 34 dBm. the purpose of the initial stage power control adjusting is to reduce the MS transmitting power as quick as possible until the stable measurement report is obtained. the maximum output power value Pn of the current dynamic power control is specified. Therefore. The parameters that must be selected in the uplink power control. The GSM 05. . then they are compared with the desirable uplink receiving level and the receiving quality. The base station power control is divided into the static power control and the dynamic power control.05 protocol specification specifies that the base station static power class is divided into 6 (2dB/per class). the data configuration can be dynamically carried out according to the actual situations of the cell. and the former one only adjusts downwards. the power adjusting command is sent. After a given number of the uplink measurement reports is received. are all set by the O&M data management console. when the maximum power output by the base station is 46dBm (40W). the power class to which the MS should be adjusted is calculated. except that the base power control utilizes only the stable power control algorithm. class 0 of the receiving level is the lowest.

so as to ensure the stability of the power control algorithm. If the requirements cannot be satisfied when the dynamic power control reaches its maximum value. The maximum rate of change of MS power is 2dB/13 frame (60ms). It needs 104 frames (i. the range of the dynamic power control is Pn-Pn-30dB. the current transmit power (refers to the power level used by the last burst pulse of SACCH MS cycle) is stored. 2-77 . which will be reported to BTS in next SACCH uplink MR. MS receives the power regulation message carried by SACCH header on dedicated channel and the first layer header carried by a downlink SACCH message block. enable the actual uplink receiving level and receiving quality obtained from interpolation and filtering to progressively approach the desirable uplink receiving level and receiving quality set by O&M. as shown in Figure 2-22. 16×2=32dB. 2) Execution process of power control There are 3 MR cycles from sending command to execution. It takes 2 MR cycleS to complete power regulation. e. If the regulation step length is 16. e. clear the temporary nature (spilliness). one MR cycle) to complete power regulation. The purpose for the interpolation and filtering of the measurement reports is to process the lost measurement report. i. i. e. MS will execute the power control command in next cycle instead of upon the receipt of these headers in first cycle.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions set to 15. power control is executed. In the 26 multiframe the 12th frame is for Report period of SACCH: sending SACCH 26× 4=104 frame (480ms) SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 BTS transmifs the command of adjust power and TA at SACCH header MS adopts new powerand TA MS starts to send the messurement report of the previous multi-frame MS obtains SACCH block MS Generates new SACCH BTS receives the header to report new TA and measurement report power control message Figure 2-22 Power control execution process a) In the first MR cycle. 480ms. b) In the second MR cycle. If the regulation step length is 8. c) In the third cycle. the static power control classes should be adjusted to increase the maximum output power value Pn of the dynamic power control. 8×2=16dB.

Power control decision process HW_I algorithm power control decision process is as shown in Figure 2-24. Usually the steps for power control are: MR preprocessing Power calculation Power control decision Adjustment by sending power control commands 4) Huawei HW_I algorithm Huawei HW_I has following features: Compared with protocol algorithm. power regulation will be executed. Data configuration is rather complicated. the initial state regulation is added. For uplink. The power control adjustment involves many parameters and complicated calculation. Counters P' and N' are used to count the MR and the values of these counters can be set through OMC. Power control decision is the sum of the level and quality. Once the adjustment results of the receiving level and receiving quality are contrary. the power control will never stop and the level fluctuates with the expected value.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) Power Control Algorithm BSC can dynamically implement power control on each MS and BTS Three algorithms can be adopted as power control algorithm: GSM 0508 algorithm. upper limit and lower limit thresholds are set for the receiving signal level and the receiving signal quality. Algorithm process is as shown in Figure 2-23 MR Preprocessing Power Control Algorithm selection GSM0508 power control algorithm HW_I Power control algorithm HW_II Power control algorithm Figure 2-23 Power control algorithm selection Power control algorithm is specified in the 0508 protocols (for further details refer to the related specifications). When N' MRs in the consecutively received P' MRs exceeds the above threshold. HW_I algorithm and HW_II algorithm. and the expected value is just a specified value instead of a range. 2-78 .

including receiving signal level. various kinds of information about the current communications status from MS and BTS should be collected. and communication quality etc. MR MR MR MR Uplink measurement Downlink measurement Figure 2-25 Reporting MR 2-79 . Network side on SACCH will receive MRs from MS and BTS every 480 ms. The process of MS reporting is as shown in Figure 2-25.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MR pre-processing Satisfying power control target N Power control calculation and regulation cinitial state and stable state Y Figure 2-24 HW_I algorithm power control decision process b) Measurement Report In order to implement power control decision. in which various kinds of information needed for power control decision are contained.

this means that there are some MRs gets lost. Filtering: Several continuous MRs results will be used to reflect the state of MS in a period of time thus to avoid the one-sidedness caused by judging the state of MS according to only one MR result.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions An example of BSS MR is shown in Figure 2-26. d) Power control decision Number of transmit power to be adjusted (Expected stable signal level . In this case. network will add all lost MRs according to interpolation algorithm. Interpolation: each MR has a serial number. 2-80 . Figure 2-26 MR example c) MR preprocessing.current receiving signaling level) × uplink (downlink) compensating factor + (current actual receiving uplink (downlink) quality – expected uplink (downlink) quality) × 10 × uplink (downlink) quality compensating factor Caution: The last regulated power level cannot exceed the maximum power control step length. If the serial numbers of received MRs are found not continuous.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Actual stable level equals to the sum of current actual level and transmit power to be regulated During the process of judging power control level to be adjusted, it needs to search tolerance table according to the level of current transmit power. If the final power regulation level is with the tolerance range, the regulation is unnecessary. GSM1800 tolerance table is shown in Table 2-9. Table 2-9 GSM1800 tolerance table Level Tolerance

0 2

1 2

2 2

3 2

4 2

5 2

6 2

7 2

8 2

9 3

1 0 3

1 1 3

1 2 3

1 3 3

1 4 4

1 5 4

1 6 4

1 7 2

1 8 2

1 9 2

GSM900 tolerance table is shown in Table 2-10. Table 2-10 GSM900 tolerance table Level Tolerance

0 2

1 2

2 2

3 4

4 4

5 4

6 4

7 4

8 4

9 4

1 0 4

1 1 4

1 2 4

1 3 4

1 4 4

1 5 4

1 6 6

1 7 6

1 8 6

1 9 6

The similarities and difference of HW_I algorithm uplink power control and downlink power control is as follows: Similarities: In order to avoid the fluctuation caused by power controls, the interval between two continuous controls is specified for both uplink and downlink. In order to not being affected by unexpected factors, all MRs should be filtered. Both uplink and downlink power controls have power control on level and quality respectively. Both have maximum power control step length and compensating factor. Difference: MS has power control not only for stable state but also for initial connecting phase before a call is connected. The purpose is to lower MS transmit power as soon as possible. Uplink has measures to improve transmit power in the case of MS handover failure. Downlink has the restriction for both maximum and minimum MS transmit power. 5) Huawei HW_II algorithm Compared with HW_I, HW_II has following advantages: MR compensation, which makes the power control decision more accurate.
2-81

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

MR prediction, which reduces power control delay. Adaptive power control, which sufficiently guarantees the algorithm stability and high efficiency. Keep power control target within the range between upper limit and lower limit so as to avoid power control fluctuation. Easy and flexible data configuration, which guarantees effective regulation of network optimized parameters. a) Power control decision process HW_II power control decision process is as shown in Figure 2-27.

MR pre-processing

Power control requested by receiving level

Power control requested by receicing quality

Conprehensive decision of power control

Figure 2-27 HW_II power control decision process b) Request power control according to level After the preprocessing of MR, power control module compares the current receiving level with expected value. Then the transmit level step length is calculated. The regulation is to make the receiving level closer to the expected value. When receiving level regulates transmit power, variable step length can be adopted so that the quick power control can be obtained. c) Request power control according to receiving quality After the preprocessing of MR, power control module compares the evaluation value of the current receiving quality with expected value. Calculate the transmit step length to be regulated Improving transmitting power for low receiving quality.

2-82

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Decreasing transmitting power for high receiving quality. Do not adjust the transmitting power when the receiving quality fallsbetween the upper/lower thresholds. d) Comprehensive decision of power control Comprehensive decision of power control is shown in Table 2-11. Table 2-11 Table of comprehensive decision of power control Receiving level power control regulation οAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Lev µAdjStep_Lev µAdjStep_Lev µAdjStep_Lev Receiving quality power control regulation οAdjStep_Qul µAdjStep_Qul Comprehensive decision of power control οMAX(AdjStep_Lev, AdjStep_Qul)

No action
οAdjStep_Lev µAdjStep_Lev µMAX(AdjStep_Lev, AdjStep_Qul) µAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Qul µAdjStep_Qul

No action
οAdjStep_Qul µAdjStep_Qul

No action
οAdjStep_Qul µAdjStep_Qul

No action No action No action

No action

No action

e) MR compensation Power control module will extract the receiving level and receiving quality of some history MRs when it implements power control decision. These MRs might be obtained in different transmit powers. In order to guarantee the accuracy of receiving level to be used, if the transmit powers in these MRs are different, the receiving level value of history MRs should be compensated. The interpolated and compensated MRs are filtered so as to make control power decision more effective. f) Predict filtering The power control is a process of transmitting power control based upon the current received level and the receiving quality. The sending and transmission of power control command and power adjustment will take certain period of time, so there will exist certain hysteresis between the receiving change and corresponding transmitting power adjustment.Filtering prediction enables MR on which power control decision is based to get closer to the state of power regulation so as to erase delay effectively.

2-83

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

MR filtering prediction is implemented in a very short time and changes of receiving level and quality are likely to be continuous. N MRs before the current time are used for weighted filtering, then 0~3 MRs of after the current time are predicted. Generally, there are 3 MRs between power control decision and power regulation, which is about 1.5 second. As a consequence, the accuracy of prediction is guaranteed. Power control decision is made after the filtering of predicted MRs, interpolated MRs, and compensated history MRs. g) Dual threshold power control algorithm Dual threshold power control algorithm adopts the following three strategies: Adjust power control step length according to receiving level: The final purpose of power control is to obtain the best communication quality at the lowest level. However, due to the instability of radio link and the external interference, transmit power cannot be lowered greatly. Therefore, HW_II adopts the power control strategy of dual threshold so as to try to keep receiving within two thresholds. Adjust power step length according receiving quality: Generally, the change of receiving quality is associated with interference. The main interference of GSM comes to same frequency interference generated from frequency multiplexing. This interference is interactive. One call increases its power means that it exerts a stronger interference on the other call. Therefore, the power regulation caused by the change of receiving quality should avoid the group effect of increasing transmit power due to bad quality. Receiving quality threshold is also set with dual thresholds. Receiving quality with the range between two thresholds needs not to adjust transmit power. While receiving quality beyond the range should be adjusted. For the power regulation caused by quality factor should use fixed step length to avoid. Considering both power control strategies of receiving level and receiving quality regulation. Considering the requirements of both level and quality. On one hand, both requirements should be satisfied as much as possible; on the other hand, in the case that the requirements are not consistent or completely contrary, the stability should be fully considered to prohibit the unstable regulation process. Therefore, the effect on power control caused by level and quality should be both considered. h) Variable step length power control When variable step length regulation is adopted, if that the level or quality is greatly different from its expected value, use the larger step length to quickly adjust power; in the case that the level or quality is slightly different from its expected value, use the smaller step length to adjust power. Thus, quick and accurate power regulation is achieved. i) Adaptive power control

2-84

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Adaptive power control is to change power control strategy according different communication environments. This fact leads to a more effective and more stable power control. This is reflected in following two aspects: Power control adjustable maximum step length can be adjusted automatically according to the different communication environments. The different power control strategies are adopted for different communication environments. (j) Adjustment of upper threshold of signal strength Double-threshold power control algorithm is adopted for power control. For level, there are upper threshold of uplink (downlink) signal strength and lower threshold of uplink (downlink) signal strength. When the receiving quality is rather poor, the value of upper threshold can be increased furthermore. When the receiving quality is good, the lower value of upper threshold can be adopted so as to reduce the transmit power of mobile phone or base station. When the receiving quality is rather poor, the higher value of upper threshold can be adopted so as to improve the communication quality.

III. Parameter
1) HW_I algorithm parameters

“Initial RX_LEV Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Stable RX_LEV Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Uplink RX_LEV Compensation ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “UL Qual. Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “UL Qual. Compensation ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Max PC Step ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] 2) HW_II algorithm parameters

“Filter Length for UL RX_LEV ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for DL RX_LEV ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for UL Qual ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for DL Qual ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MR Compensation Allowed ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL M.R. Number Predicted ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL M.R. Number Predicted ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “PC Interval ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL RX_LEV Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table]
2-85

Supported by BTS hardware. Value for Qual. it can cover a range with radius of 120km under its ideal state. with scattered subscribers. the system is no longer able 2-86 . Zone 2 ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Adj. which results that the cell coverage radius should be within 35km. Zone 0 ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Adj. and the infrastructure facilities such as transmission and power supply are hard to be constructed or unavailable.Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. If an MS reaches the ordinary coverage verge. Value for Qual. Technical description When the cell coverage radius exceeds 35km. Overview In GSM specifications. signal delay will exceed the duration corresponding with the maximum value 63 bit specified in GSM specifications. and to attract the mobile subscribers in special regions so as to improve profit. if the MS continues to move outside of cell range. Bad TrigThrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. the TA of cell has a restriction of 63 bit at the radio interface. Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL RX_LEV Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL RX_LEV Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. Bad TrigThrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual.3 Extended Cell I. Bad UpLEVDiff ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. the cell with radius over 35km should be provided. In regions such as vast land. Value for Qual. II. it will transmit at the maximum TA allowed by system. Bad UpLEVDiff ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] 2.2. PC Value by RxQual ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. Carriers can use this technology to fast construct their GSM networks with fewer stations and at lower cost.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions “UL RX_LEV Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. The extended cell breaks the restriction of radius within 35km. Zone 1 ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Adj. with low traffic. Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Adj.

4. 25 bit. e. Each time slot is a channel. its TA value changes within the range 0~63. then this is called carrier level dual time slot solution. CCCH and SDCCH. . 4/5. and 6 are distributed. TA value of TA in MS has a maximum of 63+156. 25 = 219. For MS. 2/3. two time slots should be always distributed to BCCH. i. and the receiving window of BTS receiver is also extended to a width of two time slots thus the cell coverage radius is extended to over 35km. two continuous time slots in BTS are specified for each MS call. the system uses TA to make the uplink signals of MSs with different distances reach within the corresponding local time slot. While BTS demodulates uplink data in two continuous time slots. In order to support the extended MS signals over 63 bit. and part of signaling transmitted by MS will reach BTS receiver at next time slot. The MS in the range 0~35km. The frame TDMA of GSM radio interface is composed of 8 time slots. In order to enable MSs in extended range to initiate call at any time. 2-87 . The principle of extended cell delay regulation is as shown in Figure 2-28. It is this principle that extended cell uses to realize the cell extension. 6/7.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions to implement adaptive regulation on TA value due to the TA has reached its maximum. dual time slot solution binds odd and even time slots and regards each TDMA frame as only with four channels: 0/1. only channel 0. and BCCH is located in dual time slot carrier. DELAY<=63 After TA adjustment unlink data demodulation range TS0 TS1 TS2 delay>63 After TA adjustment TS0 TS1 Dual times lot extendend cell TS2 Figure 2-28 Principle of extended cell delay regulation If all carrier frequencies in a cell are set as ordinary ones. Normally. The TA value of MS with radius over 35km is always maintained as 63. TA supports a maximum of 63 bit. 2. this is called cell level dual time slot solution. If part of carrier frequencies in a cell are set as ordinary ones and other carrier frequencies are configured as dual time slot ones.

OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell can 2-88 . Under the circumstance of aggressive frequency reuse. BCCH in dual time slot guarantees the random access of any areas. try to distribute the more reuse frequency. The frequency inside the OverLaid subcell adopts aggressive frequency reuse mode. the IUO technology can be used to avoid or decrease radio interference so as to guarantee communication quality. Technical description IUO refers to the different carrier circle cells formed by different carrier frequencies in a cell with difference on coverage. the technology of aggressive frequency reuse should be used to improve the frequency utilization.2. try to distribute the less reuse frequency. for the MS in the OverLaid subcell. which can improve system capacity effectively. the system can handover them again to ordinary carrier. while the calls within 34~120km radius and the incoming handovers are distributed to dual time slot carrier.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When carrier level dual time slot extended cell is adopted.4 IUO I. Parameter “Cell Extension Type ” in [Cell\Cell Attribute Table] “CH Type ” in [Local Office\Radio Channel Configuration Table] “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Concentric cell Handover Table] “TA Hysteresis ” in [Handover\ Concentric cell Handover Table] 2. so the contradict between short frequency resource and great demand is particularly obvious. there are ordinary carrier and dual time slot ones. II. For the MS in the UnderLaid subcell. However. which is from the dual time slot frequency to the ordinary one or from the ordinary to dual time slot frequency. this will lead to an intra-cell handover. When the calling MS crosses 35 km line. In order to increase capacity. such as BCCH frequency. The calls within TA value accessed randomly being within 35km radius are distributed to ordinary carrier. such as frequency except BCCH. the aggressive frequency reuse increases the radio interference greatly and even to affect the communication quality seriously. Logically. The conversion of carrier frequencies between ordinary one and dual time slot one can be set through BSC data configuration III. Overview With the development of GSM network. The IUO technology divides an ordinary cell into two service layers: OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. the number of subscribers increases gradually. For the incoming handovers to be found as 0~35km ones.

it adopts less reuse frequency mode such as 4x3. so the coverage area is greatly restricted. the cell coverage area can be increased. compared with Multiple Reuse Pattern (MRP). 2-89 . The wider coverage can be realized through having the carrier in which BCCH is used large power amplifier. it can greatly increase the network capacity and guarantee the network quality because the OverLaid subcell employs of aggressive frequency reuse mode. Its function is to absorb the most subscribers within the cell coverage area. In some special cases. then the IUO cell is completely the same as the cell with the multiplexing mode of 1x3 adopted and the average frequency multiplexing ratio is the same as that of 1x3 multiplexing. The carrier frequencies of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell can adopt different multiplexing modes. it adopts more reuse frequency mode such as 1x3 due to its small coverage.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions be regarded as two cells because their coverage areas are different. so the coverage distance of different carrier is different. in this case. while the carrier with small coverage can be used to serve as OverLaid subcell to increase the near end capacity of site. the IUO divides the cell coverage into OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. For the UnderLaid subcell cell. UnderLaid subcell solve the problem of coverage and provide service for the areas not covered by overlaid cell. After the IUO technology is employed. UnderLaid subcell Cell A OverLaid subcell Cell B Signal Interference Figure 2-29 Aggressive Frequency Reuse of IUO cell As shown above. While the cell coverage area depends on the carrier of smaller coverage. the UnderLaid subcell is configured with only one carrier BCCH with the multiplexing mode of 4x3 being adopted and the rest TCH carrier frequencies are configured in OverLaid subcell with the multiplexing mode of 1x3 being adopted. In this way. e The technical description of IUO is as shown in Figure 2-29. For the OverLaid subcell cell. The power that provided by BCCH carrier is greater than other carriers. Therefore. The OverLaid subcell is the main traffic carrier layer because it has many channels. When the IUO technology is employed. the IUO can effectively reduce the interference for the whole network and obtain the better network quality than 1x3 multiplexing without the decrease of network capacity. the carrier with wide coverage can be used to serve as UnderLaid subcell to realize the far end coverage of site.

5dB 8. 5dB 8. 2-90 . as shown in Figure 2-31. 0dB 1. 0dB 27% 60% 27% 27% The division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell is based on the MS downlink receiving level. 0dB 4. The theoretically added coverage of various typical stations with different combining modes is shown in Table 2-12.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Underlaid Overlaid Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-30 IUO coverage After the employment of the IUO cell. the cell coverage area can be greatly increased. Table 2-12 Coverage changes for typical sites after the employment of IUO cell Number of cell carrier frequencies Combining mode Loss of low loss carrier Loss of high loss carrier Added coverage area after the employment of IUO 3 4.5 4. downlink receiving quality and TA. 0dB 1.5 5. 5dB 4.6 CDU+CDU CDU+CDU+SCU CDU+CDU+CD U CDU+CDU+SCU 1. 0dB 4.

Therefore. Receiving Quality Thrsh. the SDCCH of UnderLaid subcell 2-91 . 1) Channel assignment technology of IUO cell This technology can adopt different assignment strategies in various channel assignment cases in fully consideration of features of IUO. The following are the main cases: a) Immediate assignment There is no reference receiving level. + RX_LEV Hysteresis and TA<TA Thrsh – TA Hysteresis and Receiving Quality < Receiving Quality Thrsh. can be adjusted through data configuration.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-31 Division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell in a IUO cell Note: The division foundation of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell is as follows: OverLaid subcell: Receiving Level>= RX_LEV Thrsh. In order to guarantee the service quality. and TA Thrsh. the boarders of UnderLaid subcell and OverLaid subcell can be adjusted flexibly to let OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell rationally share the traffic.. receiving quality and TA for immediate assignment. under the precondition of without affecting the network performance indexes. RX_LEV Thrsh. – RX_LEV Hysteresis or TA >=TA Thrsh + TA Hysteresis or Receiving Quality >= Receiving Quality Thrsh. UnderLaid subsell: Receiving Level < RX_LEV Thrsh.

receiving quality and TA of adjacent cells. Only when there is no signaling channel available in the UnderLaid subcell. the system selects the preferential UnderLaid subcell. b) Assignment The channel assignment strategy of IUO is used to assign channels. the handover will not be initiated. c) Intra-BSC handover Intra-BSC handover is applicable to the non-IUO handover and the handover from the OverLaid subcell directly to an adjacent cell. III. When the MS crosses the boundary between OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. If the object handover layer is congested. BSC can intelligently direct the traffic so as to utilize the frequency resource effectively." 2-92 . The UnderLaid subcell channel will be assigned when no OverLaid subcell channel is available. 2) IUO cell handover technology Huawei handover algorithm has the IUO handover judgement function to realize the ordinary IUO technology. or non-strategy mode through switch. Parameter Parameters in [Handover/ Concentric Cell Handover Table]: "Direction for IUO HO – UL to OL HO Allowed" "Direction for IUO HO – OL to UL HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – Rx_Lev for UO HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – Rx_Qual for UO HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – TA UO HO Allowed" "UO signal intensity difference " "RX_LEV Thrsh. Select the suitable service layer to serve the subscriber. the IUO handover can be initiated to enable the MS to setup a call at a suitable service layer. Similarly. With the IUO cell handover technology. d) Inter-BSC handover Being unable to get the receiving level. will the signaling channel in the OverLaid subcell be assigned. the UnderLaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the UnderLaid subcell coverage. Use the IUO channel assignment strategy to assign channels and select the suitable service layer to serve the MS. The OverLaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the OverLaid subcell coverage.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions is assigned preferentially. The OverLaid subcell channel will be assigned when no UnderLaid subcell channel is available. or preferential OverLaid subcell.

2." Parameters in [Handover/Cell Description Data]: "Cell Type" Parameters in [Site/Carrier Configuration Table]: "HW-IUO Property" 2. fine mobility. little effected by landform. Technical description Satellite communication is the development and the special form of microwave communication. it has the problems such as delay. the supplement and backup to conventional communication means. jitter.5 Satellite Transfer I. Meanwhile." "Incoming-to-BSC HO optimum layer" "Pref. the timer duration is prolonged and the value of slide window is increased to resist delay. Satellite communication features wide coverage. which leads to the Abis interface of ordinary GSM equipment not supporting satellite transfer. Huawei BSS adopts dedicated satellite transfer equipment to realize the satellite transfer of Abis interface according to the features of satellite transfer. 2-93 . The solution principle is described as follows: 1) LAPD protocol processing During the LAPD protocol process. and bit error." "TA Hysteresis" "IUO HO Watch Time" "IUO HO Valid Time" "Assign optimum layer" "Assign-optimum-level thrsh." "TA Thrsh. and flexible link calling.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions "RX_LEV Hysteresis" "Receiving Quality Thrsh. subcell in HO of intra-BSC " Parameters in [Handover/Penalty Data Table]: "Penalty time after IUO HO Fail.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) TRAU frame algorithm The adjustment algorithm of the TRAU frame is modified from fixed cycle adjustment to self-adaptive adjustment. However. Therefore. Satelite MSC Earth Station Earth Receiving E1 Station BTS BSC BTS SDH/PDH /HDSL/Microware /E1 BTS Earth Receiving E1 BTS Station Figure 2-32 Typical satellite transfer networking diagram Satellite communication is composed of satellite and ground station. BTS can only use the clock of DDN. The typical satellite transfer networking diagram is shown in Figure 2-32. TS31) and the time slot 0 of DDN circuit is used for the synchronization of DDN instead of transmitting service. which accuracy meets the requirement of GSM protocol. the transmission bit error of satellite circuit is less than 10E-8. 4) Voice quality When the transmission bit error is less than 10E-6. BTS adopts internal clock. which cannot satisfy the requirement of GSM protocol. the star networking mode is usually adopted. the accuracy of DDN clock is only 10E-7. Usually. the Voice quality is not affected. 2-94 . As the link lease is very expensive and the quality is particularly sensitive to environments. 3) BTS clock work mode The transmission between BSC and BTS can only occupy 19 time slots of DDN circuit (TS1~18. When the satellite transfer is used for networking. the solution of Abis interface transmission by using satellite transfer should be positioned for the special areas where the ordinary transmission means is dissatisfactory and for the emergency communication.

tower amplifier (optional). channel terminal equipment (modem). II. encompasses frequency diversity. and flexible application. In this technique. transmitter. which carry identical information but irrelevant random fading features. The subscriber data are connected to the ground station through the ground communication network to complete communication. The ground station of ordinary satellite communication is a kind of large-sized international or European standard communication station. and the duration of satellite rotation cycle is the same as that of the earth. including antenna. polarization diversity and space diversity. the flying direction is the same as the earth rotation. and expensive cost of equipment. The satellite consists of control system. The subscribers in VSAT system form a dedicated network to communicate through satellite respectively. the satellite communication adopts synchronous satellite. communication system (antenna and trunk equipment).6 Diversity Receiving I. Technical description In radio waves propagation. The ground station consists of antenna system. receiver. It has such features as high transmission rate. diversity technique is used. 1) Space diversity Space diversity is implemented by providing two sets of stand-alone receiving equipment concurrently. Parameter 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) “Transfer Mode ” in [Site\Site Description Table] “Immediate Assignment opt ” in [Cell\Cell Call Control Table] “MS MAX retrans ” in [Cell\System Information Table] “Tx-integer ” in [Cell\System Information Table] “CCCH_CONF ” in [Cell\System Information Table] 2. i. It is an effective approach to overcome fading. This mode is featured by its low cost of equipment. 6km from the earth surface. The two 2-95 .e. communication control system and power supply system. antenna of small caliber.2. fading (including slow fading and fast fading) may impact on the communication quality and may even interrupt the communication. telemetry system. antenna of large caliber.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Generally. The receiver is made up of two completely independent paths. time diversity. DMUX and receiver. the satellite is 35786. power supply system and temperature control system. feeder. The input signals of the two channels come from the master and diversity antennas. the system receives two or more input signals. To minimize these impacts and enhance the transmission quality. the satellite orbit plane is on the equator plane.

for a sector. 2) Time diversity Time diversity can be used to send the same message through a certain delay. and the incoming wave angle α. the wider spacing interval. This can realize the combination of antenna. If the duplexer is used. 4) Polarization diversity It can get a better diversity gain to set two sets of antenna to form a certain angle. Therefore. and divider. another path of received signals may vary in signal quality as they are from an irrelevant transmission path. the improvement depends on the ratio between the effective height of diversity antenna (he) and level interval (d). It lowers the impact of propagation factor to adopt diversity combining technology and make it output powerful useful signals. feeder.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions signals of space diversity receiving have different propagation environments and different kinds of fading so they have the feature of coherence or little coherence. Huawei BTS uses dual polarization antenna to realize polarization diversity. e. In the same BTS or cell. When the frontal signal (i. When the complicated radio transmission conditions result in deterioration in a path of the received signals. the signal coherence coefficient on two sets of antennas is the smallest one and the gain is the greatest one. Space diversity is the most effective and most common mode in the mobile communication. tower top amplifier (optional). α=0o) is received. the more different multipath propagation. so it is rarely used. the most powerful signals or combined signals with minimum fading can be selected through diversity combining technology. only one set of Tx antenna and one set of Rx antenna are needed. However. Interleaving technology is used to realize time diversity. The vertical interval has a poor performance of diversity. the two sets of antenna can be integrated as one set of antenna. 3) Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is realized through frequency hopping. if two sets of antennas with an interval of dozens of wavelength are used to receive the same signal. and the less relativity. demodulates and combines them. which value is related with adopted combing technology. The interval between antennas can be either vertical or horizontal. For the 2-96 . In the mobile communication. the coherence coefficient is the greatest one and the gain is the smallest one. Moreover. a better diversity can be achieved when the distance between 2 sets of antenna is greater than 10 wavelengths. The diversity gain can be used to indicate the improvement of space diversity. only one set of antenna integrated by Tx and Rx antennas is needed. The BTS receives two paths of signals: main and diversity signals. when the lateral signal (α=90o) is received. It has been proven that for the space diversity. This gives 3~5dB diversity gain. or send a part of message at different times within the allowed range of delay.

and totally there are twelve cells as frequency cluster. 2. it has the advantage of convenient antenna extension and saving hoist space and is increasedly used. According to the actual network circumstance and requirements. the system can adopt hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse and 1x3 multiplexing technology. the subscribers increase gradually. Different cells in the same cluster have different frequencies. For example BCCH adopts 4x3 multiplexing mode and TCH adopts 3x3 and 2x3 modes. Advanced aggressive frequency reuse technology 1) Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse supports that there can be several different frequencies multiplexing modes working simultaneously in the same GSM network. 2-97 . The comparison of adopting different aggressive frequency reuse is as shown in Table 2-13. The nature of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is a method of frequency planning. the contradict between short frequency resource and great demand is particularly obvious. Table 2-13 The maximum configuration under different bandwidths Frequency band 4x3 multiplexing Hierarchical multiplexing 1x3 multiplexing 6MHz 10MHz S(2/2/2) S(4/4/4) S(3/3/3) S(6/6/6) S(4/4/4) S(8/8/8) Note: S(4/4/4) indicates three synchronous cells with each carrier number being 4. 3 indicates three cells. Parameter The system needs no extra data configuration to realize the diversity receiving. 4 indicate four sites. Aggressive Frequency Reuse With the development of network.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions polarization diversity. the technology of aggressive frequency reuse should be used to improve the frequency utilization. It has no special requirements of software and hardware for equipment. II.2. II. while cells of other clusters reuse one certain group of frequency in these twelve frequency clusters. In 4x3 multiplexing.7 Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern I. In order to increase capacity.

