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I. 1.

Six degrees of separation

3.3.Does not exist on its own but is manifested in individual beings.

1.1. Popularized by Stanley Milgram in his

1967 experiment The Small World Problem

3.3.1. Thus, individuated. (each

nature is different from ach other)

3.4. Therefore, human nature is both

universal (general) and individuated (specific).

1.2. Research question: Starting with any

two people in the world, what is the probability that they will know each other? 1.3.Probably more likely in the digital age where the Internet connect billions of people together 1.4.An example is George Clooney and Charlie Sheen

3.4.1. Universal in all human beings

but is specific in John, Amy, and Rose 4. Essence of Human Beings

4.1. Essence signifies something that is

common in all natures (every creature has it) 4.2.Through which and in which a thing has its being 4.3.Accounts for which genus and species a thing belongs to

2. Human Beings (Substance & Matter)

2.1. Man as a rational animal 2.1.1. Definition of terms: Rational = having exercising the ability to reason; the substance Animal = nonphotosynthetic metabolism, restricted growth, response to stimuli, fixed bodily structure; the matter

4.4. Essence of human beings what

makes us human

4.4.1. Therefore, the essence of

man is HUMANITY.

2.1.2. Therefore, Mans animality is

rational. 2.2. Man has soul and body

Humanity the essence of man is what makes man a man.

5. Human Being (as a person)

5.1. Person 5.1.1. individuated human nature

2.2.1. Soul as form and Body as

matter. 3. Nature of Human Beings

3.1. specific in a being (or in species)

that differentiates it from other species

5.1.2. exists by itself through the act of being 5.1.3. the only thing that exists on its own spiritual world 5.1.4. Since a person can exist by itself, generalizing is wrong.

3.1.1. Specific the only one capable

for rational thinking (is man)

3.2. is always universal in material

beings, such as man (exists in many) 3.2.1. Universal we share traits with others in the animal kingdom 6.

5.2. Personality character of a person

Man as a Social Being

6.1. Dependent on each other for

everything; hence no man is an island. 6.2.Naturally forms societies and accepts a form of authority (rational) 6.3.Being social as a property of rational being (rightful)


A mixture of conservatism and liberalism: Filipinos are the most Westernized country in Asia At the moment of conception, life starts. St. Augustine


4. Culture practices and tradition commonly

shared by a group of people

6.4. Has an inherent right (e.g. to live)

inter alia (among others)

4.1. Language one of the more direct

forms of expressing culture; also, transmits symbols we come to understand in our culture

6.5. Since man is dependent on each

other, relating to each other is natural to us.

4.2. Religion a manifestation of our

collective and shared spiritual beliefs that we observe through rituals

6.6. Being social is a property of our

humanity (our essence). II. Man and Natural Societies

5. Other Beliefs and Practices superstitions,

supernatural and psychic beliefs

1. Natural basic and necessary societies

(e.g. family and civil society, space where collective action, through shared interests and values take place)

5.1. Kapalaran/Fate
5.2.Respect for Elders

2. Artificial bound by a contract, out of

necessity (e.g. university) 3. Laws from God

5.3. Come-what-may attitude Bahala na

ang Diyos 5.4.Numerology, Astrology

3.1. Law of nature presumes that all

living things are predisposed to a certain end (e.g. inertia, gravitation, etc.)

5.5. Sense of community: Kapitbahay 6. Social Institutions norms, values,

structures make up a society identity 6.1.Figures largely in a societys attainments of its goals 6.2.Social institutions vs. formal organization 6.2.1. Social institutions systems of norms, values and structures 6.2.2. Formal organization actual group with a defined goal 6.3.Characteristics: 6.3.1. Satisfaction of social needs

3.2. Law of man a regulation in

accordance with reason promulgated by the head of community for the sake of the common welfare by Thomas Aquinas 3.2.1. 4. When our rationality fails us

Living legacy: (a) write a book, (b) bare a child, (c) plant a tree

III. Filipino Worldview

1. Filipino worldview how we perceive the

world we respond to external surroundings

6.3.2. Embody ultimate values of the society 6.3.3. Permanent: is a crucial part of tradition and culture

6.3.4. Is center central in the society 6.3.5. Interdependent but individualized 6.3.6. Hold members of the society together through their ideas 6.4.Traits:

2.1.3. Provides moral and jural (legal)

concepts 2.2.Concept of belongingness is limited to descent, affinity, and ritual relations 2.3.Existence of kinship yields influence in the entire social system 2.4.Roles are given strong emphasis 2.5.People in the group strictly follows codes of conduct

