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Dry Cargo Operations
Umang Dave (Roll no. 3805) Bhavika Gadhvi (Roll no. 3807) Krunal Maheta (Roll no. 3811) Nipun Shah (Roll no. 3821) Jay Upadhyay (Roll no. 3826) Batch 2008-10 October 31, 2009
Post Graduate Diploma in Port Management
B. K. School of Business Management, Gujarat University
Mundra Port and SEZ Ltd. is always focusing on managing continual Process improvement in order to reach world class safety, service, and efficiency. It is expected that terminal planning and execution should be based on a solid platform of processes and procedures which are measured, monitored, and communicated. Reviewing and understanding the terminal processes becomes necessary as it provides several strong benefits to the users. During the training period, we have been concentrating on Dry Cargo department activities in depth. For this, we gave considerable amount of time to each sub department as and when required for understanding their activities by working with them practically and finding out the difficulties they are facing for the completion of their respective activity. Once the understanding of activity was over, we started analyzing the process flow of each sub department and finding out the bottle-necks in the process which are affecting the process directly or indirectly. This analysis helped us in finding out the ways or methods to optimize the operation activities of the Dry Cargo department. Suggestions have been given for the same covering the human and non human side of the operations.
Firstly, we are sincerely thankful to Mr. Srinivasa Reddy, DGM-HR, MPSEZ Ltd., for giving us permission to undergo training at Mundra port. We would also like to thank Mr. Rahul Pardeshi who helped us in each and every matter wherever we required his assistance and provided us friendly like environment. We are also thankful to Capt. Jasbir Singh, Sr.VP Dry Cargo Department, Mr. Shirishchandra Shah, DGM Dry Cargo Department, and Capt. Anurag Bhagauliwal, DGM Dry Cargo Operations for their effective guidance and encouragement through out training period. We would also like to thank Mr. R.P.Zala, Commodity Manager for fertilizers and agricultural commodities, Mr. Mahavir Agrawal, Commodity Manager for Steel and Project Cargo, Mr. Tushar Chothani for Coal, Mr. A.N.Jha, Commodity Manager for Scraps and Minerals, and Mr. Sridhar Tawde, Manager for Stevedoring for providing us with good practical knowledge about operations for each and every commodities. We are grateful to our project guide, Mr. Subramanian Nadar, who helped us in preparing project report, gaining practical knowledge, and analyzing problems attached with operational activities. Our heartily thanks to all staff
members of cooperation.
Subject About MPSEZ About Promoters Vision and Mission Mundra Port Location and Linkages Logistical Connectivity MPSEZ Organization structure SEZ Future Plans Dry Cargo Department Dry Cargo Department-Organization Structure Multi-Purpose Terminal Dry cargo Handling Facilities Dry Cargo Storage Facilities
Page no. 7 7 8 8 9-10 11 11 12 13-14 15 15 16 16
Finally, we are thankful Dr. Sarla Achuthan and Er.Rajesh Doshi for supporting us in having training at India’s largest private port.
Table of Contents Coal
What is Coal? Coal Formation How Coal Was Formed Coal Mining Types of Coal Properties of Coal Usages of Coal Environmental Effects of Coal Effects of Coal on Health Coal handling at MPSEZ Coal handling through Conveyor Belt System Conveyor Belt System at MPSEZ Coal handling with Hopper Coal handling Without Hopper 17 17 17 18-19 19 20 20-21 21 21 22 22-23 23-24 24 24
Analyzing Steam Coal Vessel at MPSEZ Table Showing Percentile Problems Faced in Indonesian Steam Coal Vessel Percentile Presentation of Problems Encountered in Indonesian Coal Vessel Prioritizing Problems on The Basis of its Occurrence in Indonesian Coal Vessel Graphical view of prioritizing the Problems Possible Solutions of the Main problems encountered in Handling Indonesian Steam Coal Vessel Loss in Coal Handling, Storage and Dispatch
25 26 27 28 28 29-30 30-31-32-33
What is Fertilizer? Kinds of Fertilizers Types of Fertilizer Material Properties of Fertilizers Fertilizers in Dry Cargo Fertilizer Import Process Mechanized handling through conveyor belt system Jetty dumping with Hopper Fertilizer Storage Process Fertilizer Deliver Process-By Gate Fertilizer Deliver Process-By Rake 34 34 34-35-36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 39
Steel & Project Cargo
Steel & Project Cargo Steel Import Process Steel Coils, Plates and Slabs handling at MPSEZ Project Cargo handling at MPSEZ Steel Import Storage Process Steel Delivery Process Steel Export Process Steel Export Storage Process Steel Export Delivery Process Steel Pipes handling at MPSEZ 40 40 40-41 41-42 42-43 43 44 44-45 45 45
Soya (DOC) Receipt Soya Export Cargo Process: By Road Receipt Soya Export Cargo Process: By Rake Storage of Soya Export Cargo Process: Delivery of Soya Export Cargo Process: Soya handling with Hopper 46 46 47 47 47-48 48
Minerals Import Process of Minerals Storage Process of Minerals Delivery Process of Minerals Receipt Export Process of Minerals: Storage Process of Minerals: Delivery Process of Minerals: Minerals handling at MPSEZ-Import Minerals handling at MPSEZ-Export 49 49 49 50 50 50-51 51 52 52
Total No. of Rakes handled By Dry Cargo Department Dry Cargo Throughput Details Comparison of Cargo related charges Between MPSEZ, GPPL and KPT Bibliography 52 53 54-55 56
Mundra Port and SEZ Ltd. manages the largest privately developed port in the country. The company has also developed a multi-product Special Economic Zone adjacent to the port area in Kutch. The port project was initiated in 1988 by the Adani Group as a logistic base for their international trade operations where the sector was opened for private sector. The group leveraged its primary knowledge of shipping sector built by its sheer volume in international trade to develop the port at Mundra. Today, Mundra Port handles close to 35 million tons of cargo ranging from bulk cargo like fertilizer, coal, steel, and petroleum products to container cargo, automobiles. The port has been developed using state of the art technologies, facilities and services benchmarked to international standards, and making the most of its geographical and hydrological advantages.