However. 533.4. In the case of continuous packet. 12 frequencies are assigned for BCCH. 521. 535~561. TCH1. 524. 38 for TCH. 531. 527.36. Interval packet: The ARFCNs of frequencies assigned in the same layer have intervals. 530. 515. 529. 516. Provided that frequency range is 512~561. frequency hopping.. 519. 518. TCH2 and TCH3. b) Interval packet mode BCCH (12): 512. The frequency hopping can get the frequency diversity gain and interference diversity gain. 522. The principle of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is as shown in Figure 2-33. 526. Both these two packet modes have their advantages and disadvantage. (1. 523. 514.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse divides all available frequencies into several groups and each group serves as a carrier layer. The following examples illustrate these two packets. 534. 517.2. DTX and dynamic power control should be started to improve C/I thus to satisfy the requirement of C/I>12dB.37) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BCCH BCCH TCH1 TCH1 TCH2 TCH2 TCH3 MICRO Figure 2-33 Principle of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse After the hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is used. both same frequency and adjacent frequency 2-98 .. 525. TCH: 513.3. 532. a) Continuous packet mode BCCH (12): 512~523.. For example: the maximum configuration S (4/4/4) packet mode can be divided into: BCCH. There are two modes of carrier packet: Continuous packet: The ARFCNs of frequencies assigned in the same layer are continuous. totally 50 frequencies. the interference between BCCH carrier layer and TCH carrier layer is little. TCH (38): 524~561. 520. 528. The comparison is made as follows.

the above-mentioned interference between frequencies will take place thus the communication quality is not guaranteed. Under the condition of the same number of frequencies.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions interference should be considered as a restriction for the planning of BCCH layer. Then the requirement that the same frequency interference C/I is greater or equal to 12dB in GSM system is not guaranteed. the different frequencies have different interference situations. i. the continuous packet mode of BCCH carrier layer is more difficult than the interval packet mode. (In the system with frequency hopping adopted. The less frequencies in the layer. the planning of BCCH carrier layer is relatively easy since the same frequency interference is considered as a main restriction. This makes more 2-99 . The principle for different carrier layer multiplexing ratios: Assign frequency layer by layer. and realize aggressive frequency reuse layer by layer. The employment of interval packet mode can guarantees that there is no adjacent frequency interference between BCCHs. Meanwhile. therefore. discontinuous transmission. the planning of TCH layer after the planning of BCCH layer becomes difficult. Under the circumstance of non-uniform network sites. Moreover. BCCH layer can be easily modified without interference to TCH layer. for more consideration should be given to the restriction of adjacent frequency interference. If frequency hopping and other measures are not adopted. try to apply different multiplexing ratios for different layers. the less consideration can be given to the restriction of adjacent frequency interference. C/I value will be decreased due to the aggressive frequency reuse being adopted for each TCH layer. frequencies of any two cells in network are not completely the same. After multiple frequency multiplexing is realized. It should be noted that the purpose for different carrier layers using different multiplexing ratios is to avoid interference at most. though interference is increased. Moreover. the system must adopt measures such as frequency hopping. So the TRX of last layer or the most last layers can realize a higher aggressive frequency reuse ratio (even without the employment of frequency hopping). General principle: BCCH>TCH1>TCH2>TCH3 When multiple frequency multiplexing is adopted. Since the system tries to s are tried to use different multiplexing modes for each carrier layer. Therefore. there is no the real same frequency cell. Therefore. However. This is shown in the flowing aspects. the interference between BCCH and TCH layers is strong. and dynamic power control to minimize these kinds of interference. BCCH layer and TCH layer are quite independent and there is only one frequency between BCCH and TCH layers. the more serious interference. the TRX also increased. it is not the case for every cell to use the TRX of last layer or the most last layers. e. Frequency hopping can get the frequency diversity gain and interference diversity gain so as to avoid Rayleigh fading and same frequency interference.

63. 1x3 multiplexing uses the principle that the number of FH frequencies is greater than the number of carrier frequencies in the cell to avoid interference and to reduce same frequency collision probability. 49. Group 3: 31. 69. 70. So for each burst. 1x3 frequency multiplexing technology 1x3 frequency multiplexing technology is a kind of aggressive frequency reuse. 60. 33. And the collision probability is only related with the frequency utilization. 46. 52. its quality depends on C/I equalizing value. its quality depends on C/I equalizing value and the equalizing value is not fluctuated.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frequencies to participate in frequency hopping and the gain is increased. 4MHz. It has been proven that whether the C/I is good or not depends on same frequency collision probability after radio frequency hopping. 15 are assigned for BCCH carrier (the assignment on the frequency is continuous). Group 2: 30. 42. 1x3 frequency multiplexing has the advantage of high frequency efficiency. 68. 61. 58. C/I is changeable. 32. 56. 43. 41. 54. they will be mixed after frequency hopping is adopted. The following is a simple example to illustrate the principle of 1x3 frequency multiplexing. Among these 63 frequencies. 38. Provided that the maximum configuration site is S (8/8/8) in a certain area. 45. 1x3 frequency multiplexing mode is as shown in Figure 2-34. 71. there are many BTSs and the site is complicated. and easy assignment of frequency. 67. The system can still use the interfered frequencies according to the feature of decoder. In large cities. 53. 59. Meanwhile. 40. 12. 65. and there are totally 63 frequencies. 34. 73. 66. the available frequency band is 14. 75. For a specified connection. 48. The employment of 1x3 frequency planning method can greatly reduce workload and good performance can be achieved in the case of small multiplexing ratio. III. But for a specified connection. 37. If the frequency with weak interference and frequency with strong interference coexist in the same cell. and 48 TCH frequencies are left. 9 frequencies are reserved for micro-cellar. 57. 51. 74. 50. 47. HSN and MAIO should be carefully planned and the BTS should support radio frequency hopping. 36. 2-100 . 39. 55. 76. 72. 6MHz is left. 64. Then frequencies are divided into 3 groups (combiner hopping mode is adopted): Group 1: 29. 44. 35. 62. easy planning method.

When TCH multiplexing ratio is over 40% and the load is over 80%. DTX and power control. Carrier interference ratio when carrier has an offset of 400 kHz: C/I is greater than or equal to -38dB. over 50% and the load is over 60% or 70%. Applied conditions for aggressive frequency reuse To adopt aggressive frequency reuse to improve the frequency utilization and the network capacity. Currently.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-34 1x3 frequency multiplexing mode The frequency planning of 1x3 frequency multiplexing is easy and practical. The following introduces the effect on improvement of network same frequency C/I and adjacent frequency C/I by frequency hopping. Frequency hopping has two functions: frequency diversity and interference diversity. there is also requirement for network load. a series of anti-interference measures should be taken to reduce the same frequency and adjacent frequency interference caused by aggressive frequency reuse. as well as some disadvantages. For example: when sites are distributed irregularly and the landforms are greatly different. Adjacent frequency carrier interference ratio: C/I is greater than or equal to-6dB. frequency number of frequency hopping sequence number. the following measures are taken to improve the network anti-interference capability so as to satisfy the carrier interference ratio index: Frequency hopping. IV. in the network in which 1x3 planning is implemented. The frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping depends on propagation environment. the network quality will also be decreased rapidly. the collision probability will be greatly increase Moreover. the network quality will be decreased rapidly. MS speed. 2-101 . carrier interference ratio index (engineering value) is: Same frequency carrier interference ratio: C/I is greater than or equal to 12dB. for example. If the TCH multiplexing ratio is higher. According to the specifications.

no greater than 5.5 dB respectively. Each cell in a multiband network has frequencies from only one frequency band. 5. the interference diversity gain for a single frequency is 0 by default and is sent in the system information 2. Its gain is about 0~3dB.5dB for 9-frequency hopping.2. distribution and handover between GSM900 cell and GSM1800 cell. for the narrow band interference. When MS has a high. The function of interference diversity is shown on the equalization of interference.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions and the inter-frequency relativity. 7. the interference diversity gain for interfered frequency is 3. 5. MS speed. the electromagnetic wave of mobile communication consists of direct wave component and scattered wave component. Therefore. 4. The multiband network allows cell reselection. GSM multiband MS can communicate in either GSM900 frequency band or GSM1800 frequency band. the maximum gain for three-frequency hopping reaches 3. frequency number of frequency hopping sequence number. which is about 3~6dB.6 dB . and interval between frequencies are satisfied to achieve the maximum FP frequency gain. The maximum gain of frequency diversity is no greater than 6dB. it does not function apparently. Generally. the gain is obvious. frequency hopping has no function of frequency diversity. for the broadband interference. 2-102 . interference diversity functions apparently.8 Multiband Network I. The interference diversity capability of frequency hopping is related to interference distribution. When direct wave is in a dominant position. Overview The multiband network is a network combined GSM900 and GSM1800 In the multiband network. Generally. The application of multiband network is as shown in Figure 2-35. 3dB. when scattered wave in a dominant position.2 dB. It has been proven that when interference is distributed as narrow band and the number of FH frequencies is 3. For a typical environment in which propagation environment. On the contrary. It is no greater than 6dB. and the inter-frequency relativity. 6dB for four-frequency hopping. the frequency diversity of frequency hopping is not obvious.

it is required that in the multiband network the equipment should support the processing of MS Classmark. Classmark2 and Classmark3. The network carries out compatibility handling for various types of MSs through system information control. It also guides the MSs to access and handover correctly so that good services of the radio network can be guaranteed. and encryption capability. etc. processing of MS Classmark3. it is of utmost importance to correctly configure the parameters related with the multiband network operation at the stage of network commissioning. Since the important messages in Classmark3 are created specially for multiband applications. the BA (BCCH Allocation) list is a set of all the carrier channel numbers of adjacent cells of each cell. to absorb network traffic. the network can request the mobile station to report its Classmark3 immediately after creating a link by setting the parameter “Early Classmark Sending Control”. 2) BA list In the GSM system. In addition. 2-103 . Given below is a description of the technical principles governing the multiband network. 1) MS Classmark In the GSM system. II. MS Classmark represents the MS services.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GSM900 MSC BSC BSC BSC GSM1800 MSC BSC GSM900 Cell GSM1800 Cell Figure 2-35 GSM900/GSM1800 multiband network The multiband network can be used to utilize the abundant frequency resources in GSM1800 frequency band. supported bands. and to satisfy the increasing demand of network capacity. Huawei BSS supports ECSC. The network can interrogate the Classmark of MS and realize its capabilities. power. Technical description To guarantee the stable operation of multiband network. The Classmark of the mobile station falls into three categories: Classmark1.

5bis and 5ter can be either identical to or varied with that in the system information type 2. The radio network controls the MSs to access and handover correctly and guarantees good services. When an MS is in active mode. Phase 1 and Phase 2 1800 MSs and multiband MSs. This ensures compatibility with Phase 1 GSM900 MSs. 5bis or 5ter. 2bis and 2ter. The Phase 1 MS recognizes the bitmap format only. or even handover failure. They are transmitted via the system information type 2ter / 5ter. The number of adjacent cells on each BA list shall not exceed 32. The BA list shall be set in accordance with the network design requirements and the actual status of adjacent cells. it may impact the services provided by the network. In GSM900 system. the BA list in the system information type 5. Whereas the frequency channels of its GSM900 adjacent cells are placed in the system information type 2 / 5 and can be coded in the bitmap format. In accordance with the actual network status. 2bis or 2ter. this should be adjusted after the multiband system is employed. Huawei GSM system carries out thorough compatibility processing of Phase 1 and Phase 2 900 MSs. 3) Support of system Information for multiband network The network carries out compatibility handling of MSs of various classes through system information (type 2 / 2bis / 2ter and 5 / 5bis / 5ter). instead of from the system information type 2.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions BA defines the absolute channel numbers used by carrier of all adjacent frequency cell BCCHs. Otherwise. Coding can be done on one list without 2bis / 2ter / 5bis / 5ter when the bitmap format is used. The BA1 list is sent in system information type 2 for re-selection. and supports system information type 2 / 2bis / 2ter and 5 / 5bis / 5ter. It is transmitted in the system information 5. It is the system that informs MS the BA list through system information. The BA2 mainly contains the list of adjacent cells searched by the MSs in active mode. For the GSM900 cells. and used for cell re-selection in the idle mode. 2-104 . The BA2 list is sent in the system information type 5 for handover. 2bis and 2ter. there might be inappropriateness in handover or cell re-selection. the frequency channels are numbered from 1 to 124. the GSM1800 frequency channels on its adjacent cell list are for multiband MSs. 5bis or 5ter on the SACCH. However. Only a multiband MS supports the system information type 2ter / 5ter. and used for handover in active mode. It extracts the parameters of adjacent cells from the associated channel system information type 5. There are two types of BA list: The BA1 mainly contains the list of adjacent cells searched by the MSs in idle mode. which is used for cell selection and handover. In this case. It is transmitted periodically in the system information type 2.

When there is a multi-band network. therefore. Whereas the frequency channels of its GSM1800 adjacent cells are placed in the system information type 2/5.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions For the GSM1800 cells. it is required that the equipment should support the system information type 2ter/5ter. In the single-band GSM system. 2-105 . This function comes into beings for the multiband-networking situation. In case of single-band networking. when the MS reports the adjacent cell measurement results to the network. ECSC=0. power level should be correctly described. 4) ECSC (Early Classmark Sending Control) ECSC indicates whether MS is required to report the MS Classmark3 voluntarily and early. serves to notify the mobile station to report the multi-band adjacent messages. it is advisable to set this parameter to 0. MS will send the additional Classmark message to the network as early as possible. And the information in Classmark3 is for multiband application. transmitted through the system information type 2ter / 5ter. the recommended value of ECSC is 1 so that signaling flow can be reduced. For the multiband network. In case of multiband networking. The 900M frequency channels on the list of its adjacent cells are for multiband MSs. The sampling range of the ECSC is as follows: ECSC=1. 5) MBR (Multi-Band Report) MBR serves to help the network to notify the MS that the 6 adjacent cells reported must cover multiple bands. transmission required. transmission not required. For further details refer to the protocol 0408. transmitted respectively in the system information type 2 (or 5) and 2bis (or 5bis). On receipt of the Classmark change message. Classmark3 information includes the power messages of various frequency bands of multi-frequency MS. As they cannot be coded on one list. Therefore. it need only report the 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals in a band. It is essential to know the Classmark3 message when making a paging call or sending the BA2 list in different bands. the BA list needs to be split into two parts. The system parameter “Multi-band Report”. the operator will usually expect the MS to have the priority to enter a band in time of handover depending on the actual status of the network. In the handover between different frequency bands. The system information type 2bis (5bis) is for single-band M1800 MSs and multiband MSs only. the MS is expected to report the measurement results based not only on the level of the signals but also on the band of the signals. they are handled in a similar way. The parameter ECSC is transmitted in system information type 3.

the network can request the multiband MSs to send the MR about the adjacent 1800MHz cells by setting the MBR value. MBR is represented in decimal digits. regardless of which band the cells are in. Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions In the multiband network. MS shall report the measurement results of an adjacent cell in each band with strongest signals. The MS shall report the measurement results of two adjacent cells in each band with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. C2 = C1). Y indicates that MS should extract parameters from broadcasting of system information in cell to work out C2 value and use the value to serve as the standard of cell reselection. This will affect the absorption of traffic by the GSM1800 network. Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report. regardless of which band they are in. 1 2 3 6) PI (Cell Reselection Parameter Index) PI is used to notify MS whether to adopt C2 as cell reselection parameter and to calculate whether the parameter of C2 exist. Its implication is shown in Table 2-14. If there is still space left. which are known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. with the ranges from 0 to 3. it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. Table 2-14 MBR implication MBR Implication 0 MS shall report the measurement results of 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC depending on the signal level of the cells. the following situation often occurs because the propagation loss in the 1800 MHz band is larger than that of the 900MHz band: among the 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals as reported by MSs. If there is still space left. the MSs can report the messages of the adjacent cells of different bands as required when submitting the MRs of 6 best adjacent cells. none of them is a GSM 1800 cell. N indicates that MS should use C1 to serve as cell reselection standard (i. PI is set as Y in multiband network. e. Generally. Value range of PI: Y or N. regardless of which band they are in. 2-106 . Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report. In this case. The mobile station shall report the measurement results of three adjacent cells in each band with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. If there is still space left. By setting different values for MBR. regardless of which band they are in.

it first needs to select cell so that to confirm its serving cell. the cell with maximum C1 value is first selected. Different traffic control methods are used for different MS states. When MS turns on. the system guides the traffic absorption by controlling the process of MS cell selection and cell reselection.0 ) RxLEV Access MIN range: 0~63. GSM1800 cell can have higher priority or better adjacent cell measurement comparison value through the configuration of system parameters. 1) Cell Selection and Cell Reselection In idle mode. Traffic guide strategy in multiband network In the multiband networking. In connected state. The value of higher level is 2dB greater than that of lower level. In this way. C1 value is calculated as follows: C1 = RxLEV − RxLEV _ Access _ MIN − MAX ((MS _ TxPWR _ MAX _ CCH − P ). 0 is corresponding with -110dBm. directed retry. Realize the continuous coverage of GSM1800 network in hot spot areas. The following describes in detail the cell selection. the traffic distribution can be adjusted by directed retry. for the cells with the same priorities. 1 is corresponding to 41dBm. try to let GSM1800 cells absorb multiband subscribers. the multiband traffic handover can be used to make traffic load more rational. The following principles should be followed. In the early stage of multiband network construction. the subscriber is more likely to wait at GSM1800 before a call connection. 2-107 . So when the subscriber turns on the mobile to select cell in idle mode or reselects cell in standby state. The carrier can realize different traffic control strategy through real-time adjustment of related parameters. 63 is corresponding with -47dBm. MS TxPWR MAX CCH value range: GSM900: 0~19 available.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. try to connect as much as possible traffic to high level GSM1800 cells in lower layers through cell hierarchy and specifying different hierarchical cell structures (HCS). cell reselection. When the number of multiband subscribers reaches a certain level. one of the most important purposes is to try to let GSM1800 network absorb or share traffic so as to satisfy the increasing requirement of network capacity and quality. use different bands to share traffic thus to reduce handover and provide better service. cell hierarchy and specifying HCS. 0 is corresponding to 43dBm. and multiband handover. The C1 value of selected cell should be greater than zero. Principle of cell selection: cells allowing to be accessed and cells with high priority are first selected. GSM1800 cell can be more likely to be the serving cell for multiband subscribers. during the connection of MS call.

TO value can be 0. Step is 2dB. owing to the strong fading of signals in GSM1800 frequency band. The signals in GSM1800 cell are generally weaker than that in GSM900 cell. 1. 1 is corresponding to 28dBm. To enable the multiband MS to select GSM1800 cell preferentially. and 30=620s respectively. and. C2 depends on the following factors: C2=C1+CRO-TO×H(PT-T) (PT<31) C2=C1-CRO (PT=31) Where. The parameter that decides cell reselection is C2. 31. 1. MS reselection principle is to select the cell with maximum C2 value as the serving cell. 1=2dB. CBA=0. 1=10dB. After MS completes cell selection. the cell selection priority can be controlled by setting value of cell bar qualify (CBQ) and cell bar access (CBA). 6=60dB. GSM1800 cell can be set as Normal and GSM900 cell as Low. 7=infinite respectively. ↑ 63 with grade as unit. which are corresponding to 0=0dB. 1. Table 2-15 Cell selection/reselection hierarchy Case CBQ CBA Cell selection Cell reselection 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Normal Barred Low Low Normal Barred Normal Normal When selecting cell. the value Cell Reselection Offset (CRO) decides the difficulty of cell reselection and Temporary Offset (TO) functions within penalty time (PT). In the multiband network. it should reselect cell in standby state in order to select a better serving cell. GSM900 cell is set as CBQ=1. 0 is corresponding to 30dBm. which are corresponding to 0=20s.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GSM1800: 0~15 available. CBA=0 and GSM1800 is set as CBQ=0. This enables GSM1800 cell to have a higher priority. signals in GSM900 frequency band is stronger. In order to enable MS can be accessed to GSM1800 system. and 7. CRO value can be 0. 63=126dB respectively. PT value can be 0. which are corresponding to 0=0dB. H ( ) = 0 if PT-T<0 H ( ) = 1 if PT-T>0 2-108 . 1=40s.

connection. GSM1800 cell can still be reselected for MS by setting parameters.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions C1 indicates the quality of radio channel. 2-109 . these parameters can be used to make MS establish calls in GSM1800 network so as to share the load of GSM900 network. Therefore. directed retry can be used to assign TCH of adjacent cells for MS from SDCCH thus to guarantee the successful connection. However. such as CRO. it is found that the TCH of this cell is full. So the C2 value can be calculated according to CRO. and PT so as to confirm the cell reselected for MS. The greater C1 value. under the precondition that network quality is guaranteed. traffic between frequency bands can be distributed rationally through abundant Huawei multiband handover This is the core of multiband traffic guide and control strategy. the better quality of channel. Huawei hierarchy handover algorithm divides a cell into 4 layers each layer with 16 levels. the traffic is shared. Parameters of cell selection and reselection can be flexibly used to control MS to select GSM1800 network as required in network planning. This meets the need of complicated networking circumstances. control of some signaling and it is time to for SDCCH to assign TCH so as to connect the speech channel of both parties. That is to say. 2) Directed retry Provided that the process to initiate a call by an MS has completed switching. At the same time. 3) Layers and levels of network Under the connected state. The cell layers and levels are as shown in Figure 2-36. C2 value of GSM1800 cell can be greater than that of GSM900 cell by setting parameters that can affect C2 value. though signals in GSM1800 cell are weaker that of GSM900 cell. In this case. C2 value of each cell can be adjusted through CRO value. The design concept of this hierarchy has fully considered the collaboration with the current network equipment and the requirement of future network development. TO. C2 is corrected manually.

The middle layer consists of GSM900 macro cells. the layer should combine with level division. This layer is the main target for capacity expansion so as to solve the problem of short resource of frequencies. the cell in lower layer has a higher priority. IV. to make network planning and optimization more detailed and more flexible. which is generally is a GSM900 cell with wide coverage. e. electromagnetic diffraction of GSM1800 is poorer that than of GSM900. It has two functions: covering and quick connection of MS. For the description of handover. which is to meet the requirements of hot spot and blind spot areas. These are the main cells of the system and most of subscribers gather in this layer. each layer should be divided into several levels. The high layer is the fourth layer. Features of GSM1800 1) Propagation characteristics of GSM1800 The working frequency of GSM1800 is two times as that of GSM900.3. i. Moreover. umbrella-like cellular. 2) GSM1800 coverage requirements 2-110 . The propagation loss inside buildings is 5~17dB higher (it varies from material to material). The fast fading of GSM1800 is a disadvantage to realize the fine coverage of GSM1800 and the condition of GSM1800 coverage is directly related with the performance of network. The followed layer consists of GSM1800 micro cells with small coverage.6 . The bottom layer consists of GSM1800 Pico cells. Each layer of these four layers is divided into 16 priorities. For the priority. Considering the future network development.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Umbrella Cell Chapter 2 BSS Functions Layer 4 GSM 900 GSM900 Cell GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM 1800 Cell GSM 1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Layer 2 GSM900 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 Micro Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 Layer 1 Figure 2-36 Cell layers and levels The GSM system covering the same area is divided into 4 layers. According to COST-231 model and practical experience. that is to say. please refer to 2. the propagation loss of GSM1800 inside stadia is 6dB greater than that of GSM900 and the propagation loss of GSM1800 outside stadia is 10dB greater than that of GSM900.

c) Scattered coverage of hot spot areas This coverage mode has the following disadvantages: the traffic absorption of GSM1800 is low and there are frequent multiband handovers. scattered coverage of hot spot areas. the frequency planning and network optimization is easy to be realized and the traffic distribution is easy to be controlled. The disadvantage is that the investment is large and it is hard to select sites in one time. The advantage is that the site in highly intense areas can be gradual constructed so as to save the investment. it is hard to plan frequencies and optimize network due to the irregular distribution of GSM1800 BTSs. besides the installation of GSM1800 equipment on the site of original GSM900 site. strict requirement for locating traffic hot spot. if capacity expansion is needed. a) Fine continuous coverage This coverage mode has the following advantages: GSM1800 is easy to absorb traffic and has less handovers and high quality of operation. the new sites should be installed in proper places. which penetration loss is very great. continuous coverage of hot spot areas. In the city with buildings in reinforced concrete structure. 3) GSM1800 coverage mode There are three coverage modes for GSM1800 network in multiband network: Fine continuous coverage. the distance between BTSs in the city should not exceed 1000m. 2-111 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions a) Outdoor coverage The outdoor coverage can be easily realized if the distance between sites is not too far. The construction and maintenance is complicated. The advantage is that the initial investment is small. it is hard to plan frequencies and optimize network due to the irregular distribution of GSM1800 BTSs. after sites are constructed. strict requirement for locating traffic hot spot. b) Continuous coverage of hot spot areas This coverage mode has the following disadvantages: the traffic absorption of GSM1800 is limited and there are frequent multiband handovers. so it is recommended that the distance between BTSs should be 500~800m. If necessary. The construction and maintenance is complicated. and it is convenient to be constructed and maintained. it is only needs to configure carrier instead of constructing new sites. b) Indoor coverage In order to guarantee the fine indoor coverage of GSM1800.

Convenient to manage the whole network and develop new services. Introduce competition so as to lower equipment investment and improve quality of service. In addition. In a long-term view. thus the load of signaling link is increased. 1) Standalone MSC networking Standalone MSC networking refers to that GSM900 and GSM1800 use different MSCs for networking respectively. as shown in Figure 2-38. The initial investment of network is relative large but the investment for each subscriber is the smallest. the standalone MSC networking has the problem of collaboration of equipment of different providers. the former two modes are called standalone networking and shared BSC network is also known as mixed networking. 2-112 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions V. shared MSC/standalone BSC networking. as shown in Figure 2-37. clear network data configuration. 2) Shared MSC / standalone BSC networking Shared MSC / standalone BSC network refers to GSM900 and GSM1800 network adopts the same MSC and different BSCs for networking. Besides the above features. In general. and shared BSC. the standalone MSC networking increases the inter-office handovers and position updates. and easy to construct. Satisfy the requirement of long-term capacity expansion. Multiband networking modes There are three modes for multiband networking: standalone MSC networking. it is better than mixed networking. BTS MS BTS OMC SMC BTS MS BTS BSC M S C /V L R H L R /A U C BSC M S C /V L R E IR G SM 900 G SM 1800 Figure 2-37 Standalone MSC networking mode The standalone MSC networking has the following features: No impact on original network Clear network planning.