6.4.1. Cultural symbols

socialization is there, identity as people

6.4.2. Codes of behavior norms,

ethics, conduct and behavior

2.6. How do we get to belong to kinship?

Parents siblings and other relatives 2.7.Kinship based on biological relations 2.7.1. Immediate and extended families Child not only to parents but to other relatives Biological fact of motherhood easy to establish 2.8.Kinship as culture 2.8.1. Friends to singling out someone to marriage (forms new kinship of the two families joined) 2.8.2. Establishing kinship through culture

6.4.3. Ideology beliefs by members

(moral, ethical, social and spiritual) III. Family and Kinship 1. The Filipino Child 1.1.Binding force in marriage 1.2.Seen as grace from God 1.3.Year 2000 = 15M, expected to be 20M in 2020 1.4.Steady support from both nuclear and extended families

1.5. 1 out of 2 relied on family for primary

information (Gimeno, et al., 2004)

1.6. A hodgepodge of internal and external

influences 1.6.1. No clear & concrete identity

Parents recognition of child: legal recognition (birth certificate), cultural and religious recognition (baptism) Nasa dugo / Lukso ng Dugo: distinguishes natural child from adopted child; distinguishes legitimate child from illegitimate child

1.6.2. Affected by external influences (foreign culture, etc.) 2. Kinship 2.1.Identity provides belongingness to people in a group 2.1.1. Designates statuses in members 2.1.2. Allocates roles to the members

2.8.3. Establishing kinship through ritual

Religious rites: marriage, baptism,

confirmation, aka quasi kinsman adoption

2.6. A school for male teachers was

established to be Spanish Jesuits. 2.7.Education back then was suppressed, controlled and inadequate 3. American Period 3.1.A free and compulsory education was established

2.9. Permanent kinship family 2.10.

IV. Education 1. Pre- Magellan (Pre- Spanish) Period Fragile kinship marriage

3.2. An adequate and secular free public

school system was established from the recommendation of the Schuman Commission 3.3.Free primary instruction was established to train people on citizenship and advocation as recommended by the Taft commission on orders of Pres. McKinley

1.1. Education was informal and had no


1.2. Education was more on vocational

skills, taught by parents and elders 1.3.According to Jocano, invites of the country we now know as the Philippines were not ignorant 1.3.1. Our ancestors did not lack wisdom at all and the resolve to develop culture out of the precarious environment

3.4. English was the medium of instruction.

3.5. Enter 600 Thomasites after the Act no. 74 caused a shortage of teachers 4. Japanese Period 4.1.Filipinization on Education 4.2.Teaching of Tagalog, Phil. History and character education was reserved for Filipinos 4.3.Heavy emphasis on love for work and dignity of labor 5. According to F. Landa Jocano 5.1.Philippine education system maybe irrelevant because of its very Western flavor

1.4. Early Filipinos worship Bathala/nature

1.5.Islamic traders and Spanish colonizers saw this belief system as the grand opportunity to introduce two of the major religions: Islam and Christianity

1.6. Some evidence of early education

have been preserved in pottery, cave drawings, and early tools used during this period. 2. Spanish Period

2.1. Tribal tutors were replaced by Spanish


2.2. Education became religion-centered or


5.1.1. System was imposed

5.1.2. Introduced by Spaniards and reinforced by Americans

2.3. Education was exclusively for the elite

during the early years of education 2.4.Education Degree of 1863 provided free formal primary school for boys and girls in each town managed by the municipal government

5.1.3. Aim: imparting of knowledge to

people to enable them to be useful members of society 5.2.National Pride versus Colonial Mentality

2.5. Medium of instruction was in Spanish.

6. Education defined:

6.1. Experts agree that education is a

process that enables an individual to learn desirable knowledge, attitudes and skills 6.2.Both process and product 6.3.Agents of education are schools, families, churches, guilds etc.

8.4.Makes people more enlightened and less intolerant 9. Education as Social Institution 9.1.Preparation for occupational roles 9.2.Transmits culture 9.3.Acquaints citizens to the roles and functions of each individual in the society 9.4.Strengthens personal adjustment and improves social relationships 9.5.Schools: 44,471 (primary), 9,000 (secondary), 2,060 (tertiary) 10. The System Today

6.4. Formal education: universities,

vocational schools, trade schools etc.