Adani Group, established in 1988 is one of the India’s fastest growing business houses. From being a trusted trading house, the group has grown over the last two decades to become a conglomerate with diverse ventures spanning commodity trading, development of infrastructure and energy. Company’s core values of trust, courage and innovation; their ability to identify opportunities and capitalize on them; and success at building competencies by synergizing expertise, are the factors that have driven the company’s growth. The group is organized under three companies: Mundra Port and SEZ Ltd. (MPSEZ), Adani Enterprise Ltd. (AEL), and Adani Power Ltd. (APL). All the companies are listed on The National Stock Exchange (NSE) and The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). Market Capitalization for these companies is as follows as on 20/10/2009. MPSEZ 21,836 AEL 17,235 APL 21,996 (All Figures are in Crores)
VISION AND MISSION
Vision: To be a globally preferred business associate, an entrepreneurial organization having responsible concern for employees, society, ecology and stakeholder value. Mission: To acquire, develop, assimilate and manage knowledge; to profitably apply this across our businesses for the benefit of stakeholders. Values: Since inception, three values have driven all the activities of the Adani Group. Trust - Deliver on all the promises. Courage – support the decisions and actions with conviction. Innovation - think laterally and never fight shy of embracing big ideas.
• • •
MUNDRA PORT-LOCATION AND LINKAGES
Mundra Port is strategically located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kutch on the west coast of India; Mundra Port provides a convenient international trade gateway to Europe, Africa, America and the Middle East. Mundra Port is located closest to the North-West hinterland which contributes over 42% of the Import-Export trade of India. Mundra port is located at the Latitude: 22º 43’ 88’ N and Longitude: 69º 42’ 34’ E.
Gulf of Kutch
Approach w/o a channel.
Road Connectivity:Mundra Port is connected to the national highways NH-8A and NH-15. It is also connected to State highway SH-6.
Rail Connectivity:Mundra Port is equipped with private railway line connecting to the national network at Gandhidham through Adipur - Mundra Broad-gauge line. Mundra has a distance advantage of around 380 kms. From Delhi Over most other ports. Mundra port owns two locos for internal rake operations. Mundra port is equipped with seven rake sidings for dry cargo inside port premises.
Air Connectivity:Mundra port is equipped with an aerodrome to land private jets. The nearest commercial airports to Mundra are Bhuj (65 km) and Kandla (65 km) and nearest international airport is Ahmedabad (400 km).
MPSEZ ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
Bulk Dry Cargo Terminal
Bulk Liquid Cargo Terminal
Container Terminal (MICT & CT2)
Industries located in SEZs get a host of fiscal advantages over those located outside them. The SEZ Policy of the Government of India lays down a number of financial benefits for manufacturing units in the SEZ. The advantages include:
Direct Tax Benefits – Income Tax 100% exemption for the first 5 years 50% exemption for the sixth to tenth (next 5) years
50% exemption on the ploughed back profits, for an additional 5 years, after ten years Exemption from Minimum Alternate Tax Indirect Tax Benefits - Perennial exemption in all taxes including Excise Duty Custom Duty Service Tax Value Added Tax (VAT) Stamp Duty / Lease Tax
Entry Tax and various other State levies that would otherwise be applicable on operations.
Coal Terminal at Wandh: Two Mega Thermal Power Plants with total capacity in excess of 8600 MW are being constructed in Mundra Region. The plants require very high volumes of imported coal, up to 30 Million Metric Tons Per Annum (MMTPA). In addition other dry volumes such as Iron Ore etc are also to be imported for the industries planned in the vicinity of power plants Two deep water offshore berths in Phase I Development and one additional berth will be added in Phase II. • Two sets of Stack Yards for Coal, for Iron Ore and for miscellaneous dry bulk.
South Basin Development: The basin on the southern side of Navinal Island and adjacent to existing MPT-I will be developed in phased manner. It will include Basin container terminal –I; two RO-RO cum service berths, one Port craft berth and back up facilities for these Terminals, by way of Container Yard, Rail Sidings, Open Paved Area and requisite buildings, Utilities etc.
Other Developments: Pure Car carrier/ Pure Car Truck carrier (PCC / PCTC) berth with appropriate car parking space. • Addition of two more crossing stations along the 64 KM privately developed railway line to increase the rakes handling capacity from 32 to 40 rakes a day. Double lining of the 64 km railway line in phased manner. • Construction of dedicated LNG berth. • Construction of a fly-over bridge at The Mundra Port Railway Crossing.
Dry cargo basically works in Warehousing / intra-port transport operations. All the back-up activities related to the commodities such as steel, fertilizers, coal, minerals, agri-commodities are taken care by dry cargo department. Here below is the list of commodities which dry cargo handles: 1. COAL (Steam & Coking) 2. STEEL (Plates, Pipes, Coils, Slabs and billets) (Imports.) (Imports/Exports.)
3. FERTILISERS (MOP / DAP / Urea / Other) 4. MINERALS (Bauxite, Bentonite, Clay etc.) 5. STEEL SCRAP (HMS, Shredded and Bundles) 6. AGRI COMMODITIES (Wheat, Rice, Peas etc.) 7. PROJECT CARGO AND MACHINARIES 8. COMPLEX CARGO (Rail siding) operations.
(Imports.) (Exports.) (Imports.) (Import/Exports.) (Import/Exports) (Arrival/Dispatch)
a) Steam coal dispatches to various power plants and Coking coal to
various coke manufacturing plants. b) Fertilizers dispatch.
c) Agri Products arrivals/dispatch (Wheat, DOC etc.)
9. SUGAR (Raw and White)
There are two major operations which dry cargo department handles:
1) Backup operation. 2) Stevedoring operation.
DRY CARGO ADMINISTRATION
Sr. VICE PRESIDENT (Capt. Jasbir Singh)
DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER (Mr. Shirishchandra Shah)
DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGEROperations (Capt. Anurag Bhagauliwal)
Dy. MANAGER: COAL (Mr. Tushar Chothani)
MANAGER: SCRAP/ MINERAL/ WB & EQUIP. (Mr. A.N. Jha)
MANAGER: STEVEDORING (Mr. Sridhar Tawde)
MANAGER: AGRI & FERTILIZER (Mr. R.P. Zala)
MANAGER: STEEL & PROJECT CARGO (Mr. Mahvir Agrawal)
MPT Berth No:1 Berth No.2 Berth No.3 Berth No.4 Berth No.5&6 Berth No.7&8 Barge Berth LOA (mtrs) 216.50 180 164.50 164.50 565 555 78 Terminal-1 Beam (mtrs) 38 32 31 31 Terminal-2 49 49 15 Draft (mtrs) 15.5 13.0 14.0 12.5 13.0 12.0 6.0 Deadweight 75,000 30,000 60,000 60,000 1,50,000 40,000 2,500
Dry Cargo Handling Facilities
The Mundra Port has state-of-the-art facilities for the handling of dry cargo. 4 Gottwald and 4 Liebherr mobile harbor cranes with a handling capacity of 750 tons per hour (TPH) per crane. • 22 bagging lines capable of 1008 TPH in total. • One 1,000 TPH ship loader. • 3.6 km long import and export conveyor system capable of handling 1,500 TPH of import and 1,000 TPH of export cargo. • 2 mobile hoppers for direct discharge into the import conveyors.