It is hard to expand its capacity. It needs to plan NSS again and it is hard to be constructed. As network develops. construction and maintenance might become difficult. BSC has backup function so the network security is good. Introduce competition so as to lower equipment investment and improve quality of service. BTS MS BTS BTS BSC OMC MSC/VLR SMC BTS MS BTS BTS GSM900 GSM1800 BTS GSM1800/GSM900 BSC HLR/AUC EIR Figure 2-39 Shared BSC networking mode Shared BSC networking has the following features: 2-113 . as shown in Figure 2-39. The initial investment of network is relative small and the investment for each subscriber is small.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions BTS MS BTS OMC MSC/VLR SMC BTS MS BTS BSC HLR/AUC EIR BSC GSM900 GSM1800 Figure 2-38 Shared MSC/standalone BSC networking Shared MSC/standalone BSC networking has the following features: It has impact on the original network. 3) Shared BSC networking Shared BSC networking refers to that BTSs of GSM900 and GSM1800 access the same BSC or multiband mixed BTS accesses BSC.

etc. Development of new services is restricted. only BCCH TRX aiding will occur. II. the cell can handle it automatically through the TRX aiding function. 2) Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding In the baseband frequency hopping cell. For the baseband frequency hopping cell. the conversations on this frequency hopping channel will lose some voice 2-114 . The broadcast information includes cell selection information.2. BSC sends the generic broadcast message to BTS. and BTS broadcasts it on BCCH. Overview In case of BCCH TRX failure or baseband frequency hopping TRX failure. all services of this cell will be interrupted. the cell can continue to provide the services. cell identification code. 2. It needs to plan NSS and BSS again so the construction is difficult. construction and maintenance might become difficult. Thus. the cell services can not be affected before the failed TRX is replaced. Technical description TRX aiding contains BCCH TRX aiding and baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. another available TRX of the cell can substitute for the TRX that BCCH is originally on. Thus. in case of BCCH TRX failure. When BCCH TRX of a cell is failed. location. It cannot introduce competition thus it is hard to lower the cost and to improve service.9 Carrier Mutual-assistance I. The initial investment of network is the smallest and the investment for each subscriber is the largest. For the non-baseband frequency hopping cell. This is the function of BCCH TRX aiding. access control information. system parameters of packet service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions It might impact on original network greatly. As network develops. if a TRX participating in frequency hopping is failed. BCCH can be recovered (or. MS needs to know some information about the infrastructure of the network. both BCCH TRX aiding and baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding may occur. After the fault of TRX that BCCH is originally on is removed. changed back) onto this TRX. In order to ensure the cell services not to be affected. especially when BSC has a small capacity. BCCH is a low-capacity channel and can send a message of 23 bytes every 0. private channel control information.235s. It is hard to expand its capacity. 1) BCCH TRX aiding In the idle state. adjacent cell information.

Correspondingly. there will be corresponding alarms reported (all are event alarms): 198: BCCH TRX aiding alarm. This is the function of baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. 199: BCCH TRX aiding recovery alarm. the communication quality will be decreased. the failure of a TRX will not affect the communication quality of the entire cell. BSC will start the TRX aiding function. 200: Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding alarm. Thus. this cell can be restored to the frequency hopping mode. In order to ensure the communication quality.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frames. When the fault is removed. 2-115 . When TRX aiding or TRX aiding recovery occurs. 201: Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding recovery alarm. It will automatically change the cell to the non-frequency-hopping mode. in case of baseband frequency hopping TRX failure.

only when the faults of all TRXs participating in frequency hopping and the original BCCH TRX are removed. the cell will be initialized again.06. However. Parameters The TRX aiding function only uses a parameter for controlling. the involved TRXs are all TRXs in the entire cell. it can be recovered immediately. TRX recovery is forbidden. Recover When Check Res (default value of the field). this limitation is canceled. After the fault TRX is restored. can the baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding recovery occur. For BCCH TRX aiding. the involved TRXs contain the current BCCH TRX and TRX to be aided. When TRX aiding or TRX aiding recovery occurs.06. 2-116 . From the version of G3BSC32. the dynamic adjustment channel on the TRXs involved in TRX aiding will be restored to the channel type configured originally. In addition. III. as shown in Table 2-16. the cell is changed to the non-frequncy-hopping mode. TRX aiding is not allowed. it will not be recovered immediately but recovered during resource check at 3:00 am. TRX aiding is allowed. After the fault TRX is restored. That is.1120A. Recover Forbidden TRX Aiding Function Control Allowed.1120A. TRX aiding is allowed. For baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. full-rate/half-rate dynamic adjustment or PDCH channel dynamic adjustment occurred in the cell. baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding will also occur. the TRX aiding function cannot be used together with the baseband timeslot frequency hopping function. after the fault TRX is restored. the TRX aiding function is closed. the cell is restored to the frequency hopping mode. In the previous BSC versions of G3BSC32. except for BCCH TRX aiding. Table 2-16 Description of parameter of Cell Configuration Date Table Parameter Value range Description TRX Aiding Not Allowed Allowed. The parameter is configured in [Cell Configuration Data Table].Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: If BCCH TRX in a baseband frequency hopping cell is failed.10100. Recover Immediately Allowed. That is. TRX aiding is allowed.10100. If such adjustment as SDCCH dynamic adjustment. These two functions can be used at the same time. That is.

adding the new message to the short message database..2.10 Cell Broadcast I. i. even the entire PLMN area. If old message can not be deleted then the new message will not be added.. Overview Cell broadcast is a specific service of the GSM system. The MS supporting this service can monitor this broadcast information continuously and this information can be displayed on the MS terminals. or deletes the older message before adding a new message after the reception of replacing message. On the reception of new command it deletes the older one. Cell broadcast functions 1) Receiving and storing of short messages CDB receives and stores the short message from CBC. These areas may be one or several cells. broadcast information to all mobile stations in a specific area periodically. There are three kinds of commands to broadcast short messages sent from the CBC: send a new broadcast short message. WAN Remote connection LAN connection LAN CDB GMEM GMEM . delete an outdated message or a message that meet specified requirements. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) allows short message to be broadcast to all mobile stations in certain areas. The short message from Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) is sent to BSC. and BSC will manage and dispatch the message. GMEM GMEM . The typical examples of cell broadcast are to broadcast traffic information and weather forecast.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. e.. BTS CBC OMC CBC BSC BTS CDB BTS BSC Figure 2-40 Cell broadcast system architecture II.. The architecture of cell broadcast system is as shown in Figure 2-40. 2) Dispatching and transmitting of short messages 2-117 . and replace an old message with a new one. and send the received message to BTS.. CDB handles these three cases respectively and updates the memory of short messages. which can control the flow of short message broadcast.

CDB will record the completion message. MS ignores the message from other paging sub-channel or even shuts down the power of some hardware to lower its power consumption during the broadcasting of other paging sub-channels. In the meantime. It can adjust and optimize the system to ensure satisfactory running. But MS must measure the network messages task periodically. it will send a command to delete or replace this message from CDB to reduce its load. Cell broadcast features 1) Supporting MS DRX mode If MS in idle mode has selected its serving cell. each subscriber (IMSI) corresponds to a dedicated paging group and each group corresponds to a paging sub-channel of the cell. MS recognizes its paging group and the corresponding paging sub-channel according to the last three digits of the IMSI and PCH allocation on service cell. MS in idle mode uses its own paging sub-channel to receive the paging message (or to monitor the receiving level of the BCCH carrier of the non-serving cell). 2) Supporting traffic control for BTS 2-118 . 3) Responding to the query of cell broadcast centre While storing and transmitting short messages. which correspond to one or more cells. BSC should send each message to the specific area according to its transmit requirements. One dispatch message contains the information of the short messages to be sent one after another in a cell. III. Mobile subscriber can read concerned short message in less time by reading dispatch message. Dispatch message contains the descriptions of each short message to be broadcast according to the transmit sequence. BSC should calculate the transmitting time sequence according to specific message dispatch algorithm. The cycle occupied by short messages in one dispatch message is called dispatch cycle. thus minimizing power consumption. When a cell requests multiple short message. When fault occurs in cell. every message has its own transmission requirements. CDB will report it to CBC. which will stop sending short messages to this cell. e. message load conditions of each cell and the broadcast channel state of each cell. When CBC identifies that a specific broadcast message is been sent. the number sent by each cell. the transmit times and frequencies are different. i. The BSC supporting DRX mode needs to send scheduling messages to satisfy the requirement of the discontinuous receiving by MS. CBC can keep track of the current system running state by querying and monitoring the cell broadcast system.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Every short message should be broadcast in specific areas. i. e. the GSM specification adopts the discontinuous receiving mechanism (DRX). and indicates the message position in dispatch cycle. To lower the power consumption of MS. it is ready to monitor the paging message from this cell. and send these messages to BTS in turn according to the assigned sequence.

BSC will temporarily stop sending short messages of this TRX. there will be an asynchronous state of sending short messages between BSC and BTS. EA refers to the allocation of TCH after the initial allocation of SDCCH. history record. the VEA is used for some special calls. Channel interference directly determines such critical traffic statistic indices as the quality of communication completion ratio and call drop rate on the channel. It is the 2-119 . MS transmitted power. For example. and based on the specific call event and environment. If a TRX barely receives short messages. During channel allocation in the BSC. Handover: Due to the subscriber mobility or the change in the interference level. configuration. but if need to transfer speech or data. paging response. MS has been allocated SDCCH. the EA technique is used. 1) Radio channel allocation requirements Radio channel allocation is based on the following requirements: Initial channel allocation: An idle MS enters active mode during MOC. CDB can schedule the balance of the broadcast system of the whole cell. By sending broadcast messages to BTS to control traffic. 2. etc. For the dedicated channel allocation management of the BSC system. BTS will report this asynchronous state to BSC in the form of load indication message. load distribution. Each TRX maintains one message buffer and sends short message periodically to MS through specific channel. which can effectively improve channel utilization efficiency. For common calls. VEA refers to the allocation of TCH at initial stage. 2) Radio channel allocation algorithm BSC channel allocation algorithm selects the channel for allocation by considering channel interference. BSC will send out some short messages so that the time sequence for sending short message in this cell will be met. If a specific TRX receives too many short messages and can not send them in time. In this case. or location updating.2. Connection allocation: The channels allocated can not meet the requirements.. it is necessary to hand the MS call to another channel. Thus the requirement of sending broadcast messages is satisfied as much as possible.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Transmit sequence of short messages in each cell is dispatched by BSC and transmitted by BTS. VEA (Very Early Allocation) and EA (Early Allocation) are used in a combined manner as an allocation strategy.11 Radio Channel Allocation BSC is responsible for the allocation of circuit channel and PCU for the allocation of packet data channel. Thus.

then some frequency bands in the frequency-hopping group of the original channel may have suffered severe interference. The channel allocation algorithm based on channel configuration is based on the following factors: whether the carrier of the channel is that of BCCH. The call with better receiving level can be allocated with a channel having severer interference. whether the channel use frequency hopping. The first is that for a high-level call or user. the allocation of new channel may select the carrier and frequency hopping group that are different from those of the original channel. and it needs to verify whether the cause of seizure failure and that of call drop lies in the radio channel itself. Proper frequency allocation based on channel configuration helps to reduce the interference of network. The measurable interference includes uplink interference of the idle channel and the uplink / downlink interference of the occupied channels. intra-cell handover is mainly caused by the quality problem of the speech channel. There are also special allocation methods for specific call events such as intra-cell handover and IUO handover. Such history records can provide reliable facts for the current channel allocation. it also helps to avoid the risk caused by calls being concentrated on a few carriers. In case of initial allocation. If the original channel frequency hops. no queuing takes place because an MS will resend the channel request. 3) Queuing Channel allocation algorithm used in the BSC supports queuing. The history record includes the channel seizure success or failure and call drops. For example. It can reduce adjacent-channel interference and same frequency interference. which indicates that the carrier where the original channel is located has suffered interference. In case of intra-cell handover. On the other hand. The channel allocation algorithm based on channel history record is characterized by the memory function. and the number of frequency in the frequency hopping group. The channel with lower interference is reserved for the call of poorer receiving level and thus the call completion ratio and communication quality can be improved. the MSC may have an interference limit for channel allocation. and improve the quality of network. The second is the specific call environment in which the maximum transmitting power capacity of MS and path loss are considered. But there are two special cases. 2-120 . The rule for the interference-based channel allocation algorithm is to select the channel of lower interference for allocation.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions most important factor to be considered during the channel allocation. The channel allocation algorithm based on load balancing is characterized by even distribution of the carrier frequencies. the frequency reuse distance of the TRX. The channel with interference higher than this limit can not be allocated. Time Slots (TS) and sub-TSs during the channel allocation.

then the M900/M1800 BSC will queue the allocation requests. the current traffic distribution and statistical data about handover. If SDCCH allows dynamic allocation and satisfy the following conditions: When number of SDCCHs is less than or equal to idle SDCCH threshold. b) Advantages It's not necessary to work out the exact number of SDCCH in advance after implementing SDCCH dynamic allocation. channel allocation can be carried out according to the preset priority levels. which improves the call success rate. that is. 2-121 . 5) Dynamic allocation of SDCCH a) Purpose The objective of SDCCH dynamic allocation is to optimize the usage of traffic channels and signaling channels. reduce the occurrence of congestion on the SDCCH. There may be the case that the number of users in a cell suddenly increases. In this case. minimum time for TCH recovery. The disadvantage of SDCCH dynamic allocation is increased intra-cell handover traffic. The following should be configured in the data management console: dynamic/static allocation of SDCCH. which is being used by a user of lower priority. SDCCH dynamic allocation increases the system capacity and improves the call completion ratio. etc. It can be overlooked on account of its advantages. If no allocable radio channel is available and queuing is allowed. Try to allocate traffic channel with the allowed period of time so as to reduce the subscriber’s wait time. and many users can not access the network just because they fail to request the SDCCH. idle SDCCH threshold. 4) Allocation by priority The channel allocation algorithm in the M900/M1800 BSC supports different priority levels. In some cases. that is. where the MSC decides if queuing is allowed in the allocation request or handover request. c) Approach SDCCHs are allocated with the cell as a unit. the request of higher priority can be forcibly implemented and can occupy the channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Queuing is mainly applied to connection allocation and handover. The number of SDCCHs required is based on the traffic model. An increase of short message service will lead to the increase of requirement for the SDCCHs. and lower the impact of the initial configuration of the SDCCH on the system performance. which makes the prediction of the SDCCHs requirement very difficult. and maximum number of cell SDCCHs. TCHs have to be converted into SDCCHs so as to ensure that most of the users can access the network and communication can be implemented through directed retry function.

then 1 is added to the counter value. the following two items should be configured: Idle TCH threshold N1. The system will automatically select a TCH and turn it into SDCCH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions And number of existing SDCCHs in the cell is less than the maximum number of SDCCHs. Number of idle TCHs is greater than 4 or greater than the number of configuration carriers. Set a Count for each cell with initial value being 0. if TCHs are insufficient. i. According to the protocol. then 1 is subtracted from the counter value. if the number of the current idle TCHs is less than or equal to N1. . Static PDCHs are used for packet service only. e. When there are many idle SDCCHs. then the BSC requests dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. the dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. If the number of the current channels is greater than N1. application TCH decision period T (minute). the BSC can request dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. b) Approach The dynamic PDCH control is based on cell. If any change takes place to the current type of a dynamic PDCH. following channel combinations are provided. two types of channels are introduced. the PCU will apply for dynamic PDCHs from the BSC. the SDCCH channels are dynamically converted into TCHs. BSC delivers configuration command to BTS to configure this TCH as SDCCH and update the channel list of internal BSC. If the counter value is less than -T/2 after adjustment. When the PCU is granted with the control authority. Dynamic PDCH is initialized as a TCH and controlled by BSC. dynamic PDCHs are used for packet service. it is necessary to issue a configuration command to the BTS so as to configure this channel as the current type and update the channel list in the BSC. PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PBCCH+PCCCH Huawei BSS supports the first three combinations. When the BSC is in control. Count value ranges -T~T. When the static PDCHs are not sufficient. At the same time. static PDCHs and dynamic PDCHs. After the BSC acquires the control power. 6) Dynamic allocation of PDCH a) Introduction To support GPRS service. c) Note: 2-122 . dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. On the contrary. Adjust Count every one minute.

The operator may enable the corresponding software parameter switch (see "Parameter") to enable the BSC to support the half rate data services.2. However. The hardware provides a more advanced speech coding/decoding algorithm to make the speech QoS on a half rate channel close to that on a full rate channel. It selects the latest one among the speech versions (if so) in the intersection.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions It is difficult to predict the packet traffic of the cell. the contents of some signaling messages may change because a different channel type is selected. Since the BSS system can provide more TCHs.12 Half Rate I. a half rate channel can be assigned via the immediate assignment procedure. a multi-module BSC takes into consideration the speech version the MSC allows. the rate type of the current channel. This raises the call proceeding rate. the BSC does not support half rate data services by default. This makes the BSS capacity almost doubled. Due to the FTC capability limitation. The PCU will automatically release the dynamic PDCH when the number of idle PDCH is enough. II. Function Description Increasing BSS capacity. A 2-123 . a TRX can provide a maximum of 16 half rate traffic channels (TCHs) and can simultaneously support a maximum of 16 MSs. Raising call proceeding rate. Then the BSC fetches the intersection of the above four sets. The introduction of dynamic PDCH can improve the utilization of the channels. With the half rate function. For selecting a speech version. The BSC always select the first data rate the MSC allows. 2. With the half rate function. there is no need to worry about channel congestion even though the TCH is assigned during the immediate assignment procedure. Channel allocation follows the principle that circuit switching service being preferred to packet switching service. The BSC deals with the same call signaling procedures as before after the half rate function is performed. The BSC shall select a speech version (in the case of speech transmission) or data rate (in the case of data transmission) for the current call after allocating a TCH. Technical Description 1) Call procedure The fundamental principle of the half rate function is that two logical half rate TCHs are multiplexed in a timeslot of a physical TDMA frame as two logical channels. For example. the speech version supported by the circuit pool of the A interface circuit of the current call and the capability of the FTC bearing the current circuit. that BSC allocates a half rate TCH to MS may be reported to the MSC in an Assignment Complete or Handover Complete message.

table] "Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. Therefore. only a channel at a fully matched rate can be allocated. This lessens the possibility of TCH congestion and makes it no longer a problem that the initially configured full rate TCHs and half rate TCHs cannot satisfy the actual traffic requirement. table]. the A interface circuit configuration in a single-module BSC should comply with the principle that the speech version set supported by the circuit pool should be a subset of that supported by the FTC. When the requested channel type is "Select half rate channel priority ". The dynamic switchover between a full rate TCH and a half rate TCH makes it possible to optimize the TCH configuration according to the current capacity situation on the existing resource basis. III. In practice. This rigid channel allocation as per MSC's rate assignment is difficult to get the system capacity and speech QoS into the optimum status. table] "MIN Recovery Time of TCH/H (s)" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. a full rate TCH is preferred when the number of idle full rate TCHs > Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori in the current cell and a half rate TCH is preferred when the number of idle full rate TCHs ≤ Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori in the current cell. 3) BSC channel rate selection policy When the requested channel type is" Only select full rate channel " or " Only select half rate channel ". a half rate TCH shall be allocated if other conditions are satisfied and there is a half rate TCH in the cell. only a channel at a fully matched rate can be allocated. table] 2-124 . To break down this limitation. This is the basic principle of BSC channel rate selection. "TCH Rate Adjust Traffic Thrsh" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. The single-module BSC does not take the capability of the FTC bearing the A interface circuit into consideration. 2) MSC channel rate selection policy When the requested channel type is "Only select full rate channel" or "Only select half rate channel ". The MSC channel rate selection policy is still provided in order that the A interface interconnection test may prove that channel allocation can be implemented as per MSC's assignment. Parameter 1) Channel Management Parameter "TCH Rate Adjust Allowed" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. When the requested channel type is " Select full rate channel priority " or " Select half rate channel priority ". When the requested channel type is "Select full rate channel priority". Huawei introduces a BSC channel rate selection policy.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions single-module BSC differs from a multi-module BSC in speech version selection. a full rate TCH is preferred to guarantee the speech QoS if there are many idle full rate TCHs and a half rate TCH is preferred to guarantee the system capacity if there are few full rate TCHs. a full rate TCH shall be allocated if other conditions are satisfied and there is a full rate TCH in the cell.

group table]. All the sites work in the forward ring normally. "BIE networking configuration" in [Local Office\Site BIE config. Since the 34BIE applies a different exchange mode from before. connection table] "Trunk circuit No. the sites before the breakpoint still work in the forward ring while those after the breakpoint are reinitialized and begin to work in the reverse ring.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) Networking Parameter The 34BIE has to be used to support the half rate function. 2-125 . connection table] is added to support semi-perm. A [BSC BIE semi-perm.2. table].1 ~ Belong to BIE group No. "Connection mode" in [Local Office\BSC BIE description table]. "BSC BIE E1Timeslot No "in [Local Office\LAPD semi-perm. It includes the following fields: "Module No. "BSC BIE Port No " in [Local Office\Radio channel config. connection table]. connection table] 2.8" in [Site\Site description table]. connection table]. "Site ID 1 ~ Site ID 30" in [Local Office\BSC BIE active/stby. Compared with the normal chain topology. This enhances the robustness of the system. In case the transmission ring is broken at one point. connection table] "Transfer Rate "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. table]. connection establishment. "BSC BIE port No " in [Local Office\LAPD semi-perm. connection table] "E1 Timeslot No "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. "BSC BIE E1Timeslot No " in [Local Office\Radio channel config. table]."in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. connection table] "BIE Port No "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. Overview E1 ring topology is a networking mode in which several sites are connected in a ring. "Belong to BIE group No. E1 ring topology has an advantage that the transmission ring can be automatically divided into two chains when it is broken at one point so that the sites before and after the breakpoint can both still work normally.13 E1 Ring Topology I."in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. the following networking parameters are added or modified.

If the transmission in the reverse ring is normal. To realize a manual ring rotate. A site is successfully rotated to the reverse direction and then reinitialized before the next site is rotated. the sites after the breakpoint automatically form a chain in the reverse direction and begin to work in the reverse ring after reinitialization. the sites do not automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers from failure. In case the transmission ring is broken at one point. Technical Description To be specific. The BSC sends the forward ring data to a site when a chain is established for the site in the forward ring. the E1 ring topology has the following functions: 1) Automatic rotate in case of ring breakage Normally all sites in a ring work in the forward ring as if they were in a normal chain. Otherwise. The dynamic BTS adding must be implemented in the forward ring at the time when the forward transmission is normal. If the transmission in the reverse ring is interrupted. TRX adding/deletion. In the case of rotate (rotate-back). the sites automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers. 2) Manual rotate/rotate-back If they work normally in the reverse ring.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. the sites do not automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers.. 3) Dynamic rotate parameter configuration and query The operator may query the ring topology parameters and the current ring direction of a site in the site maintenance system. the operator shall begin with the site at the first level in the forward ring to be rotated and then the one at the next level and so on. etc. The operator can forcedly rotate them back to the forward ring. TRX or modification of channel type in the ring or tributary. the BSC sends the 2-126 . a site in a ring continuously tries to establish a chain via port 0 or port 1 till it succeeds. The manual rotate/rotate-back for a site is performed by specifying port 1/port 0 of the site as a reset port in the site maintenance system during the site reset process. the BSC reports a ring rotate (rotate-back) alarm to the alarm system to notify the operator to examine and repair the transmission ring and so on. cell adding/deletion. All sites in a ring shall be reset after dynamic adding/deletion of BTS. To realize a manual ring rotate-back. forward ring data and reverse ring data for each site. 4) Dynamic data configuration The BSC still supports dynamic data configuration in the E1 ring topology. cell. the operator shall begin with the site at the first level in the reverse ring to be rotated and then the one at the next level and so on.e. The operator may also dynamically modify those parameters in the data management system or auto data configuration system. 5) Involved Technology When it detects OML breakage. The MPU prepares two sets of data i. The operator can also manually rotate the sites to the reverse ring in case the transmission quality in the forward ring is not good. such as dynamic BTS adding/deletion.

Waiting time before rotate: It indicates the time measured in seconds a site waits before it rotates to the reverse direction in case of transmission interruption. Parameter This parameter determined a group of BIE working under “Full Rate Ring Topology” or “Half Rate Ring Topology” Rotate parameters: 1) 2) Auto rotate permit: It indicates whether a site is allowed to rotate automatically in case of transmission interruption. and shared-BSC. 3) Try rotating duration time: A site continuously tries to establish a chain via port 0 or port 1 after it begins to rotate. the inter-cell handover and cell reselection will be inevitable. III. Technical Description A dual band MS can be freely handed over between the two frequency bands. The best advantage of using the 900M/1800M co-cell to construct a dual band network is that two frequency bands coexist in a cell and that the 1800M frequency band becomes a natural extension of 900M frequency band in this mode. This avoids cell reselection and inter-cell handover that are inevitable in other networking modes. it has become an inevitable tendency to construct a dual band network. shared-MSC but standalone BSC.14 GSM900/GSM1800 Co-cell I.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions reverse ring data to the site when a chain is established in the reverse ring. as will inevitably reduce the network quality. it is recommended as the BCCH in this networking mode. Its value range is 60~300. The value range of this parameter is 60~300 and the default value is 90. The site is initialized and started after it receives the data. Its default value is Yes. At present. A 900M/1800M co-cell is a networking mode in which the GSM900 and DCS1800 TRXs coexist in the same cell. In any of the above networking modes. It turns to the other port if it has not established a chain via one port after the "Try rotating duration time". This time is measured in seconds. 2-127 . Its default value is 90. The TRXs in the frequency band the BCCH belongs to shall be in the underlaid subcell and those in the other frequency band the BCCH does not belong to shall be in the overlaid subcell.2. Overview With the sharp increase in MS quantity. there are three networking modes available to the construction of dual band network: standalone MSC. 2. Since the 900M is characterized by less propagation loss and larger coverage. II.

Therefore. Details are given below: Immediate assignment: When immediate assignment is performed in a 900M/1800M co-cell. the channel allocation can be implemented as per the concentric channel allocation strategy. That is. When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported. the channel can be allocated according to the Pref. and vice versa. Assignment: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. the two types of cells have different application purposes: the former is used for continuous coverage and scattered coverage in hot spots while the latter for wide coverage. When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported. However. only the channel in the frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Pref. a 900M/1800M co-cell repels a two-timeslot extended cell. For other MSs. for an MS supporting the frequency bands in both overlaid and underlaid subcells. Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC is configured. 3) Inter-BSC incoming cell HO: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. That is. cannot be a 900M/1800M co-cell. However. only the channel in the 2-128 . only the channels in the underlaid subcell shall be allocated. So does a two-timeslot extended cell. since no MS information is available for reference. the BSC shall distinguish the MS frequency band capability before performing channel allocation. Note: The GSM900 in this document includes P-GSM. E-GSM and R-GSM. 2) Intra-BSC incoming cell HO: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. for a single band MS may not support the frequency band in the overlaid subcell. a 900M/1800M co-cell cannot be a two-timeslot extended cell. the channel can be allocated according to the Assign Optimum Layer configuration. Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC configuration.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions A 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform. an underlaid-preferred channel allocation strategy is adopted to guarantee the MS can most possibly initiate a call. 1) 900M/1800M Co-cell Channel Allocation Since a 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform. only the channel in the frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Assign Optimum Layer is configured. the channel in the underlaid subcell shall be preferred. Therefore. the 900M/1800M co-cell channel allocation shall comply with the concentric channel allocation strategy.

the channel can be allocated according to the Pref. (The BSC contains the same Cell Global Identification (CGI) for a cell as the MSC does if the MSC supports a multi-MNC cell. In this case. the BSC need not use the multi-MNC function parameter). and then an MS can display the mobile network name it subscribes to as per the system message. 2. Overview The multi Mobile Network Code (multi-MNC) function allows the operator to configure the cells which have different MNC in one BSC. Parameters: "Cell system type " in [Local Office\BSC Cell Table] " HW-IUO property" in [Site\Carrier Configuration Table] Table name: [Handover\Concentric Cell HO Table] Parameter: All data in [Concentric Cell HO Table] are applicable to a 900M/1800M co-cell.15 Multi-MNC I. II. Technical Description 1) System message processing The system sends different system messages including different MNCs respectively to the multi-MNC cell and the normal cell. III. Subcell in HO of Inter-BSC configuration. Subcell in HO of Inter-BSC is configured.2. 2-129 . 4) 900M/1800M Co-cell Handover Since a 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform. See Figure 2-41. The multi-MNC function is applied when two or more network operators are integrated or when some small operators rent equipment from a large operator.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Pref. the 900M/1800M co-cell handover shall comply with the normal concentric handover strategy. When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported.

quality. 2-130 . The control strategy and applicable situation of each handover type are as follows: a) Normal handover Control strategy: Handover to a cell with better QoS (considering all such factors as level. 2) Handover strategy System provides flexible handover control means. only the handover to a cell with the same MNC allowed. a cell with the same MNC first. There are seven handover control means provided: normal handover. Select a suitable multi-MNC handover control type according to the actual situation. In the situations where multiple MNCs are used.).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions A-MSC B-MSC Operator A: MNC = 12 A-BSS Operator B: MNC = 34 T R X 1 T R X 2 Cell 1: 460 12 1850 0001 Cell 2: 460 34 1810 0002 MS Display: 12 MS Display: 34 Figure 2-41 Multi-MNC diagram In this document. cell level. a better cell with a different MNC first. a better cell with the same MNC first. configure "Multi-MNC handover judgement allowed" with "Y". The following will give an introduction to the control strategy and the possible applicable situation of each handover type. mobile phones can be handed over to a cell with the same MNC or a cell with a different MNC. etc. load. a multi-MNC cell is a cell whose CGI includes a MNC different from the MNC configured in the [Local Office Information Table]. and only the handover to a cell with a different MNC allowed. a cell with a different MNC first. whether to share the same BSC (MSC). In different situations. "Multi-MNC handover type" can be configured with the expected types according to the actual requirements.