6.5. Non-formal education: cooking,

carpentry, child care

6.6. Informal education: Apprenticeship,

everyday living etc. 7. Filipino View on Education 7.1.Education = schooling (formal education); acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes 7.2.School as primary source of education 7.3.People with higher educational attainment are seen as more knowledgeable and more likely to succeed 7.4.Most important wealth 7.5.Parents place a high premium on education for their children 7.6.Is prioritized in the Philippine constitution (Article XIV sections 1-2) 7.7.Formal education believed to be the path to success (socially, economically, politically) 7.8.Tool to unite Filipinos (1987 Constitution) 8. Roles of Education: Human Capital Theories 8.1.Great social and economic equalizer 8.2.Key to upward economic and social mobility 8.3.Increases labor productivity


Phenomenal rise of mass education:

10.1.1. Establishment of both private and public higher education 10.1.2. Establishment of vocational and technical training centers 10.1.3. Establishment of specialized early childhood education

11. The Caveat? (Caveat = Warning, Caution) 11.1.

Educators possess varying degrees in terms of quality of teaching:

11.1.1. Proficiency in the medium of instruction


Grasp of basic tenets (creeds, doctrines) of specializations

11.1.3. Varying teaching methods and training 11.2. Problem? The rise of educational institutions is paralleled by a decline in the quality of education and training.



The Onus of Bilingualism (Onus = Responsibility, Burden)

more classrooms with the help of LGUs and other private investors

11.3.1. Filipinos as a language of national identity, unity and pride 11.3.2. English as a need for wider communication and international competitiveness As of 2000, the country has 171 languages 11.3.3. 2007s literacy rate: Male 92.5%, Female 92.7% 12. The Challenge A Paradox 12.1. Neither English nor Tagalog is the mother tongue of most Filipinos 12.2. The Philippine society gives importance to English as a language that would likely bring success in education so much that parents make sure their children get a bachelors degree at the very least 13. Current Issues


High Cost of Education despite offering free basic education, the most cited reason for dropping out is poverty Lax Enforcement of Compulsory Primary Education with appropriate sanctions to parents (Government should be strict with the law) Lack of Good Quality Teachers Government should provide adequate compensation, further training and assessment tools Poor Quality Education curriculum restructuring Unscrupulous Allocation of Budget and Unregulated Expenditures Extermination of corruption and standardization of budget allocation across regions



14.5. 14.6.

15. Government Programs 15.1.1. Adopt-a-School Act of 1998 help provide schools with equipment and tools 15.1.2. Sagip Eskwela 1994 15.1.3. Brigada Eskwela 2002 15.1.4. Operation Barrio School 15.1.5. Classroom Galing sa Mamayang Filipino Abroad V. Religion 1. Spanish Church

13.1. 13.2.

Primary/ elementary levels 6 years (free and compulsory) Secondary/ High school 4yrs. free but not compulsory

13.2.1. Non-formal education adults 13.2.2. Skills acquisition for functionality and employability 13.3. Government funds 88.6% elementary, 59.3% high schools and 38% technical vocational skills 13.4. As policy, the government prioritizes basic education while tertiary education is left to private enterprises 14. Challenges

1.1. The Philippines was colonized as an

act of devotion to evangelize the Indios.


Classroom Backlog overcrowded classrooms make for poor learning which leads students dropping out of school

1.2. The first Catholic Mass officiated by Fr.

Pedro Valderama in the country was originally believed to have taken place in Limasawa 1.3.Divided Philippines into spheres of influences and sought to evangelize

14.1.1. The government planned to reduce classroom backlog to 1:50 ratio at a double shift and to build

using the native language instead of Spanish

3. The Catholic Church during American Occupation 3.1.Separation of the function of Church and State under Taft

1.4. Friars served as educators as well

1.5.The Church became a very powerful institution because of 2 things: 1.5.1. Predisposition of Filipinos to divinity 1.5.2. Influence of Friars in the country since they chose to stay

3.2. Weakened the stronghold of the

Church as Americans pushed for secularism 3.3.The Catholic religion became partially Americanized and Filipinized at the same time 3.4.Diversity in the clergy was realized 4. Islam in the Philippines 4.1.Established in Sulu and some parts of Mindanao

1.6. The issue of the separation of Church

and State dates back to the Spanish era when the Bourbon monarchy sought to the influence of the Church and sideline of the friars