8 mobile hoppers for direct discharge into dumpers. Wheat cleaning system.
Dry Cargo Storage Facilities
The Mundra Port has state-of-the-art facilities for the warehousing of dry cargo. 21 closed godowns, measuring 1,37,000 sq. m., for wheat, rice, sugar, de-oiled cakes (DOC), fertilizer, fertilizer raw materials (FRM), etc. • 8,80,000 sq. m. of well demarcated open storage space for steel sheets, plate, coils, scrap, clinker, salt, coal, coke, bentonite, etc. • 26,000 sq. m of open storage alongside rail siding. • Wheat cleaning facility with a capacity of 700 TPH. • 8 weighbridges for dry cargo. • 2 in-motion rail weighbridges.
COAL What is Coal?
• Coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago when parts of the earth were covered with huge swampy forests. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago. All living plants store solar energy through a process known as photosynthesis. When plants die, this energy is usually released as the plants decay. Under conditions favorable to coal formation, however, the decay process is interrupted, preventing the release of the stored solar energy. The energy is locked into the coal. Millions of years ago, dead plant matter fell into swampy water and over the years, a thick layer of dead plants lay decaying at the bottom of the swamps. Over time, the surface and climate of the earth changed, and more water and dirt washed in, halting the decay process. The weight of the top layers of water and dirt packed down the lower layers of plant matter. Under heat and pressure, this plant matter under went chemical and physical changes, pushing out oxygen and leaving rich hydrocarbon deposits. What once had been plants gradually turned into coal.
Most coal is buried under the ground. We must dig It out mine it. There are two ways to remove coal from the ground surface and underground mining. If coal is near the surface, miners dig it up with huge machines. First, they scrap off the dirt and rock, and then dig out the coal. This is called the surface mining.
Surface mining is used when a coal seam is relatively close to the surface, usually within 200 feet. The first step in surface mining is to remove and store the soil and rock covering the coal, called the overburden. Workers use a variety of equipment draglines, power shovels, bulldozers, and front-end loaders to expose the coal seam for mining.
After surface mining, workers replace the overburden, grade it, cover it with topsoil, and fertilize and seed the area. This land reclamation is required by law and helps restore the biological balance of the area and prevent erosion. The land can then be used for croplands, wildlife habitats, recreation, or as sites for commercial development. Surface mining is typically much less expensive than underground mining.
Underground mining is used when the coal seam is buried several hundred feet below the surface. In underground mining, workers and
machinery go down a vertical shaft or a slanted tunnel called a slope to remove the coal. Mine shafts may sink as deep as 1,000 feet.
Types of Coal
• Coal is classified into four main types, depending on the amount of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen present. The higher the carbon content, more energy the coal contains.
1. LIGNITE is the lowest rank of coal, with a heating value of 4,000-8,300 British thermal units (Btu) per pound. Lignite is crumbly and has high moisture content. Lignite is mainly used to produce electricity. It contains 25-35 percent carbon. 2. SUB-BITUMINOUS coal typically contains heating value of 8,300-13,000 Btu per pound and more moisture as compared to bituminous coal. It contains 35-45 percent carbon. 3. BITUMINOUS coal was formed by added heat and pressure on lignite. Made of tiny layers, bituminous coal looks smooth and sometimes shiny. Bituminous coal contains 11,000-15,500 Btu per pound. Bituminous coal is used to generate electricity and is an important fuel for the steel and iron industries. It contains 45-86 percent carbon. 4. ANTHRACITE was created where additional pressure combined with very high temperature inside the earth. It is deep black and looks almost metallic due to its glossy surface. Like bituminous coal anthracite coal is
big energy producer, containing nearly 15,000 Btu per pound. It contains 86-97 percent carbon.
Properties of Coal
PROPERTIES (% WEIGHT) MOISTURE ASH TOTAL SULFER FIXED CARBON HYDROGEN NITROGEN LIGNITE COAL 10.0-13.0 0.9-1.7 0.29-0.42 67.0-70.0 4.7-5.1 0.53-0.66 BITUMINOUS COAL 1.0-10.0 4.0-20.0 0.5-2.2 50.0-72.0 4.8-5.3 1.2-1.6 ANTHRACITE COAL < 5.0 < 1.0 > 90.0 < 3.75 --
Usages of Coal
• One time coal was predominantly used to heat homes, as well as power railroad locomotives and factories. Today, however, coal serves different purposes for society. The chief use of coal is now electricity generation. Coal’s share in electricity generation is predicted to increase from 69 percent to 71 percent by 2030. Other uses include coking coal for steel manufacturing and industrial process heating.
Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses are in:
1. Electricity generation 2. Steel production 3. Cement manufacturing 4. Other industrial processes
- 72% - 5% - 4% - 19%
Other usages: when coal is heated in the absence of air, a porous, carbon-rich material called ‘coke’ is formed. Bituminous coal also called metallurgical coal or coking coal is baked without air in an oven until most of its volatile matter is released. During this process, it softens, then liquefies and solidifies into hard porous lumps. Coking coal is more expensive than coal used for heating or electricity. It must have low sulfur and phosphorous content, which makes it less common than the types of coal used for heating and electricity.
When iron and steel are made, coke is the one of the constituents needed to properly heat the furnace; limestone and iron ore are two other constituents. The cement, glass, ceramic and paper industries all use coal for industrial heating purpose.
Environmental effects of coal
• There are a number of adverse environmental effects of coal mining, handling, transporting, and electricity generation especially in power stations. These effects include:
Release of carbon dioxide and methane, both of which are green house gases, which are causing climate change and global warming according to IPCC. Coal is the largest contributor to the humane-made increase of CO2 in the air. The coal industry’s largest environmental challenge today is removing organic sulfur, a substance that is chemically bound to coal. Susceptible to spontaneous combustion. Highly combustible and explosive when in dust or powder form.
Effects of coal on health
• There are a number of adverse health effects of coal mining, handling, transporting, and electricity generation especially in power stations. These effects include:
The principal health hazard associated with coal is that it creates respiratory problem during inhalation. It may cause irritation during eye contact, skin contact and eating.
Coal handling at MPSEZ
• There are mainly three ways for handling of coal at MPSEZ.
1. Mechanized handling through Conveyor Belt System at Berth no. 1
2. Jetty dumping with hopper. 3. Jetty dumping without hopper. •
Selection of mode for coal handling through conveyor belt is based on first come first serve basis. When conveyor belt system is operational one of the other two methods will be used to discharge coal to avoid pre-berthing delay.