If no cell that can provide good 2-131 . mobile phones will be handed over to a cell with the better QoS. e) A better cell with a different MNC first Control strategy: If the adjacent cell has a different MNC from the service cell and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold. Applicable situation: As long as a cell in the same network can provide normal services. c) A cell with the same MNC first Control strategy: As long as the adjacent cell has the same MNC with the service cell and the received level is higher than "minimal downlink power of candidate handover cell" of this adjacent cell. regardless of whether the object cell with the same MNC or a different MNC. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. including the service cell..Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Applicable situation: The situations where mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell with better QoS. higher than the inter-layer handover threshold). Applicable situation: The situations where mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell in the same network. Not considering whether the object cell has the same MNC or a different MNC. Applicable situation: When a cell in the same network can provide good services (i. including the service cell. mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell. no signal can be detected in a cell with the same MNC). higher than the inter-layer handover threshold).. d) A better cell with the same MNC first Control strategy: If the adjacent cell and the service cell have the same MNC and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold of this adjacent cell. they can be handed over to a cell with a different MNC. mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. If no cell that can provide good services is available in the same network. Applicable situation: When a cell with a different MNC from the service cell can provide good services (i. b) Only the handover to a cell with the same MNC allowed Control strategy: Only the handover to a cell with the same MNC is allowed.e. mobile phones can be handed over to this adjacent cell. When mobile phones cannot be handed over to a cell in the same network (for example. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell in the same network. including the service cell.e.

b) The MNC in the [Local Office Information Table] at the BSC side should be the same as the MNC configured at the MSC side. III. When mobile phones cannot be handed over to a cell in another network (for example. 3) Application note a) The CGI allocated by the MSC to a normal cell should include a LAC different from the LAC in the CGI the MSC allocates to a multi-MNC cell. no signal can be detected in this cell). Parameter "Multi-MNC HO Allowed" in [Handover/ Handover Control Data] "Multi-MNC HO Type" in [Handover/ Handover Control Data] 2-132 .. c) For a BSC with the multi-MNC function. mobile phones will be handed over to a cell with the better QoS. At the BSC side. If there are only a few cell channels in this network but the coverage is satisfied. There should be only one difference between the multi-MNC cell CGI configured at the BSC side and the corresponding CGI at the MSC side i. f) A cell with a different MNC first Control strategy: As long as the adjacent cell has a different MNC from the service cell and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than "minimal downlink power of candidate handover cell". mobile phones can be handed over to a cell with the same MNC. inter-BSC handover can be implemented only when the peer BSC is also designed as multi-MNC function supportable. this control strategy can be selected in case of congestion and if traffic sharing is allowed in other networks. Applicable situation: Mobile phones are expected to be handed over only to a cell in another network. d) The multi-MNC cell cannot support GPRS services presently and the normal cell can.e. g) Only the handover to a cell with a different MNC allowed Control strategy: Only the handover to a cell with a different MNC is allowed. Applicable situation: As long as a cell in another network can provide normal services.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions services is available in other networks. different MNCs. this control strategy can be selected in case of congestion and if traffic sharing is allowed in other networks. If there are only a few cell channels in this network but the coverage is satisfied. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell. the cell CGI is configured as the CGI over the Abis interface of the local BSC and the external cell CGI as the CGI over the Abis interface of the peer BSC.

Fu(n): downlink frequency corresponding to n. The internal between frequencies is 200kHz. The relations between frequency points and absolute frequencies are as follows.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. 3) GSM900 railway band.16 E-GSM/R-GSM I. 925 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. n: frequency point. E-GSM (including GSM900 base band): The working frequencies of GSM900 extended band are: 880 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. the frequency resource becomes more and more insufficient and bottlenecks the further development of GSM. The current solution is to introduce new frequency bands. The introduction of E-GSM and R-GSM extended bands plays an important role in solving the shortage of frequency resource. 921 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. 4) DCS1800 band: The working frequencies of DCS1800 band are: 1710 ~ 1785MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. R-GSM (including GSM900 base band and GSM900 extended band): The working frequencies of R-GSM900 are: 876 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving.0).2. 2-133 . there are four frequency bands: 1) GSM900 base band. 2) GSM900 extended band. II. Overview Along with the development of GSM in a large scale. Fl(n): uplink frequency corresponding to n. P-GSM: The working frequencies of the GSM900 baseband are: 890 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving.5. Unit: MHz. 935 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. 1805 ~ 1880MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving.05 (version 8. Technical description According to GSM 05.

2*(n-1024) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 DCS 1800 Fl(n) = 1710. The E-GSM extended band refers to the E-GSM band excluding the P-GSM band provided in the Protocol. I generation algorithm of channel assignment: Before assignment.975~1 023 0~124. the system can work out 2-134 . the E-GSM extended band and R-GSM extended band are introduced. if a mobile phone supports E-GSM.955~102 3 512~885 Channel assignment technology of E-GSM\R-GSM For the cell configured with frequency points of the E-GSM extended band or the R-GSM extended band. R-GSM. For example. Therefore. the channel to be assigned can be a channel of P-GSM or E-GSM extended band.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n-512) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95 The newly introduced E-GSM 900 band and R-GSM 900 band belong to the same band with P-GSM. the system has obtained the classmark of the mobile phone. and DCS1800. the channel assignment technology can adopt different assignment strategies in different situations after fully analyzing the frequency band support capabilities of the mobile phone and channels. Huawei BSC can support four frequency bands: P-GSM. E-GSM. However. Table 2-18 Table 2 Relations between frequency bands and frequency points Frequen cy band Frequen cy point P-GS M 1~124 E-GSM R-GSM DCS1800 E-GSM extended band 0.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-17 Table 1 Relations between frequency points and absolute frequency P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0. the system can work out the support capability of each channel for this mobile phone. the frequency points are not continuous.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0. II generation algorithm of channel assignment: Before assignment. The R-GSM extended and refers to the R-GSM band excluding the E-GSM provided in the Protocol. According to it.2*(n-1024) 1<= n <=124 0<= n <=124 975<= n <=1023 0<= n <=124 955<= n <= 1023 512<= n <= 885 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 R-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2 + 0. 975~1023 R-GSM extended band 955~974 0~124. According to it. And then the system can assign a channel from all channels supporting this mobile phone conforming to the polling strategy. the system has obtained the classmark of the mobile phone.

2.1 Supported Packet System Information I. the system assigns the channel for the mobile phone according to the frequency band support capability of the host BCCH. The radio link management function involves mainly establishment. Provision of routes for the transfer of packet data. if not. maintenance and release of the radio links. The cell can either be configured with the PBCCH channel or without it. The routes serve to transfer the uplink data to Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) properly and receive the downlink data from the SGSN.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions the support capability of each channel for this mobile phone. For example. Access control over the MS. For the immediate assignment. switchover of radio channels between the circuit switched traffic channel and the packet switched traffic channel and allocation of channels to the MS.3. The radio resources management function involves mainly coding/decoding of radio packet channels. The band intersection P-SGM will be reserved for other mobile phones with poor support capability. If the cell supports GPRS. if the mobile phone supports E-GSM and the channels respectively support the P-GSM band and the E-GSM extended band. SI13 will not be broadcast. multiplexing of radio channels. the system gives the priority to the channel of the band outside the band intersection. The main 2-135 . The access control function serves primarily to solve the issue of channel contention and allocate radio resources to the MS according to the requested QoS. the System Information 13 (SI13) shall be added to the BCCH. This will be notified to the MS via SI13. Overview The packet system information broadcast in the cell serves mainly for the MS to access the network.3 GPRS Function The GPRS functions supported by BSS include: Radio link management and radio resources management. The channel of the E-GSM extended and will be assigned first. Parameters "Effective frequency points: 1~64" in [Carrier configuration table] 2. III. In all channels supporting this mobile phone. configuration of radio packet channels.

for control of the PRACH. II. If not all information fits into one instance of the PSI3bis. PSI2 also contains Non-GPRS cell options applicable for non-packet access. This message shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. The information is sent on PBCCH only if so indicated in PSI1. 6) Packet System Information Type 5 (PSI5) This optional information is sent by the network on the PBCCH giving information for measurement reporting and network controlled cell reselection.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions message broadcast on the PBCCH are the dedicated packet system information of GPRS. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. during the idle frame of those PDCHs. 5) Packet System Information Type 4 (PSI4) This information is optionally sent by the network on the PBCCH and PACCH giving information directing the mobile station to make measurements on a list of serving cell PDCHs. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. Technical description There are following types of packet system information: 1) Packet System Information Type 1 (PSI1) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH. the PSI3bis can be repeated. 7) Packet System Information Type 13 (PSI13) 2-136 . GPRS mobile allocations and PCCCH descriptions being used in the cell. 4) Packet System Information Type 3 bis (PSI3bis) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH and PACCH giving information of the BCCH allocation in the neighboring cells and cell selection parameters for non-serving cells. giving information of the BCCH allocation (BA_GPRS) in the neighboring cells and cell selection parameters for serving cell and non-serving cells. If not all information fits into one information. giving information for Cell selection. giving information of reference frequency lists. 3) Packet System Information Type 3 (PSI3) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH. cell allocation. 2) Packet System Information Type 2 (PSI2) This information is sent by the network on PBCCH and PACCH. the remaining information will be sent in other instances of the PSI5. for description of the control channel(s) and optional global power control parameters.

4000 ms Default: 1000ms 3) T3192 Description: T3192 timer overtime value. Therefore. the GPRS network usually has neither Gs interface nor PCCCH configured. PSI1~PSI4 can either be broadcast on the PBCCH or sent on the PACCH. PSI13 can be sent only on the PACCH.network operation mode I. and control the transfer of packet system information on the PACCH based on the configuration of the PBCCH/PCCCH in a cell. 1 . PSI13 is usually broadcasted on PACCCH. Therefore. Parameter At present. 120 ms. The duration for the MS to wait for TBF release after receiving the last data block.network operation mode II. 2) T3168 Description: T3168 timer overtime value. III. M900/M1800 BSS can transfer all the GPRS-related packet system information. The information in this information shall be the same as provided in the PSI13 on BCCH. Value range: 0~3. 3 – reserved. 1000 ms. no PSI13 will be transferred on the PACCH. but PSI1 will be broadcast periodically on it. 1000 ms. Value range: 500 ms. this parameter is usually set as "1". 1500 ms. 0 . PSI5 can be broadcast only on the PBCCH. provide such functions as controlled re-transmission.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions This information may be broadcast by the network on the PACCH. Default: At present. 0 ms.↑. The duration for MS to wait for the packet uplink assignment message. Value range: 500 ms. only the PSI13 will be broadcast periodically on the PACCH. 80 ms. high-speed re-transmission and low-speed retransmission. The information provides the mobile station with GPRS cell specific access-related information. 2 network operation mode III. The configuration of PSI13 is realized with the command pcu add gprs. 160 ms and 200 ms Default: 500 ms 4) DRXTimerMax 2-137 . The following parameters are involved. 1) NMO Description: network operation mode. When there is PBCCH in the cell. When there is no PBCCH in the cell. the PBCCH and PCCCH are not configured.

Value range: no – enter DRX mode immediately. nouse Default: 3 9) PanInc Description: PAN_INC used by MS N3102 counter.RLC/MAC control block used (TA can be obtained only after sending "polling" message). N3102 will reduce the value of PAN_DEC. Value range: 0. The maximum duration for executing non-DRX mode when MS is switching from packet transfer mode to packet idle mode.e. 1. The format adopted by MS in the control acknowledge message. 6) CtrlAckType Description: control acknowledge message type. When MS activates T3182 and receives the corresponding acknowledge message from packet uplink. enter DRX mode after 4 seconds 5) AccBurst Description: the access burst format used by MS in PRACH. 1 . When MS T3182 times out. ↑64 s – 64 s Default: 4 s. nouse Default: 3 10) PanMax 2-138 . 0 – 4 access burst used (TA can be obtained without sending "polling" message). N3102 will increase the value of PAN_DEC. PTCCH/U or packet control acknowledge message. so it is recommended to set it as "8 bit". Value range: 0~7. i. Value range: 8 bit. 11bit Default: Some MSs do not support 11 bit access burst type.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Description: maximum duration of non-DRX. 2 s – 2 s.. Value range: 0~7. 1 s – 1 s. Default: 0 7) BsCvMax Description: maximum value of MS countdown timer Value range: 0~15 Default: 4 8) PanDec Description: PAN_DEC used by MS N3102 counter.

2 Supported GPRS MS Modes I. i. monitor information of each system and start them simultaneously. including short message service. it uses either circuit-switched service or packet-switched service. GPRS MS multislot hierarchy GPRS system can use the MAC layer function to provide a subscriber with the multislot mode. Class A MS subscriber can initiate/receive call in both services and handover automatically between packet data service and circuit service. in a certain moment. The classification of MS under different multislot modes is listed as follows. 8. the service handover should be completed manually. Value range: 4.e. 3) Class C GPRS MS At a certain moment. 2-139 . Class B MS also can automatically handover. It can be used in GPRS packet service and GSM circuit-switched service separately but not simultaneously. GPRS MS types The integrated GPRS MS consists of ME and SIM. ↑ 32. the maximum value of N3102. It cannot use both services simultaneously. However.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Description: PAN_MAX of MS N3102 counter. and provide GPRS service and GSM circuit-switched service simultaneously. e.3. Class C MS can be connected only GSM network or GPRS If it supports both packet-switched and circuit-switched services. the corresponding MS should be capable to support this mode. nouse Default: 12 2. i. 2) Class B GPRS MS Class B GPRS MS can be connected to both GSM and GPRS networks simultaneously. II. ME includes MT and TE. GPRS MS is divided into three classes: 1) Class A GPRS MS Class A GPRS MS can simultaneously be connected to both GSM and GPRS networks and activated in both networks.

a=0 for not adopting FH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-19 Classification of MS under different multislot modes Classification Max. b=1 indicates that FH being adopted or MS changes 2-140 . number of time slots MS type Rx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8 Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Tta 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 Ttb 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a a a a a 0 b b b b b b b b b b b Tra 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Trb 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a a a a 0 0 c c c c c c c c c c c 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a=1 indicates that FH is adopted. number of time slots Min.

For the type 1 MS. Rx indicates the maximum number of time slots used in an MS downlink in a TDMA frame. II. The BSN of RLC data block header numbers the RLC block data for recombination. But in the process of releasing uplink TBF. Sum indicates the sum of all available time slots that can be used by MS in each TDMA frame. The transmitting party numbers RLC data block through block sequence number (BSN).3 Supported RLC Modes I. There is no transmitting time slot between receiving time slots in the TDMA frame. RLC non-acknowledged mode The transmission of RLC data block under RLC non-acknowledged mode does not support retransmission. Tx indicates the maximum number of time slots used in an MS uplink in a TDMA frame. c=0indicates that FH is not adopted and MS does not change frequency when it changes from transmitting to receiving . MS should support configurations of time slot numbers indicated by all integers from 0 to RX. its transmitting time slots will be distributed in a transmitting window with a size of RX. There is no receiving time slot between transmitting time slots in the TDMA frame.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frequency when it changes from receiving to transmitting. which can be used for retransmission and recombination. Tra relates to the time needed for the MS to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to receive. The receiving party can transmit “PACKET ACK/NACK” message to request retransmit RLC data block. MS should support configurations of time slot numbers indicated by all integers from 0 to Tx The transmitting time slots can be discontinuous by time. 2. Huawei’ BSS system supports MS of Type B MS of Type C MS with multi-slot capability ranging 1~12. c=1indicates that FH is adopted and MS changes frequency when it changes from transmitting to receiving. The receiving time slots can be discontinuous by time. Huawei GPRS BSS supports RLC acknowledged mode and non-acknowledged mode. The receiving party sends “PACKET ACK/NACK” to transmit other necessary control signaling.3. b=0 indicates that FH is not adopted and MS does not change frequency when it changes from receiving to transmitting. its receiving time slots will be distributed in a receiving window with a size of RX. 2-141 . For the type 1 MS. Ttb relates to the time needed for the MS to get ready to transmit. RLC acknowledged mode Under RCL acknowledged mode. 1≤Rx + Tx≤Sum Tta relates to the time needed for the MS to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to transmit. Trb relates to the time needed for the MS to get ready to receive. the last transmitted uplink block might be retransmitted. the transmission of RLC data block adopts retransmission method.

When CS-3 and CS-4 is adopted. PPCH. 4 15.3. 8bit packet access burst bears 8 information bits. 05 13. PPCH. Channel coding: Channel coding of PDTCH The radio block bearing RLC data block can use 4 types of coding schemes. However. PBCCH.6 kbit/s and 21. PBCCH.4 kbit/s. CS-1 is usually used for other packet control channels. the coding scheme adopted by PDCH is adjusted according to the change of the radio transmission environment of the MS that occupies it. PAGCH. Channel coding of PRACH There are two types of packet access burst in PRACH: 8bit and 11bit packet access burst. defines two coding schemes.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. For PRACH access burst. Huawei BSS supports all these four CS and dynamically handovers between them according to radio transmission quality (RLC block retransmission rate of uplink /downlink TBF). PAGCH. the rate of a PDCH is 15. 4 Channel coding of PACCH. Parameters of each coding scheme are shown in Table 2-20. when mapping the radio channels to the terrestrial channels. a PDCH is mapped to two 16 kbit/s links. Except for PRACH and TPCCH/U. 6 21. Only CS-1 is forced for network. The coding scheme of 11-bit packet access burst bears 11 information bit. Mapping a 2-142 . The same channel coding is adopted for uplink packet access burst and random access burst. PNCH and downlink PTCCH adopt CS-1. PNCH and PTCCH PACCH. I. uplink PTCCH adopts the same coding scheme as PRACH.4 Supported Channel Coding Scheme PDTCH defines four coding schemes: CS-1~CS-4. BSS is also based on the 16kbit/s link at the G-Abis interface. All coding schemes are forced for MS. Table 2-20 Coding parameter of coding schemes Channel coding scheme RLC/MAC data block size (octets) Rate kbit/s CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 23 33 39 53 9. therefore. Dynamic Additional Sub-TS Under CS-1/CS-2. II.

the additional sub-TSs can be dynamically attached to various main TSs to enhance the utilization ratio of this sub-TSs according to statistical multiplexing rules. If the uplink configured to adjust CS type dynamically. III. cs3. the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface is greatly improved. Default: cs2 2-143 . unfixed Default: cs2 2) UpDefaultCs Description: Default CS adopted for uplink. Value range: cs1. in its support for CS-3 and CS-4. cs2. thus saving investments on the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. BSC or PCU for supporting CS-3 and CS-4. cs4. cs4. Parameter M900/M1800 BSS supports four types of coding schemes: CS-1~CS-4. and thus greatly reduce the utilization ratio of the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. The configuration related to channel coding schemes is realized with the command pcu add cspara. The dynamic additional sub-TS technology used by M900/M1800 GPRS BSS displays the following features: Any idle Sub-TS of the G-Abis interface can be used as additional sub-TS. It packs and unpacks the data packets through software to avoid hardware upgrading. cs3. it is not necessary for GPRS BSS to upgrade the hardware of BTS. cs2. In addition. The dynamic attached sub-slot technology is to statically allocate a main 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot and dynamically allocate a attached 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot at the G-Abis interface for the CS-3/CS-4 PDCH. The following parameters are involved. With dynamic additional sub-TS allocation. so that each has maximum utilization. the CS of other TBF is dynamically adjusted according to the signal transmission quality. Within a same site address.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions PDCH permanently onto two 16kbit/s links will greatly decrease the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface. M900/M1800 GPRS BSS can resolve the transmission issue of CS-3 and CS-4 on the G-Abis interface perfectly. then the CS of the first TBF to transfer can be set by this parameter. The locations of the additional 16kbit/s sub-TS are relatively flexible. Value range: cs1. With the dynamic additional sub-TS technology. 1) UpFixCs Description: CS fixedly adopted for uplink. They do not have to be adjacent to the main 16kbit/s sub-TS.

when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. i. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 7) UpThdCs3Cs4 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-4. i. i. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value.e. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 5) UpThdCs2Cs3 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-3. Value range: 0~100 Default: 5 4) UpThdCs2Cs1 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-1.e.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) UpThdCs1Cs2 Description: The resend rate conversion threshold. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-4. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value.e. 2-144 . the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-4 to CS-3. when the resend rate of the uplink TBF is smaller than or equals to this value. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 6) UpThdCs3Cs2 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-2. i. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-3. i.e. the coding scheme of it changes from CS-1 to CS-2. i. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 8) UpThdCs4Cs3 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-4 to CS-3. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-2. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-1.e.e.

e. i. Value range: cs1. cs4. cs2. Default: unfixed 10) DnDefaultCs Description: Default CS adopted for downlink.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 9) DnFixCs Description: Fixedly adopted CS for downlink. then the CS of the first TBF can be set by this parameter.e. i. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 13) DnThdCs3Cs2 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-2. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-1. the CS type of other TBF is dynamically adjusted according to the signal transmission quality. 2-145 . when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. unfixed. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 14) DnThdCs3Cs4 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-4. cs3. cs2.e. cs4. Value range: 0~100 Default: 5 12) DnThdCs2Cs1 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-1. cs3. i. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. Default: cs2 11) DnThdCs1Cs2 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-1 to CS-2. Value range: cs1. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-1 to CS-2. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value.e. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-2. i. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-4. If the downlink dynamically adjusts CS.

no measurement reporting 2. MS sends measurement reports. NC0: MS controlled cell re-selection. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-4 to CS-3. the network requires MS to send MR so as to control the cell reselection. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 16) MaxFixCs34Pdch Description: The fixed maximum number of PDCH supporting CS-3/CS-4 in this cell. Value range: 0~255 Default: none 2. I. nc1.5 Supported Network Control Modes During the cell reselection required by network. no measurement reporting. Parameter: NCO Description: Network control mode.e. Huawei BSS supports NC0. Value range: nc0. MS sends measurement reports.3.3. Parameter Network control mode parameter is configured with the command pcu add relatedinfo in PCU. meaning MS controlled cell re-selection. i. nc2 Default: Currently fixedly set as "nc0". when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. NC2: Network controlled cell re-selection. NC1: MS controlled cell re-selection.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 15) DnThdCs4Cs3 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-4 to CS-3. 2-146 .6 Supported Network Operation Mode GPRS network defines three network operation modes in order to uniformly coordinate the pagings of circuit-switched and packet-switched service. Here three network control modes are defined.

2-147 . This means that an MS that wants to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services shall monitor both paging channels if the packet paging channel is allocated in the cell. but that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has been assigned a packet data channel. Huawei GPRS BSS system supports three network operation modes. II. and that it receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been assigned a packet data channel. or on a GPRS traffic channel. Table 2-21 Network operation mode Network operation mode Circuit paging channel GPRS paging channel Paging coordination Packet Paging Channel I CCCH Paging Channel Packet Data Channel II CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel Packet Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel Not Applicable CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Packet Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel No Yes III No Currently. Network operation mode II The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel.e. either on the same channel as the GPRS paging channel (i. Network operation mode III The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel. This means that the MS needs only to monitor the CCCH paging channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions I. Network operation mode I The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS. and this channel is also used for GPRS paging.. Table 2-21 shows channels that deliver circuit paging message and packet paging message under various network modes. and sends a GPRS paging message on either the packet paging channel (if allocated in the cell) or on the CCCH paging channel. No paging co-ordination is performed by the network. the packet paging channel or the CCCH paging channel). III. This means that the MS needs only to monitor one paging channel.

2-148 . MS transmits data according to assigned channel resource.3. The radio priority level to be used for user data transmission shall be determined by the SGSN based on the negotiated QoS profile and shall be delivered to the MS during the PDP Context Activation and PDP Context Modification procedures. network assigns packet uplink channel for MS on PACCH. Delay class. When MS requests to establish uplink TBF during its downlink TBF data transmission. When MS requests to establish TBF for uplink data transmission. GSM/GPRS network can assign some channel resources for data transmission or refuse the request according the multi-slot capability of MS and network resources state. Huawei BSS can satisfy MS QoS requirements as much as possible according to the state of current radio resources. MS can apply a value for every QoS attribute. assignment can be divided into uplink and downlink assignment. Peak throughput class Mean throughput class. and whether the cause for the uplink access is user data or signaling message transmission. The radio priority levels to be used for transmission of MO SMS shall be determined by the SGSN and delivered to the MS in the Attach Accept message. During the negotiation of QoS profile. The combination of different priorities enables the system to support various applications with different QoSs required.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. PACCH or PCCCH. This information is used by the BSS to determine the radio access precedence and the service precedence. network can refuse the request to establish TBF.7 Supported QoS GPRS provides the subscriber with negotiable QoS configuration. According to the direction of TBF data transmission. Reliability class. RLC/MAC layer supports four radio priority levels. Network also needs to negotiate a priority for every attribute so that it can keep consistent with effective GPRS resources.8 Supported Assignment When network side or MS requests to establish TBF for data transmission. GPRS QoS has five basic attributes: Precedence class. Network always provides adequate resource to support the negotiated QoS profiles. 2. When channel resource is in short or for other causes. network sends immediate assignment message on CCCH or packet uplink assignment message on PCCCH to assign channel resource. Each attribute has multiple values available. Network can assign TBF resource from CCCH.3. including the default value stored in HLR and used to create new account.

M900/M1800 BSS supports: Packet uplink resource assignment on PACCH Packet downlink resource assignment on PACCH Uplink immediate assignment for TBF establishment on CCCH. one phase. which converts it into the packet paging request of the air interface (Um interface) before sending. PCU forwards the packet to SGSN. If there is Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. The paging request message originated by the SGSN is sent through Gb interface to PCU. paging includes packet paging and circuit paging. which sends it on the PCH. and then sends the paging response packet in data form to PCU via the air interface.3. When MS requests to establish downlink TBF during its uplink TBF data transmission. 2. GPRS/GSM system operates in network operation mode I and the paging service of GSM service can be sent through 2-149 . and single block request. After receiving packet paging message. network can assign packet uplink channel for MS through PACCH. II. MS transmits data according to assigned channel resource. Meanwhile. Paging coordination When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located. PCU will send the message via the Pb interface to the BSC. Network assigns resource on different channels according to CCCH or PCCCH configuration. If PCCCH is not configured for the system. After receiving the paging response. Downlink immediate assignment for TBF establishment on CCCH. the message will be sent on the PPCH directly. SGSN is ready to transmit downlink data.9 Supported Paging In GPRS/GSM system. the MSC sends a paging message to all cells in that location area according to the registered location area of MS. Packet paging When there are downlink data that shall be sent to the MS. network can send immediate assignment message on CCCH or packet assignment message on PCCCH for MS to assign downlink channel resource. network can perform different assignments such as single block assignment and packet resource assignment according to different access requests. MS will initialize the process of uplink TBF establishment. such as two phases.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When network requests to establish TBF for downlink data transmission. SGSN needs to initiate a packet paging call so as to locate MS accurately. If the PCCCH channel is configured for the BSS system. I.

PCU forwards the paging message to BSC through Pb interface. In this case. After receiving the circuit paging message. and PCU will determine on which channel to transmit the paging. On uplink. TA update is born by PTCCH assigned to MS. estimate TA and send to MS. if this MS has not assigned with packet dedicated channel and the system has not been configured with PCCCH. MS accesses the RACH and starts the circuit connection setup process. MS will initiate GPRS Suspend process to suspend GPRS service and it will not recover GPRS service until circuit connection is released. packet uplink assignment or packet downlink assignment message. if an MS is GPRS-attached. In other words. 2.10 Timing Advance Timing advance (TA) procedure is used to extract the correct TA value so that MS can transmit radio block on uplink. 2-150 . M900/M1800 BSS supports above-mentioned packet paging and paging coordination. Continuous TA update The MS in packet transmission mode needs continuous TA update. If MS is currently handling GPRS service. II. GPRS/GSM system can operate only in network operation mode II and mode III. Network also can send TA in packet TA/power control message and packet uplink acknowledged/negative message on PACCH. MS sends access burst on assigned PTCCH. Uplink packet transmission uses packet uplink assignment message to assign TA index (TAI) and PTCCH to MS. Then BSC sends this message on PCH. In network operation mode I. MS uses this value for uplink transmission till a new value is provided. TA includes tow parts: I. the system sends circuit paging on CCCH. New TAs is sent through downlink signaling message on PTCCH/D. Then network analyses the received TA and provides new TAs for all MSs that perform TA update on this PDCH. if this MS has been assign with packet dedicated channel.3. Request. And downlink packet transmission uses packet downlink assignment message to assign TA index (TAI) and PTCCH to MSTAI specifies the PTCCH sub-channel for MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GPRS packet channel. If there is no Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. then the circuit paging is sent on PACCH. Initial TA estimation Initial TA estimation is based on a single access burst bearing packet channel. its circuit paging go from MSC to SGSN and then to PCU through the Gs and Gb interfaces. Network obtains TA from the burst.