1.7. Racism was an issue among Spanish

and Indio clerics which led to a religious uprising led by Apolinario de la Cruz

4.2. Muslims come to the Philippines a

century ahead of the Christians

4.3. Remains dominant in Mindanao after

early Muslims were more concerned about agriculture than spreading the Faith

1.8. The execution of Gomburza as a

consequence to the efforts to promote clerical equality 1.9.The different Orders started owning lands as collateral for lending money to the natives (lands were offered to the Church to build places of worship) 1.10. Period saw the influence of the Roman Catholic religion on a huge part of the Filipinos life values nationalism and social structures)

4.4. Lost majority control of Mindanao

when lowland Christians were encouraged to take advantage of resources in the highlands 4.5.Presently at war against the government that is predominantly Catholic 4.5.1. Muslims do not consider themselves Filipinos

2. Iglesia Filipina Indipendiente

Philippine Independent Church 2.1.Response to unfair treatment of native priests

5. Present Context 5.1.Religion has become refuge for Filipinos who are struggling because of the strong connection between Faith and society 5.2.The separation of State and Church remains blurred 5.3.Religion plays a big part in legislation 5.3.1. Strong resistance to divorce, abortion, artificial contraceptives and lately death penalty

2.2. A homegrown breakaway faction of

the Catholic Church started by Gregorio Aglipay in the early 1900s

2.3. Sought the Filipinization of the Roman

Catholic Church 2.4.Could have rivaled the Church of England had it succeeded to hold on to its influence 2.5.Its memory and early works exist in the Aglipayan Church to this day with followers who are said to be members of lower class

5.4.The Church (as a building) remains centerpiece in almost every town in the country 5.5.There are more Catholics (80.9%) than Muslims (5%), INC (2.3%), Aglipayan (2%) 6. Filipino Manifestation of Catholicism 6.1.Strong belief in love of God and love of neighbor 6.2.Ironically religious belief in the country have created a gap among and between diverse religions 6.3.The purpose of religious events of occasions crosses over the social realm 6.4.Religion is heavily infused in our culture 6.4.1. Respect for elders (remember elders as teachers during the preSpanish period) VI. Economy

2.3.Reduction system brought about urbanization (businesses, government, job, monetary system) 2.4.Technological revolution in agriculture began 2.5.Introduction to new crops

2.6. Kaingin was eliminated (land area

too big) 2.7.Monetary system was introduced 2.8.Taxation in the Spanish Period:

2.8.1. 1st wave: Encomienda System:

tributos (tributes) 2.8.2. Imposed by the Spanish on the natives 2.8.3. In the form of goods and services and cash 2.8.4. Intensified production so that the natives can pay tributes and still survive 2.8.5. Primary purpose was to generate resources to finance maintenance (expenses) of the islands 2.8.6. According to Wurfel : Filipinos have no national identity because we were forced by the Spaniards 2.8.7. Expenses: salaries of government officials and support for clergy to spread Christianity and for soldiers defending territory

1. Pre-Spanish Period (Evolution of Market

Institutions in the Philippines)

1.1. barangays(small political units) 1.2. Hand-to-mouth existence to be selfsufficient or subsistence

1.3. Agriculture as primary economic


1.4. The desire to be self-sufficient limited

trading between and among the barangays

2.9. Effects of displacing barangays (law of

supply and demand) 2.9.1. Reduced agri-land = reduced production 2.9.2. Reduced production = increased prices 2.10. Spains solution to the problem Demanded that tributes be paid in both goods and services and cash

1.5. Filipinos were believed to finders

instead of manufacturers 1.6.Barter Trade trading with Arab merchants 2. Spanish Period

2.1. Reduccin: barangays were brought

together under a single unit a parish


2.2. Breaking up of barangays was done

for efficient taxing

2.10.2. Imposed tariff that is lower than market prices so natives

were able to sell products to Chinese at relatively higher prices 2.10.3. Intensified production 2.11. Role of Chinese

2.13.3. Natives were paid very little for forced labor


Polo y servicio: 40days of forced labor involving males 16-60 years old Tanorias: weekly cleaning of the building and watching over prisoners Guardias: nightly rounds of the town 3rd Wave: the Plantation Boom

2.11.1. Were already an economic powerhouse back then; contributed to and paid huge tributes to the colonizers 2.11.2. Were more effective than the Spaniards in trade because they traded within the Philippines 2.11.3. Primary consumers of the natives agricultural products; thus helped natives pay for tributes 2.11.4. Successfully dominated the Galleon trade and were heavily abused by the Spaniards


2.13.6. 2.14.