Coal handling through Conveyor Belt System
Conveyor belt system as long as 3.5 km is available with an import capacity of 1500 TPH for coal handling. Four mobile hopper cranes (Gottwald) with handling capacity of 900 TPH.
First of all, coal vessel is berthed at berth no.1 as per berthing plan. Then, port health officer and customs give clearance to vessel. Within 2 hours of berthing, operation work must start. Gottwald crane grabs the coal from vessel’s hold and then discharges it into hopper. 2 Gottwald cranes along with 2 rail mounted mobile hoppers can be deployed at berth no. 1 to discharge coal. Hoppers discharge the coal into conveyor belt. Conveyor belt discharges coal at chute point in the storage yard. Then at chute point loaders are deployed to load the coal into dumpers. Dumpers take the coal at planned location in the storage yard and dump the coal. Then as per customers requirement delivery of coal is given by road/rail.
• • • • • • •
Conveyor Belt System at MPSEZ Import Conveyor System - COAL
J E T T Y
TT-6 TT-6 TT-5 TT-5
BC - Belt Conveyor. TT - Transfer Tower.
Conveyor BC – 6I BC – 5I BC – 4I BC- C2 BC – C1
Length (M) Normal C/C DIST. CAP. TPH 189 1237 461 6.0 70 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
Belt Width (MM) 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400
Speed ( M /SEC ) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Motor Rating ( KW ) 75 LT 2x200 HT 160 HT 22 LT 75 LT
Material Handled COAL COAL COAL COAL COAL
Coal Handling With Hopper
First of all, coal vessel is berthed as per berthing plan. Then, port health officer and customs give clearance to vessel. Within 2 hours of berthing, operation work must start compulsorily otherwise demurrage will have to be paid. Crane grabs the coal from vessel’s hold and then discharges it into hopper. Hopper discharges coal into dumpers standing under it. Dumpers take the cargo to the planned storage area. Then as per customers requirement delivery of coal is given by road/rail.
• • •
Coal Handling Without Hopper
• • First of all, coal vessel is berthed as per berthing plan. Then, port health officer and customs give clearance to vessel.
• • •
Within 2 hours of berthing, operation work must start. Crane grabs the coal from vessel’s hold and then discharges it on the jetty. Then, loader lifts the cargo and dumps into dumpers on the jetty. Dumpers take the cargo to the planned storage area. Then as per customers requirement delivery of coal is given by road/rail.
Analyzing Steam Coal Vessel at MPSEZ
Comparison between standard and actual discharge of Indonesian steam coal.
• 2-Shore cranes capacity: - 1,800 MT/hr • Conveyor system capacity: - 1,500 MT/hr
But, actual discharge of steam coal is only 976 MT/hr due to stoppages.
No. 1 2 3 4 5
Vessel Quantity Start Time Completion Name (MT) Time MV 72,450 01:35/ 05:00/ Coronis 06.08.2009 10.08.2009 MV Hao 75,117 14:30/ 13:00/ Ying 16.08.2009 19.08.2009 MV 71,959 16:50/ 17:40/ Samjohn 25.08.2009 29.08.2009 Amity MV Tian 72,106 13:50/ 18:00/ Song 08.09.2009 11.09.2009 Hai MV Guo 65,566 14:10/ 15:30/ Dian-6 18.07.2009 21.07.2009
Duration hrs. 99.42 70.50 96.83 76.17 73.33
Average (MT/hr.) 728.726 1065.489 743.147 946.645 894.122
6 7 8 9 10
MV Bianco ID MV Situs Star MV London 2012 MV Hua Shan Hai MV Pan Uno
69,250 63,060 76,998 66,431 73,561
02:55/ 10:30/ 13.05.2009 15.05.2009 17:10/ 07:00/ 19.06.2009 22.06.2009 20:40/ 18:00/ 09.06.2009 12.06.2009 18:20/ 20:30/ 09.04.2009 12.04.2009 22:10/ 16:30/ 15.04.2009 18.04.2009
55.58 61.83 69.33 74.17 66.33 Total Average
1245.951 1019.893 1110.601 895.658 1109.015 9,760 976
Table Showing Percentile Problems Faced in Indonesian Steam Coal Vessel
Every day there is a fixed break of 3 Hrs. for Lunch, Dinner and Shift Change which also affects the productivity:
• • •
08:30 -09:30 - Shift change 13:00-14:00 - lunch Break 20:30-21:30 - Dinner break
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN INDONESIAN COAL VESSEL
Other Bad Weather Conveyor o/o Chute Jam Cargo Collection Equipment Shifting Hopper Jam Crane o/o Hatch Change Hopper o/o 0 2
8.66 19.91 9.18
2.35 6.88 8.87 5.28 4 6 8 13.55
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 PERCENTAGE
PRIORITISING PRBLEMS ON THE BASIS OF ITS OCCURANCE IN INDONESIAN STEAM COAL VESSEL
Problems Conveyor o/o Equipment Shifting Crane o/o Chute JAM Hatch Change Other Hopper Jam Bad Weather Hopper o/o Cargo Collection Total Percentage 19.91 19.11 13.55 9.18 8.87 8.66 6.88 6.21 5.28 2.35 100
GRAPHICAL VIEW OF PRIORITIZING PROBLEMS
Cargo Collection Hopper o/o Bad Weather Hopper Jam Other Hatch Change Chute JAM Crane o/o Equipm Shifting ent Conveyor o/o 0 2 2.35 5.28 6.21 6.88 8.66 8.87 9.18 13.55 19.11 19.91 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Possible Solutions of the main problems encountered in handling Indonesian Steam Coal Vessel
a) Conveyor o/o: 1) Continuous maintenance of conveyor belt system must be done prior to arrival of vessel so that there is no wastage of time. 2) Main problem of conveyor out of order is due to power failure. So steps need to be taken to reduce power failure. 3) Another problem faced is that of chute point jam both at transfer towers and at storage yard. Faster clearance of cargo at chute point in the storage yard can be achieved by increasing the number of dumpers and loaders. 4) The problems of hopper jam, power failure, chute point jam, equipment shifting are inter related, because stoppage in one will affect all others. So, effective monitoring for each of this problem is required and can be achieved by putting more no. of employees at work and by assigning them with special task. 5) One of the options when conveyor is out of order is to start jetty dumping immediately, but it may depend upon the free contract with the client.
b) Equipment Shifting: Equipment shifting takes much of the time. So, it should be planned such that minimum no. of moves takes place. 2) Innovative style of equipment shifting, as used before six months, by attaching hook in the grab to lift the equipment should be implemented because it reduces vessel’s time by 3 Hrs. 1)
Many of the times due to unavailability of labor on board for cleaning the hold in corners, delay occurs in the process. Cleaning of the hold depends on the cargo level and hence as the cargo level decrease, holds need to be cleaned. Though it is allotted to contractors but supervisors must also monitor availability beforehand.