SI13 on BCCH. Thus the transfer rate is not constant and it is necessary to implement flow control for downlink data.3. in downlink data transfer. then T3178 continues working. and PSI13 on PACCH to control MS. or sends order packet measurement message on PCCCH or PACCH to address a specified MS. MS should carry out NC measurement and indicate MR period in PSI5. The data transfer rate of Gb interface is greater than that of Um interface. the data transfer through Um interface is restricted by MS multislot capacity. which leads to their different transfer rates. Uplink MR is supported.11 Measurement Report Network can request MS to send MR. If T3178 timeout duration is greater than the report period indicated in the new cell. Moreover. Network broadcasts PSI5 on PBCCH. When MS is under EM1 mode. it should carry out EM measurement. it starts timer T3178 according to the instructed report period. MR period is specified in field EXT Reporting Period in PSI5 or in order packet measurement message.12 Supported Flow Control Gb interface and Um interface have different physical mediums and transfer protocols. This parameter is contained in PSI5 or order packet measurement message. Extended MR Network can order MS to send extended MR. When T3178 is active. MS sending extended MR is controlled by XT Measurement Order parameter. 2. whether there is radio channel available in the cell. Network control (NC) MR Network carries relative network control parameters carried in PSI5 broadcast on PBCCH. Under NC1 or NC2 mode. MS should immediately use this period to restart T3178. There are two types of MR: I.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Huawei GPRS BSS supports: Continuous TA update procedure Quick TA initial value 2. radio quality. If timer timeout duration is less than this period. EM1. The priority and quality of uplink transmission signal from MS to site calculated by BTS is sent to PCU through inband signaling of Abis interface TRAU frame and is used to generate MR. The value of parameter EXT Measurement Order should be EM0.3. 2-151 . II. After MS receives order of EM MR. MS can reselect a new cell which is in EM1 mode.

2-152 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When cell is in normal state. which is the purpose of downlink data flow control. and reports MS bucket size and bucket rate according radio resource occupation state of MS. PCU starts flow control procedure: PCU periodically reports the cell bucket size and the cell bucket rate according to the state of radio packet channel in the cell. SGSN adjusts the downlink data rate of this cell/MS according to the reported parameters.

When there is more packet traffic and the speech channels are relatively idle. For downlink flow control. BVC downlink flow control and MS downlink flow control are supported. PCCCH. it can also request PCU to return the converted dynamic channel and use it again as speech channel. cell update. the speech service is given the priority over the packet service to guarantee the original speech services. voice traffic channel is dedicated for voice service. voice service channel and dynamic channel. MS packet access types are as follows: Short access. mobility management. GSM network is usually updated to support GPRS service due to the shortage of radio frequencies. 1) Supporting the handover from TCH to PDCH during the establishment of TBF. 2) Supporting inter-cell PDCH sharing on the same RPPU 2. such as TCH. It can be converted between TCH and PDCH. such as PBCCH. and adjust the reported parameters according to the changes of cell packet resource and MS resource occupation. MS RLC/MAC will initiate packet access.3. SDCCH. It varies from the number of packet channels in the cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: Cell bucket refers to the maximum packet data quantity that allowed being stored. phase I access. Huawei GPRS BSS supports the dynamic handover between TCH and PDCH. and the dynamic channel is voice TCH at its initialization stage. Bucket rate is data transfer rater.3. Uplink flow control supports refusal of immediate assignment on CCCH. Huawei PCU system can implement downlink data flow control. It varies from the number of packet channels assigned to MS. and PDCH. paging response. Whereas when BSC determines the speech channels are busy. 2. BCCH. In this process.14 Supported Packet Access Function When MS upper layers have data to be transferred. single block not establishing TBF access. report the bucket size and bucket rate of the current cell/MS to SGSN. Huawei GPRS BSS classifies channel attribute into fixed packet service channel. In order to reduce the effect on original GSM circuit switched speech services caused by GPRS service. 2-153 . phase II access. MS bucket refers to the maximum packet data quantity that allowed being stored. PCU will request the BSC to convert the dynamic channel into the dynamic packet data channel. Fixed packet service channel is dedicated for packet data service.13 Supported Dynamic Handover between TCH and PDCH At the early stage of GPRS service.

These kinds of information are helpful in assigning appropriate resource for MS. radio resource is assigned for MS in the first time (such as TFI. The number of data packets is calculated according to CS-1. cell update. While the packet resource request is an RLC/MAC signaling packet with CS-1. MS sends packet resource request message on assigned sigle radio block for second resource assignment (including TFI. the first request is for assigning a radio block for MS. For access types such as paging response. it processes them by regarding them as two-phase ones. USF or radio block position list). The packet channel request is an access burst with 8 bit or 11 bit. it can carry relatively more information (including MS TLLI. then MS channel request type is phase I access or phase II access. radio priority). so it carries a little of information. and mobility management. M900/M1800 PCU supports all these access types. If the data to be transferred is more than 8 RLC blocks and RLC mode is required to be acknowledged mode. and mobility management. For channel request type of paging response. If MS MR is to be transferred. dynamic assignment of USF or list of fixed assignment of radio block position list) For two-phase access channel request. MS multislot capacity. Then MS begins to transfer data on assigned resource. For short access and phase I access. the MS channel request type is short access.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the data to be transferred is less than 8 RLC blocks. cell update. then the channel request type is monolith not establishing TBF access. 2-154 . they are usually processed as phase I or phase II access.

BSC. The interface protocols and interface procedures strictly follow the ETSI specifications. Figure 3-2 illustrates the protocol stack of GPRS. Although ETSI draws specification for these interfaces. Layer1 RR LAPDm Sign. Layer1 BTSM LAPD Sign. They guarantee Huawei BSS’s compatibility with the equipment of other manufacturers. Mobile Switching Centre RR: Radio Resource Management BSSMAP: Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part LAPD: Link Access Procedure on the D channel LAPDm: Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel BTS: Base Transceiver Station SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part (MTP) BTSM: Base Transceiver Station Site Management Figure 3-1 GSM protocol stack 3-1 . A interface between BSS and MSC and Gb interface between BSS and SGSN. It is the GSM protocol stack. MS CM MM BSC BTS BSC MSC CM MM BSSMAP BSSMAP RR L3 L2 L1 LAPDm Sign. the implementation of these interfaces is manufacturer-specific. Layer1 RR BTSM LAPD Sign. and PCU) and between BSS and OMC are close interfaces.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Chapter 3 Interface Description M900/M1800 BSS offers standard external interfaces including Um interface between MS and BSS. Layer1 SCCP MTP SCCP MTP Um Abis A MS: Mobile Station CM: Connection Management BSC: Base Station Controller MM: Mobility Management MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre. The interfaces between BSS elements (BTS.

which describes the hierarchical structure of A-interface: 3-2 . Use different MSCs in any PLMNs. Ensure the independent developments of MSC and BSS technologies Ensure the independent development of O&M functions Enable lower speech coding rate Support all GSM Phase II services The reference model of A-interface signaling protocol in M900/M1800 BSC is shown in Figure 3-3.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description GMM/SM LLC Relay GMM/SM LLC RLC MAC GSM RF Um BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb BSSGP Network Service L1bis RLC MAC GSM RF MS BSS SGSN GMM: GPRS Mobility Management RLC: Radio Link Control BSSGP: Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol LLC: Logical Link Control MAC: Medium Access Control SM: Session Management Figure 3-2 GPRS protocol stack 3. The standard interface is adopted so as to: Support BSSs of different vendors in any PLMN Support MSCs of different vendors in any PLMN Use different BSSs in any PLMNs. so that M900/M1800 BSS can be easily deployed in any network in which the MSC of other vendor is being used.1 A Interface 3.1 Overview A-interface is the standard interface between BSS and MSC.1. It is a standard GSM interface specified to achieve the following targets.

703. MTP protocols are defined in ITU-T Q.2 Protocols on the A-Interface I.704. 1) Signaling data link function Signaling data link (layer 1) is the channel used for signaling transmission. Fault management complies with G.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem BSS BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP BSSAP DTAP Chapter 3 Interface Description MSC BSSMAP Allocation function SCCP MTP Physical layer A Allocation function SCCP MTP DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part MTP: Message Transfer Part (MTP) SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part BSSAP: Base Station Subsystem Application Part BSSMAP: Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part Figure 3-3 A-interface signaling protocol reference model 3. MTP comprises three functional levels: signaling data link function. In case of system and signaling network faults.732. Physical layer The physical layer of the A-interface is of 120-ohm symmetrical twisted pair or 75-ohm coaxial cable whose rate is 2 Mbit/s. CRC4 check complies with G. it can takes measures to avoid or reduce the loss. II. Message Transfer Part (MTP) The main function of MTP is to ensure reliable signaling message transfer in the signaling network. signaling link function and signaling network function.705.1. synchronization and timing comply with G. Frame structure. It comprises two data channels of the same data rate but two opposite working directions. A semi-permanent path between the signaling processing equipment of BSS and digital trunk equipment is established via the digital-switching network.701~710 Recommendations. The 3-3 . The physical layer of A-interface has the following features: The 2 Mbit/s transfer rate complies with G.

The BSS signaling processing equipment executes the above functions. The digital trunk equipment actually implements the first level function of MTP. and signaling link error rate monitoring. which can be configured through the man-machine commands. error detection. any TS (except synchronous TS) can be used as the signaling data link. Signaling message processing Signaling message processing function sends signaling messages to the corresponding signaling links or user parts (such as TUP. In addition. as shown in Figure 3-4. The preventive cyclic retransmission mode applies to the international signaling links with the unidirectional transmission delay more than or equal to 15ms and to all the signaling links established through satellites. processor fault.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description former one occupies a timeslot to provide 64 kbit/s. level-2 flow control. signaling unit alignment. 3-4 . different error control means can be set for it via the OMC. error correction. The advantage of semi-permanent connection is. ISUP and SCCP) on the basis of analyzing message flags. and guarantees to provide reliable signaling message transfer between two directly connected signaling points. initial alignment. Signaling message processing functions comprise three parts: message routing (MRT). Functions of layer 2 include: signaling unit delimitation. 2) Signaling link function Signaling link function (layer 2) regulates the functions and procedures to send the signaling to the data link. The basic error correction method applies to the terrestrial signaling links and the international signaling links whose unidirectional transmission delay is less than 15ms. 3) Signaling network function Signaling network functions (level 3) refer to the functions and procedures that transfer management information between signaling points to guarantee the reliable transfer of signaling information when the signaling links and signaling transfer points in the signaling network fail. message discrimination (MDC) and message distribution (MDT). Signaling network functions include signaling message processing and signaling network management.

Signaling network management includes three parts: signaling traffic management. as well as the routing data of relevant destination signaling point. signaling link management and signaling route management. The message route should be identified by the route flag and the service indicator in message signaling unit.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description MTP user part Message allocation Message to local office Message discrimination Message to other SP Message routing MTP L3 signaling message processing MTPL2 signaling message processing Figure 3-4 Signaling message processing flow Message Routing Message Routing function is used at each signaling point to determine the signaling link group and the signaling link to destination signaling point. If the destination is not the local signaling point. the MDC part will send the messages to the Message Distribution (MDT) part. the MDC part will send the messages to the Message Routing (MRT) part. Signaling Traffic Management (STM) 3-5 . DPC and SLS in route flag. If the destination is the local signaling point. Signaling network management Signaling network management is to re-construct the signaling network and to keep and recover the normal transfer ability of the signaling unit when the signaling network fails. The routing function is fulfilled by message routing part according to the network indicator in message. Message Distribution (MDT) Message Distribution (MDT) part is designed to allocate the messages from the MDC part to the user part and the signaling network management and test & maintenance part accordingly. Message Discrimination (MDC) Message Discrimination (MDC) part is designed to receive the messages from Layer 2 to ascertain whether the destination of the messages is the local signaling point.

intelligent network and intelligent management. It is also used to temporarily reduce signaling traffic in case of congestion at the signaling point. Signaling link management Signaling link management is used to recover or startup the signaling link in the signaling network or to exit from the signaling link.. It mainly comprises such procedures as transfer prohibited. Data transfer between network management centres In general. and to ensure the provision of certain pre-determined link groups.) and GT (global title). etc. According to OSI model. but also has certain routing functions and network management functions. New services and functions in mobile communications. Signaling route management Signaling route management is used to ensure the reliable exchange of signaling route availability information between signaling points so as to block or unblock signaling routes when necessary. network layer provides connectionless services and connection-oriented services. Signaling Connection & Control Part (SCCP) The purpose of SCCP is to provide complete network layer functions with the help of MTP. controlled transfer and restricted transfer. These procedures are used only when the signaling services from the originating point reach the destination through the signaling transfer point. 3-6 . The routing function of SCCP is mainly used in addressing with such information as DPC + SSN (destination signaling point code + subsystem No.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Signaling Traffic Management (STM) is used to transit the signaling flow from one link/route to another or multiple available links/routes when the signaling network fails. The connection between the signaling data link and the signaling terminal is normally established by the man-machine commands. transfer allowed. SCCP not only provides network service functions. ISDN supplementary services.711~716 Recommendations. The application of SCCP enables: Interconnection of signaling networks. III.g. e. SCCP provides reliable services for any information exchange on the basis of MTP. and signaling route group congestion test. SCCP protocols are defined in ITU-T Q. Operations in the signaling system can not automatically change the above connection relationship. signaling route group test.

This service is flexible and simple and it applies to the transfer of a small amount of data. Connectionless services transfer user data by adopting the Unit Data Message (UDT) and Extended Unit Data Message (XUDT). so the transfer delay of data batches can be effectively curtailed. users do not establish the signaling connection before data transfer. Class-1 service guarantees the sequential transfer of messages depending on the coordination of SLS (Signaling Link Selection) and MTP.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description SCCP network management function mainly executes signaling point state and subsystem 1) state management. state information broadcast and subsystem state testing. This class of service applies to the transfer of large volumes of data because the destination has confirmed to be able to receive data before the data is transmitted. Instead. In such cases. active/standby subsystem switchover. basic connection-oriented service and flow control connection-oriented service. Basic services of SCCP SCCP services can be classified into four classes: Basic connectionless service. At the same time. which is required for connectionless and connection-oriented service. UDT messages do not have data segmentation/concatenation capability and can transfer only a small amount of user data. the data is transferred through the established signaling connection. in-sequence delivery connectionless service. and hence the invalid transmission of data batches can be prevented. When the transfer of data is finished. 2) SCCP routing control The SCCP routing control provides a powerful address translation function. XUDT messages have the segmentation/concatenation capability and can transfer up to 2 kbyte user data. the signaling connection need not be released. 0 and 1 are connectionless service. there is no need to select routes by using the SCCP routing function when transferring data. while 2 and 3 are connection-oriented. the pre-established connection results in no SCCP routing for the subsequent data transfer. -Connection-oriented service Connection-oriented services require the establishment of signaling connection (virtual connection) via the acknowledged mode between the originating point and the destination point before the transfer of signaling information. but use the routing function of SCCP and MTP to transfer data information directly in the signaling network. Various SCCP services are introduced as follows: -Connectionless service In connectionless service. Class-0 service does not guarantee the sequential transfer of messages. The following specific address information can be found in SCCP: 3-7 .

2) Typical message contents -DTAP messages According to the functional units of the NSS that process the DTAP messages. It eliminates the disadvantages of the small number of MTP message users. It does not represent directly routing information in the signaling network. For the latter. 3) SCCP management SCCP management (SCMG) is to keep the network functionality by re-routing or adjusting traffic in case of network faults or congestion. The address range of GT is far larger than that of DPC. which serves as A-interface specification. GT (Global Title) is a dialed number. describes two kinds of messages: BSSMAP and DTAP message.214 numbers that are unique in GSM. the DTAP messages can be divided into Mobile Management (MM) messages and Call Control (CC) messages. and E. DPC is meaningful only in the designated signaling network while GT is meaningful in the global range. needs to be handled by the internal functional module of the A-interface accordingly. The management messages adopt class-0 UDT. It is transported directly to the radio channel at the BSS side while it is transported to the corresponding functional processing units at the NSS side. such as ISUP. and BSSAP. state information broadcast.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description DPC DPC + SSN or GT (or both) GT + (SSN) DPC is the destination point code used by MTP in addressing. is used to identify different SCCP users in the same node. BSSAP 1) Protocol overview The BSSAP protocol. SCCP management includes signaling point management. The powerful addressing capability of GT is an important feature of SCCP. and faulty subsystem state testing. 3-8 . BSSAP protocols are defined in ETSI GSM 08. which enables the transfer of information unrelated to circuits between any two signaling points in the global range. GT codes differ from DPC. This function is accomplished by transferring SCCP management messages and primitives. MAP. the A-interface is equivalent to a transmission channel. ISDN numbers. which is responsible for traffic flow control. and the addressing range can be expanded to meet the requirements of future new services. and can be obtained only through GT code translation. The former. active/standby subsystem switchover.08 specifications. IV. subsystem management.08 and ETSI GSM 04. the subsystem number. TCAP. such as international and national telephone numbers. SSN.

The Block/Unblock messages include Block & Block ACK messages and Unblock & Unblock ACK messages. MM state. CM service request. The connectionless messages consist of Block/Unblock. notification. Circuit Group Unblock and Circuit Group Unblock messages. There are two kinds of connection setup: 3-9 . location update. Handover Complete and Handover Error messages. Reset. identification request. etc. When MS needs to exchange service-related messages over radio resources with the network side while there is no MS-related SCCP connection between MSC and BSS. release. call proceeding. disconnection. etc. a new connection will be established. Clear and Cipher messages. state query. Handover Request ACK. The call control messages consist of alerting. setup. Paging messages. modification. Resource. The Clear messages include Clear Request and Clear Complete messages. Handover. The Assignment messages include Assignment Request. The Cipher messages include Cipher Mode Command and Cipher Mode Complete messages. DTMF startup messages. A new connection shall also be set up for external handover. Handover Command. Handover. connection. Circuit Group Block ACK message. -BSSMAP messages The BSSMAP messages can be divided into connectionless and connection-oriented messages. The Handover messages include Handover Request. The resources messages include Resources Request and Resource Indication messages. Handover messages include Handover Candidate Enquire and Handover Candidate Enquire Response. IMSI detach.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The MM messages consist of messages related to authentication. The connection-oriented messages include Assignment. Assignment Complete and Assignment Error messages. etc. TMSI re-allocation. The Reset messages include Reset and Reset ACK messages. 3) BSSAP protocol functionality The BSSAP protocol can deliver its own functions in connection-oriented mode and connectionless mode of SCCP. The Circuit Group Block/Unblock messages include Circuit Group Block message.

BSS sends a Reset message to MSC. which releases the affected calls. These must be considered when MSC decides an external handover.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description While MS sends the Access Request message on the RACH. 2 Block/Unblock 3 Amount of all available radio resource (i. deletes the affected reference messages and sets all the circuits related to the BSS to idle. If MSC or BSS is only locally faulty. If this channel is no longer available then BSS notifies it to MSC. BSS allocates a dedicated radio resource (DCCH or TCH) to MS. After the L2 connection is set up on the SDCCH (or FACCH) where resources are allocated. if BSS goes faulty or loses all the reference messages about processing. The Block/Unblock procedure can carry out this function. BSS starts the connection setup. During circuit assignment. The BSSAP protocol implements the functional flow as shown in Table 4-1 using the connection and connectionless messages. “Reset” is to initialize the BSS or MSC. The initial MS random access and “immediate assignment” to a DCCH is processed automatically by BSS but not controlled by MSC.e. it must reserve a new DCCH or TCH from the target BSS. In this scenario. 4 Reset 3-10 . MSC starts the connection setup. When MSC decides to execute an external handover (the target BSS might be the original BSS). able to provide Resource Indication service or have been specified) It is not easy to get this information from the MSC-controlled services. For instance. Resource indication serves to notify MSC: Amount of the radio resource available for TCH in BSS. MSC selects an available terrestrial channel. the affected parts can be cleared using the Clear procedure. Table 3-1 Functions Serial number Function Description 1 Assign “Assign” is to ensure the dedicated radio resources are allocated or re-allocated properly to the MS.

b) MSC starts the Handover Candidate Enquirer procedure. which is loaded in the BSSMAP Full L3 Message. MSC sends a “Clear Command” to BSS to release radio resources. The MS is waiting for the handover. it will establish an SCCP connection to MSC. for the reasons as listed below: a) BSS detects a radio cause for handover. On receiving the command. to which dedicated resources have been allocated. When processing is done. If BSS receives the Paging Response message at the radio channel interface. BSS will send a “Clear Request” to notify MSC to start the release procedure to release the terrestrial and radio resources concerning MSC and BSS. The paging response message. This is the procedure in which MSC instructs MS to access the radio resources of another cell. 5 Handover Request 6 7 Handover Procedure 8 Release of Radio Resources and Terrestrial Resources 9 Paging 3-11 . The paging to MS is transported with the SCCP connectionless service via BSSMAP. is transported on the signaling connection to MSC. BSS starts the Clear procedure at the radio interface. which in turn releases the terrestrial resources of the local end. then sets the configured terrestrial circuit to idle and returns a Clearing Complete message to MSC. If resources need to be released by BSS. The Allocation target BSS will reserve resources and wait for an MS to access this channel. Handover Resources Allocation enables MSC to request for Handover Resource resources from BSS based on the handover request. such as call clearing. Due to congestion. The Handover Request messages should be re-sent once in a while till one of the following situations occurs: Receive the "Handover Command" message from MSC Reset message is received All communications with MS will be interrupted and the processing is aborted Processing is over.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Serial number Function Description BSS may send a “handover request” to MSC requesting to perform handover of the MS. When handover is carried out. the serving cell needs to be changed during the call setup such as directed retry. the original dedicated radio resources and terrestrial resources are maintained all the time until MSC sends a Clear Command message or Reset occurs.

A interface circuit resource management The purpose of the terrestrial channel management between BSS and MSC is to keep the states of terrestrial circuits at both ends consistent. the traffic state of the adjacent cells will be taken into account by the adjacent BSS during handover. Circuit Group Block/Unblock. MSC sends the corresponding MS Classmark messages to the new BSS via the A-interface.1. except Reset Circuit. 11 Classmark Update 12 Cipher Mode Control 13 Queuing Indication 14 Load Indication 3. General principles of the circuit control includes: The circuit management messages. Load indication serves to notify the traffic state of a cell to all the adjacent BSSs so that an overall control over the handover services in an MSC can be exercised. Flow control can be implemented based on subscriber classes. It is also likely that when handover is complete. This procedure is valid only when the queuing function is introduced for traffic channel assignment and traffic channel handover in the BSS. Flow control on the A-interface is implemented by controlling the traffic at the traffic source. Procedures included in the interface circuit resource management are Circuit Block/Unblock. In a certain valid period. The Cipher Mode Control procedure allows MSC to transport the cipher mode control messages to BSS and start the subscriber equipment and signaling cipher equipment with a correct Kc. This procedure is designed to notify MSC that BSS wants to delay the allocation of necessary radio resources. Generally.3 A-Interface Management at BSS Side An interface management in M900/M1800 BSC includes terrestrial channel management (or A interface circuit resource management). Unequipped Circuit. BSS notifies MSC after receiving the class messages from MS. I. An idle circuit can be found when the MSC "assigns circuit" in calling and assigns terrestrial circuit during MS handover to make sure a successful call/handover. 3-12 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Serial number Function Description 10 Flow Control Flow control can prevent the entities from receiving too much traffic. Classmark Update serves to notify the class messages received from MS to the receiving entities. management of part of the radio resources. and Reset Circuit. are initiated by BSC. Two levels of flow control are available. and so on.

BSC Unblock circuit MSC Unblock anknowledged Figure 3-6 Process of unblocking the circuit The purpose of Circuit Unblock is to unblock the circuit blocked by the BSC. the busy circuit will not be blocked until the communication is completed. The Circuit Group Block procedure does not affect the circuits in service. BSC Block circuit MSC Block ackonwledge Figure 3-5 Process of blocking the circuit Circuit Block procedure means the circuits corresponding to the BSS and the MSC are blocked simultaneously. 2) Unblock the Circuit The process of unblocking the circuit is shown in Figure 3-6. the BSS has no authority to unblock or reset the circuit. When BSC is sending Block message. an alarm will generate at BSC. This procedure can be used in Phase I and Phase II. When there is no "Block ACK" message received by BSC for a certain period of time. the circuit at BSC side is still in the blocked state. Even if BSC does not receive Blocking ACK. This procedure can be initiated by the maintenance console of the BSC or by the allocation of circuit during call process or during handover request. The BSS can not change the circuit state that has been changed at the local end of the MSC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The MSC can only block/unblock the local circuits without affecting the circuit state of the BSS. 1) Block Circuit The process of blocking the circuit is shown in Figure 3-5. this message will be sent again. that is. This procedure can be originated by maintenance console or originated during equipment 3-13 . For circuits blocked on the maintenance console at MSC side.

When BSC is sending the unblocking message. this message will be sent again. the circuits at the BSC side are still in the blocked state. 4) Group-unblock the circuit The process of unblocking the circuit is shown in Figure 3-8. this message will be sent again. that is.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description fault recovery. The Circuit Group Block procedure does not affect the circuits in service. When there is no "Group Block Ack" message received by BSC for a certain period of time. 3) Group-unblock the Circuit The process of blocking the circuit is shown in Figure 3-7. Even if BSC does not receive the message of Group Block ACK. When BSC is sending Group Block message. When there is no "Unblock ACK" message received by BSC for a period of time. This procedure can be started by the maintenance console or by trunk equipment itself automatically. This procedure is used for Phase 2 only. the busy circuit will not be blocked until the communication is completed. BSC Group block MSC Group block acknowledged Figure 3-7 Process of blocking the circuit The purpose of the Circuit Group Block is to block multiple A-interface circuits simultaneously. BSC Group unblock MSC Group unblock acknowleged Figure 3-8 Process of blocking the circuit 3-14 . an alarm will be generated at BSC. an alarm will generate at BSC. the circuit at BSC side is still in idle state. Even if BSC does not receive the Unblock message. The Circuit Unblock procedure is generally started by the maintenance console and can be used by GSM Phase 2 and Phase 1.

This procedure is used for Phase II only. 6) Reset circuit The Reset Circuit procedure is shown in Figure 3-10. When BSC is sending the group-unblocking message.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The purpose of the Circuit Group Unblock is to unblock multiple A-interface circuits simultaneously. Even if BSC does not receive the Group Unblock ACK message. When there is no "Group Unblock ACK" message received by BSC for a period of time. This procedure can be initiated during any procedures related to circuits. the circuits at BSC side are still in the idle state. This procedure is used for Phase 2 only. an alarm will be generated at BSC. The unequipped circuit will not be sent again. BSC Unequipped circuit MSC Unequipped circuit Figure 3-9 Process of unequipped circuit The Unequipped Circuit procedure is used by BSC or MSC to inform the peer end that the circuit does not exist and cannot be used. BSC Reset circuit MSC Reset circuit acknowledged Figure 3-10 The process of resetting the circuit 3-15 . When BSS or MSC sends Unequipped Circuit message. alarms will be generated. This procedure can be started by the maintenance console or by trunk equipment itself automatically. this message will be sent again. 5) Unequipped Circuit The Unequipped Circuit procedure is shown in Figure 3-9.

Similar procedure is followed by MSC. abnormal release of SCCP) affects only a small part of the equipment. A-interface radio resources management A-interface radio resource management mainly includes Resource Indication and Clear procedures. When BSC is sending the resetting message. When the MSC receives the Reset Circuit message. Even if the BSC does not receive the Reset Circuit ACK message. it clears the possible calls on the circuit and sets the circuit to idle state. The Reset Circuit procedure initiated by MSC is similar to the above figure. BSC Resource indication request MSC Resource indication Figure 3-11 Resource indication process at A interface 3-16 . as well as the total available radio resources (resources able to provide services or already assigned). the only difference is the direction of the messages. Reset Circuit message will be sent repeatedly. Then it returns the Reset Circuit ACK message. 1) Resource Indication The Resource Indication procedure is shown in Figure 3-11. If a BSC does not receive Reset Circuit ACK message and time is out. The Reset Circuit can also be initiated through maintenance console to be used for maintenance and testing. II.g. Figure 3-10 shows the Reset Circuit procedure initiated by the BSC. The purpose of the Resource Indication procedure is to inform MSC about the number of idle radio resources in BSS which can be used as traffic channels. The repetition times can be set through software.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The purpose of Reset Circuit is to recover the system resource information of the MSC and BSC when the fault (e. The MSC may consider the relevant information when identifying the external handover. the circuit at the BSC side is still in the idle state. an alarm will be generated at BSC.