2.14.1. Reign of the Bourbons: Carlos II 2.14.2. Agriculture was strengthened to raise revenue



Tobacco Monopoly: Nueva Ecija, Cagayan, Marinduque

Taxation: 2nd Wave: Galleon


Started in the late 16th 17 century


2.12.2. Annual regular trade with Acapulco 2.12.3. The only means to ensure European presence in Southeast Asia helped neither the Philippines nor Spain because Filipino products were mostly ignored (because they were perishable) 2.12.4. The Chinese benefited more because their products were more desirable 2.12.5. More demand for food and other supply to support traders growing Chinese population

2.14.4. Monopoly of direct trading between Philippines and Spain (in view of Spain: no need for tariffs [owned by the Philippines] charged higher than the Philippines [profit from Philippine products]) 2.14.5. Traders from the Old World increased trading with the islands 2.14.6. Exporting agri-products increased and land became scarce


Land Ownership: 1865 A royal decree to register land

2.15.1. Decree was only know to the elite 2.15.2. Some of these elite-registered land already titled by the natives for centuries 2.15.3. Four classes of landowners: friars, Spanish proprietors , mestizos and Filipinos (ownercultivators), and natives 2.16. Technological Dualism An imbalance use of technology between the elite


Repartimiento System: more taxes and forced labor

2.13.1. Established to compensate for low taxes 2.13.2. Products were bought at very low prices from the natives but were sold to traders at high prices


farmers and tenants handled by absence of hacenderos.


Elite farmers: pineapple plantations in Mindanao, sugar plantations in Negros Occidental and Bukidnon Tenants = peasants (would work for landowners and profit will be given to owners, tenants having small salary)

Incentive system

Indirectly consulted Increases labor wages to increase productivity

Increases profits by lowering wages


4. Philippine Economy at Present 4.1.Economic slowdown has been moderate compared to other Asian countries 4.2.Healthy and resilient against global recession 4.3.Based on data as of July 2011: Gross International Reserves at $71B 4.4.GDB growth in 2010 grew by 7.33% VII. Politics

2.16.4. Present efforts of land reform are helping balance this problem 3. Market Economy of the Philippines 3.1.1995 The Philippines joined WTO

3.2. Basically a consumer market buying

and selling 3.3.Interaction between firms and households 3.4.Consumers dictate which products are to be produced; how much and how often 3.5.The business sectors focus on the products that are most profitable to them 3.6.As a result, some needs are compromised: housing and healthcare 3.7.The government mainly makes sure that there is a smooth transaction between businesses and consumers

1. Politics defined: choosing a course of

action and carrying it out. 1.1.In other words, making a decision 1.2.Riddled with predicaments (problems) 1.3.A form of human behavior 1.4.Involves an interaction of at least two people

1.5. A process rather than an activity or

idea 2. Politics as a Contested Concept 2.1.There is a difficulty in defining politics 2.2.Broadly, it is the activity wherein people manipulate existing general rules 2.3.It is an academic subject

3.8. Issue: OIL PRICES companies say its

from OPEC but really its from Malaysia

3.9. Market economy vs. Command


Market economy Ownership of Productive Assets Decision Process Private Sector Business sector: Makes ultimate decision; Consumers:

Command Economy Government Government 3.

2.4.Linked to conflict and cooperation 2.5.Not looking for a resolution to conflict, just addressing

2.6. Major challenge: a laymans

understanding of term Philippine Political Culture

3.1. Filipinos did not have a sense of

nationhood before colonization (Wurfel, 1988)* 3.2.Sense of national identity only among the elitist among Tagalogs * 3.3.Had national cohesion since dependence 3.4.Filipino National Identity *

5.1.Philippine political culture is said to be very calculating of benefits political gains 5.2.Party switching : lack of loyalty 5.3.Pragmatism: settling for popular voice avoidance of political risks 5.4.Ideology: against current popular politics 6. Wurfel on Legitimacy 6.1.Heavily contested and interpreted by different factions in the country (religious, cultural, economic, socioeconomic, etc.) 6.2.Allegations of vote-buying and election fraud 6.3.Rich-poor gap 6.4.Elite masses gap 6.5.Government vs. Opposition Parochial versus Participant Docile versus Participative Involvement in political activity is higher in urban areas Sacral versus Secular Faith versus Science Church versus State Authoritariani Democracy versus sm Traditional versus Modernism Difficult to differentiate in the current political culture 7. Education in relation to Politics 7.1.Provides the groundwork for future political orientation