Loss in Coal Handling, Storage and Dispatch
Loss in Coal Handling: While imported coal is being discharged through shore crane to hopper or jetty dumping, spillage amounted from this activity is higher.
From all the coal being imported, coal in form of powder is having the
largest share among all. And MPSEZ is having grabs which are open from top, due to which spillage of this coal powder is higher.
When coal is being discharged from jetty to storage yard through
dumpers, there arises spillage of coal powder on roads. Hence, roads need to be washed. Due to which roads becomes slippery.
SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING LOSS IN HANDLING:
One of the solutions for reducing loss while discharging coal through
shore crane is that, Specialized Closed Grab Designed Specifically for Coal handling should be used. Advantages are:
Losses due to spillage will reduce and indirectly improve productivity. One of the biggest advantages of using such closed grab is that it will be able to grab more amount of cargo than the grab being used right now. Again it will increase productivity. Use of such closed grab will reduce spillage and indirectly reduce environment pollution and will provide safe & healthy work environment.
At MPSEZ dumpers are transporting coal openly, creating dust on roads and hence all the trucks carrying coal must be covered with tarpaulin. This will result in loss reduction, clean roads and thereby less accidents.
Loss in Coal Storage:
One of the biggest losses arising in coal is due to ‘COAL FIRE’. MPSEZ is also facing problem of shortage of water for fire fighting. When coal is being discharged through chute point in the storage yard,
loss is higher. Again at the chute point loaders are deployed to load the dumpers which cause handling loss. Storage yard of coal is big enough but roads are not developed in the yard due to which coal of one grade mixes with coal of another grade.
SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING LOSS IN COAL STORAGE:
The best solution for reducing loss due to Coal Fire is to use ‘Sprinklers
System’ in the yard. Though it is very costly but as MPSEZ handles more
than 70% of coal in Dry Cargo. It is one of the best solutions. MPSEZ has planned to develop sprinklers system in the West Port being developed.
Proper infrastructure in the storage yard should be developed and there
should be plotting of area as per specific type of coal to be stored in the plot. It will reduce cargo mixing.
Faster removal of coal from storage yard is also important to reduce loss.
Maximum time limit must be there before which delivery must be taken.
The solution for shortage of water must come out as MPSEZ is developing
West Port which will be having coal handling capacity of 50 MMTA. So one solution is to develop water desalination plant.
Another solution is to use Sea-Water for fire fighting with prior approval of
client. Though it may cause problem as Sodium Chloride mixes with Sulpher. But, problem will be minor because:
Sea-Water Density= 1.025. So in 1.025 ton of water will contain 25 kg of salt. Now suppose we require water for 40,000 M.Ton of Coal= 500 ton water.
25/1025*5,00,000= 12,195.12 kg salt= 12.19 ton
In 40,000 M.Ton of Coal only 12.19 Ton of Water will be added. So, usage of Sea-Water will not create a big problem.
Loss in Coal Dispatch:
Main loss is at the time of placing coal near railway sidings through
dumpers and then at the time of rake loading through excavators.
More the no. of activities involved, more will be the loss and hence
everything must be planned beforehand.
It is important to keep no. of activities as minimum as possible.
When rail wagon is being loaded, there is spillage of coal near railway
sidings. Which is hard to remove and sometimes it may be the cause for major accident.
Sodium silicate diluted with water can be used to convert dust form
of coal into solid form, which may help in reduction of wastage as well as in dust collection.
FERTILIZERS What is Fertilizer?
Broadly a fertilizer may be defined as any substance (chemical, organic and microbial) that is added to soil to supply elements required for the nutrition of plants. In a specific sense, fertilizer are chemicals that occur naturally or are produced in the factory and when added to the soil, supply nutrient elements required for better plant growth.
Kinds of Fertilizers
Some examples of different kinds of fertilizers are: • • • Chemical fertilizers: Urea, MOP, DAP, others. Organic fertilizers: Cow dung, Farmyard manure, Poultry manure and Compost. Bio- fertilizers: Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Blue-Green Algae.
Types of Fertilizer Material
1. Inorganic (Mineral) fertilizer: Fertilizer contains nutrients in the form of inorganic salts Obtained by extraction and/or by physical and/or chemical industrial processes. 2. Organic fertilizer:
Carbonaceous materials mainly of vegetable and/or animal origin added to the soil specifically for the nutrition of plants. 3. Straight fertilizer: A qualification generally given to a nitrogenous, phosphatic, or potassic fertilizer having only one primary plant nutrients, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium.
4. Micronutrient fertilizer: Any fertilizer containing micronutrient elements (Zinc, Boron, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Molybdenum or Chlorine), which is required in small amount but essential for plant growth. 5. Complete fertilizer: A fertilizer that contains 3 major plant nutrients, NPK. 6. Compound fertilizer: A fertilizer that contains at least two of the plant nutrients nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium obtained chemically or by blending or both. 7. Complex fertilizer: A compound fertilizer, containing nutrient elements that have undergone chemical interaction during manufacturing. 8. Blended fertilizer: A fertilizer containing at least two of the plant nutrients nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, prepared by blending. 9. Granular fertilizer: Solid material that is formed into particle of a predetermined mean size. 10. Coated fertilizer: Granular fertilizer that is coated with a thin layer of different materials in order to improve the behavior and/or modify the characteristics of the fertilizer. 11. Slow-Release fertilizer: A fertilizer whose nutrients are present as a chemical compound or whose physical state is such that the nutrient availability to plants is spread over time.
12. Biofertilizer: Biofertilizers are non-pathogenic active cultures of microorganism which benefit the plants by providing nitrogen or phosphorus or rapid mineralization of organic material.
13. Liquid fertilizer: A term used for fertilizers in suspension or solution and for liquefied ammonia. The principal materials used in making liquid fertilizer are ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, phosphoric acid, and potassium chloride. 14. Suspension fertilizers: A two-phase fertilizer in which solid particles are maintained in suspension in the aqueous phase. 15. Soil conditioner: Material added to soils, the main function of which is to improve their physical and/or chemical properties and/or their biological activity. 16. Liming material: An inorganic soil conditioner containing one or both of the elements calcium and magnesium, generally in the form of an oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, principally intended to maintain or raise the soil pH. 17. Filler material: A substance added to fertilizer materials to provide bulk, prevent caking or serve some purpose other than providing essential plant nutrients. 18. Powder: A solid substance in the form of very fine particles. Powder is also referred to as “non-granular fertilizer” and is sometimes defined as a fertilizer containing fine articles, usually with upper limit such as 3 mm but no lower limit.