In the automatic indication mode. the BSS instantly return a Resource Indication message about the corresponding cell to MSC. In the single indication mode. and the procedure is finished. BSC Clear command MSC Clear complete Figure 3-12 Clear procedure initiated by MSC The clear process originated by BSS is illustrated in Figure 3-13. In the non-indication mode. the cell corresponding to the BSS will continuously send Resource Indication messages to MSC according to the cycle set in the Resource Indication Request message when resource of the cell satisfies the conditions. And the average result shall divide the idle channel into 5 interference sections according to the interference level. For each idle channel. No indication is the default mode. In the periodic indication mode. the BSS continuously sends Resource Indication Request message according to the cycle set in Resource Indication Request. This procedure includes two cases: Clear initiated by MSC and Clear initiated by BSS. The clear process originated by MSC is illustrated in Figure 3-12. until it receives the new Resource Request message or Reset message. single indication. The period shall be set by the MSC. the BSS calculate the average value of the interference level within a period. and the actual period are 100ms multiply the original value. the BSS immediately returns a single Resource Indication" message without any resource information. periodic indication and no indication. The Resource Available Information Elements includes two pieces of information for each of the five interference bands: number of available half-rate traffic channels in the interference band and number of available full-rate traffic channels in the interference band. 2) Clear process The purpose of the Clear procedure is to release all relative terrestrial circuit resources and radio resources. 3-17 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description There are four types of resource indications including automatic indication.

which will release all calls and connection resources and set all circuits related to BSS as idle. This process is applied when the power Classmark of a dedicated resource occupied by MS is changed. Reset at BSS: BSS releases all resources and sends the Reset message to the MSC. 1) Classmark update The purpose of Classmark update is to notify MSC about the class information received from MS. Error Handling.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description BSC Clear request Clear command Clear complete MSC Figure 3-13 Clear procedure initiated by BSS III. Queuing. See Figure 3-15. which are Classmark Update. indicating that the reset is successful. 3-18 . SCCP Link Control and Load Indication. After guard period T2 seconds. BSC MSC Classmark update Figure 3-14 Process of Classmark update 2) Reset process Reset procedure is to initialize the BSS or MSC in the event of failure so that all resources can be released. the MSC returns the Reset ACK message to the BSS. Reset. See Figure 3-14. Other A-interface management procedures There are some other A-interface management procedures. Flow Control.

System malfunction or congestion will not be caused. which will release all calls and connection resources upon the receipt of the message. See Figure 3-16. a dynamic sliding window is adopted. which is started in overloading. the BSC can control the flows from MS. A-interface at the MSC side will generate the Overload message to inform the BSC to control the traffic flow. When the MSC is overloaded. The control algorithm used is the flow control algorithm stipulated by the GSM specifications. The window is invalid when the MSC is no longer overloaded. See Figure 3-17. BSC Reset MSC Reset acknowledged Figure 3-16 MSC reset process 3) Flow Control Process The purpose of Flow Control at the BSC side is. That is. After guard period T13 seconds. 3-19 . and the flow of calls can be controlled within a reasonable range. indicating that the reset is successful. and the size of the window can be modified according to the size of the traffic so as to control the traffic. when the MSC is overloaded. a Reset ACK message is returned to the MSC. which is executed by using the specific design developed by Huawei.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description BSC Reset MSC Reset acknowledged Figure 3-15 BSS reset process Reset at MSC: MSC releases all resources and sends the Reset message to the BSC.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description BSC Overload MSC Overload Overload Figure 3-17 Flow Control Process Note: When BSC is overloaded. BSC will send "Overload" message to MSC. MSC implements flow control. according to the cell list attached to the message. Therefore. 3. Its physical link is the radio link. This procedure is used to control the handovers.2 Um Interface Um interface (air interface or radio interface) is defined as the communication interface between MS and BSS. A-interface will stop sending control messages through software. 6) Error handling As errors may occur on the transmission links. A-interface shall start clearing the resources as soon as the link is recovered to prevent the hang-up of resources. which contains this cell. 5) SCCP Link Control In case of the abnormal disconnection on the SS7 link. It is for the communication between MS and the fixed part of GSM. messages transferred may not be understandable. The information transmitted via 3-20 . BSC side also has the corresponding flow control measure. A-interface continues sending control messages. When the SS7 link recovers. A-interface shall omit the error messages and send selectively "confusion" messages (these messages are used in GSM Phase 2+). 4) Load Indication Load Indication procedure informs the traffic condition of a cell to all neighboring BSS. it forwards the information to the BSS. Due to the long-time disconnection. After the MSC receives the Load Indication message.

The norm concerning the signal transmission on the radio channel is the radio interface. and provides basic radio channels for information transfer on higher layer. 3-21 . as shown in Figure 3-18. It includes 3 sub-layers. MS is connected through radio channels to the fixed network so that a call can be routed to the specific destination. The Um interface can be divided into 3 layers. mobility management and connection management. The Um interface is specified by the following features: Channel structure and access capability MS-BSS protocols Maintenance and operation characteristics Performance characteristics Service characteristics. and Connection Management (CM). It is necessary to follow a standard interface so that a complete compatibility can be achieved between different of different manufactures. 3. which are Radio Resources management (RR).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description this interface include radio resource management. which is the basic condition for global roaming. The Um interface is the most important interface in the GSM system.1 Overview In a GSM/GPRS network. The layer 3 is the highest layer. L3 L2 L1 Figure 3-18 Layered structure of Um interface The first layer is the physical layer at the bottom. It includes various channels. It includes various messages and programs. it is necessary to standardize the transmission of the signals on the radio channel. It includes various data transmission structures.2. and controls services. Mobility Management (MM). and controls data transmission. To realize the inter-working between MS and BSS. or Um interface. The layer 2 is the data link layer using the LAPDm protocol.

In GSM system. A TDMA frame consists of 8 consecutive timeslots. The time and frequency window it occupies is called slot. The transmission unit on Um interface is the burst consisting of about 100 modulated bits.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3. including error detection and correction. along with frequency hopping.2 Layer 1 . The logical channel is multiplexed on the physical channel. Multiple access scheme Both FDMA and TDMA techniques are used by Um interface. The duration of the slot is the timeslot. the physical layer (L1) and radio resources management sublayer (RR) of L3. Physical layer interface and services The interfaces between the physical layer (L1) and data link layer (L2). Frame consists of n consecutive timeslots. The frequency slot here is the RF channel in GSM specification. Each BP is of 200kHz wide with duration of 0. The frame in this format is called a TDMA frame. are shown in Figure 3-19. 3-22 . Error code detection: Physical layer provides error protection transmission. It is called "BP (Burst Pulse). Radio resource management L3 Data link Other functional unit TCH MPH Primitive PH Primitive Physical layer Figure 3-19 Physical layer interface The physical layer provides the following services: Access capability: the physical layer provides a series of limited logical channels for transmission service. "n" is 8. Ciphering: II. the physical layer (L1) and other functional unit.Physical Layer I.577ms (15/26ms) as shown in Figure 3-20. Frequency width occupied by the slot is called frequency slot.2.

If a RF channel is not Frequency Hopping. In other words. it follows that its central frequency is constant. which can be differentiated by serial numbers. Figure 3-21 illustrated the complete TDMA frame. 3-23 . the period is 8. 1 Hyper Frame=2048Super Frame=2715648TDMA Frame (3h28m53s760ms) 0 TCH SACCH/T FACCH 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCCH 47 48 24 49 25 50 1 Super Frame=1326TDMA Frame (6. consisting of 8 timeslots. In the GSM system. namely. one RF channel contains 8 physical channels.615ms (120/26ms). otherwise its central frequency changes in a unit of 200kHz.615ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 3-21 Frame structure of channel One TDMA frame has a duration of 4. one TDMA frame.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Frequency Chapter 3 Interface Description 3 2 1 Time 200 kHz 0 1 2 BP 15/26ms 3 4 5 Slot 6 7 8 Figure 3-20 Concept of timeslot A physical channel is the burst sequence transported in the timeslots that occur at specific and periodic intervals. This serial number is called time slot number.12s) 0 0 1 2 1 3 1 Multiframe= 26TDMA Frame(120ms) 0 1 24 25 0 1 Multiframe=51TDMA Frame(3060/13ms) 1 49 50 1TDMA Frame=8 Timeslot (120/26=4.

2) Logical channel The logical channel is obtained by multiplexing the physical channel in TDM. Physical channel and logical channel 1) Physical channel The physical channel is the combination of FDM and TDM and is composed of the slot stream between BTS and MS. Great effort has been made to design the frame structure of the logical channels in 3-24 . slow associated control channel and fast associated control channel. A Multiframe of 51 frames has duration of 235. A hyperframe contains 2048 superframes.12 s. Different logical channels serve to transport different types of messages between BSS and MS. The period of superframe is 6.e. so a physical channel must be described from two perspectives: Frequency band description Table 3-2 GSM/GPRS frequency bands Item 900 band 1800 band Working frequency band Duplexing interval Carrier interval Uplink (MS to BTS): 890~915 MHz Down (BTS to MS): 935~960 MHz 45MHz 200kHz Uplink: 1710~1785 MHz Downlink: 1805~1880 MHz 95MHz 200kHz Time description TN: Timeslot No. Multiframe of 26 frames has duration of 120 ms and carries traffic channel. The physical channel is a combination of frequency division and time division. i. which are numbered from 0 to 2715647.12 seconds. Its period is 12533. III. Each period of the hyper frame contains 2715648 TDMA frames. 3h28m53s760ms.76 s. One superframe consists of 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control multiframes and consists of 51×26 TDMA frames with a total duration of 6.365 ms and be used as control channel. but whatever the arrangement is. FN: TDMA Frame No. the frame structure of the logical channels are always periodic in time. Different logical channels have different frame structure.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Multiframe consists of 26 or 51 frames. The logical channel is mapped to the physical channel as per certain rules.

Among all carriers of a cell. The range of timing advance is 0 ~ 233µs (corresponding TA: 0 ~ 63). the transformation procedure is shown in Figure 3-22. there is only one supporting BCCH (and CCCH). IV. but to MS. V. This results in a complicated frame structure system in the GSM system. 3-25 . This is the timing advance. Carrier C0 must be transmitted on the same frequency with constant power. In the GSM system. and downlink from BTS to MS. Procedure from source data to radio wave The radio channel bears features totally different from the wireline channel. a series of conversions and inverse conversions are needed to give necessary protection for the transmitted signals. the TDMA frame on the uplink always lags behind the TDMA frame on the downlink by 3 BP. multipath fading and shadow fading. or it will lose synchronization with BTS. the transmitting at MS side should be in advance. The relation between logical channel and physical channel is detailed described in ETSI GSM 05. For BTS. First. The frequency used by the C0 is called nominal frequency. downlink and MS In GSM/GPRS system. the radio channel exhibits remarkable time-varying features. the precision deviation of the uplink and downlink is 3BP minus the timing advance with respect to MS. This carrier is defined as C0 in the protocol. The MS under the dedicated mode must do the transmission at any time in proper timing advance. (This procedure is the same for other user data or signaling). To realize this. There is always some transmission delay during its passage to the BTS (serving cell) due to the mobility of MS and the transmission delay is generally not fixed. The cell is uniquely identified through this carrier. burst formatting. These include the conversion from the primitive user data or signaling data to the messages carried by the radio wave.02 specification. and that vise versa. encryption and decryption. Impacted by interference. To address the problems brought about by radio channel transmission. the signals are characterized by high error codes. Therefore. The size of the MS can be greatly reduced if the transmission and receiving can be completed in different time. modulation and demodulation. the “Adaptive Timing Adjustment” approach is introduced to ensure the MS in a dedicated mode uses proper timing advance. in the GSM system. this delay is fixed. The timing advance of uplink. For voices. These conversions mainly include channel encoding/decoding. uplink refers to the link from MS to BTS. interleaving and de-interleaving.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description order to build a high-performance system in the GSM specifications. To make up the transmission delay between MS and BTS. it is a different issue.

The interleaving and encoding schemes of various transmission modes are listed in Table 3-3. The result of channel encoding is a data block. Each channel burst pulse has a message block. the message flow becomes the sequence of message block. The length of voice data is 456 bit. Interleaving Interleaving means mixing several data blocks so that the neighboring bits in the modulated signals can be extended into these data blocks. If the correlation between the errors is eliminated. 3-26 . the channel encoding performance can be improved. After interleaving. The purpose of interleaving is to eliminate the correlating error and the location correlation in the data block.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Voice Voice Chapter 3 Interface Description Digitalization and source coding Source coding Channel coding Channel decoding Interleaving De-interleaving Burst formatting Burst formatting Ciphering De-ciphering Modulation Dem odulation Transmitter Receiver Figure 3-22 Procedure from source data to radio wave 1) The operation process at the transmitting side Channel coding Redundancy is introduced to the message flow to detect and rectify errors in the transmission process. In the message flow. the consecutive errors are correlated.

6 72 456 TCH/F2. Three ends are all 0. For the content of the ordinary burst. PAGCH 8 36 On 1 access burst pulse On 8 burst pulses Format burst pulse Add the training sequence to the message bit flow so that the receiving end can estimate the transmission feature of the channel.4 3.4 3. Same as the above On 8. BCCH. so as to restore the received signal.8 12 6 13 132 78 50 1/2 convolutional code 1/2 convolutional code None 1/2 convolutional code Subtracting 1 bit from each 15 bit Add 32 "0" bits 1/3 convolutional codes 1/6 convolutional codes 1/3 convolutional codes Odd-even code (10bit) 1/2 convolutional code Odd-even code (6bit) 1/2 convolutional code 224/184 Fire code 184 1/2 convolutional codes 456 On 4 burst pulses Combined on 22 uneven burst pulse. An ordinary burst contains two groups of 58bit.6 144 456 SCH 25 78 RACH (+ Handover access) Fast Associated Control Signaling on TCH/F and TCH/H TCH/8.5 burst pulses Combined on 22 uneven burst pulses On 1 S burst pulse 456 On 8. see Table 3-4.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Table 3-3 Interleaving and encoding under various transmission mode Channel and transmission mode Input rate kbit/s Inpu t bloc k Outpu t block Code Interleaving Odd-even code (3bit) Ia TCH/FS Ib II TCH/F9. which are separated with a 26 bit training sequence. 3-27 . They are added to the head and end of the burst.8 6 120 456 TCH/F2.5 burst pulse 240 456 TCH/F4.6 TCH/F4. SACCH.

BT = 0. Modulate Convert the burst sequence into RF analog signal so that it can be transmitted on the RF channel in the form of radio wave. Ciphering Modify the message flow with the ciphering mode recognizable to both MS and BTS to ensure the safety of the subscriber data. the modulation rate is 2705/6 kbit/s. 36 bit information. Then it demodulates the signal and output binary bit stream. For its content. The modulation adopts GMSK. Table 3-5 Content of an access burst Head Training sequence Information End 7 41 36 3 S burst is applicable to downlink SCH. Its only purpose is to enable the MS to find and modulate the S burst in the same cell. It contains a 41 bit training burst.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Table 3-4 Content of an ordinary burst Head Information Training sequence Information End 3 58 26 58 3 The access burst is the only short burst in GSM. Table 3-6 Content of an ordinary burst Head Information Training sequence Information End 3 39 64 39 3 F burst is a long burst. see Table 3-6. all 0. 7 bit at the head and 3 bit at end. 2) The operation process at the receiving end Demodulate When antenna receive radio signal. Its length is the same as other ordinary bursts (142 bit). Its length is 148 bit. selects the useful signal according to multi address rule. Decipher Modify the received message bit flow by reversing the process of ciphering. Format burst pulse 3-28 . The content of the access burst is listed in Table 3-5.3.

DLCEP is identified by Data Link Connection End Point Identifier (DLCEPI). an association must be established between the layer 3 entities in the data link layer using a data link layer protocol. LAPDm supports multiple layer 3 entities and physical layer entities. De-interleaving Restore the original locations of various bursts and reestablish the codes. Channel decoding Use the attached redundancy information to check and correct the errors in the message flow as much as possible.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Remove the training sequence in the message flow. Note: The Dm channel is a generic term for all the signaling channels at the Um interface in the GSM system. which evolves from the LAPD protocol. Each SAP is associated with one or multiple Data Link Connection End Points (DLCEP).3 Layer 2 . I. Viewed from layer 3. the Dm channel can either be PCH or BCCH. Messages at the data link layer are transferred between entities at layer 2 of the physical layer.2. For information exchange between two or more layer 3 entities. It receives the service from the physical layer and provides service to L3. LAPDm 1) Function LAPDm transfers information between layer 3 entities through the radio interface on the Dm channel. For instance. Viewed from layer 2. The data link Service Access Point (SAP) is the node that provides services for layer 3. This association is called a data link connection. it is identified by the Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI). PCH. The link layer protocol used by the GSM system at the radio interface is the LAPDm protocol. AGCH and DCCH. (DLC). two SAPI values are defined in the LAPDm protocol: 0 (main signaling) and 3 (short messages). The communication between data link layer entities is governed by a peer-to-peer protocol specific to the layer. The same applies for the interaction between the data link layer and the physical layer.Data Link Layer Data link layer is the second layer of the OSI model. SAP is identified through SAPI. 3. and signaling of BCCH. Currently. Layer 3 request services from the data link layer via service primitives. 3-29 .

Information transfer on the PCH + AGCH: These channels exist only in the network to MS direction. the UI frames are not acknowledged. Acknowledged operation is applicable to DCCH. Contention resolution when establishing a data link after an access request has been made on the RACH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description LAPDm includes functions for: The provision of one or more data link connections on a Dm channel. In case of errors. Error recovery procedures based on retransmission of unacknowledged frames are specified. Information transfer on the BCCH: The BCCH exists only in the network to MS direction and is used for broadcasting radio sub-system information to MSs. a report is issued to the layer 3 entity. The type of operation required at any time is determined by layer 3. Discrimination between the data link connections is by means of a data link connection identifier (DLCI). On the PCH + AGCH only unacknowledged operation is possible. The data link layer acknowledges the transmitted I frame. 2) Operation types Two types of operation of the data link layer are defined for layer 3 information transfer: unacknowledged operation and acknowledged (multiple frame) operation. Allows L3 message units to be transmitted transparently between L3s. Allows for frame type identification. Information transfer on the DCCHs: On the DCCHs both unacknowledged operation and multiple frame operation are possible. Flow control mechanisms and error recovery mechanisms are not defined. 4) Release of data links: 3-30 . Flow control procedures are also defined. Unacknowledged operation: In unacknowledged operation. They may co-exist on a Dm channel. Only UI frames are sent on the BCCH. Acknowledged operation: In unacknowledged operation. information transfer modes are different. Unacknowledged operation is applicable to different types of control channels except for RACH. Exercises sequence control to maintain the order of frames that pass DLC. layer 3 information is transmitted in Unnumbered Information (UI) frames. Check on the format and operation errors on the data links. 3) Information transfer mode: On different channels. At the data link layer. Flow control. which cannot be corrected by the data link layer. layer 3 information is transmitted in Unnumbered Information (UI) frames.

No verification of message arrival within the data link layer. multiple frame operation. The primitive format between layer 2 and the management layer is MDL_XX_XXX. Identification of data link connection endpoints to permit a layer 3 entity to identify another layer 3 entity. initiated and controlled by layer 3. This type of release is initiated by layer 3. The primitive format between layer 2 and layer 3 is DL_XX_XXX. DL-UNIT DATA-INDICATION indicates the arrival of a message unit received by means of unacknowledged information transfer. 3-31 . Sequence integrity of data link layer message units in the absence of machine malfunctions. 1) Services provided to layer 3 Unacknowledged information transfer service The characteristics of the unacknowledged information transfer service are summarized in the following: Provision of a data link connection between layer 3 entities for unacknowledged information transfer of layer 3 message units. Acknowledged information transfer service One mode of acknowledged operation is defined.e. Interaction among them is accomplished by primitives. The primitives associated with the unacknowledged information transfer service are: DL-UNIT DATA-REQUEST/INDICATION The DL-UNIT DATA-REQUEST primitive is used to request that a message unit be sent using the procedures for unacknowledged information transfer service. without exchange of commands/responses. The data link layer provides services to layer 3 and uses the services provided by the physical layer. Service characteristics. And the primitive format between layer 2 and physical layer is PH_XX_XXX. Sending of frames in accordance with priority given to the message.e. II. i. The characteristics of this service are summarized in the following: Provision of a data link connection between layer 3 entities for acknowledged information transfer of layer 3 message units. i. Local end release. Identification of data link connection endpoints to permit a layer 3 entity to identify another layer 3 entity.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Multiple frame operation may be released in the following ways: Normal release by exchange of commands/responses.

Primitives used for multiframe acknowledged information transfer include: DL_DATA_REQUEST/INDICATION: used to request that a message unit be sent using the procedures for multiframe acknowledged information transfer and the arrival of message units received by means of acknowledged information transfer. Sending of frames in accordance with the indicated SAPI value. DL_ESTABLISH_REQUEST/INDICATION/CONFIRM: These primitives are used to request. 3) Administrative services Primitives used by management layer services: MDL_ERROR_INDICATION. loss of sequence.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Notification to the peer entity in the case of errors. MDL_RELEASE_REQUEST. Random access procedure The primitive used by the random access process is DL_RANDOM ACCESS_INDICATION. 2) Services required from the physical layer The services provided by the physical layer are summarized in the following: Physical layer connection for transparent transmission of frames. Provision of frame synchronization. Provision of error protection to ensure a low residual bit error rate at the data link layer. DL_RELEASE_REQUEST/INDICATION/CONFIRM: used for the termination of the multiframe mode. Indication of physical state of the Dm channel. Flow control. used by the data link layer to indicate that there is an error in the data link layer procedures that cannot be resolved by normal exception handling procedures. Transmission of data link layer message units in the same order as they were issued by the data link layer. 3-32 . Notification to the layer 3 entity of unrecoverable errors detected by the data link layer. used by the layer 3 entity to initiate abnormal local end release of a data link. Segmentation and concatenation control functions. indicate and confirm the establishment of multiple frame operation between two data link layer entities. which is used in the MS to request the transmission of a random access burst. for example. Transmission (in the MS) and reception (in the network) of random access bursts.

Supplementary services support (SS). the 3 sub-layers of layer 3 are further discussed here: Among them. the highest sub-layer is composed of three functional entities: Call Control (CC). operation and release of a dedicated radio channel connection (RR). These program blocks transfer message units carrying various kinds of information among all layer 3 entities and between layer 3 and neighboring layers.4 L3 I. In total. It provides the necessary supporting functions related to supplementary services control and short messages service control.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3. GSM 04. Layer 3 consists of 3 sub-layers including Connection Management (CM).07 does not consider the distribution of signaling functions among the different network equipment. Introduction The signaling layer 3 provides the functions to establish. The objectives of the layer 3 are to provide the means for: The establishment. The layer 3 body consists of many functional program blocks. The functions of the signaling layer 3 are performed by means of the signaling layer 3 protocols between two systems which represent the Mobile Station side and the Network side of the radio interface as viewed by the Mobile Station. there are five functional entities consisted in the layer 3 radio interface. For establishment. Mobility Management (MM) and Radio Resource management (RR). maintaining and termination of circuit-switched calls (CC). II. Below is the brief introduction to these entities: 3-33 . Exchange of information between two peers of the signaling layer 3 is performed by means of the three sublayer protocols. Short Message Service support (SMS) and Supplementary Service support (SS).2. Short messages service support (SMS).. maintain and terminate circuit-switched connections across a GSM PLMN and other networks to which the GSM PLMN is connected. Furthermore it includes the functions necessary for mobility management and radio resource management. L3 Structure As have already introduced. For location updating. Interaction between layer 3 and higher layers and between services interfaces of layer 2 as well as that between neighboring sub-layers in layer 3 can be described in primitives and parameters. provide the Mobile Network Signaling (MNS) Service to the upper layers. therefore. authentication and TMSI reallocation (MM). The functions of layer 3 and its supporting lower layers.

and release of physical channels and logical channels. The MM sub-layer provides services to the three entities (CC. and multiplex them in case of parallel transactions. this message will be transferred to RR at the local sub-layer. CC deals with all necessary functions to establish or release the circuit-switched connections. It notifies the network when the mobile station is activated and deactivated. e. Those functions are defined in the Radio Resource Management and Mobility Management. other functions are contained in layer 3 which are related to the transport of messages. In addition. and provides services via RR-SAP to the MM sub-layer. SMS performs all necessary functions to support point-to-point short message services. or the location area is changed. If PD equals to RR. The MM routing function route the messages of the CM entities and the messages of the MM entity of its own sublayer towards the service access point of RR. It is also responsible for the security of activated radio channels. multiplexing and splitting. Figure 3-23 illustrates the protocol model of L3 signaling. The RR sub-layer at the bottom receives services provided by layer 2 through various service access points (i. various types of channels) of layer 2. maintenance. Other messages are provided to MM via the access point RR-SAP. The routing function of MM passes the messages according to the protocol discriminator (PD) and the transaction identifier (TI) towards the MM entity or towards the CM entities via the various MM-SAP's. SS deals with all necessary functions to support GSM supplementary services. The 3 independent entities on the CM sub-layer provide services to higher layers through MNCC-SAP.g. Mobility Management (MM) deals with the all necessary functions of mobile features to support mobile subscribers.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Radio Resources (RR) management handles the establishment. MNSS-SAP and MNSMS-SAP respectively. They have the task to route the messages according to the protocol discriminator (PD) and transaction identifier (TI) which are part of the message header. SS and SMS) on the CM sub-layer through different service access points MMCC-SAP.. as well as cross-cell transfer on the request of CM sub-layer.e. The routing function of Radio Resource Management shall distribute the messages to be sent according to their protocol discriminator (PD) and the actual channel configuration. 3-34 . The messages provided at the different service access points of layer 2 are split by the RR routing function according to the protocol discriminator (PD). MMSS-SAP and MMSMS-SAP respectively.

call maintaining. 2) Inter-layer services between the mobile station and network side 3-35 SDCCH SACCH RACH .. Call Control services for normal and emergency calls including call related Supplementary Services Support services. including call establishment. call termination and call related supplementary service support.e. Short Message Services Support.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Mobile Service Chapter 3 Interface Description MNCC-SAP MNSS-SAP MNSMS-SAP CC SS SMS MMSS-SAP MMCC-SAP MMREG -SAP MMSMSSAP MM Layer 3 Signaling MM CC SS SMS RR-SAP RR PD RR . 1) Services provided by layer 3 on the MS side Registration services. Short Message Services Support.RR SAPI 0 BCCH AGCH+PCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH SAPI 3 Figure 3-23 Um interface L3 protocol model III. IMSI attach and detach operations. Services provided by layer 3 on the network side Call Control Services. Service characteristics. Call independent Supplementary Services Support. i. Call independent Supplementary Services Support..

Services provided by mobility management entities (MM). They are used for establishing control channel connections. and control-data transfer. releasing control channel connections. supplementary services and short messages services of connection management entities.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Services provided by Radio Resource Management entity. ciphering mode indication. These services are provided to MM via RR-SAP. MS MM Network Side RR . establishing traffic channel connections.Primitive RR SAP corresponding layer protocol RR Figure 3-24 Communication at RR MS CC SS SM CC Network Side SS SM Corresponding layer protocol MM MM Figure 3-25 Communication at MM 3-36 . These services support call control.

However.52.56 and 08. The interworking between different vendors' BTS and BSC has not been realized. At the beginning. network management 3-37 . the complete standardization of Abis interface has not been turned into reality.54.3 Abis interface 3. The terrestrial traffic channels on the Abis interface and the radio traffic channels on the Um interface are in one-to-one correspondence with one another. As a result ETSI only strictly define the service part of Abis interface in 08. 08.1 Overview The Abis interface is the interface between Base Station Controller (BSC) and Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Radio Signaling Link). and didn't define the O&M part. Different logical links are used for traffic management message (RSL.58 of the GSM specification. LAPD addresses TRX (or BCF) through TEI.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3. BTS BSC RR RR LAPDm Sign Layer1 BTSM LAPD Layer1 BTSM BSSAP SCCP LAPD MTP Layer1 Abis BTSM: Base Transceiver Station Management LAPD: Link Access Procedure on the D Channel RR: Radio Resource LAPDm: Link Access Procedure on the Dm Channel SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part BSSAP: Base Station Subsystem Application Part Figure 3-26 Protocol model of Abis interface Layer 1 of the Abis interface is hardware-based and responsible for receiving and transmitting data to the physical link. ETSI hope to realize the complete standardization of Abis interface. Protocol Model 1) Protocol Model The protocol model of the Abis interface is shown in Figure 3-26. It is an internal interface of the BSS.3. the Abis interface can only be regarded as an internal interface. Therefore. 08. so that the BTS can connect to the BSC of different supplier. The layer 2 protocol of the Abis interface is based on the LAPD. I.

However. BSC and BTS do not interpret CM (Connection Management) and MM (Mobility Management) messages. random access.56 defines the data link protocol of Abis interface. DTAP messages are transferred as transparent messages. GSM 08. 2) Abis interface related protocols: GSM 08. GSM 08.58 defines the layer 3 procedures. some of them have to be interpreted and executed by BTS (for example. In BTS. and L2 management messages (L2ML. 3-38 . Operation & Maintenance Link). these messages are processed by the BTSM (BTS Management) entities in BSC and by BTS. most of RR messages are handled as transparent messages. GSM 08. Layer 2 Management Link). II.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description message (OML.54 defines the physical structure of Abis interface. RR (Radio Resource Management) messages are mapped onto the BSSAP (BSS Application Part) in BSC. Multiple TRXs are connected with the BSC via different physical connections.52 defines the basic principles for the Abis interface specifications.21 defines the transmission mechanism of the OM message on the Abis interface. At the Abis interface. Structure of Abis interface The Abis interface can support three different internal BTS configurations (as illustrated in Figure 3-27): Single TRX. GSM 08. cipher. Multiple TRXs are connected with the BSC via a common physical connection. These messages are transferred over the A-interface by DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part). GSM 12.60 defines the in-band control protocol of the remote transcoder and rate adapters. and the traffic function division between BSC and BTS. paging and assignment).