3.5. Anti- American sentiment:

Independence day July 4 to June 12 3.6.Filipino national identity is largely influenced by American education that may be attributed to the peoples docile attitude * 3.7.The Filipino, most Westernized man on Asia, usually succeeds in giving the impression that he is quite proud to wear political (Lopez, Salvador) 3.8.1970: Candidates dialect is more important to voters *

3.9. Threats to progress: ethnic gap,

communication gap, religion gap because it causes lack of unity * 3.10. Muslims resistance to assimilation (ancestral domain)* 3.11. 4. Role of Chinese (Wurfel, 1988)*

Filipino Values and Political Culture

4.1. Societal trust: utang na loob: ruralurban gap

4.2. Kinship: influence on society:

extending outside the family: compadre system

4.3. Reciprocity: patron-client relationship:

mostly in rural areas

7.2. Foundation for ones political

learning 8. More on Philippine Political Culture

4.4. Preferential: corruption against

public trust

4.5. Nationalism: not strong enough to

extend to people outside ones circle; if strong, you take care of your constituents 5. Pragmatism and Ideology

8.1. Wurfel, 1988: Mass Media

8.1.1. Radio as the most widely used

8.1.2. Influence of mass media is widespread

8.1.3. Journalists as the 4th Estate

(the three estates: Government, Citizens and Civil Society) People power did not do anything to dent elite domination Congressional and local elections in 1987-1988 saw the return of the oligarchs

8.2. Wurfel, 1988: The Church

8.2.1. 8.2.2. 8.2.3. Influence of leadership Influence on legitimacy Influence on legislation

8.2.4. Influence in almost all political activity

Democracy after People Power is one that is a combination of elitedemocracy and clientelist electoral


A Case for Democracy

8.3. Doronila, Amando. 1988: The Role of

Civil Society

9.1. Consensus Democracy - a model of

democracy designed to find and create common ground in pluralistic societies and base-decision making on consensus

8.3.1. Bottom-up approach to

studying political culture

8.3.2. The rise and participation of

independent groups in political activity: Party-list system (sufficient representation to the marginalized) 8.3.3. Moving beyond traditional assessment of political systems and orientations 8.3.4. Strong civil society vs. the weak State 8.4.Quimpo, Gilbert. 2009 8.4.1. The Predatory Regime

9.1.1. Balances executive and

legislative powers bicameral (2houses): 2/3 votes in consensus - voting of legislature 9.1.2. Proportional representation party-list groups for minorities 9.1.3. Corrects majoritarian democracies

9.2. Deliberative Democracy political

decision should be the product of fair and reasonable debate among citizens Corruption, violence and fraud are overwhelming characteristics of Philippine political culture in the last decades People are dependent and cynical towards the countrys political system

9.2.1. Citizens should exchange

arguments and consider different claims that are designed to secure the public good (common good equal opportunities of everyone to have better lives) 9.2.2. Deliberation is a prerequisite for the legitimacy of democratic political decisions

Argues on behalf of studying political culture in the sure vein as Wurfel, thus, against Doronila

9.3. Participatory Democracy democratic

arrangements and practices that allow for direct individual and collective participation of citizens in a public decision making Asserts that the Philippines has gone back to the culture-dominated politics evident during Marcos reign

9.3.1. Central tenet: people have

equal rights to liberty and self development which can only be achieved in a society that fosters a: Sense of political efficacy (political participation or awareness of the current issues) Nurture a concern for collective problems Contributes to the formation of a knowledgeable citizenry (media to inform citizens

9.5.7. Asia Financial Crisis 1997 1998: US Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin: Asian Countries had: Weak financial sectors Noncommercial relationships among banks, government and industries Lack of transparency in financial transactions and government decision-making

9.4. Representative Democracy rule by

the people (not by one: monarchy; or by few: oligarchy) 9.4.1. Individuals have the right to control their own lives

9.4.2. Parliamentary system:

executive and legislative functions are combined in a representative assembly

Financial Instability

9.4.3. Presidential system: separates

executive and legislative system 9.4.4. Unicameral vs. bicameral legislative 9.4.5. Federal or unitary structures: separate power between regional and central authorities 9.4.6. Philippines- no absolute autonomy (returns taxes to national not regional) 9.5.Neo-liberalism Liberalization of the Market 9.5.1. Late 70s early 80s

9.5.2. Individuals have the right to control their own lives 9.5.3. Deng Xiaopings liberalization of the Chinese economy 9.5.4. Reaganism vs. Reaganomics

9.5.5. Thatcherism British version: Margaret

9.5.6. Liberalization of economy,

politics etc. International Monetary Fund, WB and WTO