Properties of Fertilizers
Product Name Appearance Solubility Density Stowage Factor (CBM)
DAP M.O.P. Urea
White or Black powder Pink or Red or White White
57.5 g/100 ml 1.619 g/cm3 (10 ºC) 34.4 g/100 ml 1.984 g/cm3 (20 °C) 108 g/100 ml (20 °C) 1.32 g/cm3
1.2 0.87 1.37
Fertilizers in Dry Cargo
Fertilizers are mainly imported at Mundra Port by Indian Potash Ltd. (IPL) and Indian Farmers Fertilizers Co-operative (IFFCO). Fertilizer Products at Mundra Port consist of the following: • • • • Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) Muriate of Potash (M.O.P) UREA Any other fertilizer grade cargo.
Fertilizer Import process: Vessel Planning is done before arrival of the vessel. Port operation centre (POC) receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s Agent. Agent submits Stowage Plan and stevedoring section plans discharging sequence accordingly. Documentation Centre receives the Import General Manifest (IGM) from Ship’s Agent and informs Stevedoring section. Vessel is cleared for discharge. Ship discharge commences after Customs & Immigration clearance. There are mainly two ways of handling fertilizers at Mundra Port: • Mechanized handling through conveyor belt system at Berth No.1, and • Jetty dumping with hopper.
Mechanized handling through Conveyor Belt System
Once, the vessel is cleared for discharge operations, Gottwald crane is used to discharge the fertilizers from vessel’s hold to hopper with the help of grab. Hopper dumps the fertilizers on conveyor belt. Conveyor belt takes it to the Fertilizers Raw Material Godowns (FRM). Excavators are deployed in FRMs to stack fertilizers in godowns.
Fertilizer handling with Hopper
Once, the vessel is cleared for discharge operations, crane discharges fertilizers into hoppers with the help of grabs. Hoppers dump the fertilizers in the dumpers standing under it. Dumpers take the cargo to the planned location in closed or open godowns. Dumpers dump the cargo in the storage yard. Excavators are deployed in the yard to stack it properly.
Fertilizers Storage Process: Cargo is shifted from jetty to allocated storage area either through conveyor belt or through dumpers. The godown/ open yard is prepared to receive cargo prior to the commodity arrival. Cargo offloaded and stored in godowns/ open yard. Then, as per customers requirement bagging of fertilizers is done either manually or with the help of mobile bagging unit.
Surveyor, nominated by the Dry Cargo department submits comprehensive report each morning covering receipt of cargo from vessel, storage and dispatch. Notice is given to receiver if, • If cargo is short landed • If cargo is received in damaged condition • If cargo is received in mixed condition Fertilizer Delivery Process: By Gate Documentation centre gets all the required documents prior releasing the cargo. Marketing department checks about payment details. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP). If documents are in order truck is loaded with cargo. Delivery slip is issued by the cargo surveyor and attached to the port entry permit which is signed by the dry cargo supervisor. Trucks proceeds to nominated Weighbridge for the weighment. Customs gate passes handed over to truck-drivers. Gate Security checks customs clearance stamp before releasing the trucks out of the gate.
Fertilizer Delivery Process: By Rake Documentation centre gets all the required documents prior releasing the cargo. Marketing department checks about payment details. Customer sends dispatch order with destination. Indent is placed with the railway services for the calculation of freight and indenting the rake. On allotment of rake Earliest Time of Arrival is informed to Dry Cargo Department. Rake placement line is indicated by the Dry cargo to Railway services. Rail Calling Number (RCN) is generated. Allocation of transporters/ loading gangs is made.
Cargo is loaded from the go-down/ open plot to the rake siding via weighbridge. Trucks proceeds to nominated Weighbridge for the weighment. Loading of rake commences & tally of the consignments are made by the surveyors. After Loading of rake, it proceeds to the destination.
STEEL & PROJECT CARGO
Steel is mainly imported at Mundra Port by Jindal Saw Ltd., Welspun Gujarat Ltd., and Man Industries Ltd. Steel Products at Mundra Port consist of the following: • • • • • • Steel pipes Steel Plates Steel Coils Steel Billets Steel Slabs Project Cargo
Steel Import Process: Vessel Planning is done before arrival of the vessel. Port operation centre (POC) receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s Agent. Agent submits Stowage Plan and stevedoring section plans discharging sequence accordingly. Documentation Centre receives the Import General Manifest (IGM) from Ship’s Agent. Vessel is cleared for discharge. Ship discharge commences after Customs & Immigration clearance. Jetty operations as per specific steel consignment cargo.
There are different ways of handling steel cargo as per specific steel consignment cargo at Mundra Port.
Steel Coils, Plates, and Slabs handling at MPSEZ
Steel coils are mainly imported by Jindal Saw Ltd. and Welspun Gujarat Ltd. They use coils to make steel pipes, coat it and export it. Generally Steel coils are handled by ship’s crane. Steel coils are handled with ‘C’ type hook attached to crane. Hook lifts the coil from ship’s hold and lowers on trailers on the jetty. Trailers take the coil to allotted storage area.
Steel plates and slabs are mainly imported by Jindal Saw Ltd., Welspun Gujarat Ltd. and Man Industries Ltd. They use steel plates and slabs to make pipes for export. Steel plates and slabs are handled using shore cranes. Four Hooks are fitted with shore canes to lift the plates and slabs.
Plates and slabs are lowered on trailers on the jetty. Trailers take the plates or slabs to storage yard.
Project Cargo Handling at MPSEZ
Project cargo is imported by Adani Power Ltd., Coastal Gujarat Power Ltd.
(Tata Power Ltd.), RWPL, BGR Energy Ltd., Reliance Petroleum Ltd., Reliance Power Ltd. at Mundra Port. Mundra Port provides state of the art facilities for handling and storage of project cargo. Generally, project cargo is handled with ship’s cranes. Ship’s crane uses four or more hooks to lift the project cargo. Crane lowers the cargo on trailers available on jetty. Trailers take the cargo to allotted storage yard.
Steel Import Storage Process:
Imported steel commodity is shifted from jetty to allocated storage area.
The yard is prepared to receive particular steel commodity prior to the particular cargo arrival.
Steel commodity offloaded and stored in yard. Surveyor nominated by the DC department submits comprehensive report
each morning covering receipt of cargo from vessel, storage and dispatch.