Different Terminal Equipment Identifiers (TEI) are assigned to get unique addresses of TRXs. one for each TRX. Three separate logical links are defined with each TEI (as shown in Figure 3-28): RSL: Radio Signaling Link used to support traffic management procedures. 16kbit/s and 64kbit/s respectively. for transferring the management messages at L2. which are: Traffic channels with the rates of 8kbit/s. 3-39 . and between BSC and BTS. carrying speech or data from radio channels. Signaling channels with rates of 16kbit/s. channel configuration. which is defined in the PLMN. software loading. OML: Operation & Maintenance Link used to support network management procedures. L2ML.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem BSS Abis TRX BCF TRX A MSC BSC TRX Abis TRX BCF Abis TRX TRX TRX TRX BCF Chapter 3 Interface Description BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 Figure 3-27 Struction of Abis interface In Figure 3-27: TRX is the functional entity that supports 8 physical channels that belong to the same TDMA frame. operation and maintenance. There are two types of channels at the Abis interface. The BCF (Base Control Function) is the functional entity that performs common control functions including BTS initialization. one for each SITE. carrying signaling between BSC and MS. L2 management link. 32kbit/s or 64kbit/s respectively.

The BTS fulfills the interworking and mapping of the terrestrial channels and the radio channels. as well as the radio resource and radio interface parameters. which manages the external and the internal interfaces. providing services for a specific cell. The specific function division between the BTS and the BSC is shown in Table 3-7. 3-40 . Functional division between BSC and BTS The BSS is composed of two functional entities. The BSC is the controlling part of the BSS. BSC and BTS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem BSC RSL SAPI=0 OML SAPI=62 L2ML SAPI=63 Chapter 3 Interface Description BTS TRX BCF TEI1 LAYER 2 RSL SAPI=0 OML SAPI=62 L2ML SAPI=63 TRX TEI2 BCF TEI MANAGEMENT RSL SAPI=0 OML SAPI=62 L2ML SAPI=63 TRX BCF TEI3 OML SAPI=62 L2ML SAPI=63 BCF TEI4 BCF Figure 3-28 Abis interface layer 2 logical links III. BTS is the radio part of the BSS under the control of the BSC.e. as well as the interworking of the MS and the network via the radio interface (Um interface). i.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Table 3-7 Distribution of services and functions between BTS and BSC Function Location BTS BSC/MSC Remark MSC-BSC channel Terrestrial channel management BSC-BTS channel Channel allocation Blocking indication Channel allocation Blocking indication √ √ √ √ Channel configuration management Frequency hopping Manageme nt Execution Channel allocation Link monitoring DCH management Radio channel management Channel release Idle channel observation Power control decision System information manageme nt BCCH/CCCH management System information broadcast Random access check Immediate assignment √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Note 1 √ √ √ 3-41 .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Function Location BTS BSC/MSC Remark BCCH/CCCH management DTX paging manageme nt DTX paging execution √ √ Channel coding/decoding Radio channel management Transcoding/rate adaptation Uplink measurem ent Measurement Processing measurem ent report Traffic measurem ent Timing advance Calculation Indication to MS during random access Timing advance Indication to MS during handover Indication to MS during session LAPDm function Manageme nt Execution Handover Manageme nt √ √ √ √ √ Note 2 √ √ √ √ Radio channel management √ √ √ √ √ Ciphering 3-42 .

and provides connection-oriented or connectionless services for layer 3. Both kinds of channels have different transfer patterns and coding rates. Physical layer Abis interface physical layer adopts the PCM link with the working rate at 2048 kbit/s to provide 32 channels at 64kbit/s. In the radio channel of BSS.20. BSS is the connection point of the radio channel and terrestrial channel. Given to the channel utilization at the Abis interface. 3. Data link layer 1) Overview The data link layer of Abis uses LAPD protocol. M900/M1800 BTS does not support TRAU at BTS side. the transfer rate is 16kbit/s while it is 64kbit/s in the terrestrial channel. The electro-technicial parameter at the physical layer conforms to the CCITT G. but the BSC or MSC instead. TRAU can be located at BTS side.2 Protocols on the Abis Interface I. Data coding is described in GSM 08.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Function Location BTS BSC/MSC Remark Radio channel management Mobility Management Calling Control Handover access check √ √ √ Note 1: The support of power control in BTS is optional Note 2: The initial measurement data is reported by BTS to BSC through Abis interface. which reduces the load of BSC. The data link Service Access Point (SAP) is the point that provides services for layer 3.703 recommendations. BSC side or MSC side. II.3. This function is realized at the physical layer of Abis interface by the Transcoder & Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU). Therefore transcoding and rate adaptation is needed. A data link connection 3-43 . SAP is identified by Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI).60. The in-band control protocol of TRAU is stipulated in GSM 08. As an option. It utilizes the service on the physical layer. the BSC/BTS may support preprocessing of the initial data in BTS.

58 specifications. Implementing part of the radio resource management functions under the control of BSC. Checks the transmission errors. The procedures defined in this specifications has two major functions: Realizing the interworking of the MS and BSS/NSS on the Um interface. format errors and operation errors. Traffic management of Layer 3 The traffic management part of the Abis interface layer 3 is mainly described in GSM 08. Implements sequence control to keep the order of the frames that pass the data link connections. The information may be transferred through point-to-point data link connections or via broadcast data link connections. locates and transmits transparently frames so that a string of bits transmitted on the D channel in the form of frames can be identified. The communication between data link layer entities is governed by a peer-to-peer protocol specific to the layer. III. Delimits. To be specific. 2) Function The purpose of LAPD is to realize reliable end-to-end information transfer between layer 3 entities through the user-network interface by using the D-channel. Makes recovery based on the detected transmission errors. Multiple L3 entities. 3-44 . Functions of LAPD includes: Establishes one or several data links on the D channel. format errors and operation errors in the data link connections. Flow control. an association must be established between the layer 3 entities in the data link layer using a data link layer protocol. LAPD supports: Multiple terminal equipment between subscriber and interface. Data link layer provides the means for information transfer between multiple combinations of data link connection points. Notifies the management layer entities of the unrecoverable errors.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description endpoint is identified by a data link connection endpoint identifier as seen from layer 3 and by a data link connection identifier (DLCI) as seen from the data link layer. Inter-layer service request is implemented with service primitive. Messages at the data link layer are transferred between entities at layer 2 through physical layer. For information exchange between two or more layer 3 entities.

1) Radio link layer management procedures Radio link layer management procedures include: Link establishment indication procedure: BTS uses this procedure to indicate to BSC the success of setting up multi-frame link originated by the subscriber. as shown in Figure 3-29. The traffic management messages can also be divided into four groups in terms of functions.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The traffic management message is divided into the transparent and non-transparent messages. which are: Radio link layer management message. Link establishment request procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to request the establishment of a link layer connection in multi-frame mode on the radio channel. used for the management of the data link layer on the radio channel. Dedicated channel management message used for the management of dedicated channels (SDCCH and TCH). BSC establishes a link from MSC to SCCP through the indication. Transmission of a transparent L3-message on the Um interface in unacknowledged mode: This procedure is used by BSC to request the sending of a transparent L3 message to MS on the Um interface in unacknowledged mode. 3-45 . Reception of a transparent L3-message on the Um interface in acknowledged mode: This procedure is used by BTS to indicate the reception of a transparent L3 message on the Um interface in acknowledged mode. Link release request procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to request the release of a link layer connection on the radio channel. The transparent message refers to the messages forwarded without interpretation or being processed by the BTS. Common control channel management message used for the management of common control channels. TRX management message used for TRX management. Link release indication procedure: This procedure is used by BTS to indicate to BSC that a link layer connection on the radio channel has been released at the initiative of an MS. The non-transparent message refers to the messages processed and structured by the BTS. Transmission of a transparent L3-message on the Um interface in acknowledged mode: This procedure is used by BSC to request the sending of a transparent L3 message to MS on the Um interface in acknowledged mode. Transparency and group of the message is determined by the message discriminator at the header of the message.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Reception of a transparent L3-message on the Um interface in unacknowledged mode: This procedure is used by BTS to indicate the reception of a transparent L3 message in unacknowledged mode. BTS reports all parameters related to handover decision to the BSC through this procedure. and as an optional procedure in BTS.08. Connection failure procedure: This procedure is used by BTS to indicate to BSC that an active connection has been broken. Radio channel release procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to release a radio channel that is no longer needed. 3) Common channel management procedures Common channel management regulations include: 3-46 . Physical context request procedure: This is an optional procedure which allows the BSC to obtain information on the "physical context" of a radio channel just prior to a channel change. an Additional Assignment or a Handover Command message. BTS Transmission power control procedure: This procedure used between BSC and BTS to set the TRX transmission power level or the parameters required by TRX. an Assignment Command. MS power control procedure: This procedure is used by BSS to set the MS power level or the parameters required by TRX. The BTS transmission power control decision should be implemented in BSC.08. Measurement report procedure: It includes the necessary basic measurement report procedure and measurement report preprocessing procedure. Channel mode modification procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to request a change of the channel mode of an active channel. Handover detection procedure: This procedure is used between the target BTS and BSC to detect the accessing of the MS being handed over. Start of encryption procedure: This procedure is used to start encryption according to the procedure defined in Technical Specification GSM 04. SACCH information modification procedure: BSC uses this procedure to instruct BTS to change the information (system information) filled in a specific SACCH channel. or in BTS. MS power control decision must be implemented in BSC. 2) Dedicated channel management procedures The dedicated channel management principles includes: Channel activation procedure: This procedure is used to activate a channel at BTS for an MS which later will be commanded to this channel by an Immediate Assignment. Link error indication procedure: Through this procedure BTS indicates BSC incase of any abnormality in the radio link layer. Deactivate SACCH procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to deactivate the SACCH at BTS according to the Channel Release procedure defined in Technical Specification GSM 04.

There are: SACCH filling information modify procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to indicate to BTS the new information to be used as filling information on SACCHs. downlink CCCH overload and ACCH overload. IV. The value of this paging group together with the identity of the mobile station is sent to BTS. Operation and maintenance part of Layer 3 1) Operation and maintenance information model Managed objects There are four types of management objects: site. carrier and channel. an Immediate Assign Command has been deleted. Indication period is also set by OM. Radio resources indication procedure: This procedure is used to inform BSC on the interference levels on idle channels of a TRX. Error reporting procedure: This procedure is used by BTS to report detected downlink message errors. Paging principle procedure: It is used to page an MS on the specified paging sub-channel. Short message cell broadcast procedure: Short Message Service Cell Broadcast messages are sent to BTS as SMS Broadcast Request messages. BSC uses this procedure to assign a dedicated channel for the mobile station immediately. 3-47 . The paging of an MS is initiated by BSC sending a Paging Command message to BTS. Immediate assignment procedure: When a mobile station accesses BTS. The basic structure is illustrated in Figure 3-29. Flow control procedure: This procedure is defined to give some degree of flow control. 4) TRX management procedures This type of procedure is used for TRX management.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Channel request by MS procedure: The procedure is initiated by TRX upon detection of a random access from an MS (Channel Request message from MS). Broadcast information modification procedure: This procedure is used by BSC to indicate to BTS the new information to be broadcast on BCCH. cell. which cannot be reported by any other procedure. Delete indication procedure: This procedure is used by BTS to indicate that due to overload on the AGCH. CCCH load indication procedure: This procedure is used by BTS to inform BSC the load on a designate CCCH. BSC determines the paging group to be used according to the IMSI of the called MS. It can be used for TRX processor overload.

New services can not be connected to this managed object. All or part of resources are available and can be used. For each object case in BTS there is a complete L2 connection description. but those existing calls will be maintained. and available state is the specific explanation of operative state.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description SITE CELL 0 CELL 1 CELL n TRX0 TRX TRX1 TRXm CH0 CH1 CH7 Figure 3-29 Basic structure of management object Object addressing Addressing of network management messages is realized by means of managed object types and cases. See Table 3-8. Object cases can also use layer 3 addresses. Table 3-8 Management status State Description Locked Shut down Unlocked BSC has disconnected all calls through this managed object. and no new calls can be connected to this object. Table 3-9 and Table 3-10. Managed object state Management status include management status. 3-48 . Subsequent connections use the TEIs provided when setting up TEI procedures. The management state of managed objects is only controlled by BSC. operation status and availability status. and can no longer provide services to the users. The mixed use of layer 2 and layer 3 addressing enables one BTS site have one or multiple physical links. New calls can be connected to this managed object. The setup of the first connection uses one (semi-) permanent default TEI. Table 3-9 Operation status State Description Disabled Enabled Resources are completely unavailable.

The default timeout for layer 3 is 10s. the whole message is discarded. the system will not start its subsequent basic procedures. the basic procedure is regarded as “not completed”. The source/object is not working due to some internal error. There are mainly the following types of basic procedures: Software loading management procedure Abis interface management procedure Transmission management procedure 3-49 . such as rate or operational capacity. called as structured procedures. then no subsequent basic procedure is sent to this object case. A NACK message returned by the object indicates disaffirm response. Its operational state is disabled. A ACK message returned by the object indicates affirm response. such as rate or operational capacity. The resource needs power supply. For a specific object. All formatted O&M messages are sent on layer 2 in the form of I frames. Its operational state is disabled. If part of an original message is not understood or supported. The resource needs manual or automatic operations. Single formatted O&M messages that need not be responded are called a basic procedure. Its operational state is disabled. are based on the combination of some basic procedures. if a certain basic procedure is not completed.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Table 3-10 Availability status State Description ln test Failed Power off Off line Dependency Degraded Not Installed The resource is being tested. Its operational state is disabled. Services provided by this resource are degraded in a certain sense. When the previous basic procedure has not received any response (ACK or NACK) before layer 3 timeout. it is used to notify the message sender that the command executed unsuccessfully and the corresponding failure cause. Its operational state is disabled. A group of procedures. Most formatted O&M messages initiated by BSC or BTS require the peer layer 3 endpoint to give response or acknowledgment in the form of formatted O&M messages. Services provided by this resource are degraded in a certain sense. it is used to notify the message sender that the command has been executed or will be executed. Its operational state is disabled. 2) Basic procedures All procedures are based on formatted O&M messages. Its operational state is disabled. When there is no response to the formatted operation and maintenance message from the peer layer 3 before L3 timeout. Hardware or software of the managed objects is not installed.

The transmission modes on the Abis interface can be terrestrial. For thinly populated and scattered areas where ordinary transmission technology is expensive and difficult to implement. There are three types of multiplexing modes on Abis interface: 10:1. 12 or 15 TRX data on the same E1 respectively. Supporting smooth expansion of BTS capacity. I. It also supports the control over BTS and the allocation of frequency. Huawei offers connectivity through satellite. Abis interface has the following characteristics: Supporting all the services as stipulated in the GSM 02 series. Transmission Modes on the Abis Interface The transmission modes on the Abis interface can be terrestrial or satellite. microwave or optical fiber. satellite. 12:1 and 15:1. meaning the ability to simultaniously transmit 10.3 Characteristics of Abis Interface Huawei's Abis interface supports various services.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Air interface management procedure Test management procedure State management and event reporting procedure Equipment state management procedure Other procedure 3.3. These two types of transmission mode are selected in the BSC data configuration. Satelite MSC Earth Station Earth Receiving E1 Station BTS BSC BTS SDH/PDH /HDSL/Microware /E1 BTS Earth Receiving E1 BTS Station Figure 3-30 Networking of satellite transmission 3-50 . Figure 3-30 shows a typical example of networking through satellite.

following measures are taken: LAPD protocol is modified to overcome the impact of delay. Which is calculated by 8kbit/s rate.4 T1. respectively meaning that the data of 10.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The networking implementation through satellite transmission is different from the land transmission due to long transmission delay.0 T0.1 T1.1 T4. There are three multiplexing modes for Abis interface: 10:1. j sub-timeslot of the No.7 3-51 . each TRX corresponds to an RSL..0 T4.1 T0.0 T3. including Traffic Channel (TCH). and the column is the sub-timeslot No.0 T2.2 T4.5 T3. i TRX which occupys a 16kbit/s sub-timeslot on E1.4 T3.6 RSL3 T4. In the following description.6 RSL1 T2. 1) Timeslot distribution of E1 in 10:1 multiplexing Table 3-11 Sequence table under 10:1 mode Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T4.5 T0. Ti.6 T4.j refers to the No. Abis interface channel assignment Abis interface has three types of channels.6 RSL0 T1.3 T2.5 Synchronization T0. The adjustment algorithm of the TRAU frame is modified from fixed cycle adjustment to self-adaptive adjustment.2 T1.1 T2.7 T1.3 T3.4 T4.2 T0. the row is the timeslot No.5 T1.6 RSL2 T3.3 T0. and a radio traffic channel corresponds to the traffic channel at the Abis interface. 12:1 or 15:1.3 T4.7 T0. The BTS clock works in internal clock mode. 12 or 15 TRXs can be simultaneously transmitted on one E1. II.1 T3.0 T1.2 T3.4 T0. Each site corresponds to an OML. Radio Signaling Link (RSL) and Operation & Maintenance Link (OML).7 T3.2 T2.7 T2. To get good quality transmission.5 T2.3 T1.4 T2.

4 T0.6 RSL9 OML T9.5 RSL4 T5.1 T7.5 T0.0 T2.3 T0.3 T9.1 T9.7 T0.7 T8.2 T9.4 T6.6 RSL7 T8.2 T5.2 T8.6 RSL8 T9.6 RSL5 T6.2 T7. RSL1 T1. 2) Timeslot distribution of E1 in 12:1 multiplexing Table 3-12 Sequence table under 12:1 mode Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T3.5 T6. .4 T5.5 T2.7 T5. RSL3 T3.0 T5.1 T1.1 T1.3 T2.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T9.0 T0.4 T2.3 T5.3 T1.6 RSL0.7 T6.3 T6.6 RSL6 T7.0 T8.7 3-52 .6 T2.2 T2.5 T7.0 T1.3 T1. Each signaling link occupies a 64kbit/s timeslot on the E1.4 T9.1 T8.7 In 10:1 multiplexing.5 Synchronization T0.1 T2.0 T3.6 RSL2.0 T6.4 T7.7 T2.2 T6.2 T3.7 T7.4 T1.2 T0.2 T1.3 T8.4 T8.1 T5.3 T7. If some sites cascad on one E1. the E1 can carry 4 sites/9 TRXs or 7 sites/8 TRXs.0 T9.1 T0. each E1 carries 10 TRXs.0 T7.5 T5.5 T8.1 T6.

If some site cascaded on one E1.7 T4.5 T10.1 T6. each E1 carries 12 TRXs.2 T8.4 T9.7 T10.3 T10.0 T5.3 T8.3 T11. and every two RSLs share a 64kbit/s timeslot of E1.6 T11.1 T10.2 T11. RSL11 T11.4 T10.2 T6.0 T11.2 T10.7 T9.4 T6.2 T7.3 T7.7 T6.5 T4.1 T5.6 T9.5 T8.6 T4.5 OML T3.2 T9.4 T3.7 T11.4 T4.0 T8.7 T5.0 T7.2 T5.4 T5.3 T9.4 T7.1 T7.5 T6.5 RSL4. 3) Timeslot distribution of E1 in 15:1 multiplexing Table 3-13 Sequence under 15:1 mode Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 0 1 2 3 4 V1 V5 V9 V13 V2 V6 V10 V14 Synchronization V3 V7 V11 V15 V4 V8 V12 V16 3-53 .5 RSL10.2 T4.0 T10.3 T4.5 RSL8.3 T5.1 T8.4 T8. then the E1 can carry 3 sites/11 TRXs or 6 sites/10 TRXs.1 T9.7 In 12:1 mode.0 T4.6 T7.6 T5.1 T4.0 T6.7 T8.5 RSL6.4 T11.6 T6.0 T9.7 T7. RSL5 T5.6 T8. RSL9 T9.1 T11.6 T10. RSL7 T7.6 T3.3 T6.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T3.

5. and timeslots 1 to 27 contain 108 sub-timeslots of 16kbit/s for the use by traffic channels of 15 TRXs. If all cascaded sites have the same 15:1 configuration. 13. 4. 10 RSL3. Vi refers to the ith traffic channel of the site. 8. 1. 9. 3-54 . each E1 carries 15 TRXs. The E1 can be configured with 16 signaling links. 12. 6 OML+RSL0. every 4 of which share a 64kbit/s timeslot. 14 In 15:1 mode. 2 V19 V23 V27 V31 V35 V39 V43 V47 V51 V55 V59 V63 V67 V71 V75 V79 V83 V87 V91 V95 V99 V103 V107 V20 V24 V28 V32 V36 V40 V44 V48 V52 V56 V60 V64 V68 V72 V76 V80 V84 V88 V92 V96 V100 V104 V108 RSL11.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Sub-TS TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 V17 V21 V25 V29 V33 V37 V41 V45 V49 V53 V57 V61 V65 V69 V73 V77 V81 V85 V89 V93 V97 V101 V105 V18 V22 V26 V30 V34 V38 V42 V46 V50 V54 V58 V62 V66 V70 V74 V78 V82 V86 V90 V94 V98 V102 V106 RSL7. then a single E1 can carry 2 sites/14 TRXs or 4 sites/12 TRXs.

The BSSGP L3 protocol of the Gb interface is designed mainly to carry out such operation & maintenance functions as uplink and downlink transmission of the upper layer (LLC layer) signaling and data.4. which is based on the Frame Relay (FR) protocol. can be actually implemented by means of point-to-point frame relay network connection or multipoint-to-multipoint frame relay network connection. I. The location of Gb interface in GPRS system is similar to that of the A interface in GSM system. while Gb interface is between BSS and SGSN. flow control. A interface is between BSS and MSC. downlink data flow control. mobility management. This is a mandatory interface in GPRS network. Layered Model of the Gb interface protocol Figure 3-31 describes the location of the Gb interface and the main structure of the interface protocol stack. Their difference is that Gb interface is more suitable to provide packet service. The Network Service (NS) L2 protocol of the Gb interface implements the transmission function of the NS SDUs at the Gb interface as well as configuration and state management of NS-VS. Through this interface SGSN communicates with BSS to implement such functions as packet data transfer. etc. 3-55 . which includes the PCU. and blocking/unblocking and restarting of BVC (BSSGP Virtual Connection). M900/M1800 BSS. can be connected with the SGSN from any other vendor.4 Gb interface 3. LLC RLC MAC RELAY BSSGP NS BSSGP NS L1 Gb SGSN L1 BSS L1 Figure 3-31 Protocol stack at Gb interface The L1 physical layer of the Gb interface.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3. etc.1 Overview The Gb interface is the standard open interface between BSS and SGSN.

which specifies the details of the L3 protocol BSSGP of the Gb interface between BSS and SGSN. which specifies the details of the L2 protocol NS of the Gb interface between BSS and SGSN.14. GSM 08.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description II. 3-56 . not limited to the GPRS Gb interface only. The related protocols of the Gb interface include: GSM 03. GSM 08.16.2 Protocols on the Gb Interface I. the Gb interface is also an open interface so it is strictly designed according to GSM specifications to ensure good interworking between the GPRS BSS and the GPRS core network of different manufacturers. 3. which specifies the location definition and the protocol stack structure of the Gb interface. As shown in Figure 3-32 and Figure 3-33. Related protocols of the Gb interface Like the A interface. Gb BSS (user) SGSN (network) Figure 3-32 Point to Point mode BSS (user) Gb Frame Relay network Gb SGSN (user) Figure 3-33 Intermediate network mode The Frame Relay is a mature and universal physical layer protocol.18.4. FR Frame Relay protocol introduced for the physical layer of the Gb interface and E1 or T1 is imported for the physical media. The frame relay module enables the interworking between sub-networks so that the two ends (PCU and SGSN) can connect with each other directly through dedicated link (in point-to-point mode) or through frame relay network (in an intermediate network mode). GSM 08.60. which specifies that physical layer of the Gb interface between BSS and SGSN should use the FR protocol.

and MS tracing. Network congestion indication: When the NS layer detects congestion or congestion removed on the bottom layer link. Network state indication: When the NS layer finds the bottom layer link is faulty and it cannot transmit data or the bottom layer link fault has recovered. BSSGP L3 protocol Distributed over the two sides of the Gb interface. III. Figure 3-34 describes the service model implemented by the BSSGP protocol at both ends i. involving downlink data flow control. the NS protocol layer has symmetrical functions on both sides of the Gb interface. blocking. The normal operation of the NS layer affords a reliable channel and protection for the normal operation of the upper layer protocol.16 Netw ork service Netw ork service Figure 3-34 BSSGP service model It can be seen from the protocol service model that the functions offered by BSSGP to the upper layer fall into three major parts: NM BSSGP: This part performs the network management function at the Gb interface.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description II. 3-57 .e. Service model in a BSS RELAY GMM NM Service model in an SGSN LLC GMM NM GSM 03. It delivers mainly three service functions as follows: Upper Layer SDU transfers: All messages transported in the BSSGP layer are transferred in the NS layer in the form of NS SDU. it will notify the specific faulty point (recovery point) message to the upper layer so that the latter can handle it accordingly. it will notify the upper layer through the congestion indication message so that the latter can handle it accordingly. the NS protocol layer has symmetrical functions on both sides of the Gb interface. unblocking and resetting of BVC (BSSGP Virtual Connection). But as a whole it provides simple and clear interface services to the upper-level BSSGP.64 RLC/MAC RL GMM BSSGP GSM 08. NS Distributed over the two sides of the Gb interface.16 NM BSSGP GMM NM BSSGP GSM 08. BSS and SGSN.

It also carries out transparent transmission of the uplink and downlink upper-layer data. Uplink and Downlink Data Transfer: Gb interface delivers the data transmission service at BSS and SGSN. making it easy to interwork with the equipment of other manufacturers in the network. 2) Flexible FR BC bandwidth and NS-VC bandwidth The bandwidth of the physical carrier channel of the FR layer of M900/M1800 PCU can be configured flexibly between 64x1kbit/s~64x31kbit/s. regardless of whether or not the available PTP entity is in the same physical board as the faulty PTP entity. When a PTP entity is somehow unavailable. and suspending and resuming of the GPRS service. including network paging to MS. 3-58 . 3. regardless of whether or not the available SIG entity is in the same physical board as the faulty SIG entity. 4) BSSGP layer entity switchover M900/M1800 PCU supports full switchover between BSSGP PTP entities and between BSSGP SIG entities. When a SIG entity is somehow unavailable. This is crucial in enhancing the transmission reliability and utilization of the Gb interface. Although they differ in their names (it is called RL BSSGP service at the BSS side and LLC BSSGP service at the SGSN side). they are fully identical in their function implementation. 3) Load sharing on the NS layer M900/M1800 PCU supports full load sharing between NS-VSs of an NSE. the services in the entity can be switched over automatically to another available PTP entity. MS radio access capability. The bandwidth of NS-VC in the NS layer can be configured flexibly between 1kbit/s~1984kbit/s.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description GMM BSSGP: This part performs the GPRS mobility management function at the Gb interface. The entity switchover function in the BSSGP layer is vital in boosting the reliability of the BSSGP layer. This measure greatly facilitates the network planning. NS-VSs can be located on different boards.4. The Local Management Interface (LMI) supports Annex A of ITUT Q933 as stipulated in the GSM protocol as well as Annex D of CISCO LMI and ANSI T1-617.3 Characteristics of Gb Interface 1) Flexible physical interface and LMI support M900/M1800 PCU supports ITU-T standard E1 interface. the services in the entity can be switched over automatically to another available SIG entity.