Notices to receivers also sent if,:
• • • •
If cargo is short landed. If cargo is lost overboard. If cargo is received in damaged condition. If cargo is received in mixed condition.
Steel Delivery Process: Documentation centre gets all the required documents prior releasing the cargo. Marketing department checks about payment details. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP). If documents are in order truck is loaded with cargo. Delivery slip is issued by the cargo surveyor and attached to the port entry permit which is signed by the dry cargo supervisor. Trailer proceeds to nominated Weighbridge for weighment. Customs Gate pass handed over to trailer driver. Gate Security checks Customs clearance stamp before releasing the trailer out of the gate.
Steel Export Process: Documentation centre gets all the required documents prior releasing the cargo for export. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP). If document is in order, the trailer is unloaded. Receipt slip is issued by the cargo surveyor and attached to the port entry permit which is signed by the dry cargo Supervisor. Trailer proceeds to nominated Weighbridge for weighment. Weighment slip handed over to trailer driver. Gate Security checks weighment slip before releasing the trailer out of the gate.
Steel Export Storage Process:
Steel commodity off-loaded from trailer and stored in yard.
The yard is planned & prepared to receive Steel commodity prior to the steel commodity arrival. Steel commodity surveyor tallies quantity and submits reports to Dry Cargo documentation. Notices to exporters also sent if,:
If cargo is received in damaged condition. If cargo is received in mixed condition.
Steel Export Delivery Process:
Port Operation Center receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s
Agent submits pre-stowage plan to Stevedoring Section. Documentation Centre receives the Export General Manifest (EGM) from
Ship’s Agent and shipping bill from CHA. Vessel is cleared for loading. Ship loading commences after Customs & Immigration clearance. Loading operations as per individual steel commodity. There are different ways of handling steel cargo as per specific steel consignment cargo at Mundra Port.
Steel Pipes handling at MPSEZ
Steel pipes are mainly exported by Jindal Saw Ltd. and Welspun Gujarat
Ltd. Generally, steel pipes are handled using ship’s crane. Ship’s crane uses two hooks to lift one pipe at a time. Hooks are fitted at both the end of the steel pipes. Crane lifts the pipes from trailers on the jetty and lowers in the ship’s hold. As per stowage plan pipes are loaded on board the ship.
DOC is the de-oiled cake, the remains after the soya bean is crushed and oil is extracted. The remains left have high Protein level. Soya or De-oiled cake is mainly exported by Adani Wilmer Ltd. from Mundra Port to Vietnam, Japan, Korea, China, etc. Adani Wilmer Ltd. purchases Soya from open market and sends it for crushing to its different plants. Soya mainly comes from Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra by Road/Rail. Supplier of DOC is located at Bundi, Ratlam, Indore, Chindwada and Pachor. Main uses of DOC are for animal feeding and in medical. Usage depends upon the protein level. DOC with high protein is used for animal feeding and DOC with lower protein in medical use. Daily house-keeping is required as soya absorbs moisture easily and hence precaution needs to be taken so that it does not attach moisture. DOC is stored in bags of jute or plastic. Jute can carry 70 to 75 kg., while plastic bags can carry 50 to 55 kg of DOC.
Receipt Soya Export Cargo Process: By Road Documentation centre must receive required documents from CHA before allowing cargo entry in the port. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP).
If documents are in order, the Port Entry Permit is issued to the truck driver. Loaded trucks enter through main gate and weighed at weighbridge for gross tonnage. Port entry permit is checked for validity & gross tonnage then, the truck arrives at the allocated storage godown for delivery. Cargo is received in bagged form. Cargo is either bulked or stacked as mentioned by surveyors on Port Entry Permit & the same is furnished at the weighbridge while weighing. After tier weighment, weighbridge supervisor issues gate pass.
Receipt Soya Export Cargo Process: By Rake Documentation centre must receive required documents from CHA before allowing cargo entry in the port. For rake unloading following will be generated: • Rail Call No (RCN) generated by Railway services • Rake No • Exporter / shipper • Commodity • No of bags against (RCN) • Tare weight / Gross weight Quantity received is either bulked or stacked and is recorded / tallied by surveyors.
Storage of Soya Export Cargo Process: On arrival of cargo at the storage area the invoice must be checked to ascertain the type of cargo. Storage is decided prior arrival of Rake/ Trucks. Cargo received through Rake / road is off loaded at nominated storage area either stacked or bulked. Surveyor tallies quantity as per road invoice / rake receipt. Issue of Notice is sent to Consignor if cargo received either: • Short landed
Condition of the cargo is not sound Cargo mixed with foreign particles / or wet
Delivery of Soya Export Cargo Process: Port Operation Center receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s Agent. Agent submits Stowage Plan and loading sequence to Stevedoring Section. Documentation Centre must receive the Shipping Bill from authorized custom house agent. Vessel is cleared for loading after hatch inspection. Ship loading commences after Customs & Immigration clearance. o Marketing clears operation department for loading of cargo considering due payments to be received. Jetty and vessel operation starts.
Soya handling with Hopper at MPSEZ
Soya is mainly exported by Adani Wilmer Ltd. from MPSEZ. Soya is bulked prior vessel arrival. Then, trucks are loaded with the help of loaders deployed in the godown. CG-10 is specifically allotted for storage of Soya. Then, loaded trucks come at weighbridge for weighment. After weighment trucks arrive at jetty and off- load cargo on jetty.
Then with the help of shore crane Liebherr fitted with grabber grabs the soya and dumps in the vessel’s hold.
Minerals are mainly imported and exported by Ashapura Minechem Ltd. from Mundra Port. Minerals consist of the following: • • • • • • • Bentonite Bauxite Clay Salt Iron Ore Scrap Sulphur
Import Process of Minerals: Vessel Planning is done before arrival of the vessel. Port operation centre (POC) receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s Agent. Agent submits Stowage Plan and stevedoring section plans discharging sequence accordingly. Documentation Centre receives the Import General Manifest (IGM) from Ship’s Agent. Vessel is cleared for discharge. Ship discharge commences after customs & immigration clearance. Jetty operation and vessel operation starts.
Storage Process of Minerals: Cargo shifted from jetty to allocated storage area by dumpers. The yard is prepared to receive mineral commodity prior to the Mineral commodity arrival. Mineral commodity offloaded and stored in yard. Mineral commodity surveyor tallies quantity with shipside reports. Surveyor nominated by the Dry Cargo department submits comprehensive report each morning covering receipt of cargo from vessel, storage and dispatch. Notices to receivers also sent as follows: • • • • If cargo is short landed. If cargo is Lost overboard. If cargo is received in damaged condition. If cargo is received in mixed condition.