5.4 15. etc. The transmission parameter of GPRS encoding mode is listed in Figure 3-10. G-Abis interface should be able to provide the rate of 32 kbit/s. with abundant in-band signaling contents including a series of mechanisms such as BTS measurement.5 G-Abis Interface 3.2 Interface Features A PCU can be located at three positions. The difference lies in that G-Abis interface provides functions and features more suitable for packet switching service. When CS-3/4 encoding mode is supported.6 21. packet data transfer.05 13. air interface block synchronization. Through this interface. The G-Abis interface has the following features: Packet switching services. BTS power control.5. Huawei’s G-Abis interface has maximum transmission bandwidth utilization and effectively supports the processing of packet data and signaling. Table 3-14 Transfer parameters of coding schemes Coding scheme Coding rate Code bits Rate kbit/s CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 1/2 2/3 3/4 1 456 588 676 9. so the G-Abis interfaces of different manufacturers are implemented in different ways.1 Overview G-Abis interface is an internal interface between PCU and BTS in Huawei’s GPRS BSS. G-TRAU frame format transfer is adopted.4 When CS-1/2 encoding mode is supported. the rate of G-Abis interface should be less than 16kbit/s. 3-59 . Provide 16kbit/s band width to transmit packet data of CS-1/CS-2 code and 32kbit/s band width to transmit packet data of CS-3/CS-4 code. in-band signaling transfer and block synchronization. 3. etc. PCU fulfils communication with BTS and handles packet signaling transfer. RLC/MAC block coding scheme indication. But there is no substantial specification of the interface between BTS and PCU in the GSM/GPRS specifications.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3. It is similar to the Abis interface between BSC and BTS. data and signaling are transferred by G-TRAU frame.

supporting additionally CS-3/CS-4 packet traffic channel LAPD channel 3-60 . which reaches BTS through BSC relay. Depending on the usage of channel resources. The sub-TSs in E1 occupied by the G-Abis interface and the Abis interface are shown in Table 4-9. Table 3-15 Sample of G-Abis interface TS configuration (in PCU-BSC section) TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 Usage 0 1 n m 31 0 4 4n 4m 124 1 5 4n+1 4m+1 125 2 6 4n+2 4m+2 126 3 7 4n+3 4m+3 127 E1 synchronization TS Packet data channel Packet data channel Dynamic additional sub-TS. the G-Abis interface and the Abis interface may share one E1. the data blocks sent by PCU to BTS can establish a precise time sequence relationship with the TDMA frame numbers of BTS.5. The frame number message of the air interface is transported between PCU and BTS via the in-band signaling.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description BTS measures the strength and quality of the uplink radio signals and reports via the G-Abis interface the measurement results to PCU. RSL (circuit-switched radio signaling link) and OML (circuit-switched operation & maintenance link) link in the E1 from BSC to BTS. The BSC functions only as a physical relay for the data of the G-Abis interface. The RLC/MAC block coding scheme is sent by PCU via G-Abis to BTS. the G-Abis interface counts physically on the 2Mbit/s E1. which controls the uplink power based on the results.3 Physical Layer/Transmission Media Like the Abis interface. which makes radio block coding for the downlink data and the uplink radio blocks based on the code. After a synchronization process. There are packet traffic channel of the G-Abis interface. as shown in Table 4-8. PCU sends the BTS control parameters to BTS through G-Abis and provides control over the downlink power based on the parameters. There are packet traffic channel of the G-Abis interface and LAPD channel of the Pb interface in the E1 from PCU to BSC. 3. All the packet data channels (PDCH) used by GPRS take the structure of 52 multiframes and maintain a strict mapping relationship with the G-TRAU frames of the G-Abis interface. circuit traffic channel of the Abis interface. so that there is minimum time delay when the uplink and downlink data blocks are processed in BTS.

Performs signaling interworking between PCU and BTS. Each G-TRAU frame has the following fields as listed in Table 4-10. 3-61 . In CS-3/CS-4. Table 3-17 G-TRAU structure G-TRAU frame field Description Frame Header Data Domain In-band signaling Serves to synchronize G-TRAU frames between BTS and PCU. In CS-1/CS-2. supporting additionally CS-3/CS-4 packet traffic channel RSL OML n m 31 4n 4m 124 4n+1 4m+1 125 4n+2 4m+2 126 4n+3 4m+3 127 The radio channel on the air interface can be dynamically allocated as TCH or PDCH to supports GPRS services. the bandwidth of the PDCH exceeds 16kbit/s. and the dynamic additional Sub-TS pool consisting of 16kbit/s idle TSs. The sub-TSs for the Abis interface transport speech data with E-TRAU frames (GSM 08. 3. RLC/MAC data blocks generated during BTS decoding. PCU is responsible for restoring the messages. This issue can be resolved with the additional sub-TS. additional Sub-TS will be taken from the additional Sub-TS pool and attached to the main TS. they are transmitted simultaneously in the main and additional Sub-TS.5. Two type sub-TSs can convert each other.4 G-TRAU Frame Structure It transports a bi-directional G-TRAU frame between BTS and PCU in every 20ms for one PDCH. or RLC/MAC data blocks sent by PCU to BTS after being encoded. the PDCH with the rate of 16kbit/s can be carried by one sub-TS. This is made up of 16kbit/s main TSs configured for TCH by Abis interface. The sub-TSs at the E1 can be allocated dynamically to the Abis interface or the G-Abis interface.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Table 3-16 Sample of G-Abis interface configuration (in BSC-BTS section) TS Sub-TS 0 Sub-TS1 Sub-TS2 Sub-TS3 Usage 0 1 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 E1 synchronization TS Circuit traffic channel or packet data channel Dynamic additional sub-TS. so one sub-TS is not enough to carry the PDCH. After the data to be transmitted are decomposed by BTS.60) and the sub-TSs for the G-Abis interface transport packet data with G-TRAU frames. It is a group of special bit sequences designed to define G-TRAU frames. When the data blocks of CS-3/CS-4 need to be transported between PCU and BTS.

synchronization of air interface blocks between BTS and PCU. BTS power control. in its support for CS-3 and CS-4. In addition. and thus greatly reduce the utilization ratio of the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. 2) Dynamic Additional Sub-TS Technology Abis interface is based on the 16kbit/s links (or called 16kbit/s sub-TS). BSC or PCU for supporting CS-3 and CS-4. Despite the fact that PCU is part of GPRS BSC. there is no concrete definition about the interface between PCU and BTS (G-Abis interface).5. It makes possible for the existing BTS and BSC to support GPRS without hardware upgrading.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description The signaling between PCU and BTS is in-band signaling. Mapping a PDCH permanently onto two 16kbit/s links will greatly decreases the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface. The dynamic attached sub-slot technology is to statically allocate a main 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot at the G-Abis interface for the CS-3/CS-4 PDCH. It can meet the processing capacity requirements posed by packet-switched services to the greatest extent and cut the impact on the processing capacity of the already-planned BSS to the minimum. thus saving investments on the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. The dynamic additional sub-TS technology used by M900/M1800 GPRS BSS displays the following features: 3-62 . With the dynamic additional sub-TS technology. When CS-3 and CS-4 encoding mode is adopted. The addition of PCU makes the smallest impact on the existing GSM circuit switching system. the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface is greatly improved. With dynamic allocation. 3. when mapping the radio channels to the terristrial channels.4 kbit/s.6 kbit/s and 21. the encoding mode adopted by PDCH is adjusted according to the change of the radio transmission environment of the MS that occupies it. The M900/M1800 PCU. a half stand-alone device can be located in BSC or SGSN (or in MSC in a special networking mode) flexibly. the rate of a PDCH is 15. RLC/MAC block coding scheme indication. therefore. The G-TRAU frame in-band signaling contains a large variety of complicated mechanisms including BTS measurement. However. M900/M1800 GPRS BSS is also based on the 16kbit/s link at the G-Abis interface. a PDCH is mapped to two 16 kbit/s links. it can either be an embedded device or half stand-alone device. M900/M1800 GPRS BSS can resolve the transmission issue of CS-3 and CS-4 on the G-Abis interface perfectly.5 G-Abis Characteristics 1) Half Standalone PCU and Flexible Physical Location In GSM/GPRS specification. it is not necessary for GPRS BSS to upgrade the hardware of BTS.

which features good forward and backward compatibility on the G-Abis interface. 3-63 . The stable air interface block synchronization between PCU and CCU is of great significance for ensuring normal packet system information broadcast and high-efficiency radio transmission in GPRS cells. the additional sub-TSs can be dynamically attached to various main TSs to enhance the utilization ratio of this sub-TSs according to statistical multiplexing rules. Huawei’s own proprietary Pb interface is efficiently designed and implemented. 3. Within a same site address. M900/M1800 BSS. can smoothly evolve to next generation through the G-TRAU version mechanism. 4) Scalable G-TRAU Frames The issue of forward and backward compatibility is taken into full account in the definition of the structure of the G-TRAU frames. It packs and unpacks the data packets through software to avoid hardware upgrading. so that each has maximum utilization.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description Any idle Sub-TS of the G-Abis interface can be used as additional sub-TS.6 Pb Interface 3. The locations of the additional 16kbit/s sub-TS are relatively flexible. Like other BSS systems available in market.6. PCU can stably synchronize CCU within one TDMA multiframe duration (240ms) in terms of cell-based air interface block after system initialization. 3) Fast and stable time synchronization mechanism for the air interface blocks With advanced synchronization mechanism and algorithm. so it features good scalability. They do not have to be adjacent to the main 16kbit/s sub-TS. Three-bit version number is defined in the header of the G-TRAU frame so that it can support 8 different G-TRAU frames.1 Overview Pb interface is the interface between PCU and BSC.

some for the physical link of the Pb interface and the rest might serve as idle sub-TSs or be multiplexed. it supports dynamic channel conversion. In fact. one PCU frame (with a maximum of 12 Radio Packet Processing Units RPPUs) can connect with several BSCs through E1. It implements management functions between PCU and BSC for various kinds of shared resources such as cell. while one BSC can only connect with one PCU frame (or with several RPPUs concurrently). Layer 3 protocol consists of a series of self-defined signaling messages. etc. Besides. packet channel. Huawei-developed Pb interface satisfies all the requirements of BSC-PCU interface. One E1 is divided into 128 sub TSs of 16kbit/s where 4 sub-TSs serve for synchronization. E1 trunk and system information. which is a general data link layer protocol. Some of these sub-TSs are used for the physical link of the G-Abis interface. LAPD aims to implement peer-to-peer reliable message transfer between L3 entities. It receives the data transfer service from the physical layer and delivers the connection-oriented or connectionless service to L3. Figure 3-35 Location plan of PCU In actual practice. as an internal protocol. It mainly manages of the messages regarding 3-64 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description MSC BTS BSC A Um PCU Pb BSS Gb SGSN Figure 3-35 Position of PCU PCU can be co-located with BSC or MSC or SGSN sites. Layer 1 (physical layer) adopts sub-TS of the E1 line.2 Internal Structure of Pb Interface The Pb interface. 3. the Pb interface and the G-Abis interface share the same physical link. even though it serves as part of BSS. Layer 2 (link layer) is based on the LAPD protocol. It is the core of the Pb interface.6. has three layers. MS access to CCCH.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description GPRS-related resources between PCU and BSC. The causes that initiate the procedures include the OMC maintenance or change of the Pb interface equipment state. management of packet radio resources. and Reset Circuit.3 Pb Interface Management The Pb interface management includes: management of the trunk circuits between the BSC and PCU. As the bottom layer is based on the standard LAPD protocol. packet service access support. Unequipped Circuit.e. not the usage of the circuit. BSC has no authority to unblock a circuit that is blocked at the maintenance console (PCU side). To simplify the design. For example. The procedures of Circuit Block/Unblock. PbSL link management. The BSC can not change the state of the circuit determined by the maintenance console at the PCU side. and Reset Circuit are almost the same as those on the A-interface. speech service. Management of the trunk circuits on the Pb interface Management of the trunk circuits on the Pb interface helps to monitor the trunk circuits between BSC and PCU for smooth system running. the Circuit Block procedure at the Pb interface is shown in Figure 3-37. so that the PCU can be assigned with an idle circuit when requesting the PDCH or dynamically modifying channel coding to ensure the data services. The PCU can block/unblock and reset circuits at the local end. the following rules are employed for Pb interface circuit management: A BSC only records the maintenance state of the circuit. and provides functions of MS access to CCCH and speech paging message transmission. 3-65 . transmission management. 3. Circuit management messages are activated by the BSC. i. etc. The procedures of Pb interface circuit resources management include Circuit Block/Unblock. Unequipped Circuit. supports conversion of dynamic channels between the packet service. I. without affecting the circuit state at the BSC side. The only difference is that MSC is changed to the PCU and the trunk CIC (Circuit Identification Code) at the A-interface is changed to the trunk circuit PCIC at the Pb interface. the Pb interface protocol also refers specifically to its L3 signaling procedure.6.

The radio resource information of PCU is obtained from the BSC. Dynamic allocation of resources on demand requires that the BSC allocate the radio resources in real-time to the circuit-based service or packet-based service according to the current application. BSC decides the conversion according to the available resources. This is the rule of circuit-based service having the priority. then BSC will allow to converting TCHs into PDCHs and send the related information to the BTS. When the BSC discovers TCHs are insufficient. It includes the cell resetting at both BSC and PCU sides. The circuit-based service will have the priority to be allocated. This means a dynamic conversion between the TCH and PDCH. it requires the PCU to hand over some PDCHs. and start of packet system information broadcast. This requirement is mandatory according to the rule of circuit-based service having the priority.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem BSC PCU Chapter 3 Interface Description Block circuit Block circuit acknowledgement Figure 3-36 Process of group blocking the circuit II. Pb interface cell initialization process corresponds to this principle. 2) Circuit service and packet service shares the radio resources. There are three channel conversion processes at Pb interface: When there is more data traffic demand for more channel resources. which are allocated on demand. which will be converted into TCHs again. PCU requests BSC to convert TCH into the PDCH. If there are many TCHs idle. 3-66 . notification by BSC to PCU of the packet radio resource configuration of the cell. Packet radio resource management Radio resource management on the Pb interface refers to the management of radio resources related to the packet service. When the PCU discovers there are too many PDCHs idle. it will automatically hand back some PDCHs. It has the following characteristics: 1) All the radio resource information is configured at the data configuration console. which will be converted into TCHs.

it is necessary to broadcast system information type 13 on the BCCH. packet service suspension and recovery for the Class-B MS. In general. the BSC needs to forward packet data among BTS-BSC-PCU. the BSC needs to connect the trunk circuit on the Abis interface and that on the Pb interface. MS decides whether it should access the current serving cell for data services or not. the allocation and release of this PDCH is decided by PCU. and the PCU is responsible for assigning PDCH. 3-67 . that is. it can activate a more efficient channel coding method. the 32kbit/s data channel corresponds to the PDCH. link mutual-assistance function. Based on these messages. etc. the BSC needs to release the original connection. etc. so that they include GPRS messages as GPRS Indicator.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description 3) The BSC is responsible for assigning TCH. But if the transmission quality proves to be satisfactory by PCU. During the process of packet data transmission. Packet service access To support GPRS. III. 4) The states of the radio resources at the BSC and PCU sides must be kept consistent. BSC is responsible for the allocation and release of TCH. When no PCCCH is configured in the local cell. the BSC needs to dynamically allocate one more 16kbit/s timeslot to the PDCH. Other management procedures on the Pb interface 1) Transmission management In the TCH-to-PDCH conversion. In the PDCH to TCH conversion. and at the same time modify system information type 3. each PDCH corresponds to a 16kbit/s data channel. the MS will access the packet service through the CCCH. the BSC need to notify the PCU of the impact of the change on the BTS and OMC operations on the radio resources. link load sharing. system information type 7. This mainly involves three procedures: packet call access initiated by the MS. To achieve the consistency between the states at both sides. Similar to GSM network. At this time. packet call access terminated by the MS. 2) PbSL management The Pb interface signaling link (PbSL) is a LAPD link. IV. the BSC needs to notify the PCU to update the channel state. And PbSL management involves the transmission and reception of Pb interface message packets. After PCU has been assigned with a PDCH. like CS-3 or CS-4. For example when the OMC blocks a certain packet channel.

channels. PCU will request the BSC to convert the dynamic channel into the dynamic packet traffic channel. error messages will be omitted and some "confusion" messages will be transmitted selectively. so they are also low in costs. 3) Error handling There may be errors during the process of transmission.6. By this function. voice traffic channel and dynamic channel. it can make out that it is a packet access request only after the BSC analyzes the MS request and then transfers it to PCU. II. it is processed differently in the BSS. It can be seen from here that when a MS accesses the CCCH and the PCCCH. Whereas the design of Huawei-developed Pb interface can enable PCU to support two kinds of access concurrently. the immediate assignment message of PCU needs to be processed by BSC before it is sent to BTS. Whereas when BSC determines the speech channels are busy.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description If there is no PCCCH in a certain cell. the disconnection of all the PbSLs will lead to the release of the resources of the cell at both sides of the Pb interface. 3. BCCH and SDCCH. such as PDTCH. PBCCH and PCCCH. Accordingly. so the message data of all the shared resources (such as cells. the channels are classicified into three types according to their properties: fixed packet traffic channel. It can be converted between the former two types of channels. PCU and BSC are located in two places. so the Pb interface has the error handling function. Supporting dynamic conversion traffic channels between packet traffic and the speech In practice. Supporting MS channel access request for CCCH As BTS cannot identify the access request message sent by an MS on the CCCH. such as TCH. Voice traffic channel is dedicated for voice service. In this process. the speech service is given the priority over the packet service to guarantee the original speech services.4 Characteristics of Huawei Pb Interface I. The dynamic channel is the voice TCH at the initialization stage. The MSs that support access to the CCCH are not complex. The fixed packet channel is dedicated for packet service. thus enhancing tremendously the adaptability of the system. it can also request PCU to return the converted dynamic channel and use it again as speech channel. When there is more packet traffic and the speech channels are relatively idle. III. PCIC trunks and system information parameters) 3-68 . Maintaining the consistency of resource data between BSC and PCU.

For details of network operation mode.7. as shown in Figure 3-37. refer to other relative chapters. When the circuit service of an MS is over. which will transmit the message on CCCH. 3-69 . it will send the GPRS suspension request to BSC. and PCU transfers the message via Pb interface to BSC.7 Operation & Maintenance Interface 3. MSC sends the voice paging message via Gs interface (MSC-SGSN) and Gb interface (SGSN-PCU). Supporting GPRS suspension and resume messages sent by Class-B MSs. PCIC blocking/unblocking. BSC will send a GPRS service recovery request to PCU again via the Pb interface. BSC will transfer this message to PCU via Pb interface. This is also the major function of the Pb interface. and there is no PCCCH. cell restarting. Class-B MS cannot implement CS service and PS service simultaneously. Sending speech paging messages.1 Overview The operation & maintenance interface is an interface between the BSS and the Operation & Maintenance System. The functions of the Pb interface involve the management & maintenance of some resources.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 3 Interface Description should be consistent. when the MS in packet transmission mode is engaged in traffic service. Therefore. When the network operation mode is Mode 1. PCIC restarting. IV. 3. A subscriber can perform the maintenance and management over the BSS system through OMC console or the Telnet terminal. channel blocking/unblocking. such as cell parameter configuration. V. packet system information parameter configuration and regular check of all the resources data. The capability of supporting the Class-B MSs by the system is enhanced while the Pb interface processes this kind of messages.

3. but are different in such implementation as message interpretation.2 Feature Unlike the network bottom layer interfaces like Gb and Pb. which enables the OMC system to acquire a very strong remote networking capability. SGSN OMC Workstation OMC Workstation Figure 3-37 GPRS/GSM operation & maintenance interface Of the GSM equipment such as MSC. BSC.. thus relatively simple in message structure and protocol layer. As regards the system composition. the operation & maintenance interface is an application layer interface in nature. In the GPRS equipment such as PCU. The lower layer of the operation & maintenance interface is based on the TCP/IP protocol.7. the software system sturcture of the O&M interface is arranged as shown in Figure 3-38. the OMC WSs are similar in interface. 3-70 . It collects the equipment information and communicates with the OMC to implement the functions of the O interface... etc. For different equipment. SGSN. HLR. there is a BAM designed specifically as a bridge between the equipment and the OMC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Telnet Chapter 3 Interface Description MSC O Interface BSC DCN R OMC Server PCU . so OAM module (OMC Agent Module) in the POMU serves as a bridge between the system equipment and the OMC. no BAM exists due to variations in hardware implementation.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 3 Interface Description

OMA PCU ... TCP/IP OMC SHELL Traffic Statistic Alarm Tracing WorkStation ...

BAM BSC LAN/WAN

Communication Server ... Database Server

OMC Sercer/DB

Figure 3-38 Structural diagram of the O interface software system The O&M interface programs include OAM/BAM program, OMC Server/DB, OMC Shell and OMC application console. Below is the brief introduction to the function and feature: OAM and BAM differ in hardware and software implementation. Although different equipment manages different messages and information, they are the same in basic functions. The functionality of the OAM is mainly two-fold: first, it serves as a communication bridge between the OMC system and the network equipment, forwards the maintenance & operation command from the OMC to the FAM board and orients the response from the AM to the OMC terminals accordingly. On the other hand, it acts as a server in Client/Server models. Apart from the management of the database as well as the test task and traffic statistic task, the OAM also stores and forwards the charging messages, alarm messages and traffic statistic data. It stores all the vital data on the hard disk and dumps them to the CDs or OMC server if necessary. OMC server is for running various service processes, such as communication server and database server, etc. Communication server is the core of the whole system, it connects other parts through application agents. The communication server assigns an ID to each application part that connects directly to it. In the process of message transmission, the communication server receives the messages from all parts, determines the destination for these messages and forwards the messages to the destination or makes proper processing. On the other hand, all the database servers interact with the database management system (DBMS) and manage all the data by answering the requests from the OAM/BAM or SPOS. Moreover, there are also some other application servers and management modules on the OMC server.
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Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 3 Interface Description

OMC Shell is a user interface that manages, operates and maintains the GSM objects as well as a communication interface with all the SPOS programs. OMC Shell is used for visual management of NEs of the entire Huawei GSM system through WS. OMC Shell program consists of user interface module and communication module. User interface module provides visual operating interfaces such as tree-like list and map windows. On the interface, a user can view the state of the GSM objects or performs directly the operation, maintenance and management over the GSM objects. The communication module is mainly responsible for communication management. OMC application console is a classified set of some service functions. For different equipment, the functions implemented in their application consoles will also change. The OMC application console of PCU mainly includes traffic statistics management console, alarm console and message tracing console. Since the overall system design is modularized by functions, it is possible to adjust the function of the application console according to the carrier's requirement.

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Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Appendix A Abbreviations

Appendix A Abbreviations
A AC AC ACELP AGCH AM/CM ANSI APL ARFCN ASIC AUC B BA BAM BCC BCCH BCF BCH BER BHCA BIE BM BP BQ BSC BSIC BSS BSSAP BSSMAP BTS BCCH Allocation Back Administration Module BTS Color Code Broadcast Control Channel Base Control Function Broadcast Channel Bit Error Rate Busy Hour Call Attempts Base station Interface Equipment Basic Module Burst Pulse Bad Quality Base Station Controller Base Station Identity Code Base Station System Base Station Subsystem Application Part Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part Base Transceiver Station Access Class (C0 to C15) Alternating Current Algebraic code excitation linear prediction Access Grant Channel Administration Module/ Communication Module American National Standard Institute Advanced Phase Locking Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number Application Specific Integrated Circuit Authentication Centre

A-1

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Appendix A Abbreviations

BTSM BVC C CA CAMEL CBA CBC CBCH CBQ CC CC CCBS CCCH CD CDB CDU CELP CGI CI CIC CIR CKSN CM CPU CR CRC CRO CS D DBMS DC DCCH DCL DDN

Base Transceiver Station Management BSSGP Virtual Connection

Cell Allocation Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic Cell Bar Access Cell Broadcast Center Cell Broadcast Channel Cell Bar Qualify Connection Confirm Call Control Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers Common Control Channel Call Deflection Cell Broadcast Database Combining and Distribution Unit Code Excited Linear Prediction Cell Global Identity Cell Identity Circuit Identification Code Carrier to Interference Ratio Ciphering Key Sequence Number Connection Management Central Processing Unit Connection Request Cyclic Redundancy Check Cell Reselect Offset Coding Scheme

Database Management System Direct Current Dedicated Control Channel Diagnostic Control Link Digital Data Network

A-2

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Appendix A Abbreviations

DL DLC DLCEP DLCEPI DLCI DNS DPC DRX DSC DTAP DTMF DTX E EA E-Abis EC ECSC ECT EFR EIR EM ETSI F FACCH FCCH FDMA FH FIR FN FR FTC FUC G G-Abis

Downlink Data Link Connection Data Link Connection End Point Data Link Connection End Point Identifier Data Link Connection Identifier Domain Name Server Destination (Signaling) Point Code Discontinuous Reception (mechanism) Downlink Signaling fault Count Direct Transfer Application Part Dual Tone Multi Frequency Discontinuous transmission (mechanism)

Early Allocation Enhanced Abis Emergency Call Early Classmark Send Control Explicit Call Transfer Enhanced full rate speech code Equipment Identify Register Extended Measurement European Telecommunication Standards Institute

Fast Associated Control Channel Frequency Correction Channel Frequency Division Multiple Access Frequency Hopping Finity Impulsion Response Frame Number Frame Relay Full Rate Transcoder Frame Unit Controller

GPRS Abis

A-3

Telecommunication Standardization Sector Layer 2 Management Link Location Area Location Area Code Location Area Identity Link Access Protocol on the D channel Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel A-4 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations GGSN GLAP GMM GMPU GMSC GMSK GPRS GSM GSM900 GSM1800 GSN GT H HCS HDLC HDSL HLR HSC HSN HW I IEC IMEI IMSI IP ISDN ISUP ITU-T L L2ML LA LAC LAI LAPD LAPDm Gateway GPRS Support Node LAPD Protocol Process board GPRS Mobility Management Main Process Unit Gateway Mobile Switching Center Gaussian Minimum Shift-frequency Keying General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile communications GPRS Support Node Global Title Hierarchical Cell Structure High level Data Link Control High speed Digital Subscriber Line Home Location Register Hot Swap Controller Hopping Sequence Number Highway International Electrotechnical Commission International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Internet Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Services Digital Network User Part/ISDN User Part International Telecommunication Union .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations LLC LMT LNA M MA MAC MAIO MAP MBR MCC MDC MDT ME MM MNC MNS MDSL MR MRP MRT MS MSC MSISDN MT MTP N NC NCC NCH NM NS NSE NSS O Logical Link Control Local Maintenance Terminal Low Noise Amplifier Mobile Allocation Media Access Control Mobile Allocation Index Offset Mobile Application Part Multiband Report Mobile Country Code Message Discrimination Message Distribution Mobile Equipment Mobility Management Mobile Network Code Mobile Network Signaling Medium Bit-rate Digital Subscriber Loop Measurement Result Multiple Reuse Pattern Message Routing Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Mobile Station International ISDN Number Mobile Terminal Message Transfer Part Network Control Network Color Code Notification Channel Network Management Network Service Network Service Entity Network Sub System A-5 .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations OAM OMC OML OSI P PACCH PAGCH PBGT PBCCH PbSL PCCCH PCU PD PDP PDCH PDH PDTCH PIN Phase I Phase II PLMN PNCH POMU PON PPCH PRACH PSI PSK PSTN PT PTCCH PTM-M PTP Q Operation Administration and Maintenance Operations & Maintenance Centre Operation and Maintenance Link Open Systems Interconnection Packet Associated Control Channel Packet Access Grant Channel Power Budget Packet Broadcast Control Channel PCU-BSC Signaling Link Packet Common Control Channel Packet Control Unit Protocol Discrimination Packet Data Protocol Packet Data Channel Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Packet Data Traffic Channel Personal Identity Number Personal Identity Number Public Land Mobile Network Packet Notification Channel Packet Operation & Maintenance Unit Passive Optical Network Packet Paging Channel Packet Random Access Channel Packet System Information Phase Shift Keying Public Switched Telephone Network Penalty Time Packet Timing advanced Control Channel Point To Multipoint Multicast Point To Point A-6 .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations QoS R RACH RE RF RLC RPE-LTP RPPU RR RSL S SABM SACCH SAP SAPI SCCP SCH SCU SCMG SDCCH SDH SDU SGSN SID SIG SIM SLM SLS SMC SMS SMSCB SMUX SOR SRM Quality of Service Random Access Channel Reestablishment Radio Frequency Radio Link Control Regular Pulse Excitation-Long Term Prediction Radio Packet Process Unit Radio Resource Radio Signaling Link Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Slow Associated Control Channel Service Access Point Service Access Point Identifier Signaling Connection Control Part Synchronization Channel Simple combining Unit SCCP Management Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Data Unit Serving GPRS Support Node Silence Descriptor Signaling Subscriber Identity Module Signaling Link Management Signaling Link Selection Short Message Center Short Message Service support Short Message Service Cell Broadcast Sub-Multiplexer Support Optimization Routing Signaling Route Management A-7 .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations SS SSN STM T TA TAI TBF TCH TDMA TCSM TE TEI TFI TLLI TMSC TMSI TN TO TRX TRAU TSC TUP U UA UDT UI USF USSD V VAD VBS VEA VGCS VLR Supplementary Service support SubSystem Number Signaling Traffic Management Timing Advance Timing Advance Index Temporary Block Flow Traffic Channel Time Division Multiple Access TransCode & Sub-Multiplexer Terminal Equipment Terminal Equipment Identifier Transport Format Indicator Temporary Link Level Identity Tandem Mobile Switching Centre Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identifier Timeslot Number Temporary Offset Transceiver Transcoder & Rate Adaptation Unit Training Sequence Code Telephone User Part Unnumbered Acknowledge Unit Data Unnumbered Information (frame) Uplink State Flag Unstructured Supplementary Service Data Voice Activity Detection Voice Broadcast Service Very Early Allocation Voice Group Call Service Visitor Location Register A-8 .

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Appendix A Abbreviations VM VSAT W WS X xDSL Voice Mailbox Very Small Aperture Terminal Workstation x Digital Subscriber Line A-9 .