Delivery Process of Minerals: Documentation centre gets all the required documents prior releasing the cargo. Marketing department checks about payment details. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP). If documents are in order truck is loaded with cargo. Delivery slip is issued by the cargo surveyor and attached to the port entry permit which is signed by the dry cargo supervisor. Trucks proceeds to nominated Weighbridge for the weighment. Customs gate passes handed over to truck-drivers. Gate Security checks customs clearance stamp before releasing the trucks out of the gate. Receipt Export Process of Minerals: Documentation centre must receive required documents from CHA before allowing cargo entry in the port. Then, necessary documents are provided by transporters representatives to get Port Entry Permit (PEP). If documents are in order, the Port Entry Permit is issued to the truck driver.
Loaded trucks enter through main gate and weighed at weighbridge for gross tonnage. Port entry permit is checked for validity & gross tonnage then, the truck arrives at the allocated storage godown for delivery. Customs Gate pass handed over to truck driver. Gate Security checks Customs clearance stamp before releasing the Truck out of the gate.
Storage Process of Minerals:
Mineral commodity received from supplier /exporter.
The yard is prepared to receive Mineral commodity prior to start arrival.
Mineral unloaded and stored in yard. Mineral commodity surveyor tallies quantity with and submits reports to
Dry Cargo Documentation.
Inform to exporter if: • If cargo is received in damaged condition • If cargo is received in mixed condition. • If vessel is not nominated as per schedule/ with contract.
Delivery Process of Minerals: Port Operation Center receives vessel inward declaration from Ship’s Agent. Agent submits Stowage Plan and loading sequence to Stevedoring Section. Documentation Centre must receive the Export General Manifest (EGM) from Ship’s Agent. Vessel is cleared for loading. Ship loading commences after Customs & Immigration clearance. Jetty and vessel operations start.
Minerals Handling at MPSEZ-Import
Minerals are imported by Ashapura Minechem Ltd. at MPSEZ. Generally, Ashapura Minechem Ltd. does stevedoring itself. Shore cranes grabs the minerals from vessel’s hold and lower it on jetty/hoppers.
Then trucks are loaded with minerals and trucks proceeds towards allotted storage yard.
Minerals Handling at MPSEZ-Export
Minerals are also exported by Ashapura Minechem Ltd. at MPSEZ. Generally, Ashapura Minechem Ltd. does stevedoring itself. Trucks loaded with minerals proceeds towards jetty and dump the cargo on jetty. Then with the help of shore crane fitted with grabber grabs the cargo and lowers directly into ship’s hold.
Total No. of Rakes Handled By Dry Cargo Department
Commodity Jan09 Coal 119 Fertilizer 81 M. Car 4 DOC 21 Yellow Peas Rice 1 V. Oil Steel Plate Total 226 Feb09 131 45 6 9 3 3 197 Mar09 237 17 7 2 263 Apr09 213 21 7 4 245 May09 168 91 9 5 1 274 June09 152 78 6 236 July09 83 70 7 1 161 Aug09 95 41 3 10 1 150 Sep09 93 81 2 9 1 186
Dry Cargo Throughput Details
Cargo BRASS SCRAP COKING COAL DAP GYPSUM IN BULK M.Ton (From 1/4/09 to 1/10/09) 10.4 324848 760425.222 31179.414
HMS SCRAP MOP RED PET COKE PROJECT CARGO SHREDDED SCRAP STEAM COAL STEEL BARS STEEL COILS STEEL PIPES STEEL PLATES STEEL SLABS UREA WHITE CRYSTAL SUGAR BAUXITE IN BULK BENTONITE IN BULK BLEACHING POWDER KHAOLIN PROJECT CARGO REPAIR/HANDLING MATERIAL SOYABEAN MEAL STEEL BANDS TOTAL
38641.6 63361.96 1517.501 154363.333 27213 3968879.738 3914.28 216763.111 13469.424 130021.463 13119.185 310110.243 12033.6 61921 149500 3000 41693 1391.755 18.692 53800 902.097 6382098.018
Comparison of Wharfage charges between Mundra Port, Port of Pipavav and Kandla Port Trust for Dry Cargo Commodities
Serial No. 1) 2) Product Name Salt & Gypsum (Unprocessed) Cement & Clinker DRY CARGO MPSEZ (In Rs.) M.Ton 10/Unit M.Ton 35/GPPL (In Rs.) 35/48/KPT (In Rs.) 2.50/15/-
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27)
Fertilizers Food Grains, Oil Seeds & Pulses Fruits Guar Gum Vegetable Oil (Bulk) Oil Cakes & De Oiled Extractions Onions Marble & Granite Sugar Cement Coated Pipes H.R. Coils Iron Slabs Pipes, Plates & Sheets Scrape Bauxite & Bentonite Coal & Coke Calcine Bauxite Flour Spar Lignite Lime Stone Sulphur Wood & Timber Including Logs Machinery & Parts Including Project Cargo Soda ash & Caustic Soda All other solid chemicals other than petroleum derivatives
M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton M.Ton --
35/35/200/- (Rs. 10 per 50 KG.) 20/35/20/20/35/20/60/55/55/60/55/25/30/30/35/20/20/50/35/(M.Ton/CBM) 50/(M.Ton/CBM) 20/45/-
42/40/220/42/80/40/40/60/40/80/74/84/80/75/40/42/40/48/42/40/80/40/- T OR T (Meas) 200/- T OR T (Meas) 42/50/-
20/7.50/0.65% (Ad valorem) --7.50/-15/7.50/25/25/35/25/30/11.25/15/11.25/35/11.25/11.25/20/20/- (CBM) 0.20% (Ad valorem) 15/35/-
ADVANTAGE: Port Having Less Charge as Compared to other Ports is having an advantage to attract customers to the Port. So from the above table it is clear that it is cheaper to import and export cargo from Kandla Port Trust and Mundra Port and SEZ Ltd. than Gujarat Pipavav Port 38
Ltd. But, if we look at KPT and MPSEZ, KPT is Cheaper but services and facilities are not as good as compared to MPSEZ. So customers looking for services, facilities, infrastructure and safety of their cargo and people will move to MPSEZ. Main Competition of Mundra Port & SEZ Ltd. is with Kandla Port Trust, as it is the closest port to Mundra. Mundra Port will have to rethink about its levy of charges as services at Kandla Port Trust are also improving through Public Private Partnership.
www.Portofmundra.com SOP of Mundra Port www.google.com www.wikipedia.com
MSDS of various Materials Scale of Rates of Mundra Port, Port of Pipavav and Kandla Port Trust Vessel Performance Reports of MPSEZ Documentation of Dry Cargo